13,454 results match your criteria Bronchiolitis


Seasonality and coinfection of bronchiolitis: epidemiological specificity and consequences in terms of prophylaxis in tropical climate.

Trop Med Int Health 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Virology Department, University Hospital of Martinique, Fort de France, Martinique, France.

Objective: To describe the viruses involved, seasonality, and coinfection in hospitalized children with suspected bronchiolitis.

Methods: Over the period 1/07/2007 to 31/12/2008, all children hospitalized for bronchiolitis in the pediatric ward were prospectively included, and had Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) screenings. We retrospectively tested all samples for RSVA, RSVB, Rhinovirus (RV), human Metapneumovirus, Parainfluenza 1, 2, 3, 4, Influenza A, Influenza B. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tmi.13462DOI Listing

Bronchiolitis and recurrent wheezing are distinguished by type 2 innate lymphoid cells and immune response.

Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Immunology, IIS-Fundación Jiménez Díaz, Madrid, Spain.

Background: Recurrent wheezing (RW) is frequently developed in infants that have suffered bronchiolitis (BCH) during first months of life but the immune mechanism underlying is not clear. The goal was to analyse the innate immune response that characterizes BCH and RW.

Methods: Ninety-eight and seventy hospitalized infants with BCH or RW diagnosis respectively were included. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pai.13317DOI Listing

Pulmonary function testing with tidal breath analyze technique is useful in predicting persistant small airway damage in infants with acute bronchiolitis.

Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Adnan Menderes UniversityFaculty of Medicine, Department of PediatricAllergyandImmunology, Aydın, Turkey.

Background: Due to technical difficulties, lung function in infants is less studied. This prospective cross-sectional study investigatedbreathing parameters by using tidal breath analyze (TBA) technique in hospitalized infants with the first time acute bronchiolitis (AB).

Methods: This study enrolled 111 infants aged 1month-2 years: 61 with AB, and 50 healthy controls. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pai.13318DOI Listing

Being Mindful About Follow-up Care After Pediatric Hospitalization for Bronchiolitis.

JAMA Pediatr 2020 Jul 6:e201945. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Division of General Pediatrics, Department of Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamapediatrics.2020.1945DOI Listing

Comparison of As-Needed and Scheduled Posthospitalization Follow-up for Children Hospitalized for Bronchiolitis: The Bronchiolitis Follow-up Intervention Trial (BeneFIT) Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA Pediatr 2020 Jul 6:e201937. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, California.

Importance: Posthospitalization follow-up visits are prescribed frequently for children with bronchiolitis. The rationale for this practice is unclear, but prior work has indicated that families value these visits for the reassurance provided. The overall risks and benefits of scheduled visits have not been evaluated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamapediatrics.2020.1937DOI Listing

Intractable diffuse pulmonary diseases: Manual for diagnosis and treatment.

Respir Investig 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

National Hospital Organization Tokyo Medical Center, Tokyo, Japan. Electronic address:

This manual has been compiled by a joint production committee with the Diffuse Lung Disease Assembly of the Japanese Respiratory Society (JRS) to provide a practical manual for the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of intractable diffuse pulmonary diseases. The contents are based upon the results of research into these diseases by the Diffuse Pulmonary Diseases Study Group (principal researcher: Sakae Homma) supported by the FY2014-FY2016 Health and Labor Sciences Research Grant on Intractable Diseases. This manual focuses on: 1) pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis, 2) bronchiolitis obliterans, and 3) Hermansky-Pudlak Syndrome with interstitial pneumonia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.resinv.2020.04.004DOI Listing

Clinical and Genetic Spectrum of Children with Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia in China.

Chest 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Beijing Children's Hospital, Capital Medical University, National Center for Children's Health, Beijing 100045, China. Electronic address:

Background: Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a heterogeneous disease with a diverse clinical and genetic spectrum among populations worldwide. Few cases of pediatric PCD have been reported from China.

Methods: Clinical characteristics, laboratory findings, and genetic results obtained for 81 patients with PCD were retrospectively reviewed at a single center in China. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chest.2020.06.045DOI Listing

Machine learning-based prediction of acute severity in infants hospitalized for bronchiolitis: a multicenter prospective study.

Sci Rep 2020 Jul 3;10(1):10979. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 125 Nashua Street, Suite 920, Boston, MA, 02114-1101, USA.

We aimed to develop machine learning models to accurately predict bronchiolitis severity, and to compare their predictive performance with a conventional scoring (reference) model. In a 17-center prospective study of infants (aged < 1 year) hospitalized for bronchiolitis, by using routinely-available pre-hospitalization data as predictors, we developed four machine learning models: Lasso regression, elastic net regression, random forest, and gradient boosted decision tree. We compared their predictive performance-e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-67629-8DOI Listing

Pediatric Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis: Clinicopathologic Characteristics of Two Cases with Fungal Triggers.

Fetal Pediatr Pathol 2020 Jul 3:1-8. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Department of Pathology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL, USA.

Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) infrequently presents in childhood. Asthma or a pneumonia-like clinical presentation may lead to diagnostic delay, especially in children. We present two cases of HP, a 6-year-old (Case 1) male and a 5-year-old (Case 2) female. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15513815.2020.1786201DOI Listing

Emergency room endotracheal intubation in children with bronchiolitis: A cohort study using a multicenter database.

Health Sci Rep 2020 Sep 30;3(3):e169. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics Rainbow Babies and Children's Hospital Cleveland Ohio.

Background And Aims: Bronchiolitis and asthma have a clinical overlap, and it has been shown that pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) patients with asthma undergoing endotracheal intubation in a community hospital emergency room (ER) have a shorter duration of mechanical ventilation (MV) and PICU length of stay (LOS) vs children undergoing intubation in a children's hospital. We aimed to determine if the setting of intubation (community vs children's hospital ER) is associated with the duration of MV and PICU LOS among children with bronchiolitis.

Methods: With IRB approval, data in the Virtual Pediatric Systems (VPS, LLC) database were queried for bronchiolitis patients <24 months of age admitted to one of 103 predominantly North American PICUs between 1/2009 and 1/2016 who had an endotracheal tube in place at PICU admission. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hsr2.169DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7325424PMC
September 2020

Cryobiopsy in the diagnosis of bronchiolitis: a retrospective analysis of twenty-three consecutive patients.

Sci Rep 2020 Jul 2;10(1):10906. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Diseases of the Thorax, G.B. Morgagni Hospital, Forlì, Italy.

Bronchiolitis manifests as a variety of histological features that explain the complex clinical profiles and imaging aspects. In the period between January 2011 and June 2015, patients with a cryobiopsy diagnosis of bronchiolitis were retrospectively retrieved from the database of our institution. Clinical profiles, imaging features and histologic diagnoses were analysed to identify the role of cryobiopsy in the diagnostic process. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-67938-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7331727PMC

Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels in Japanese infants younger than 3-months old with respiratory syncytial virus infection.

Jpn J Infect Dis 2020 Jun 30. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Tokyo Medical University, Japan.

Low levels of blood vitamin D have been reported in children who have frequent respiratory tract infections. We measured serum concentrations of 25-hydroxy (OH) vitamin D in Japanese infants less than 3-months old infected with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Serum levels of 25-OH vitamin D of the 10 infants, excluding those with underlying diseases, were between less than 4 to 29. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7883/yoken.JJID.2019.541DOI Listing

Viral and bacterial coinfection of the respiratory tract in a 10-month-old child.

BMJ Case Rep 2020 Jul 1;13(7). Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Consultant, Department of Paediatrics and Neonates, North Manchester General Hospital, Manchester, England, UK.

A 10-month-old child, immunised appropriately for age, presented with a history of cough, vomiting, diarrhoea, increased work of breathing and eye redness for 1 week. She was treated for suspected bronchiolitis with supportive oxygen and hypertonic saline nebulisation. In view of continuing fever spikes and persistent oxygen requirement, she was evaluated further. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2020-235295DOI Listing

The implications of platelet count changes during hospitalization in the disease management of paediatric patients with bronchiolitis.

Infect Dis (Lond) 2020 Jul 1:1-7. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Children's Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, China.

The objective of this study was to investigate the significance of the platelet count on admission and platelet count changes during hospitalization in paediatric patients with bronchiolitis. Clinical data from 404 consecutive patients hospitalized for bronchiolitis were collected and compared after grouping according to the platelet count on admission and the delta platelet count during hospitalization (the platelet count 3-5 days after admission minus the platelet count on admission; Group A, delta platelet count < -50 × 10/L; Group B, -50 × 10/L ≤ delta platelet count ≤ 50 × 10/L; Group C, delta platelet count > 50 × 10/L). Thrombocytosis was found in 79 (19. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23744235.2020.1787504DOI Listing

Panel-Reactive and Donor-Specific Antibodies before Lung Transplantation can Affect Outcomes in Korean Patients Receiving Lung Transplantation.

Yonsei Med J 2020 Jul;61(7):606-613

Division of Pulmonology, Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Purpose: Data on the distribution and impact of panel reactive antibodies (PRA) and donor specific antibodies (DSA) before lung transplantation in Asia, especially multi-center-based data, are limited. This study evaluated the prevalence of and effects of PRA and DSA levels before lung transplantations on outcomes in Korean patients using nationwide multicenter registry data.

Materials And Methods: This study included 103 patients who received a lung transplant at five tertiary hospitals in South Korea between March 2015 and December 2017. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3349/ymj.2020.61.7.606DOI Listing

Day and Night Control of COPD and Role of Pharmacotherapy: A Review.

Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 2020 4;15:1269-1285. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Department of Biomedicine and Internal and Specialistic Medicine (DIBIMIS), University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy.

The topic of 24-hour management of COPD is related to day-to-night symptoms management, specific follow-up and patients' adherence to therapy. COPD symptoms strongly vary during day and night, being worse in the night and early morning. This variability is not always adequately considered in the trials. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/COPD.S240033DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7283230PMC

Lung Ultrasound and Clinical Progression of Acute Bronchiolitis: A Prospective Observational Single-Center Study.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2020 Jun 26;56(6). Epub 2020 Jun 26.

U.O.C. Pediatric and Neonatology, San Paolo Hospital, ASL BARI, 70100 Bari, Italy.

Recent literature suggests that lung ultrasound might have a role in the diagnosis and management of bronchiolitis. The aim of the study is to evaluate the relationship between an ultrasound score and the clinical progression of bronchiolitis: need for supplemental oxygen, duration of oxygen therapy and hospital stay. This was a prospective observational single-center study, conducted in a pediatric unit during the 2017-2018 epidemic periods. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/medicina56060314DOI Listing

Small airway immunoglobulin A profile in emphysema-predominant chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Chin Med J (Engl) 2020 Jun 26. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Shanxi Bethune Hospital Affiliated to Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030032, China.

Background: Due to airway remodeling and emphysematous destruction in the lung, the two classical clinical phenotypes of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are emphysema and bronchiolitis. The present study was designed to investigate the levels of small airway immunoglobulin A (IgA) in COPD with "emphysema phenotype." The study also evaluated the associations between the small airway IgA levels and the severity of disease by the extent of emphysema versus airflow limitation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CM9.0000000000000863DOI Listing

Unusual pneumoconiosis in two patients with heavy print toner, and paper dust exposure.

Am J Ind Med 2020 Jun 29. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, Arizona.

Workers in a print shop are exposed to photocopier toner dust and paper dust over a prolonged period of time. However, there are only rare case reports of toner and paper dust induced lung damage in humans. We reviewed our consultation files for a period of 30 years from 1987 to 2018 to look for cases with a diagnosis of giant cell interstitial pneumonia (GIP), printer toner exposure and paper dust exposure resulting in lung disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajim.23147DOI Listing

Alveolar Macrophage Phenotype and Compartmentalization Drive Different Pulmonary Changes in Mouse Strains Exposed to Cigarette Smoke.

COPD 2020 Jun 29:1-15. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Department of Molecular and Developmental Medicine, University of Siena, Siena, Italy.

COPD can manifest itself with different clinical phenotypes characterized by different disease progression and response to therapy. Although a remarkable number of studies have been carried out, little is known about the mechanisms underlying phenotypes that could guide the development of viable future therapies. Several murine strains mirror some human phenotypes after smoke exposure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15412555.2020.1783648DOI Listing

Global Proteomics Analysis of Circulating Extracellular Vesicles Isolated from Lung Transplant Recipients.

ACS Omega 2020 Jun 12;5(24):14360-14369. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Norton Thoracic Institute, St. Joseph's Hospital and Medical Center, Phoenix, Arizona 85013, United States.

Lung transplant recipients (LTxRs) with acute rejection (AR) and chronic rejection (bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome [BOS]) induce circulating exosomes known to contain donor human leukocyte antigens and lung-associated self-antigens. Here, we sought to identify proteomic signatures in circulating extracellular vesicles (EVs) that differentiate LTxRs in 4 groups: stable, AR, BOS, or respiratory viral infection (RVI). EVs were isolated from plasma from patients in each group via ultracentrifugation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.0c00859DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7315412PMC

Chronic rhinosinusitis in patients with cystic fibrosis-Current management and new treatments.

Laryngoscope Investig Otolaryngol 2020 Jun 13;5(3):368-374. Epub 2020 Jun 13.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology Mayo Clinic Rochester Minnesota USA.

Objectives: The purpose of this article is to provide a state-of-the-art review of the literature and summarize the latest publications on medical and surgical treatment of cystic fibrosis (CF) chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), with an emphasis on describing recent advancements in cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) modulator therapies.

Methods: A comprehensive literature review was conducted utilizing the PubMed database with search phrases detailed within the body of the article. Abstracts were reviewed to include publications detailing medical, surgical, and CFTR modulating therapies for CF CRS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/lio2.401DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7314487PMC

Diagnostic Accuracy of Multidetector CT in Detection of Early Interstitial Lung Disease With Its Role in Characterization.

Cureus 2020 May 23;12(5):e8253. Epub 2020 May 23.

Radiodiagnosis, Era's Lucknow Medical College and Hospital, Lucknow, IND.

Background Multidetector CT (MDCT) has emerged as a useful option for early diagnosis of interstitial lung disease (ILD) with adequate accuracy. Methods A total of 80 patients with restricted pulmonary functions and clinical suspicion of ILD were enrolled in the study. MDCT evaluation was done using Siemens Somatom Force 384 slice multidetector computer tomography machine. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.8253DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7308819PMC

Health Hazards and Complications Associated with Electronic Cigarettes: A Review.

Turk Thorac J 2020 May;21(3):201-208

Department of Chest Diseases, Yedikule Chest Diseases and Thoracic Surgery Education and Research Hospital, İstanbul, Turkey.

Electronic cigarettes (ECs) are devices that vaporize and release a sweetened liquid containing nicotine as a substitute for burning tobacco. EC manufacturers have suggested that "vaping" is a safer alternative to conventional smoking because of the potential reduction of exposure to toxic substances. In 2019, National Youth Tobacco Survey reported that 10. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5152/TurkThoracJ.2019.180203DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7311157PMC

Risk Factors and Clinical Determinants in Bronchiolitis of Infancy.

Turk Thorac J 2020 May;21(3):156-162

Department of Microbiology, Necmettin Erbakan University Meram School of Medicine, Konya, Turkey.

Objectives: The aims of this study was to demonstrate the viral pathogens, to evaluate the clinical prognosis, risk factors for recurrence, severity of acute viral bronchiolitis episodes among pediatric patients.

Materials And Methods: Our study included 101 children aged between 2 months and 2 years diagnosed with clinical bronchiolitis between September 2011 and April 2012. The demographics and clinical, laboratory, and radiological results of the patients were recorded. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5152/TurkThoracJ.2019.180168DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7311146PMC

Noninfectious pulmonary complications of haematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

Eur Respir Rev 2020 Jun 23;29(156). Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI, USA

Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is an established treatment for a variety of malignant and nonmalignant conditions. Pulmonary complications, both infectious and noninfectious, are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients who undergo HSCT. Recent advances in prophylaxis and treatment of infectious complications has increased the significance of noninfectious pulmonary conditions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1183/16000617.0119-2019DOI Listing

Pediatric lung transplantation: Dynamics of the microbiome and bronchiolitis obliterans in cystic fibrosis.

J Heart Lung Transplant 2020 May 19. Epub 2020 May 19.

Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois; Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois; Department of Surgery, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois. Electronic address:

Background: Compositional changes in the microbiome are associated with the development of bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) after lung transplantation (LTx) in adults with cystic fibrosis (CF). The association between the lower airway bacterial community and BO after LTx in children with CF remains largely unexplored and is possibly influenced by frequent antibiotic therapy. The objectives of this study were to examine the relationship between bacterial community dynamics and the development of BO and analyze antibiotic resistance trends in children after LTx for CF. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.healun.2020.04.016DOI Listing
May 2020
6.650 Impact Factor

Interleukin-22 Inhibits Respiratory Syncytial Virus Production by Blocking Virus-Mediated Subversion of Cellular Autophagy.

iScience 2020 Jun 10;23(7):101256. Epub 2020 Jun 10.

Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, 3459 Fifth Avenue, MUH 628 NW, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA; Department of Immunology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. Electronic address:

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection can cause severe bronchiolitis in infants requiring hospitalization, whereas the elderly and immunocompromised are prone to RSV-induced pneumonia. RSV primarily infects lung epithelial cells. Given that no vaccine against RSV is currently available, we tested the ability of the epithelial-barrier protective cytokine interleukin-22 (IL-22) to control RSV production. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isci.2020.101256DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7317237PMC

Measured continuous positive airway pressure in a non-invasive pediatric airway and lung model.

Respir Care 2020 Jun 23. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts.

Background: Bronchiolitis is the most common cause of admission in children under 2 years of age in the United States. The standard of care involves supportive measures, including non-invasive interventions such as CPAP. CPAP is traditionally delivered through a full facemask; however, pediatric intensive care units have been exploring the use of the RAM cannula by Neotech as a mode of CPAP delivery, but the level of CPAP delivered is uncertain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4187/respcare.07864DOI Listing

Burden and Cost of Hospitalization for Respiratory Syncytial Virus in Young Children, Singapore.

Emerg Infect Dis 2020 Jul;26(7):1489-1496

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of pediatric acute lower respiratory tract infection worldwide. Detailed data on the health and economic burden of RSV disease are lacking from tropical settings with year-round RSV transmission. We developed a statistical and economic model to estimate the annual incidence and healthcare cost of medically attended RSV disease among young children in Singapore, using Monte Carlo simulation to account for uncertainty in model parameters. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2607.190539DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7323550PMC
July 2020
6.751 Impact Factor

How does one choose the appropriate pharmacotherapy for children with lower respiratory tract infections?

Expert Opin Pharmacother 2020 Jun 21:1-9. Epub 2020 Jun 21.

Università degli Studi di Milano , Milan, Italy.

Introduction: The definition of acute lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) includes any infection involving the respiratory tract below the level of the larynx. In children, the most common acute LRTIs, and those with the greatest clinical relevance, are community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), bronchiolitis, bronchitis and tuberculosis (TB). The clinical relevance of LRTIs implies that they must be addressed with the most effective therapy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14656566.2020.1781091DOI Listing

Detection of respiratory syncytial virus or rhinovirus weeks after hospitalization for bronchiolitis and the risk of recurrent wheezing.

J Infect Dis 2020 Jun 20. Epub 2020 Jun 20.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.

Background: In severe bronchiolitis, it is unclear if delayed clearance or sequential infection of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) or rhinovirus (RV) is associated with recurrent wheezing.

Methods: In a 17-center severe bronchiolitis cohort, we tested nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPA) upon hospitalization and parents collected nasal swabs ~3 weeks later (clearance swab) for respiratory viruses using PCR. The same RSV subtype or RV genotype in both the NPA and clearance swab defined delayed clearance (DC), while a new RSV subtype or RV genotype at clearance defined sequential infection (SI). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiaa348DOI Listing

In situ deteriorating patient simulation in general practice.

Br J Gen Pract 2020 Jun;70(suppl 1)

Health Education England Thames Valley.

Background: GP practices have limited access to medical emergency training and basic life support is often taught out of context as a skills-based event.

Aim: To develop and evaluate a whole team integrated simulation-based education, to enhance learning, change behaviours and provide safer care.

Method: Phase 1: 10 practices piloted a 3-hour programme delivering 40 minutes BLS and AED skills and 2-hour deteriorating patient simulation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3399/bjgp20X711425DOI Listing

Effects of short-term fine particulate matter exposure on acute respiratory infection in children.

Int J Hyg Environ Health 2020 Jun 15;229:113571. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Department of Preventive Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea; Division of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea; Institute of Environmental Medicine, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Background: Previous studies on the association between fine particulate matter (PM) exposure and acute respiratory infection in children are scarce and present inconsistent results. We estimated the association between short-term PM exposure and acute respiratory infection among children aged 0-4 years using a difference-in-differences approach.

Methods: We used data on the daily PM concentrations, hospital admissions for acute respiratory infection, and meteorological factors of the 15 regions in the Republic of Korea (2013-2015). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheh.2020.113571DOI Listing

HTLV-I induces lesions in the pulmonary system: A systematic review.

Life Sci 2020 Jun 15;256:117979. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Center for Tropical Medicine, Federal University of Pará, Belém, PA, Brazil; Center for Biological and Health Sciences, State University of Pará, Belém, PA, Brazil; Evandro Chagas Institute, Ministry of Health, Ananindeua, Belém, PA, Brazil. Electronic address:

This study analyzed the relationship between infection by human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and changes in the pulmonary system. Cohort and case-control study models that analyzed a causal association between HTLV-1 and changes in the pulmonary system were considered. There were no restrictions on language and publication period. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2020.117979DOI Listing

Electronic cigarettes and vaping associated pulmonary illness (VAPI): A narrative review.

Pulmonology 2020 Jun 15. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Division of Pulmonology, University Hospital Zürich, Rämistrasse 100 8091 Zurich Switzerland.

Background: Electronic (e-) cigarettes are used to heat liquids producing aerosols for inhalation. Recently there have been reports of a large number of adverse outcomes relating to e-cigarette consumption (vaping), which has been referred to as "vaping associated pulmonary illness" (VAPI).

Aim: This review provides an overview of clinical, radiological and pathological features of VAPI in the literature. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pulmoe.2020.02.009DOI Listing

Recent advances in the understanding of bronchiolitis in adults.

F1000Res 2020 8;9. Epub 2020 Jun 8.

Division of Anatomic Pathology, Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Rochester, MN, USA.

Bronchiolitis is injury to the bronchioles (small airways with a diameter of 2 mm or less) resulting in inflammation and/or fibrosis. Bronchioles can be involved in pathologic processes that involve predominantly the lung parenchyma or large airways, but, in some diseases, bronchioles are the main site of injury ("primary bronchiolitis"). Acute bronchiolitis caused by viruses is responsible for most cases of bronchiolitis in infants and children. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12688/f1000research.21778.1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7281671PMC

Foreign Body Aspiration Presenting as Pneumothorax in a Child.

Cureus 2020 May 16;12(5):e8161. Epub 2020 May 16.

Otolaryngology, Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, USA.

A typical presentation of a foreign body aspiration (FBA) in a child includes witnessed choking, respiratory distress, cyanosis, coughing, wheezing, diminished breath sounds, and/or altered mental status. Following an extensive literature review, we found pneumothorax occurring secondary to FBA is a rare occurrence and should elicit prompt treatment. This 17-month-old female was admitted for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis and developed a subsequent pneumothorax during her hospital stay, consequent to aspiration of a cashew fragment two weeks before presentation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.8161DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7294853PMC

Pulmonary Functional MRI and CT in a Survivor of Bronchiolitis and Respiratory Failure Due to E-cigarette Use.

Chest 2020 Jun 13. Epub 2020 Jun 13.

Robarts Research Institute; Department of Medical Biophysics; Division of Respirology. Electronic address:

Whilst nearly 3,000 e-cigarette-related hospitalizations have been reported in North America, the long-term outcomes in these patients have not been described. We followed an 18-year-old male who survived acute critical illness and respiratory failure related to five-months of e-cigarette use. Chronic irreversible airflow obstruction and markedly abnormal Xe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) ventilation heterogeneity was observed and persisted 8-months post-hospital discharge, despite improvement in quality-of-life and chest computed tomography findings. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chest.2020.06.005DOI Listing

Inhaled nitric oxide therapy in acute bronchiolitis: A multicenter randomized clinical trial.

Sci Rep 2020 Jun 15;10(1):9605. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Saban Pediatric Medical Center, Soroka University Medical Center, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University, Beer Sheva, Israel.

Currently, there are no approved treatments for infants with acute bronchiolitis, the leading cause for hospitalization of infants worldwide, and thus the recommended approach is supportive. Inhaled Nitric oxide (iNO), possesses anti-viral properties, improves oxygenation, and was shown to be safe in infants with respiratory conditions. Hospitalized infants with acute bronchiolitis were therefore recruited to a prospective double-blinded, multi-center, randomized controlled pilot study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-66433-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7295966PMC

Bronchiolitis and Potential Pathophysiological Implications in Coronavirus Disease 2019 ARDS Patients With Near-Normal Respiratory Compliance.

Crit Care Med 2020 Jun 12. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Department of Respiratory & Critical Care Medicine, Singapore General Hospital, Singapore, Singapore.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CCM.0000000000004470DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7314321PMC

PLK1 Inhibition alleviates transplant-associated obliterative bronchiolitis by suppressing myofibroblast differentiation.

Aging (Albany NY) 2020 Jun 15;12(12):11636-11652. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, Hubei, China.

Chronic allograft dysfunction (CAD) resulting from fibrosis is the major limiting factor for long-term survival of lung transplant patients. Myofibroblasts promote fibrosis in multiple organs, including the lungs. In this study, we identified PLK1 as a promoter of myofibroblast differentiation and investigated the mechanism by which its inhibition alleviates transplant-associated obliterative bronchiolitis (OB) during CAD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.103330DOI Listing

Increased Adiposity Associated With Increased Length of Stay for Infants With Bronchiolitis.

Hosp Pediatr 2020 Jul 15;10(7):608-614. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Schools of Medicine and Public Health, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon

Objectives: Excess adiposity upregulates proinflammatory adipokines in infancy that have also been implicated in the pathogenesis of bronchiolitis. The association between excess adiposity and severity of disease in bronchiolitis is unclear. We sought to examine the association between adiposity and length of hospitalization and risk of PICU transfer in children with bronchiolitis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/hpeds.2020-0022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7324300PMC

Molecular mechanisms of respiratory syncytial virus replication: a guide for the development of antivirals.

Virologie (Montrouge) 2020 Apr;24(2):99-112

INRA, Unité de Virologie et Immunologie moléculaires (UR892), Université Paris-Saclay, 78350 Jouy-en-Josas, France.

During the last ten years, structural and functional data on the RNA polymerase complex of the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), the main cause of bronchiolitis and pneumonia in infants, have accumulated. Beyond the scientific interest of understanding how this polymerase complex works and synthesize viral RNAs, these data open new perspectives to develop antiviral drugs that are still missing. The RNA polymerase complex of single-stranded RNA viruses of negative polarity has no equivalent in the cell and therefore represents a target of choice for developing compounds specifically targeting these viruses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1684/vir.2020.0834DOI Listing

Mistrial or Misdiagnosis: The Importance of Autopsy and Histopathological Examination in Cases of Sudden Infant Bronchiolitis-Related Death.

Front Pediatr 2020 27;8:229. Epub 2020 May 27.

Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Section of Legal Medicine, University of Foggia, Foggia, Italy.

Pediatrics, among all the branches of medicine, is a sector not particularly affected by a high number of claims. Nevertheless, the economic value of the compensation is significantly high, for example, in cases of children who suffered multiple disabilities following perinatal lesions with a long life expectancy. In Italy, most of the claims for compensation concern surgical pathologies and infections. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fped.2020.00229DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7266995PMC

Human Bocavirus infection and respiratory tract disease identified in a UK patient cohort.

J Clin Virol 2020 May 21;129:104453. Epub 2020 May 21.

NIHR Nottingham Digestive Diseases Biomedical Research Centre and School of Life Sciences, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2UH, UK. Electronic address:

Background: Since its first isolation in 2005, Human Bocavirus (HBoV) has been repeatedly associated with acute respiratory tract infections, although its role in pathogenicity remains unclear due to high co-infection rates.

Objectives: To assess HBoV prevalence and associated disease in a cohort of respiratory patients in the East Midlands, UK between 2015 and 2019.

Study Design: We initially investigated the undiagnosed burden of HBoV in a retrospective paediatric cohort sampled between 2015 and 2017 using an in-house PCR assay. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcv.2020.104453DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7240277PMC

Typical RSV cough: myth or reality? A diagnostic accuracy study.

Eur J Pediatr 2020 Jun 13. Epub 2020 Jun 13.

Department of Pediatrics, Spaarne Gasthuis, Boerhaavelaan 22, 2035 RC, Haarlem, The Netherlands.

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is well known for causing a potentially severe course of bronchiolitis in infants. Many paediatric healthcare workers claim to be able to diagnose RSV based on cough sound, which was evaluated in this study. Parents of children < 1 year old admitted to the paediatric ward because of airway complaints were asked to record cough sounds of their child. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00431-020-03709-1DOI Listing

Risk Factors Associated With Bronchiolitis in Puerto Rican Children.

Pediatr Emerg Care 2020 Jun 11. Epub 2020 Jun 11.

Department of Emergency Medicine, School of Medicine, Medical Sciences Campus, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, Puerto Rico.

Objective: The objective of this study was to identify frequency, severity, and risk factors associated with bronchiolitis in Puerto Rican children.

Methods: A cross-sectional was study performed at 4 emergency departments of Puerto Rico's metropolitan area, between June 2014 and May 2015. We included children younger than 24 months, with a clinical diagnosis of bronchiolitis, who were born and living in Puerto Rico at the time of recruitment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PEC.0000000000002130DOI Listing

Hospitalizations for lower respiratory tract infections in children in relation to the sequential use of three pneumococcal vaccines in Quebec.

Can J Public Health 2020 Jun 11. Epub 2020 Jun 11.

Quebec University Hospital Research Centre, Quebec City, Canada.

Objectives: In Quebec, three pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) were used sequentially starting in December 2004. The objective of the study was to investigate the association between exposure to different PCV regimens and hospitalizations for lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI).

Methods: Records with a main diagnosis of LRTI in children born in 2000-2012 and observed up to their second birthday were extracted from the provincial hospital administrative database. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.17269/s41997-020-00329-yDOI Listing