93 results match your criteria Building And Environment[Journal]


Effects of air cleaners and school characteristics on classroom concentrations of particulate matter in 34 elementary schools in Korea.

Build Environ 2020 Jan;167

Department of Environmental Science and Environmental Engineering, College of Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Yong-In, Gyung-Gi Do, South Korea.

Exposure to particulate matter (PM) in school environments has been associated with respiratory illnesses among children. Although using air cleaners was reported to reduce PM exposure and improve residents' health in homes, their effects in classrooms are not well understood. We examined how the use of air cleaners in classrooms and school/classroom characteristics affect the levels of indoor PM. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2019.106437DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7226911PMC
January 2020

Air purifiers: A supplementary measure to remove airborne SARS-CoV-2.

Build Environ 2020 Apr 24:106918. Epub 2020 Apr 24.

Department of Building Science, School of Architecture, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2020.106918DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7180358PMC

Facial mask: A necessity to beat COVID-19.

Authors:
Zhiqiang Zhai

Build Environ 2020 May 23;175:106827. Epub 2020 Mar 23.

University of Colorado at Boulder, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2020.106827DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7118470PMC

Numerical investigation of gaseous pollutant cross-transmission for single-sided natural ventilation driven by buoyancy and wind.

Build Environ 2020 Apr 31;172:106705. Epub 2020 Jan 31.

Department of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering, University at Buffalo, 339 Jarvis Hall, Buffalo, NY, 14260, USA.

Single-sided natural ventilation was numerically investigated to determine the impact of buoyancy and wind on the cross-transmission of pollution by considering six window types commonly found in multistory buildings. The goal of this study was to predict the gaseous pollutant transmission using computational fluid dynamics based on the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations and baseline - turbulence equations. The results indicated that ventilation rates generally increased with increasing wind speeds if the effects of buoyancy and wind were not suppressed; however, the re-entry ratio representing the proportion of expelled air re-entering other floors and the corresponding risk of infection decreased. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2020.106705DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7116971PMC

Investigation of interunit dispersion in 2D street canyons: A scaled outdoor experiment.

Build Environ 2020 Mar 21;171:106673. Epub 2020 Jan 21.

School of Atmospheric Sciences, Guangdong Province Key Laboratory for Climate Change and Natural Disaster Studies, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510275, PR China.

Interunit dispersion problems have been studied previously mainly through on-site measurements, wind tunnel tests, and CFD simulations. In this study, a scaled outdoor experiment was conducted to examine the interunit dispersion characteristics in consecutive two-dimensional street canyons. Tracer gas ( ) was continuously released to simulate the pollutant dispersion routes between the rooms in street canyons. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2020.106673DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7116958PMC

Characterisation and analysis of indoor tornado for contaminant removal and emergency ventilation.

Build Environ 2019 Oct 14;164:106345. Epub 2019 Aug 14.

School of Engineering, RMIT University, PO Box 71, Bundoora, VIC, 3083, Australia.

As an essential emergency management strategy, innovative emergency ventilation schemes that can quickly remove infectious and fatal contaminants without further spreading are highly demanded for public and commercial buildings. This study numerically investigated a vortex flow driven ventilation in a model room to explore the dynamic characteristics and 3D visualisation of vortex-driven indoor tornados. Four approaches to identify the core region of the indoor tornado were developed and compared against each other. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2019.106345DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7116992PMC
October 2019

A tracing method of airborne bacteria transmission across built environments.

Build Environ 2019 Oct 9;164:106335. Epub 2019 Aug 9.

College of Life Sciences, Sichuan University, Sichuan, China.

Disease transmission across built environments has been found to be a serious health risk. Airborne transmission is a vital route of disease infection caused by bacteria and virus. However, tracing methods of airborne bacteria in both lab and field research failed to veritably express the transporting process of microorganism in the air. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2019.106335DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7116910PMC
October 2019

Displacement ventilation with radiant panel for hospital wards: Measurement and prediction of the temperature and contaminant concentration profiles.

Build Environ 2019 Aug 8;160:106197. Epub 2019 Jun 8.

Kobe City, 6-5-1 Kano-Cho, Chuo-Ku, Hyogo, Japan.

Displacement ventilation (DV) is known to provide high air quality and ventilation efficiency. With DV, a contaminant interface is formed in a room, and the air quality in the occupant zone below the contaminant interface height can be kept clean. This paper proposes a DV system to solve the serious odor problem in hospital wards. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2019.106197DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7116985PMC

A field study on indoor environment quality of Chinese inpatient buildings in a hot and humid region.

Build Environ 2019 Mar 29;151:156-167. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

School of Architecture and Urban Planning/Benyuan Design Research Center, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen, 518060, China.

In this research, objective physical measurements and subjective questionnaire surveys are used to investigate the indoor environment quality of Chinese inpatient buildings. The relative humidity in the inpatient buildings reaches 65%-75% during summer, resulting in the regular appearance of microbial growth on indoor surfaces. The average outdoor air change rate measured through the CO concentration decay method in the sampled inpatient rooms is 1. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2019.01.046DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7116981PMC

Ten questions concerning the implications of carpet on indoor chemistry and microbiology.

Build Environ 2019 Dec;170:1-16

Department of Civil, Environmental & Geodetic Engineering, College of Engineering, and Environmental Health Sciences, College of Public Health, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, 43210, USA.

Carpet and rugs currently represent about half of the United States flooring market and offer many benefits as a flooring type. How carpets influence our exposure to both microorganisms and chemicals in indoor environments has important health implications but is not well understood. The goal of this manuscript is to consolidate what is known about how carpet impacts indoor chemistry and microbiology, as well as to identify the important research gaps that remain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2019.106589DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7017391PMC
December 2019

Thermal effect of human body on cough droplets evaporation and dispersion in an enclosed space.

Build Environ 2019 Jan 2;148:96-106. Epub 2018 Nov 2.

School of Engineering, RMIT University, PO Box 71, Bundoora, VIC, 3083, Australia.

This study numerically investigated the thermal effect of human body on the time-dependent dispersion of cough droplets with evaporation process. The thermal flow of human body was imitated using a 3D thermal manikin with real body features, while a recent developed multi-component Eulerian-Lagrangian approach was used to address the effects of inhomogeneous temperature and humidity fields on droplet evaporation. By comparing the results yielded without and with the human body heat, the outcomes demonstrated strong impact of human body heat on the droplets mass fraction and local air velocity distributions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2018.10.039DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7116917PMC
January 2019

An improved particle swarm optimization method for locating time-varying indoor particle sources.

Build Environ 2019 Jan 5;147:146-157. Epub 2018 Oct 5.

State Key Laboratory of Explosion & Impact and Disaster Prevention & Mitigation, Army Engineering University of PLA, Nanjing, 210007, PR China.

The indoor transmission of airborne particles can spread disease and have health-related and even life-threatening effects on occupants, thus necessitating effective ways to locate indoor particle sources. The identification of particle sources from concentration distributions is a difficult task because particles are often released at a time-varying rate, and particle transport mechanisms are more complex than those of gas. This study proposes an improved multi-robot olfactory search method for locating two types of time-varying indoor particle sources: 1) periodic sources such as occupants' respiratory activities and 2) decaying sources such as laboratory leaky containers with hazardous chemicals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2018.10.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7117037PMC
January 2019

Effects of neighborhood building density, height, greenspace, and cleanliness on indoor environment and health of building occupants.

Build Environ 2018 Nov 14;145:213-222. Epub 2018 Jun 14.

Department of Real Estate and Construction, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong, PR China.

The influences of indoor environment quality on occupant health have long been one of the main focuses in built environment and public health research. However, evidence to this effect has been inconsistent. Furthermore, previous urban studies have indicated the interaction between urban morphology and indoor environment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2018.06.028DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7115767PMC
November 2018

CFD investigation on the effects of wind and thermal wall-flow on pollutant transmission in a high-rise building.

Build Environ 2018 Jun 1;137:185-197. Epub 2018 Apr 1.

School of Mechanical Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai, China.

The solar radiation can heat the building outer surface, and then cause the upward natural convection flows adjacent to the wall. This phenomenon is especially obvious on a windless sunny day. The near wall thermal plume can drive gaseous pollutants released from lower floors to upper floors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2018.03.051DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7127015PMC

An innovative personalized displacement ventilation system for airliner cabins.

Build Environ 2018 Jun 30;137:41-50. Epub 2018 Mar 30.

School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA.

In airliner cabins, mixing ventilation systems with gaspers are not efficient in controlling contaminant transport. To improve the cabin environment, this investigation proposed an innovative ventilation system that would reduce contaminant transport and maintain thermal comfort. We manufactured and installed the proposed ventilation system in an occupied seven-row, single-aisle aircraft cabin mockup. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2018.03.057DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7116964PMC

Integrating twisted wind profiles to Air Ventilation Assessment (AVA): The current status.

Build Environ 2018 May 20;135:297-307. Epub 2018 Mar 20.

School of Civil Engineering, The University of Sydney, Darlington, NSW, 2006, Australia.

Twisted wind flows generated by the complex terrain of Hong Kong induce two types of complication to Air Ventilation Assessment (AVA), first, imposing a false boundary condition on the wind tunnel tests done for AVA and, second, creating an ambiguity in determining the approaching wind direction in calculating the probability of occurrence of winds. The latter issue is partially solved using correction methods in post-analysis of AVA but the accuracy of these methods is not yet accessed. This study employs two twisted wind profiles to test an urban area in a boundary layer wind tunnel to investigate the influence of twisted wind flows on the outcomes of AVA and to estimate the accuracy of three common correction methods: No-Shift, Threshold, and Proportional methods. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2018.03.024DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7125823PMC

New inflow boundary conditions for modeling twisted wind profiles in CFD simulation for evaluating the pedestrian-level wind field near an isolated building.

Build Environ 2018 Mar 6;132:303-318. Epub 2018 Feb 6.

Hong Kong Observatory, Kowloon, Hong Kong.

The hilly topography of Hong Kong influences oncoming winds and gradually changes their wind directions along the profiles' height. The vertical variation in wind directions, or the twist effect, significantly influences the Pedestrian Level Wind (PLW) field in urban areas of Hong Kong, thus it is a topic demanding systematic investigations. In this study, a new set of inflow boundary conditions are proposed to model twisted wind flows in Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) simulations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2018.01.047DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7115808PMC

Assessing the risk of downwind spread of avian influenza virus via airborne particles from an urban wholesale poultry market.

Build Environ 2018 Jan 6;127:120-126. Epub 2017 Nov 6.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR, China.

Interspecies transmissions of avian influenza viruses (AIV) occur at the human-poultry interface, among which the live poultry markets (LPMs) are easily assessed by urban residents. Thousands of live poultry from different farms arrive daily at wholesale markets before being sold to retail markets. We assessed the risk of AIV downwind spread via airborne particles from a representative wholesale market in Guangzhou. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2017.10.037DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5822749PMC
January 2018
16 Reads

Predicting contaminant dispersion using modified turbulent Schmidt numbers from different vortex structures.

Build Environ 2018 Feb 27;130:120-127. Epub 2017 Dec 27.

Department of Environmental Health, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02215, USA.

Air pollutant transmission has significant influences on indoor air quality (IAQ). It is crucial to study mechanisms involved with airborne contaminant dispersion indoors. However, relationship between pollutant diffusion coefficient and viscosity in enclosed spaces has not been fully understood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2017.12.023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7117062PMC
February 2018

Seasonal variation of window opening behaviors in two naturally ventilated hospital wards.

Build Environ 2018 Feb 22;130:85-93. Epub 2017 Dec 22.

Department of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.

Natural ventilation enables personal control, and occupant behaviors in window opening play a decisive role on natural ventilation performance, indoor air quality (IAQ), and/or airborne infection risk in a hospital setting. The occupant behaviors differ significantly from different building types with different functions and living habits. Based on a one-year field measurement in two general hospital wards in Nanjing, China, the effects of air quality (i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2017.12.019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7115766PMC
February 2018

Air ventilation assessment under unstable atmospheric stratification - A comparative study for Hong Kong.

Build Environ 2018 Feb 19;130:1-13. Epub 2017 Dec 19.

School of Architecture, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China.

In most current air ventilation assessment (AVA) studies, a simple neutral assumption that does not consider thermal effects is adopted, particularly for numerical simulation practices. With statistics of daytime observations during summer in Hong Kong as an example, this study demonstrates that neutral atmospheric boundary conditions occur with a very low probability, which implies that current practices are indeed far away from reality. This study is devoted to addressing this knowledge gap by cross-comparisons of field measurements, wind tunnel tests, and large-eddy simulations (LES) under neutral and unstable conditions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2017.12.018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7126201PMC
February 2018

Lessons from in-home air filtration intervention trials to reduce urban ultrafine particle number concentrations.

Build Environ 2017 Dec 6;126:266-275. Epub 2017 Oct 6.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Tufts University School of Engineering, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155.

Background: Exposure to airborne ultrafine particle (UFP; <100 nm in aerodynamic diameter) is an emerging public health problem. Nevertheless, the benefit of using high efficiency particulate arrestance (HEPA) filtration to reduce UFP concentrations in homes is not yet clear.

Methods: We conducted a randomized crossover study of HEPA filtration without a washout period in 23 homes of low-income Puerto Ricans in Boston and Chelsea, MA (USA). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2017.10.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5791918PMC
December 2017
6 Reads

Weather Correlations to Calculate Infiltration Rates for U. S. Commercial Building Energy Models.

Build Environ 2018 Jan 28;127:47-57. Epub 2017 Oct 28.

National Institute of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Drive, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 USA.

As building envelope performance improves, a greater percentage of building energy loss will occur through envelope leakage. Although the energy impacts of infiltration on building energy use can be significant, current energy simulation software have limited ability to accurately account for envelope infiltration and the impacts of improved airtightness. This paper extends previous work by the National Institute of Standards and Technology that developed a set of EnergyPlus inputs for modeling infiltration in several commercial reference buildings using Chicago weather. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2017.10.029DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5766009PMC
January 2018
3 Reads

A wind tunnel study of effects of twisted wind flows on the pedestrian-level wind field in an urban environment.

Build Environ 2018 Jan 2;128:225-235. Epub 2017 Dec 2.

Division of Ocean Science and Technology, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen, China.

The influence of twisted wind flows on the pedestrian-level wind (PLW) field of an urban area was evaluated by testing a typical urban site (Tsuen Wan, Hong Kong) in a boundary layer wind tunnel. Four twisted wind profiles with different magnitudes and directions of yaw angles were employed to investigate variations in wind speed with the properties of the twisted wind flows at the pedestrian level. An additional conventional wind profile with similar wind speeds and turbulence intensities to the twisted winds but with zero yaw angles was simulated for comparisons. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2017.11.041DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7126503PMC
January 2018

Modelling of evaporation of cough droplets in inhomogeneous humidity fields using the multi-component Eulerian-Lagrangian approach.

Build Environ 2018 Jan 21;128:68-76. Epub 2017 Nov 21.

School of Engineering, RMIT University, PO Box 71, Bundoora, Vic 3083, Australia.

This study employed a multi-component Eulerian-Lagrangian approach to model the evaporation and dispersion of cough droplets in quiescent air. The approach is featured with a continuity equation being explicitly solved for water vapor, which allows comprehensively considering the effects of inhomogeneous humidity field on droplets evaporation and movement. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) computations based on the approach achieved a satisfactory agreement with the theoretical models reported in the literature. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2017.11.025DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7117029PMC
January 2018

A human behavior integrated hierarchical model of airborne disease transmission in a large city.

Build Environ 2018 Jan 9;127:211-220. Epub 2017 Nov 9.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China.

Epidemics of infectious diseases such as SARS, H1N1, and MERS threaten public health, particularly in large cities such as Hong Kong. We constructed a human behavior integrated hierarchical (HiHi) model based on the SIR (Susceptible, Infectious, and Recovered) model, the Wells-Riley equation, and population movement considering both spatial and temporal dimensions. The model considers more than 7 million people, 3 million indoor environments, and 2566 public transport routes in Hong Kong. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2017.11.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7115769PMC
January 2018

Numerical and experimental study on airborne disinfection by negative ions in air duct flow.

Build Environ 2018 Jan 6;127:204-210. Epub 2017 Nov 6.

Department of Architectural and Civil Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, China.

In this paper, we develop a mathematical model that aims (1) to predict the distribution of negative ions generated by an air ionizer installed in a ventilation duct and (2) to predict the efficiency with which it inactivates bacteria. The transportation equation for the negative ions was resolved combined with the bulk air velocity and the electric field. The bacteria distribution was solved numerically by integrating the susceptibility constant, which was acquired from the experiments. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2017.11.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7116982PMC
January 2018

Ten Questions Concerning the Aerosolization and Transmission of Legionella in the Built Environment.

Build Environ 2017 Oct 13;123:684-695. Epub 2017 Jun 13.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA, 24061, USA.

is a genus of pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria responsible for a serious disease known as legionellosis, which is transmitted via inhalation of this pathogen in aerosol form. There are two forms of legionellosis: Legionnaires' disease, which causes pneumonia-like symptoms, and Pontiac fever, which causes influenza-like symptoms. can be aerosolized from various water sources in the built environment including showers, faucets, hot tubs/swimming pools, cooling towers, and fountains. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2017.06.024DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5665586PMC
October 2017
40 Reads

Evaluation of pedestrian wind comfort near 'lift-up' buildings with different aspect ratios and central core modifications.

Build Environ 2017 Nov 8;124:245-257. Epub 2017 Aug 8.

Division of Building Science and Technology, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong.

Owing to the void space at lower heights, lift-up buildings have high building permeability at ground level and subsequently improve the air circulation in congested urban areas. Despite this advantage, the lift-up design has been sparsely adopted for buildings in urban areas partly because of the lack of understanding of the combined effects of building dimensions and lift-up design on the surrounding pedestrian level wind (PLW) field. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the influence of lift-up buildings with different aspect ratios (height/width) on the surrounding PLW field and pedestrian wind comfort level. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2017.08.012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7125878PMC
November 2017

Home dampness-related exposures increase the risk of common colds among preschool children in Shanghai, China: Modified by household ventilation.

Build Environ 2017 Nov 26;124:31-41. Epub 2017 Jul 26.

R&B Technology (Shanghai) Company Limited, Shanghai, China.

Few studies have estimated the effects of dampness-related exposures and its interaction effects with poor household ventilation on common colds of preschool children. During April 2011-April 2012, we conducted a cross-sectional survey on home environment and childhood health and collected 13,335 parents-reported questionnaires of 4-6 year-old children in Shanghai, China. In this paper, we investigated associations between the incidence and duration of common colds among these children during the past 12 months before the survey and frequency of opening windows, as well as household dampness-related exposures (indicated by six dampness indicators). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2017.07.033DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7115772PMC
November 2017

Evaluation of airborne disease infection risks in an airliner cabin using the Lagrangian-based Wells-Riley approach.

Build Environ 2017 Aug 10;121:79-92. Epub 2017 May 10.

School of Engineering, RMIT University, PO Box 71, Bundoora, VIC 3083, Australia.

An urgent demand of assessing passengers' exposure risks in airliner cabins was raised as commercial airliners are one of the major media that carrying and transmitting infectious disease worldwide. In this study, simulations were conducted using a Boeing 737 cabin model to study the transport characteristics of airborne droplets and the associated infection risks of passengers. The numerical results of the airflow field were firstly compared against the experimental data in the literature to validate the reliability of the simulations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2017.05.013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7111330PMC

Long-term prediction of dynamic distribution of passive contaminant in complex recirculating ventilation system.

Build Environ 2017 Aug 10;121:49-66. Epub 2017 May 10.

Department of Building Science, School of Architecture, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China.

Recirculating ventilation systems may act as carriers of hazardous substances. The long-term prediction of the dynamic distribution of contaminants in this type of system is crucial for the evaluation of pollution and further design of more efficient ventilation systems. However, few convenient methods can predict the dynamic distribution of contaminants, because the dynamic supply air concentrations resulting from air recirculation are unknown, especially over long time periods, such as months or years. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2017.05.012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7126526PMC

The Impact of Working in a Green Certified Building on Cognitive Function and Health.

Build Environ 2017 Mar 25;114:178-186. Epub 2016 Nov 25.

Department of Environmental Health, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA.

Thirty years of public health research have demonstrated that improved indoor environmental quality is associated with better health outcomes. Recent research has demonstrated an impact of the indoor environment on cognitive function. We recruited 109 participants from 10 high-performing buildings (i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2016.11.041DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5543984PMC
March 2017
25 Reads

Adopting 'lift-up' building design to improve the surrounding pedestrian-level wind environment.

Build Environ 2017 May 10;117:154-165. Epub 2017 Mar 10.

Department of Building Services Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hunghom, Kowloon, Hong Kong.

Modern megacities are teeming with closely-spaced tall buildings, which limit air circulation at the pedestrian level. The resultant lack of air circulation creates poorly ventilated areas with accumulated air pollutants and thermal discomfort in the summer. To improve air circulation at the pedestrian level, buildings may be designed to have a 'lift-up' shape, in which the main structure is supported by a central core, columns or shear walls. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2017.03.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7185700PMC

Wind tunnel tests of inter-flat pollutant transmission characteristics in a rectangular multi-storey residential building, part B: Effect of source location.

Build Environ 2017 Mar 26;114:281-292. Epub 2016 Dec 26.

School of Mechanical Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai, China.

The pollutant behavior in and around a naturally ventilated building requires to be investigated quantitatively as the growing concern on air quality within the built environment. The objective of the present study is to further investigate the wind induced inter-flat pollutant transmission and cross contamination routes in typical buildings in Shanghai. In this paper, a set of experiments was carried out in a boundary layer wind tunnel using a 1:30 reduced scale model that represented the typical configuration of rectangular multi-storey residential buildings. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2016.12.031DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7117001PMC

Human exhalation characterization with the aid of schlieren imaging technique.

Build Environ 2017 Feb 19;112:190-199. Epub 2016 Nov 19.

College of Civil Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, China.

The purpose of this paper is to determine the dispersion and distribution characteristics of exhaled airflow for accurate prediction of disease transmission. The development of airflow dynamics of human exhalation was characterized using nonhazardous schlieren photography technique, providing a visualization and quantification of turbulent exhaled airflow from 18 healthy human subjects whilst standing and lying. The flow shape of each breathing pattern was characterized by two angles and averaged values of 18 subjects. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2016.11.032DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7111220PMC
February 2017

Impacts of Changes of Indoor Air Pressure and Air Exchange Rate in Vapor Intrusion Scenarios.

Build Environ 2016 Feb 2;96:178-187. Epub 2015 Dec 2.

School of Engineering, Brown University, Providence RI 02912, USA.

There has, in recent years, been increasing interest in understanding the transport processes of relevance in vapor intrusion of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into buildings on contaminated sites. These studies have included fate and transport modeling. Most such models have simplified the prediction of indoor air contaminant vapor concentrations by employing a steady state assumption, which often results in difficulties in reconciling these results with field measurements. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S03601323153017
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2015.11.015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5228218PMC
February 2016
2 Reads

Investigating the impact of gaspers on cabin air quality in commercial airliners with a hybrid turbulence model.

Build Environ 2017 Jan 27;111:110-122. Epub 2016 Oct 27.

School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA.

It is not clear whether turning on the gaspers in the cabins of commercial airliners actually improves the air quality. To answer this question, this study first developed a hybrid turbulence model which was suitable for predicting the air distribution in an aircraft cabin with gaspers turned on. Next, the investigation validated the model using two sets of experimental data from a cabin mockup and an actual airplane. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2016.10.018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7117005PMC
January 2017

Wind tunnel tests of inter-flat pollutant transmission characteristics in a rectangular multi-storey residential building, part A: Effect of wind direction.

Build Environ 2016 Nov 30;108:159-170. Epub 2016 Aug 30.

School of Mechanical Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai, China.

The inter-flat dispersion of hazardous air pollutants in residential built environment has become a growing concern, especially in crowed urban areas. The purpose of present study is to investigate the wind induced air pollutant transmission and cross contamination routes in typical buildings. In this paper, a series of experiments was carried out in a boundary layer wind tunnel using a 1:30 scaled model that represented the typical configuration of rectangular multi-storey residential buildings in Shanghai. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2016.08.032DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7111322PMC
November 2016

Environmental Perceptions and Health before and after Relocation to a Green Building.

Build Environ 2016 Aug 9;104:138-144. Epub 2016 May 9.

Center for Health and the Global Environment, Department of Environmental Health, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA.

Green buildings are designed to have low environmental impacts and improved occupant health and well-being. Improvements to the built environment including ventilation, lighting, and materials have resulted in improved indoor environmental quality (IEQ) in green buildings, but the evidence around occupant health is currently centered around environmental perceptions and self-reported health. To investigate the objective impact of green buildings on health, we tracked IEQ, self-reported health, and heart rate in 30 participants from green and conventional buildings for two weeks. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5047435PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2016.05.011DOI Listing
August 2016
9 Reads

Airflow patterns through single hinged and sliding doors in hospital isolation rooms - Effect of ventilation, flow differential and passage.

Build Environ 2016 Oct 15;107:154-168. Epub 2016 Jul 15.

Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Lemminkäisenkatu 14 - 18 B, 20520 Turku, Finland.

Negative pressure isolation rooms are used to house patients with highly contagious diseases (e.g. with airborne diseases) and to contain emitted pathogens to reduce the risk for cross-infection in hospitals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2016.07.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7115809PMC
October 2016

Potential airborne pathogen transmission in a hospital with and without surge control ventilation system modifications.

Build Environ 2016 Sep 25;106:175-180. Epub 2016 Jun 25.

National Center for Occupational Health and Infection Control, US Department of Veterans Affairs, USA.

To better understand the transport of airborne particulate matter (PM) in hospital environments when surge control strategies are implemented, tests were conducted in a recently decommissioned hospital during a one-week period. An aerosol was released within a patient room and concentrations measured in the room and hallway with and without surge control ventilation system modifications. The average hallway protection efficiencies were high (>98%) both for the baseline ventilation configuration and when the ventilation system was modified for whole floor negative pressure, indicating very little PM reached the hallway. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2016.06.029DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7116960PMC
September 2016

Pedestrian level wind environment assessment around group of high-rise cross-shaped buildings: Effect of building shape, separation and orientation.

Build Environ 2016 May 24;101:45-63. Epub 2016 Feb 24.

Division of Building Science and Technology, College of Science and Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.

Blockage of air circulation caused by the mutual sheltering effect of high-rise buildings in built-up areas in dense cities causes various health- and comfort-related problems. The combined effect of neighborhood geometry (e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2016.02.015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7115803PMC

A methodology for optimal placement of sensors in enclosed environments: A dynamical systems approach.

Build Environ 2016 May 9;100:145-161. Epub 2016 Feb 9.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, 2100 Black Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50010, USA.

Air quality has been an important issue in public health for many years. Sensing the level and distributions of impurities help in the control of building systems and mitigate long term health risks. Rapid detection of infectious diseases in large public areas like airports and train stations may help limit exposure and aid in reducing the spread of the disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2016.02.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7126557PMC

On-site measurement of tracer gas transmission between horizontal adjacent flats in residential building and cross-infection risk assessment.

Build Environ 2016 Apr 18;99:13-21. Epub 2016 Jan 18.

Department of Building Services Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hunghom, Kowloon, Hong Kong.

Airborne transmission is a main spread mode of respiratory infectious diseases, whose frequent epidemic has brought serious social burden. Identifying possible routes of the airborne transmission and predicting the potential infection risk are meaningful for infectious disease control. In the present study, an internal spread route between horizontal adjacent flats induced by air infiltration was investigated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2016.01.013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7116928PMC

Low re-inhalation of the exhaled flow during normal nasal breathing in a pediatric airway replica.

Build Environ 2016 Feb 15;97:40-47. Epub 2015 Dec 15.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong SAR, China.

To estimate the fraction of the exhaled airflow that is re-inhaled during normal nasal breathing, experiments were carried out in a water tank with an anatomically accurate respiratory tract model of a 4-year-old child. The velocity of respiratory flow was scaled using similarity laws between air and water. Breath simulation was performed via a computer-controlled piston-cylinder system. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2015.12.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7116934PMC
February 2016

HYPERSPECTRAL ANALYSIS FOR STANDOFF DETECTION OF DIMETHYL METHYLPHOSPHONATE ON BUILDING MATERIALS.

Build Environ 2016 ;108:135-142

Air Force Institute of Technology, Department of Systems Engineering and Management, 2950 Hobson Way, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH, US, 45433.

Detecting organophosphates in indoor settings can greatly benefit from more efficient and faster methods of surveying large surface areas than conventional approaches, which sample small surface areas followed by extraction and analysis. This study examined a standoff detection technique utilizing hyperspectral imaging for analysis of building materials in near-real time. In this proof-of-concept study, dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) was applied to stainless steel and laminate coupons and spectra were collected during active illumination. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2016.08.028DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6638554PMC
January 2016
3 Reads

TR-PIV measurement of exhaled flow using a breathing thermal manikin.

Build Environ 2015 Dec 10;94:683-693. Epub 2015 Nov 10.

Tianjin Key Laboratory of Indoor Air Environmental Quality Control, China.

Breathing is a high-risk behavior for spreading infectious diseases in enclosed environments, so it is important to investigate the characteristics of human exhalation flow and dispersal of exhaled air to reduce the risk. This paper used two-dimensional time-resolved particle image velocimetry (2D TR-PIV) to measure the exhaled flow from a breathing thermal manikin. Since the exhaled flow is transient and periodic, the phase-averaged method was used to analyze the flow characteristics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2015.11.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7118971PMC
December 2015

The airborne transmission of infection between flats in high-rise residential buildings: A review.

Build Environ 2015 Dec 30;94:516-531. Epub 2015 Sep 30.

Institute of Thermal and Environment Engineering, College of Mechanical Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai, China.

The inter-flat airborne cross-transmission driven by single-sided natural ventilation has been identified recently in high-rise residential buildings, where most people live now in densely populated areas, and is one of the most complex and least understood transport routes. Given potential risks of infection during the outbreak of severe infectious diseases, the need for a full understanding of its mechanism and protective measures within the field of epidemiology and engineering becomes pressing. This review paper considers progress achieved in existing studies of the concerned issue regarding different research priorities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2015.09.026DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7118930PMC
December 2015

From street canyon microclimate to indoor environmental quality in naturally ventilated urban buildings: Issues and possibilities for improvement.

Authors:
Z T Ai C M Mak

Build Environ 2015 Dec 20;94:489-503. Epub 2015 Oct 20.

Department of Building Services Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong.

Many buildings in urban areas are more or less naturally ventilated. A good understanding of the current status and issues of indoor environmental quality (IEQ) in naturally ventilated urban buildings and the association with urban microclimate is fundamental for improving their IEQ. This paper reviews past studies on (a) the microclimate in urban street canyons, (b) the potential influence of such microclimate on IEQ of nearby naturally ventilated buildings, and (c) the real-life IEQ status in these buildings. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2015.10.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7116918PMC
December 2015