12,489 results match your criteria Bronchiolitis


Bronchiolitis obliterans after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: the effect of NOD2/CARD15 mutations in a Tunisian population.

Hum Immunol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Immunogenetic Applied to Cells Therapy Research Unit, Immuno-Haematology and HLA-Typing Department, National Blood Transfusion Centre of Tunis, Tunis, Tunisia.

Bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) is a serious lung complication that can develop after allogenic stem cell transplantation. It has been suggested that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that affect the NOD2/CARD15 gene impair its function and result in an uncontrolled innate immune response in the recipient, thereby leading to BO. One hundred eighty-one donor-recipient pairs were analyzed for the association between NOD2 gene variants (SNP8 [Arg702Trp], SNP12 [Gly908Arg], and SNP13 [Leu1007fsinsC]) and the occurrence of BO. Read More

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December 2018

Etiology of acute viral respiratory infections common in Pakistan: A review.

Rev Med Virol 2018 Dec 12:e2024. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Bioinformatics and Biotechnology, International Islamic University, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Respiratory infections, especially those of the lower respiratory tract, remain a foremost cause of mortality and morbidity of children greater than 5 years in developing countries including Pakistan. Ignoring these acute-level infections may lead to complications. Particularly in Pakistan, respiratory infections account for 20% to 30% of all deaths of children. Read More

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December 2018

Post-infectious bronchiolitis obliterans.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Centro Respiratorio, Hospital de Niños "Dr. Ricardo Gutiérrez", Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Bronchiolitis obliterans is a rare and severe chronic lung disease resulting from a lower respiratory tract lesion. It may occur after a bone marrow or lung transplantation, infectious diseases, or less frequently after inhaling toxic substances or after connective tissue diseases. Pathology, pathogenesis, and molecular biology, as well as the best treatment of bronchiolitis obliterans, remain the subject of ongoing research. Read More

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December 2018

Periostin levels in children without respiratory disease.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio.

Background: Periostin is a protein that serves as a downstream marker of the T-helper type 2 (Th2) cell response. It may serve to identify drug-responsive inflammatory phenotypes, particularly in children with asthma and possibly bronchiolitis. There are no published levels of periostin in healthy children <2 years of age, limiting interpretation of periostin levels in disease. Read More

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December 2018

The Use of Procalcitonin for Prediction of Pulmonary Bacterial Coinfection in Children With Respiratory Failure Associated With Viral Bronchiolitis.

Clin Pediatr (Phila) 2018 Dec 14:9922818816432. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

1 University of Oklahoma Health Science Center, Oklahoma City, OK, USA.

Objectives: Viral bronchiolitis is a frequent cause of pediatric hospitalization and respiratory failure. Procalcitonin (PCT) is a biomarker used to identify serious bacterial infection and can distinguish bacterial and viral infections. Concomitant bacterial pneumonia is not rare in viral bronchiolitis and can lead to a worse clinical course. Read More

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December 2018

Bronchiolitis Obliterans without Joint Disease. A rare non-articular manifestation of Rheumatoid Arthritis

Ir Med J 2018 09 10;111(8):813. Epub 2018 Sep 10.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Cork University Hospital, Cork, Ireland

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September 2018

The prevention of tracheal graft occlusion using pioglitazone: A mouse tracheal transplant model study.

Transpl Immunol 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Pathology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Bronchiolitis obliterans (BO), which begins with lymphocytic bronchiolitis (LB), is the most serious manifestations of chronic rejection following lung transplantation. We have evaluated the effects of intraperitoneal administration of pioglitazone, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma agonist, on LB in mice tracheal transplant model. Tracheal grafts from BALB/c or C57BL/6 were transplanted to C57BL/6 recipients. Read More

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December 2018

Re-comparing of three different epidemic seasons of bronchiolitis: different prophylaxis approaches.

Ital J Pediatr 2018 Dec 12;44(1):148. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Neonatology-NICU Casilino General Hospital, via Casilina 1049, 00169, Rome, Italy.

During the last epidemic season of bronchiolitis (S2, years 2016-2017) we performed a single Centre analysis in inborn infant of 30-32 gestational age and age < 12 months who did not receive prophylaxis with palivizumab (PLV), in light of the current AIFA (Italian Drug Agency) guidelines restricting the time of the prophylaxis to those born < 30 weeks of gestational age. During that epidemic season, we observed a rising trend of bronchiolitis-related hospitalization and an increased rate of mechanical ventilation in preterm child compared to the previous one (S1, years 2015-2016) during which infants of this same gestational age received palivizumab (PLV) prophylaxis, according to the 2015 Italian Guidelines.In light of the revised AIFA guidelines (November 2017), allowing once again prophylaxis with PLV in infants of > 30 weeks gestational age, we decided to repeat our observation during the last epidemic season (S3, years 2017-2018), in order to compare ours infants of 30-32 gestational age with preterm of the same gestational age born in our unit in the previous seasons (S1 and S2), to evaluate the clinical impact of the different prophylaxis approaches. Read More

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December 2018

Primary Graft Dysfunction and Beyond after Lung Transplantation in the Current Era.

Transpl Int 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Surgical Director of Lung Transplantation Surgical Director of Lung Failure Division of Cardiovascular Surgery, Temple University Health System and Lewis Katz School of Medicine.

When encountering early signs of primary graft dysfunction (PGD) at the end of the procedure following lung transplantation in operating rooms, aside from lung protective ventilation strategies, two key players as currently available therapeutic options include inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) and/or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) (1). While iNO plays a unique and relevant therapeutic role in the current clinical lung transplantation, its impact on posttransplant outcomes remains unclear mostly due to a large variety of iNO usage in clinical practice intra-, peri-, and post-operatively among the institutions (2-3). In the December 2018 issue of the Transplant International, Fessler and colleagues (4) from Hospital Foch in France, presented their study to aim to characterize the patients who required prolonged support of iNO following lung transplantation and evaluate the impact of such iNO dependency on posttransplant outcomes in particular with the incidences of severe PGD. Read More

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December 2018

Managing pulmonary complications in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

Expert Rev Respir Med 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

a Service de Pneumologie , AP-HP, Hôpital Saint-Louis , F-75010 , Paris , France.

Introduction: Progress in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) procedures have been associated with improved survival in HSCT recipients. However, they have also brought to light organ-specific complications, especially pulmonary complications. In this setting, pulmonary complications are consistently associated with poor outcomes, and improved management of these complications is required. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Practice variation among Dutch paediatricians in palivizumab prescription rates: the importance of parental counselling approach.

Acta Paediatr 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Paediatrics, Isala, Zwolle.

Aim: To investigate differences in palivizumab prescription rates between Dutch paediatricians, and the role of parent counselling in this practice variation.

Methods: A retrospective chart review of premature infants <32 weeks of gestation, aged
Results: We included 208 patients, 133 (64%) of whom received palivizumab. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Retransplantation Outcomes at a Large Lung Transplantation Program.

Transplant Direct 2018 Nov 25;4(11):e404. Epub 2018 Oct 25.

DeBakey Heart & Vascular Center, Houston Methodist Hospital, Houston, TX.

Background: With the increase of primary lung transplantation across major centers worldwide, over the last several years the need of lung retransplant (ReTX) is likely to increase. Therefore, characterization of ReTX patients is prudent and necessary. Our study aimed to investigate and characterize the covariates and outcomes associated with lung ReTX survival in a single large U. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Unilateral Chronic Lung Allograft Dysfunction Assessed by Biphasic Computed Tomographic Volumetry in Bilateral Living-donor Lobar Lung Transplantation.

Transplant Direct 2018 Nov 12;4(11):e398. Epub 2018 Oct 12.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.

Background: Early diagnosis of unilateral chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD) is difficult because the unaffected contralateral lung functions as a reservoir in bilateral living-donor lobar lung transplantation (LDLLT). We previously reported the usefulness of Xe ventilation scintigraphy for detection of unilateral change, but the supply of Xe has been stopped globally. The present study aimed to examine the usefulness of inspiratory and expiratory computed tomography (I/E CT) volumetry for detection of unilateral change in CLAD patients. Read More

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November 2018

Smoke Exposure, Cytokine Levels, and Asthma Visits in Children Hospitalized for Bronchiolitis.

Hosp Pediatr 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

American Academy of Pediatrics Julius B Richmond Center of Excellence, Elk Grove Village, Illinois; and.

Background And Objective: To determine if cigarette smoke exposure, marijuana smoke exposure, or cytokine levels at admission to the hospital for bronchiolitis are associated with follow-up visits for asthma.

Methods: We enrolled a cohort of children aged 31 days to 2 years who were hospitalized with bronchiolitis from January 2013 to April 2014. Data included the results of a baseline survey about children's health and demographics, nasal wash samples, the results of a 6-month postdischarge follow-up survey, and a chart review. Read More

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December 2018

Single Versus Bilateral Lung Transplantation for Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis in the Lung Allocation Score Era.

J Surg Res 2019 Feb 5;234:84-95. Epub 2018 Oct 5.

Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Background: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive and fatal disease. Lung transplantation is the only therapy associated with prolonged survival. The ideal transplant procedure for IPF is unclear. Read More

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February 2019

Lung ultrasound for the diagnosis of pneumonia in children with acute bronchiolitis.

BMC Pulm Med 2018 Dec 7;18(1):191. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Pediatric Emergency Unit, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences (DIMEC), St. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, University of Bologna, Via Massarenti 11, 40138, Bologna, Italy.

Background: Guidelines currently do not recommend the routine use of chest x-ray (CXR) in bronchiolitis. However, CXR is still performed in a high percentage of cases, mainly to diagnose or rule out pneumonia. The inappropriate use of CXR results in children exposure to ionizing radiations and increased medical costs. Read More

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December 2018

Use of Social Psychology to Improve Adherence to National Bronchiolitis Guidelines.

Pediatrics 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Division of General Pediatrics, Department of Pediatrics, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts.

Objectives: The American Academy of Pediatrics' bronchiolitis guidelines recommend against albuterol and corticosteroids for treating and chest radiographs (CRs) for diagnosing infants with bronchiolitis. However, high rates of nonadherence have been documented. Our objective was to improve guideline adherence in infants with bronchiolitis. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Epidemiology of lower respiratory tract infections in adults.

Expert Rev Respir Med 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

b Division of Pulmonology, Department of Internal Medicine, Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital and Faculty of Health Sciences , University of the Witwatersrand , Johannesburg , South Africa .

Introduction: Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) are the leading infectious disease cause of death in the world and the fifth overall cause of death. From an epidemiological point of view, most consider pneumonia, influenza, bronchitis (including acute exacerbations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [AECOPD]), and bronchiolitis to be the most important LRTIs. Areas covered: This review will describe the epidemiology of LRTIs in adults focusing on community-acquired pneumonia, influenza, and AECOPD, utilizing data from the more recent literature. Read More

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December 2018
4 Reads

HMGB1 blockade significantly improves luminal fibrous obliteration in a murine model of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome.

Transpl Immunol 2018 Dec 1. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

Department of Surgery and Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka-shi, Fukuoka 812-8582, Japan.

Background: Although high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1), which is a nuclear protein, was reported to enhance the allogeneic responses in transplantation, the effect of HMGB1 on bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) is unknown.

Methods: A murine heterotopic tracheal transplantation model was used. Protein concentrations of HMGB1, interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin (IL)-10, and IL-17 were analyzed in the isografts, allografts, controls, and HMGB1-neutralizing antibody administered allografts (n = 6; Days 1, 3, 5, 7, 14, 21, and 28). Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

Nutritional management of young infants presenting with acute bronchiolitis in Belgium, France and Switzerland: survey of current practices and documentary search of national guidelines worldwide.

Eur J Pediatr 2018 Dec 1. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

Paediatric Intensive Care, Hôpital Femme Mère Enfant, Nantes, France.

Feeding difficulties are common in young infants presenting with acute bronchiolitis, but limited data is available to guide clinicians adapting nutritional management. We aimed to assess paediatricians' nutritional practices among Western Europe French speaking countries. A survey was disseminated to describe advice given to parents for at home nutritional support, in hospital nutritional management, and preferred methods for enteral nutrition and for intravenous fluid management. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Gelsolin levels in patients with bronchiolitis.

Turk J Pediatr 2018 ;60(3):286-289

Division of Pediatric Pulmonology, Department of Pediatrics, Erciyes University Faculty of Medicine, Kayseri, Turkey.

Hüsrevoğlu-Esen F. Altuner-Torun Y, Karakükçü Ç, Köse S, Şehriyaroğlu A, Kafadar D, Esen A, Köse M. Gelsolin levels in patients with bronchiolitis. Read More

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January 2018
3 Reads

The effects of macrolides in children with reactive airway disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Drug Des Devel Ther 2018 8;12:3825-3845. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Department of Family Medicine, Hsinchu MacKay Memorial Hospital, Hsinchu, Taiwan,

Purpose: Childhood reactive airway diseases (RADs) are concerning problems in children's airways and may be preceded by bronchiolitis and may progress to childhood asthma. The severity of the disease is indicated by deterioration in pulmonary functions, increased usage of rescue medications, and recurrent wheezing episodes. Macrolides have both antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory functions and have been used as adjunctive therapy in childhood RADs. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Therapeutic strategies for pediatric bronchiolitis.

Authors:
Matti Korppi

Expert Rev Respir Med 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

a Center for Child health Research, Tampere University and University Hospital, Finland Arvo2 building , Tampere University , 33014 , Tampere , Finland.

Introduction: Bronchiolitis in infancy is the most common infectious reason for hospitalization of infants without any chronic underlying illness. Areas covered: This review focuses on the role of racemic epinephrine, systemic corticosteroids, hypertonic saline and high-flow oxygen therapy (HFOT) in the treatment of infants with bronchiolitis. Literature was searched from Pubmed covering the years 2009-2018 using the entries of bronchiolitis or viral bronchiolitis, and epinephrine, adrenaline, racemic epinephrine, racemic adrenaline, corticosteroids, hypertonic saline, high-flow oxygen therapy or high-flow oxygen cannula. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Clinical and Radiological Evaluation of Children Aged 2 Months to 5 Years with Severe Pneumonia According to WHO Guideline.

Mymensingh Med J 2018 Oct;27(4):702-709

Dr Afroza Begom, Indoor Medical Officer, Department of Pediatrics, Mymensingh Medical College Hospital, Mymensingh, Bangladesh.

Pneumonia is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children less than 5 years of age in developing countries like Bangladesh. Although WHO guideline classified severe pneumonia by symptoms and signs of the patients, radiological and laboratory investigations were not studied well. There was increasing number of cases of bronchiolitis which meet the criteria of WHO classified severe pneumonia are reported. Read More

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October 2018
4 Reads

Limitations of Using Pediatric Respiratory Illness Readmissions to Compare Hospital Performance.

J Hosp Med 2018 11;13(11):737-742

University of California, San Francisco, California, USA.

Background: Adult hospital readmission rates can reliably identify meaningful variation in hospital performance; however, pediatric condition-specific readmission rates are limited by low patient volumes.

Objective: To determine if a National Quality Forum (NQF)-endorsed measure for pediatric lower respiratory illness (LRI) 30-day readmission rates can meaningfully identify high- and low-performing hospitals.

Design: Observational, retrospective cohort analysis. Read More

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November 2018
6 Reads

High-flow nasal cannula flow rate in young infants with severe viral bronchiolitis: the question is still open.

Intensive Care Med 2018 Nov 27. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Department of Neonatal Medicine and Pediatric Intensive Care, Arnaud de Villeneuve University Hospital, 371 Avenue Doyen G Giraud, 34295, Montpellier Cedex 5, France.

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November 2018
1 Read

[A molecular epidemiological study of respiratory syncytial virus circulating in southern Zhejiang Province, China, from 2009 to 2014].

Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi 2018 Nov;20(11):904-910

Department of Pulmonology, Second Affiliated Hospital and Yuying Children's Hospital, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325027, China.

Objective: To find out the prevalence of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) genotypes in southern Zhejiang Province, China, and to study the genetic characteristics of G protein from subtype A of RSV.

Methods: The lower respiratory tract secretions of children under 5 years of age who were hospitalized for pneumonia and bronchiolitis in three hospitals in southern Zhejiang Province from July 2009 to June 2014 were collected. Direct immunofluorescence assay was used to detect RSV antigens from the collected secretions. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Long-term impact of cytomegalovirus serologic status on lung transplantation in the United States.

Ann Thorac Surg 2018 Nov 23. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Division of Thoracic Surgery, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, USA; Division of Pulmonary & Critical Care Medicine, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection has been associated with poor outcomes following solid organ transplantation. However, the long-term impact of donor and recipient CMV serological status on lung transplant outcomes remains unclear. Accordingly, we evaluated the impact of donor and recipient CMV status on long-term patient as well as allograft survival following single (SLT) and double lung transplantation (BLT). Read More

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November 2018
8 Reads

Management of severe bronchiolitis: impact of NICE guidelines.

Arch Dis Child 2018 Nov 24. Epub 2018 Nov 24.

South Thames Retrieval Service, Paediatric Intensive Care Unit, Evelina London Children's Hospital, London, UK.

Objective: To understand the impact of the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) bronchiolitis guidelines on the management of children referred to paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) with bronchiolitis.

Design And Setting: Data were collected on all children referred to a regional PICU transport service with the clinical diagnosis of bronchiolitis during the winter prior to the NICE consultation period (2011-2012) and during the winter after publication (2015-2016). Management initiated by the referring hospital was assessed. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

A novel MyD88 inhibitor attenuates allograft rejection after heterotopic tracheal transplantation in mice.

Transpl Immunol 2018 Nov 22. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Institute of Organ Transplantation, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Key Laboratory of Organ Transplantation, Ministry of Health, and Key Laboratory of Organ Transplantation, Ministry of Education, Wuhan, China. Electronic address:

Background: After lung transplantation, the major complication limiting the long-term survival of allografts is obliterative bronchiolitis (OB), characterized by chronic rejection. Innate immune responses contribute to the development of OB. In this study, we used a murine heterotopic tracheal transplantation mouse model to examine the effects of a newtype of innate immune inhibitor, TJ-M2010-5. Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads
1.830 Impact Factor

Prognostic significance of early pulmonary function changes after onset of chronic lung allograft dysfunction.

J Heart Lung Transplant 2018 Oct 31. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine; Duke Clinical Research Institute.

Background: Chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD), including the phenotypes of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) and restrictive CLAD (R-CLAD), represents the leading cause of late death after lung transplantation. Little is known, however, regarding the natural history or prognostic significance of pulmonary function changes after the onset of these conditions. We examined changes in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV) and forced vital capacity (FVC) over the first 18 months after CLAD. Read More

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October 2018
4 Reads

Which ICD-9-CM codes should be used for bronchiolitis research?

BMC Med Res Methodol 2018 Nov 22;18(1):149. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública, Centro de Investigación en Salud Poblacional, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico.

Background: Bronchiolitis is a common respiratory disorder in children. Although there are specific ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes for bronchiolitis, the illness is often coded using broader diagnosis codes. This creates the potential for subject misclassification if researchers rely on specific diagnosis codes when assembling retrospective cohorts. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Outcomes of Children With Critical Bronchiolitis Meeting at Risk for Pediatric Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Criteria.

Pediatr Crit Care Med 2018 Nov 16. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Division of Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, Rainbow Babies and Children's Hospital, Cleveland, OH.

Objectives: New definitions of pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome include criteria to identify a subset of children "at risk for pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome." We hypothesized that, among PICU patients with bronchiolitis not immediately requiring invasive mechanical ventilation, those meeting at risk for pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome criteria would have worse clinical outcomes, including higher rates of pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome development.

Design: Single-center, retrospective chart review. Read More

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November 2018
6 Reads

Vaccines for Preventing Influenza in Healthy Individuals.

Authors:
Sally Liang

Acad Emerg Med 2018 Nov 21. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Department of Emergency Medicine, SUNY Downstate Medical Center/Kings County Hospital Center.

Influenza is an acute respiratory infection that imposes a heavy burden on society. The illness itself usually lasts a few days but the residual symptoms of cough and malaise can last for weeks. In addition, it can cause complications such as otitis media, pneumonia, secondary bacterial pneumonia, exacerbations of chronic respiratory disease, bronchiolitis, febrile seizures, Reye's syndrome, and myocarditis. Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads

Prospective enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) surveillance from September 2015 to November 2018 indicates a current wave of activity in Wales.

Euro Surveill 2018 Nov;23(46)

Public Health Wales Health Protection Division, Number 2 Capital Quarter, Tyndall Way, Cardiff, Wales, United Kingdom.

Since 7 June 2018, an enterovirus D-68 (EV-D68) season (the third since 2015) is ongoing in Wales, with 114 confirmed cases thus far. Median age of the 220 cases since 2015 is 2.5 years (2. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Helicobacter pylori Infection Does Not Impact on Lung Transplant Outcome.

Lung 2018 Nov 19. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Respiratory Diseases and Lung Transplantation, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences & Neurosciences, University of Siena, Viale Bracci, 16, 53100, Siena, Italy.

Background: Helicobacter pylori (HP) is a spiral, gram-negative, microaerophilic bacterium that colonises the human gastric mucosa and is associated with gastrointestinal and extragastrointestinal disorders. Since no data are yet available on HP infection in lung transplant patients, we evaluated the prevalence and impact of HP infection in a population of such patients.

Methods: Sixty-seven lung transplant patients were enrolled in the study (35 females and 32 males, age 48. Read More

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November 2018
6 Reads

[The start of the Hungarian lung transplantation program and the first results].

Orv Hetil 2018 Nov;159(46):1859-1868

Mellkassebészeti Klinika, Semmelweis Egyetem, Általános Orvostudományi Kar Budapest.

The first lung transplantation in Hungary was performed on 12th of December, 2015. It was a joint effort of the National Institute of Oncology and the Semmelweis University. Hereby we summarise the results and experiences from the first three years. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Physiological Effect of Prone Position in Children with Severe Bronchiolitis: A Randomized Cross-Over Study (BRONCHIO-DV).

J Pediatr 2018 Nov 14. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Lyon University Hospital, Hôpital Femme Mère Enfant, Medical Intensive Care Unit, Bron, France; University of Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Villeurbanne, France; INSERM 955-Eq13, Institut Mondor de Recherche Biomédicale, Créteil, France.

Objective: To assess the effect of the prone position on physiological measures, including inspiratory effort, metabolic cost of breathing, and neural drive to the diaphragm as compared with the supine position in infants with severe bronchiolitis requiring noninvasive ventilation.

Study Design: Fourteen infants, median age 33 days (IQR [first and third quartiles], 25-58) were randomized to receive 7 cmHO continuous positive airway pressure for 1 hour in the prone position or in the supine position, which was followed by cross-over to the supine position and the prone position for 1 hour, respectively. Flow, esophageal, airway, gastric, and transdiaphragmatic pressures, as well as electrical activity of the diaphragm were simultaneously recorded. Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads

Metabolomic profiling of infants with recurrent wheezing after bronchiolitis.

J Infect Dis 2018 Nov 16. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Department of Women's and Children's Health, University Hospital of Padova, Padova, Italy.

Background And Objective: Bronchiolitis is associated with a greater risk of developing recurrent wheezing, but with currently-available tools, it is impossible to know which infants with bronchiolitis will develop this condition. This preliminary prospective study aimed to assess whether urine metabolome analysis can be used to identify bronchiolitis children at risk of developing recurrent wheezing.

Methods: 52 infants less than one year old treated at our department's ER for acute bronchiolitis were enrolled (77% RSV positive). Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads

Disability related to chronic graft-versus-host disease after alternative donor hematopoietic cell transplantation.

Haematologica 2018 Nov 15. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center and the University of Washington, Seattle, WA;

We determined the incidence of disability related to chronic graft-versus-host disease (bronchiolitis obliterans, grade ≥ 2 keratoconjunctivitis sicca, sclerotic features or esophageal stricture) for 3 categories of alternative donor: cord blood, haplorelated marrow or peripheral blood with posttransplant cyclophosphamide, and unrelated single HLA-allele mismatched peripheral blood. Among 396 consecutive hematopoietic cell transplantation recipients, 129 developed chronic graft-versus-host disease with incidences in each group of 18% for cord blood, 24% for haplorelated, and 55% for unrelated single HLA-allele mismatched peripheral blood; after a median follow-up of 48, 60, and 46 months, respectively, from diagnosis. Disability rates were significantly lower for cord blood (hazard ratio 0. Read More

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November 2018
6 Reads

Accuracy of Provider-Documented Child Immunization Status at Hospital Presentation for Acute Respiratory Illness.

Hosp Pediatr 2018 Dec 15;8(12):769-777. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington.

Objectives: To assess (1) the accuracy of child immunization status documented by providers at hospital presentation for acute respiratory illness and (2) the association of provider-documented up-to-date (UTD) status with immunization receipt during and after hospitalization.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort analysis of children ≤16 years old treated for asthma, croup, bronchiolitis, or pneumonia at a children's hospital between July 2014 and June 2016. Demographics, clinical characteristics, and provider-documented UTD immunization status (yes or no) at presentation were obtained from the medical record. Read More

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December 2018
4 Reads

Prolonged slow expiration technique improves recovery from acute bronchiolitis in infants: FIBARRIX randomized controlled trial.

Clin Rehabil 2018 Nov 16:269215518809815. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

6 Paediatric Neumology, Virgen Arrixaca University Children's Hospital, Murcia, Spain.

Objective:: To examine the effect of prolonged slow expiration respiratory physiotherapy treatment on the acute bronchiolitis severity scale and O saturation at short-time and at medical discharge in infants and the hospital stay.

Design:: Randomized controlled trial.

Setting:: Infants' unit of university hospital. Read More

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November 2018
35 Reads

Factors Associated with Recurrence of Tracheoesophageal Fistula.

Isr Med Assoc J 2018 Nov;20(11):687-690

Department of Pediatric Pulmonology, Rappaport Children's Hospital, Rambam Health Care Campus, Haifa, Israel.

Background: Recurrence of tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) is reported in 8-20% patients. Factors that may influence recurrence of fistula beyond the postoperative period are not clear.

Objectives: To evaluate possible factors associated with recurrence of TEF beyond the immediate postoperative period. Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads

Pediatric Antiviral Stewardship: Defining the Potential Role of Ribavirin in Respiratory Syncytial Virus-Associated Lower Respiratory Illness.

J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther 2018 Sep-Oct;23(5):372-378

Objectives: Although no longer included in the American Academy of Pediatrics guideline, ribavirin was shown to be beneficial in a subset of adult patients with severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-associated bronchiolitis. This study aimed to investigate risk factors for progression to severe acute respiratory tract infections in hospitalized pediatric patients with RSV-associated bronchiolitis to identify which patients may benefit from inhaled ribavirin therapy, despite its substantial cost, diffcult administration, and potential complications.

Methods: Patients were identified by ICD-9 codes for RSV bronchiolitis and were only included if they had a confirmed positive result for RSV via polymerase chain reaction for detection and typing of respiratory viruses. Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads

Non-invasive ventilation for the management of children with bronchiolitis (NOVEMBR): a feasibility study and core outcome set development protocol.

Trials 2018 Nov 14;19(1):627. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Institute of Child Health, University of Liverpool, Alder Hey Children's NHS Foundation Trust, Eaton Road, Liverpool, L12 2AP, UK.

Background: Bronchiolitis is an acute lower respiratory infection which predominantly affects young children. Treatment for bronchiolitis is limited to supportive therapy. Nasal oxygen therapy is part of routine care, and delivery now incorporates varying levels of non-invasive continuous positive airway pressure and/or high-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy. Read More

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November 2018
11 Reads

Comparison of lung ultrasound and chest X-ray findings in children with bronchiolitis.

J Ultrason 2018 ;18(74):193-197

Department of Pneumonology, Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases, Rabka-Zdrój Branch, Poland.

Respiratory syncytial virus is the main pathogen responsible for bronchiolitis. Usually, there is no indication to perform diagnostic imaging or run laboratory tests in patients with bronchiolitis since the diagnosis is based on the clinical presentation. Chest radiogram can be useful in severe cases. Read More

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January 2018
10 Reads

High flow nasal cannula in the emergency department: indications, safety  and effectiveness.

Expert Rev Med Devices 2018 Nov 14:1-7. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

c Children's Intensive Care Unit , KK Women's and Children's Hospital , Singapore , Singapore.

Introduction: Heated humidified high flow nasal cannula therapy (HHHFNCT) is emerging as a popular non-invasive mode of respiratory support in adults and children. In recent years, its use has extended beyond the intensive care unit to other clinical areas. This review aims to explore the mechanism of action, indications, safety, and effectiveness of HHHFNCT use in the Emergency Department (ED). Read More

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November 2018
7 Reads

Effects of Macrolide Treatment during the Hospitalization of Children with Childhood Wheezing Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

J Clin Med 2018 Nov 9;7(11). Epub 2018 Nov 9.

Department of Pediatrics, Hsinchu MacKay Memorial Hospital, Hsinchu 30071, Taiwan.

Children are susceptible to a variety of respiratory infections. Wheezing is a common sign presented by children with respiratory infections. Asthma, bronchiolitis, and bronchitis are common causes of childhood wheezing disease (CWD) and are regarded as overlapping disease spectra. Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads

Use of the C-MAC Macintosh 0 Blade for Intubation of Infants in the Emergency Department.

Pediatr Emerg Care 2018 Nov 12. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

From the Division of Emergency Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.

First-pass success rates during intubation of infants in the emergency department have been shown to be low. Video laryngoscopy is being increasingly used during advanced airway management in the emergency department, but available data have not supported improved outcomes with use in pediatrics. The newly available Macintosh size 0 (curved) blade for the C-MAC video laryngoscope offers a narrower blade for use in infants. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Association between chest computed tomography findings and respiratory adverse events in rheumatoid arthritis patients undergoing long-term biological therapy.

Int J Rheum Dis 2018 Nov 8. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Rheumatology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan.

Objective: This study aimed to assess the association between chest computed tomography (CT) findings and incidence of respiratory adverse events (RAEs), and to detect risk factors for RAEs, in RA patients treated with long-term biological therapy.

Methods: Clinical and radiological data of 332 RA patients who were treated with biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs were collected. CT data were assessed by an experienced radiologist. Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads