48,457 results match your criteria Bronchi

Assessment of Extensive Airway Obstruction Using Point-by-Point Lateral Pressure Measurements during Bronchoscopy.

Respiration 2021 May 4:1-7. Epub 2021 May 4.

Division of Respiratory Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, St. Marianna University School of Medicine, Kawasaki, Japan.

Background: The positioning of the stent at the flow-limiting segment is crucial for patients with extensive airway obstruction to relieve dyspnea. However, CT and flow-volume curves cannot detect the area of maximal obstruction.

Objectives: The aim of this study is to physiologically evaluate extensive airway obstruction during interventional bronchoscopy. Read More

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[Clinicopathological features of bronchiolar adenoma versus mixed squamous cell and glandular papilloma: a comparative analysis].

Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi 2021 May;50(5):458-464

Department of Pathology, China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Beijing 100029, China.

To observe the clinicopathological features of bronchiolar adenoma (BA) and mixed squamous cell and glandular papilloma (MSGP). The relationship between them was also analyzed. Clinical data of eight patients with BA and four patients with MSGP diagnosed in China-Japan Friendship Hospital were collected from January 2018 to January 2020. Read More

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Vinpocetine alleviates lung inflammation via macrophage inflammatory protein-1β inhibition in an ovalbumin-induced allergic asthma model.

PLoS One 2021 29;16(4):e0251012. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

College of Pharmacy, Chung-Ang University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Asthma is a well-known bronchial disease that causes bronchial inflammation, narrowing of the bronchial tubes, and bronchial mucus secretion, leading to bronchial blockade. In this study, we investigated the association between phosphodiesterase (PDE), specifically PDE1, and asthma using 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX; a non-specific PDE inhibitor) and vinpocetine (Vinp; a PDE1 inhibitor). Balb/c mice were randomized to five treatment groups: control, ovalbumin (OVA), OVA + IBMX, OVA + Vinp, and OVA + dexamethasone (Dex). Read More

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[Medical rehabilitation of children with bronchial asthma].

Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult 2021 ;98(2):70-78

I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University (Sechenov University), Moscow, Russia.

Medical rehabilitation of children suffering from bronchial asthma is based on the complex use of natural therapeutic factors, drug, non-drug therapy and other methods in order to achieve control over the disease and long-term remission. The use of non-drug technologies is necessary taking into account the pathogenesis of the bronchial asthma development and is aimed at relieving bronchospasm, reducing the activity of allergic inflammation in the bronchi, improving their drainage function, strengthening the respiratory muscles and increasing exercise tolerance. When carrying out rehabilitation measures it is important to observe the basic principles of medical rehabilitation. Read More

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Bronchial Foreign Body Aspiration due to Polycarbophil Calcium.

Intern Med 2021 Apr 26. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Chigasaki Municipal Hospital, Japan.

Polycarbophil calcium (Polyful; Mylan, Tokyo, Japan) is a stool stabilizer that absorbs liquid and swells to form a soft, bulky mass. A 75-year-old woman experienced sore throat and difficulty breathing immediately after taking the drug. Chest computed tomography showed a foreign body in the right intermediate bronchus. Read More

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Pathological and Immunohistochemical Studies of Experimental Mycoplasma pneumoniae in Gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus).

J Comp Pathol 2021 Apr 27;184:37-43. Epub 2021 Feb 27.

Institute for Animal Health, Veterinary School, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Arucas, Gran Canaria, Spain.

Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mp) is a leading cause of human community-acquired pneumonia. To investigate the pathogenesis of the infection, 36 gerbils were intranasally inoculated with Mp culture (30 animals) or sterile mycoplasma broth (6 animals) and euthanized from 1 to 5 weeks post infection. A morphological and immunohistochemical study was carried out in all animals to determine the cellular populations present in lung parenchyma. Read More

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A pulmonary ligament approach for portal robotic segmentectomy of the lateral and posterior basal segments: a case report.

J Med Case Rep 2021 Apr 25;15(1):196. Epub 2021 Apr 25.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, Tokyo Women's Medical University, 8-1 Kawada-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, 162-8666, Japan.

Background: Thoracoscopic segmentectomy of the lateral and posterior basal segments is extremely technically challenging. Appropriate segmentectomy requires exposure and recognition of the branches of the bronchi and pulmonary vessels deep in the lung parenchyma. Although various approaches for these segmentectomies have been reported, the use of a pulmonary ligament approach is rational because it does not require any interlobar separation. Read More

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External stenting for bronchomalacia involving the bronchus intermedius.

Ann Thorac Surg 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Division of Cardiovascular Surgery, Kanagawa Children's Medical Center, Yokohama, Japan.

In recent years, external stenting has been used as a reliable method to relieve airway compression of the trachea and main bronchi in young children with acceptable age-proportional airway growth. However, to our knowledge, no literature supporting this approach for the distal airway has been published. A 1-year-old girl with absent pulmonary valve syndrome who had recurrent respiratory infections was diagnosed with bronchomalacia. Read More

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Expiratory central airway collapse and symptoms in smokers.

Respir Investig 2021 Apr 18. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Kyoto University, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan.

Background: The prevalence and clinical impacts of expiratory central airway collapse (ECAC) in smokers remain controversial. Although studies have shown associations of ECAC with airflow limitation and symptoms, others have shown that higher tracheal collapsibility is associated with lower expiratory-to-inspiratory ratio of lung volume (E/I-LV), but not airflow limitation. This study tested whether ECAC of the trachea and main bronchi could occur exclusively in smokers with lower E/I-LV and affect their symptoms independent of emphysema and intrapulmonary airway disease. Read More

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Genetic and non-genetic factors affecting the expression of COVID-19-relevant genes in the large airway epithelium.

Genome Med 2021 04 21;13(1):66. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Division of Allergy, Pulmonary, and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, USA.

Background: The large airway epithelial barrier provides one of the first lines of defense against respiratory viruses, including SARS-CoV-2 that causes COVID-19. Substantial inter-individual variability in individual disease courses is hypothesized to be partially mediated by the differential regulation of the genes that interact with the SARS-CoV-2 virus or are involved in the subsequent host response. Here, we comprehensively investigated non-genetic and genetic factors influencing COVID-19-relevant bronchial epithelial gene expression. Read More

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Determining Tracheobronchial Tree with Anatomical Dissection: 204 Cases.

Turk Thorac J 2021 Mar 1;22(2):124-129. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Department of Autopsy, Council of Forensic Medicine, Ministry of Justice, İstanbul, Turkey.

Objectives: There are various anatomic variations in the tracheobronchial system. The frequency in studies with bronchoscopy was contradictory. This study aimed to investigate the tracheobronchial tree of the deceased patients with anatomical dissection. Read More

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Plastic Bronchitis in a Five-Year-Old Boy Treated Using Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation; a Case Report.

Arch Acad Emerg Med 2021 27;9(1):e16. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Department of Emergency, Critical Care and Disaster Medicine, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama, Japan.

Plastic bronchitis is an uncommon disorder marked by the production of bronchial casts and acute respiratory failure development. In pediatric cases, influenza infection sometimes results in the obstruction of bronchi and leads to this potentially life-threatening condition. We report the case of a five-year-old boy with plastic bronchitis related to influenza A infection, which could only be recovered by the use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Read More

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January 2021

Construction of a Prognostic Immune-Related LncRNA Risk Model for Lung Adenocarcinoma.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 18;9:648806. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, China.

Background: Lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) originates mainly from the mucous epithelium and glandular epithelium of the bronchi. It is the most common pathologic subtype of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). At present, there is still a lack of clear criteria to predict the efficacy of immunotherapy. Read More

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Temporospatial characterization of the bronchus associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) of the one humped camel (Camelus dromedarius).

Trop Anim Health Prod 2021 Apr 17;53(2):265. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Histology and Cytology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Alexandria University, Alexandria, 21944, Egypt.

Background: Bronchial-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) is responsible for the local immune response of the lung against airborne infections. The structure of this tissue varies according to species and age.

Aim: The aim of this study was to describe the possible age-related structural variation of the BALT of the one humped camel. Read More

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Surgeon Knowledge of the Pulmonary Arterial System and Surgical Plan Confidence Is Improved by Interactive Virtual 3D-CT Models of Lung Cancer Patient Anatomies.

Front Surg 2021 29;8:652428. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, Guy's & St Thomas' Hospital, London, United Kingdom.

Interactive three-dimensional virtual models of pulmonary structures (3D-CT) may improve the safety and accuracy of robotic-assisted thoracic surgery (RATS). The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of 3D-CT models as an imaging adjunct on surgical confidence and anatomical assessment for lobectomy planning. We retrospectively analyzed the response of 10 specialist thoracic surgeons who each reviewed 10 pre-operative images of patients undergoing robotic-assisted lobectomy lung cancer cases from June to November 2018 in our institute, resulting in 100 data points. Read More

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Flecainide-induced QRS complex widening correlates with negative inotropy.

Heart Rhythm 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston Massachusetts; Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts. Electronic address:

Background: The negative inotropic effect of Class IC antiarrhythmic drugs limits their use for acute cardioversion of atrial fibrillation (AF).

Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine, in an intact porcine model, the effects of pulmonary and intravenous (IV) administration of flecainide on left ventricular (LV) contractility and QRS complex width at doses that are effective in converting new-onset AF to sinus rhythm.

Methods: Flecainide (1. Read More

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Asymptomatic left isomerism with preduodenal portal vein: computed tomography appearance.

Bruno Coulier

Surg Radiol Anat 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Clinique St Luc, Bouge, 5004, Namur, Belgium.

Left isomerism (polysplenia), one of the two major variants of heterotaxia with right isomerism (asplenia), may be rarely diagnosed in adulthood. Most cases are nevertheless asymptomatic and incidentally detected during imaging or surgery performed for unrelated conditions. We hereby report a case of left isomerism fortuitously diagnosed in a 55-year-old man with unrelated tachy-cardiomyopathy. Read More

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Type 2 bridging bronchus with left pulmonary artery sling.

Cardiol Young 2021 Apr 12:1-3. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Toronto Joint Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto General Hospital, Peter Munk Cardiac Centre, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.

Bridging bronchi are the rarest of the major airway anomalies reported in the literature. In this brief report, we present a case of a symptomatic adult male patient presenting with a type 2 bridging bronchus associated with left pulmonary artery sling. Read More

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Genome Scale-Differential Flux Analysis reveals deregulation of lung cell metabolism on SARS-CoV-2 infection.

PLoS Comput Biol 2021 04 9;17(4):e1008860. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

School of Energy Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, West Bengal, India.

The COVID-19 pandemic is posing an unprecedented threat to the whole world. In this regard, it is absolutely imperative to understand the mechanism of metabolic reprogramming of host human cells by SARS-CoV-2. A better understanding of the metabolic alterations would aid in design of better therapeutics to deal with COVID-19 pandemic. Read More

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Rev Port Cir Cardiotorac Vasc 2021 Apr 8;28(1):57-58. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Pulmonology Department, Hospital Garcia de Orta, EPE Almada, Portugal.

Foreign body (FB) aspiration in adults is usually associated with predisposing risk factors. Clinical manifestations are immediate but less frequently it could lead to insidious lung damage, as demonstrated by the presented case. We present a case of unsuspected FB aspiration, mimicking an infection vs lung tumour. Read More

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Customized self-expanding bare metal Y stents in the treatment of malignant carinal stenosis: a retrospective analysis.

Ann Palliat Med 2021 Mar 29. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Background: Self-expanding Y metal stent insertion is a safe and effective palliative method for malignant lesions involving the lower trachea, tracheal carina, and the main-stem bronchi. However, the length and degree of airway stenosis in different patients tend to vary, which leads to a call for a customized Y stent that could achieve a better treatment effect.

Methods: This retrospective analysis included patients who received customized self-expanding bare metallic Y stents for malignant carinal stenosis at Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University between January 2007 and June 2020. Read More

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[Successful Conservative Management of Bronchopleural Fistula after Intraoperative Bronchial Injury].

Kyobu Geka 2021 Mar;74(3):209-212

Department of Thoracic Surgery, Miyagi Cancer Center, Natori, Japan.

A 64-year-old woman diagnosed as primary lung cancer was admitted for surgery. Right lower lobectomy and ND2a-1 nodal dissection was performed under video-assisted thoracic surgery( VATS). The membranous portion of intermediate bronchus was injured about length of 5 mm while dissecting subcarinal lymph nodes. Read More

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The HILUS-Trial-a Prospective Nordic Multicenter Phase 2 Study of Ultracentral Lung Tumors Treated With Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy.

J Thorac Oncol 2021 Apr 3. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Department of Oncology-Pathology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Theme Cancer, Section of Head, Neck, Lung and Skin Tumours, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.

Introduction: Stereotactic body radiation therapy of thoracic tumors close to the central airways implies risk of severe toxicity. We report a prospective multicenter phase 2 trial for tumors located less than or equal to 1 cm from the proximal bronchial tree with primary end point of local control and secondary end point of toxicity.

Methods: Stereotactic body radiation therapy with 7 Gy × 8 was prescribed to the 67% isodose encompassing the planning target volume. Read More

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The application of virtual segmentectomy based on three-dimensional computed tomography and angiography in thoracoscopic segmentectomy for children and infants.

Pediatr Surg Int 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, The Children's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, National Clinical Research Center for Child Health, Hangzhou, 310052, Zhejiang, China.

Objectives: The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the efficacy of anatomic thoracoscopic pulmonary segmentectomy performed based on three-dimensional computed tomography bronchography and angiography (3D-CTBA) in children and infants.

Methods: Totally, 22 patients received thoracoscopic segmentectomy from October 2019 to February 2020. The procedures were performed virtual segmentectomy based on 3D-CTBA. Read More

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Dosimetric feasibility of stereotactic ablative radiotherapy in pulmonary vein isolation for atrial fibrillation using intensity-modulated proton therapy.

J Appl Clin Med Phys 2021 Apr 4. Epub 2021 Apr 4.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic Arizona, Phoenix, AZ, USA.

Purpose: To evaluate dosimetric properties of intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) for simulated treatment planning in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) targeting left atrial-pulmonary vein junction (LA-PVJ), in comparison with volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and helical tomotherapy (TOMO).

Methods: Ten thoracic 4D-CT scans with respiratory motion and one with cardiac motion were used for the study. Ten respiratory 4D-CTs were planned with VMAT, TOMO, and IMPT for simulated AF. Read More

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Customization of stent design for treating malignant airway stenosis with the aid of three-dimensional printing.

Quant Imaging Med Surg 2021 Apr;11(4):1437-1446

Department of Radiology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Background: The treatment of malignant stenosis involving the carina or bronchi is challenging due to complicated anatomy with individual variation, which makes it necessary to customize stents for each patient. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the feasibility of a novel metallic segmented airway stent customized with the aid of three-dimensional (3D) printing for such cases.

Methods: The stents were individually customized with the aid of a 3D printed mold based on computed tomography (CT) images according to the anatomical features of the airway. Read More

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Endobronchial Carcinoids: Surgical Outcome in 100 Consecutive Patients and Factors Affecting Lung Preservation.

Indian J Surg Oncol 2021 Mar 21;12(1):190-198. Epub 2020 Oct 21.

Centre for Chest Surgery, Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, New Delhi, 110060 India.

Bronchial carcinoids are slow-growing tumours of the neuroendocrine family. Most of them have a benign course with excellent outcome after complete resection. Due to their location in the primary bronchi, adequate resection with lung preservation requires considerable technical expertise. Read More

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Cryptococcosis in the Vocal Cords, Trachea, and Bronchi.

Intern Med 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Iizuka Hospital, Japan.

Laryngeal and endobronchial cryptococcosis are rare conditions, and to our knowledge, there have been only 23 cases of laryngeal cryptococcosis, and 18 cases of endobronchial cryptococcosis previously reported in the English literature. We herein report an extremely rare case of cryptococcosis with simultaneous laryngeal and endobronchial involvement. This case highlights the importance of paying close attention to possible occurrence of cryptococcosis of the airway tract in patients with asthma treated with high-dose inhaled corticosteroids. Read More

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Evaluation of bronchial narrowing in coughing dogs with heart murmurs using computed tomography.

J Vet Intern Med 2021 Apr 3. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Department of Veterinary Clinical Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois, USA.

Background: The origin of cough in dogs with heart murmurs is controversial, because the cough could be primary cardiac (eg, pulmonary edema, bronchi compression by left-sided cardiomegaly) or respiratory (eg, bronchomalacia, other bronchial or bronchiolar disease, interstitial lung disease) in origin.

Hypothesis/objectives: To study the association between left atrium (LA) dilatation and cardiomegaly and bronchial narrowing in coughing dogs with heart murmurs using computed tomography (CT).

Animals: Twenty-one client-owned coughing dogs with heart murmurs and 14 historical control dogs. Read More

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