14,069 results match your criteria Bronchiolitis


Level of Maternal Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) F Antibodies in Hospitalized Children and Correlates of Protection.

Int J Infect Dis 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Biomedical Research Center, Qatar University, Qatar; College of Health Sciences, Qatar University, Qatar. Electronic address:

Background: RSV is a major cause of lower respiratory infections among children, where no vaccine is available. The stabilized form of the fusion (F) protein, pre-F, is a leading vaccine candidate targeting different populations, including pregnant women. This study aimed to determine the magnitude and nature of RSV-directed maternal antibodies (matAbs) in hospitalized children with RSV infection. Read More

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Forecast modeling to identify changes in pediatric emergency department utilization during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Am J Emerg Med 2021 May 21;49:142-147. Epub 2021 May 21.

Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of Critical Care Medicine, UPMC Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, United States of America; Division of Health Informatics, Department of Pediatrics, UPMC Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, United States of America.

Objective: To identify trends in pediatric emergency department (ED) utilization following the COVID-19 pandemic.

Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study from 37 geographically diverse US children's hospitals. We included ED encounters between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2020, transformed into time-series data. Read More

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Protein signatures of remodeled airways in transplanted lungs with Bronchiolitis Obliterans Syndrome obtained using laser capture microdissection.

Am J Pathol 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Lung Biology Unit, Department of Experimental Medical Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden. Electronic address:

Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS), a common form of chronic lung allograft dysfunction, is the major limitation to long-term survival after lung transplantation. The histological correlate is progressive, fibrotic occlusion of small airways, obliterative bronchiolitis lesions, ultimately leading to organ failure. The molecular composition of these lesions is unknown. Read More

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A novel Filobacterium sp can cause chronic bronchitis in cats.

PLoS One 2021 9;16(6):e0251968. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Centre for Veterinary Education, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Background: Cilia-associated respiratory bacillus (CARB; now known as Filobacterium rodentium gen. nov., sp. Read More

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Treatment for acute bronchiolitis before and after implementation of new national guidelines: a retrospective observational study from primary and secondary care in Oslo, Norway.

BMJ Paediatr Open 2021 20;5(1):e001111. Epub 2021 May 20.

Department of General Practice, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

Background: Acute bronchiolitis treatment guidelines changed in Norway in 2013, no longer recommending the use of nebulised epinephrine. We aimed to assess whether these changes were successfully implemented in both primary and secondary care. Secondary aims were to compare the difference in management of acute bronchiolitis patients in primary and secondary care between 2009 and 2017. Read More

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Electronic cigarettes, vaping-related lung injury and lung cancer: where do we stand?

Eur J Cancer Prev 2021 Jul;30(4):293-296

Department of Thoracic Surgery, IRCCS European Institute of Oncology.

Electronic cigarettes have been considered a promising alternative to nicotine replacement products to help heavy tobacco smokers quit smoking. They work thanks to a heating coil causing evaporation of the liquid rapidly followed by cooling, thus creating an aerosol, a completely different mechanism from the combustion of tobacco in traditional cigarettes. The term 'vaping' indicates the use of electronic cigarettes or other devices to inhale heated, aerosolized nicotine, or other substances like cannabidiol, tetrahydrocannabinol, or butane hash oils together with solvents, mainly propylene glycol and vegetable glycerine or their combination. Read More

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A Self-criticism of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Decision Making in Children Admitted With Acute Lower Respiratory Infection at a Single Pediatric Emergency Department.

Pediatr Emerg Care 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

From the Division of Pediatric Emergency, Ankara City Hospital Division of Pediatrics, Ankara City Hospital, University of Health Sciences Division of Pediatric Radiology, Ankara City Hospital Division of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, Ankara City Hospital, University of Health Sciences, Ankara, Turkey.

Objectives: Acute bronchiolitis and community-acquired pneumonia are the most common acute lower respiratory infections (LRIs) leading to emergency admission and hospitalization in children. The aim of this study is to investigate clinical, laboratory, and radiology findings; diagnostic and therapeutic decisions; and the relationships between them in patients younger than 2 years of age, hospitalized for LRI.

Methods: Patients hospitalized for acute LRI (aged 28 days to 24 months) between November 1, 2017, and March 31, 2018, at a referral hospital were included. Read More

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The burden of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) infection in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region across age groups: A systematic review.

Vaccine 2021 Jun 4. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Center for Infectious Diseases Research, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon; Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut, Lebanon. Electronic address:

Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) is a common respiratory virus that generally causes a mild illness in children and adults or severe symptoms with complications in infants and the elderly, particularly in the presence of underlying comorbidities. While epidemiological data about this virus are available globally, data from the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region are still scarce. For this reason, we conducted a systematic review to determine the burden of RSV disease in the MENA region by searching the available literature up until September 2018. Read More

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From hypotonic maintenance fluid to severe hyponatremia: a case report.

J Med Case Rep 2021 Jun 7;15(1):315. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, CHU de Caen, 14000, Caen, France.

Background: The principles for maintenance intravenous fluid prescription in children were developed in the 1950s. These guidelines based on the use of hypotonic solutions have been challenged regularly for they seem to be associated with an increased risk of hospital-acquired hyponatremia.

Case Presentation: We report the case of a 4-week-old Caucasian child admitted for acute bronchiolitis who received hypotonic maintenance fluids and developed severe hyponatremia (94 mmol/L) with hyponatremic encephalopathy. Read More

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Post- infectious bronchiolitis obliterans in children: Clinical and radiological evaluation and long- term results.

Heart Lung 2021 Jun 4;50(5):660-666. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Division of Pediatric Pulmonology, Faculty of Medicine, Bezmialem Vakif University, İstanbul, Turkey.

Background And Objective: This study aims to evaluate clinical and radiological findings and treatment outcomes of the patients with PIBO.

Methods: One hundred fourteen children were enrolled. Initial demographic and clinical findings were evaluated. Read More

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Immediate and delayed antibiotic prescribing strategies used by Australian early-career general practitioners.

Br J Gen Pract 2021 Jun 4. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

The University of Newcastle School of Medicine and Public Health, Callaghan, Australia.

Background: Antibiotics are overused for non-pneumonia acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs).

Aim: To establish prevalence and explore associations of antibiotic prescribing strategies used by Australian early-career GPs for non-pneumonia ARTIs.

Design And Setting: Cross-sectional analysis of data, September 2016 to December 2017, from the Registrar Clinical Encounters in Training cohort study. Read More

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Case Report: Flavoring-Related Lung Disease in a Coffee Roasting and Packaging Facility Worker With Unique Lung Histopathology Compared With Previously Described Cases of Obliterative Bronchiolitis.

Front Public Health 2021 20;9:657987. Epub 2021 May 20.

Respiratory Health Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV, United States.

Occupational exposure to diacetyl, a butter flavor chemical, can result in obliterative bronchiolitis. Obliterative bronchiolitis is characterized by exertional dyspnea, fixed airflow obstruction, and histopathologic constrictive bronchiolitis, with bronchiolar wall fibrosis leading to luminal narrowing and obliteration. We describe a case of advanced lung disease with histopathology distinct from obliterative bronchiolitis in a 37-year-old male coffee worker following prolonged exposure to high levels of diacetyl and the related compound 2,3-pentanedione, who had no other medical, avocational, or occupational history that could account for his illness. Read More

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Longitudinal Assessment of Pulmonary Function and Bronchodilator Response in Pediatric Patients With Post-infectious Bronchiolitis Obliterans.

Front Pediatr 2021 19;9:674310. Epub 2021 May 19.

Department of Pediatrics, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, China.

Postinfectious bronchiolitis obliterans (PIBO) is a rare respiratory disease. In recent years, the disease has been recognized and diagnosed increasingly in children. Pulmonary function is important for diagnosis, identifying the severity of the PIBO and monitoring progression. Read More

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Effect of prenatal and postnatal exposure to tobacco in the development of acute bronchiolitis in the first two years of life.

An Pediatr (Engl Ed) 2021 Jun 20;94(6):385-395. Epub 2021 May 20.

Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos Pediátricos y Neonatales, Hospital Clínico Universitario, Valladolid, Spain.

Introduction: Environmental exposure to tobacco increases the risk of respiratory disease in infants. However, the impact of maternal smoking on the development of acute bronchiolitis has hardly been assessed. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of acute bronchiolitis and to analyse the effect of prenatal and postnatal maternal smoking on the development of this disease. Read More

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Clinical impact of implementing humidified high-flow nasal cannula on interhospital transport among children admitted to a PICU with respiratory distress: a cohort study.

Crit Care 2021 06 6;25(1):194. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Paediatric Intensive Care Unit, The Royal Children's Hospital Melbourne, 50 Flemington Road, Parkville, VIC, 3052, Australia.

Background: There is a limited evidence for humidified high-flow nasal cannula (HHFNC) use on inter-hospital transport. Despite this, its use during transport is increasing in children with respiratory distress worldwide. In 2015 HHFNC was implemented on a specialized pediatric retrieval team serving for Victoria. Read More

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High-flow oxygen nasal cannula for treating acute bronchiolitis in infants: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Medwave 2021 May 12;21(4):e8190. Epub 2021 May 12.

Dirección Nacional de Calidad en Servicios de Salud y Regulación Sanitaria, Ministerio de Salud de la Nación, Buenos Aires, Argentina. ORCID: 0000-0002-4842-0528.

Introduction: Oxygen therapy through a high-flow nasal cannula is thought to improve the work of breathing and the comfort of patients with acute bronchiolitis. It is widely used in hospital wards and critical care of pediatric patients. However, there is uncertainty on the magnitude of the effect on critical and important outcomes in these patients. Read More

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A Case of Paraneoplastic Pemphigus as a Preceding Manifestation of Underlying Follicular Lymphoma Treated with R-CHOP.

Ann Dermatol 2021 Jun 4;33(3):271-274. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Dermatology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, Korea.

Paraneoplastic pemphigus is a rare, life-threatening disorder associated with an underlying neoplasm, which presents with painful stomatitis and polymorphous skin lesions. Successful diagnosis of paraneoplastic pemphigus can lead to the diagnosis and treatment of the underlying malignancy. However, involvement of the respiratory system is typically unresponsive to treatment. Read More

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High Frequency of Viral Co-Detections in Acute Bronchiolitis.

Viruses 2021 05 26;13(6). Epub 2021 May 26.

Groupe de Recherche sur l'Adaptation Microbienne (GRAM 2.0), Normandie University, UNICAEN, UNIROUEN, EA2656, F-14033 Caen, France.

Over two years (2012-2014), 719 nasopharyngeal samples were collected from 6-week- to 12-month-old infants presenting at the emergency department with moderate to severe acute bronchiolitis. Viral testing was performed, and we found that 98% of samples were positive, including 90% for respiratory syncytial virus, 34% for human rhino virus, and 55% for viral co-detections, with a predominance of RSV/HRV co-infections (30%). Interestingly, we found that the risk of being infected by HRV is higher in the absence of RSV, suggesting interferences or exclusion mechanisms between these two viruses. Read More

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A Retrospective Analysis of Feeding Practices and Complications in Patients with Critical Bronchiolitis on Non-Invasive Respiratory Support.

Children (Basel) 2021 May 18;8(5). Epub 2021 May 18.

Children's Hospital and Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68114, USA.

Limited data exist regarding feeding pediatric patients managed on non-invasive respiratory support (NRS) modes that augment oxygenation and ventilation in the setting of acute respiratory failure. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to explore the safety of feeding patients managed on NRS with acute respiratory failure secondary to bronchiolitis. Children up to two years old with critical bronchiolitis managed on continuous positive airway pressure, bilevel positive airway pressure, or RAM cannula were included. Read More

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Early Microbial-Immune Interactions and Innate Immune Training of the Respiratory System during Health and Disease.

Children (Basel) 2021 May 19;8(5). Epub 2021 May 19.

Division of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA.

Over the past two decades, several studies have positioned early-life microbial exposure as a key factor for protection or susceptibility to respiratory diseases. Birth cohorts have identified a strong link between neonatal bacterial colonization of the nasal airway and gut with the risk for respiratory infections and childhood asthma. Translational studies have provided companion mechanistic insights on how viral and bacterial exposures in early life affect immune development at the respiratory mucosal barrier. Read More

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The Association between Weather Conditions and Admissions to the Paediatric Intensive Care Unit for Respiratory Syncytial Virus Bronchiolitis.

Pathogens 2021 May 7;10(5). Epub 2021 May 7.

Paediatric Intensive Care Unit, Emma Children's Hospital, Amsterdam University Medical Centers, Location AMC, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis is a leading cause of global child morbidity and mortality. Every year, seasonal RSV outbreaks put high pressure on paediatric intensive care units (PICUs) worldwide, including in the Netherlands, and this burden appears to be increasing. Weather conditions have a strong influence on RSV activity, and climate change has been proposed as a potential important determinant of future RSV-related health care utilisation. Read More

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Efficacy of inhaled salbutamol with and without prednisolone for first acute rhinovirus-induced wheezing episode.

Clin Exp Allergy 2021 Jun 1. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.

Background: Acute rhinovirus-induced wheezing is common in young children and may respond to systemic corticosteroid. There are no trials on the efficacy of inhaled beta -agonist in this clinical scenario.

Objective: To study post hoc the short-term (up to 2 months) efficacy of inhaled beta -agonist with and without oral corticosteroid in the first acute rhinovirus-induced severe wheezing episode in young hospitalized children. Read More

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Impact of a modification of the clinical practice guide of the American Academy of Pediatrics in the management of severe acute bronchiolitis in a pediatric intensive care unit.

Med Intensiva (Engl Ed) 2021 Jun-Jul;45(5):289-297. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos Pediátricos (UCIP), Hospital Sant Joan de Déu, Institut de Recerca Sant Joan de Déu, Esplugues de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain.

Objective: To describe the characteristics and evolution of patients with bronchiolitis admitted to a pediatric intensive care unit, and compare treatment pre- and post-publication of the American Academy of Pediatrics clinical practice guide.

Design: A descriptive and observational study was carried out between September 2010 and September 2017.

Setting: Pediatric intensive care unit. Read More

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Assessment of nasopharyngeal Streptococcus pneumoniae colonization does not permit discrimination between Canadian children with viral and bacterial respiratory infection: a matched-cohort cross-sectional study.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 May 31;21(1):509. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, St. Joseph's Healthcare Hamilton, 50 Charlton Ave. E, Hamilton, Ontario, L8N 4A6, Canada.

Background: Readily-available diagnostics do not reliably discriminate between viral and bacterial pediatric uncomplicated pneumonia, both of which are common. Some have suggested that assessment of pneumococcal carriage could be used to identify those children with bacterial pneumonia. The objective of this study was to determine if nasopharyngeal pneumococcal colonization patterns differed between children with definite viral disease, definite bacterial disease, and respiratory disease of indeterminate etiology. Read More

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Comparison of 3% saline and 0.9% normal saline nebulization as diluent in children with bronchiolitis.

J Pak Med Assoc 2021 Mar;71(3):822-825

Ghurki Trust Teaching Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan.

Objective: To compare the outcome in terms of mean time to disappearance of cough, wheezing, crackles and length of hospital stay in patients treated with sodium chloride 3% with sodium chloride 0.9% as nebulisation diluent in children for suffering from bronchiolitis.

Methods: The prospective study was conducted at the Department of Paediatric Medicine Sheikh Zayed Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan, from November 2014 to April 2015, and comprised children aged between 6 weeks and 24 months having bronchiolitis. Read More

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Association between early bronchiolitis and the development of childhood asthma: a meta-analysis.

BMJ Open 2021 05 28;11(5):e043956. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Shaanxi Provincial People's Hospital, Xi'an, Shaanxi, China

Objective: Early life bronchiolitis has been hypothesised to be associated with the subsequent risk of persistent wheezing or asthma. However, the link remains controversial. The objective of our study was to evaluate the association between bronchiolitis before 2 years of age and the late-onset wheezing/asthma. Read More

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The Effects and Safety of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure in Children with Bronchiolitis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

J Trop Pediatr 2021 May;67(2)

Department of Respiration Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, National Clinical Research Center for Child Health and Disorders, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Child Development and Disorders, Chongqing, China.

Objectives: To evaluate the effects and safety of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) for initial respiratory management of bronchiolitis.

Methods: PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, CNKI, Wanfang data and CQ VIP were searched until 17 June 2020. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) which investigated the effect of CPAP for bronchiolitis were included. Read More

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Role of CMV chemokine receptor M33 in airway graft rejection in a mouse transplant model.

Transpl Immunol 2021 Aug 24;67:101415. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Cardiac Surgery, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nürnberg, Krankenhausstaße 12, 91054 Erlangen, Germany. Electronic address:

Background: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is a risk factor for bronchiolitis obliterans (BO), one form of chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD). The viral chemokine receptor M33 is essential for successful spread of murine CMV to host salivary glands. In the present study we investigated the impact of M33 on chronic airway rejection. Read More

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Repetitive diacetyl vapor exposure promotes ubiquitin proteasome stress and precedes bronchiolitis obliterans pathology.

Arch Toxicol 2021 May 24. Epub 2021 May 24.

Division of Pulmonology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Rochester Medical Center, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Box 667, Rochester, NY, 14642, USA.

Bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) is a devastating lung disease seen commonly after lung transplant, following severe respiratory tract infection or chemical inhalation exposure. Diacetyl (DA; 2,3-butanedione) is a highly reactive alpha-diketone known to cause BO when inhaled, however, the mechanisms of how inhalation exposure leads to BO development remains poorly understood. In the current work, we combined two clinically relevant models for studying the pathogenesis of DA-induced BO: (1) an in vivo rat model of repetitive DA vapor exposures with recovery and (2) an in vitro model of primary human airway epithelial cells exposed to pure DA vapors. Read More

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