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    A low initial botulinum toxin A treatment response does not predict poor long-term outcomes in patients with axillary bromhidrosis.
    J Dermatolog Treat 2017 May 31:1-3. Epub 2017 May 31.
    a Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery , Shanghai 9th People's Hospital, Shanghai JiaoTong University School of Medicine , Shanghai , P.R. China.
    Purpose: For patients with axillary bromhidrosis, it is not clear that whether a low response to initial botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) treatment is related to poor long-term outcomes.

    Patients And Methods: From August 2011 to March 2016, 31 patients with primary axillary bromhidrosis were recruited. They had the duration of efficacy for less than 4 weeks (median, 3 weeks; range, 1-3 weeks) after the first BTX-A injection (50 U per underarm) and were considered to have a low response to BTX-A treatment. Read More

    Microwave Treatment for Axillary Hyperhidrosis and Bromhidrosis.
    Actas Dermosifiliogr 2017 Jun 9;108(5):418-422. Epub 2017 Mar 9.
    Clínica Ruber y Clínica Dermatológica Internacional, Madrid, España.
    Axillary hyperhidrosis (AH) and bromhidrosis are common causes of consultation in dermatology. Currently, the most widely prescribed treatment for AH is botulinum toxin, a very effective but temporary option; it is totally ineffective in bromhidrosis. Sympathectomy is an increasingly infrequent choice of treatment due to the high incidence of compensatory hyperhidrosis. Read More

    A systematic review of microwave-based therapy for axillary hyperhidrosis.
    J Cosmet Laser Ther 2017 Mar 10:1-8. Epub 2017 Mar 10.
    b Department of Dermatology , Shuang Ho Hospital, Taipei Medical University , Taipei , Taiwan.
    Objective: To systematically analyse the literature on the use of the microwave-based device for subdermal thermolysis of the axilla and its efficacy for the treatment of axillary hyperhidrosis.

    Materials And Methods: A systematic review was conducted using PubMed, Embase, SCOPUS and Cochrane databases on 2 June 2016. The inclusion criteria including: (1) studies with human subjects, (2) full-text articles published in English, (3) a microwave-based device used to treat axillary hyperhidrosis and (4) trials that precisely evaluated axillary hyperhidrosis. Read More

    A refined surgical treatment modality for bromhidrosis: Subcutaneous scissor with micropore.
    Dermatol Ther 2017 May 6;30(3). Epub 2017 Mar 6.
    Department of Dermatology, Third People's Hospital of Hangzhou, Affiliated Third Hospital of Hangzhou, Anhui Medical University, Hangzhou Institute of Dermatology and Venereology, Hangzhou, China.
    Axillary bromhidrosis has a strong negative effect on one's social life. A high success rate and few complications are criteria for a surgical treatment. The objective of this study was to evaluate a new surgical treatment modality for bromhidrosis: subcutaneous scissor with micropore. Read More

    Following Changes in the Axillary Secretions of Two Patients Before and After Bromhidrosis Surgery Using Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry.
    Dermatol Surg 2017 Mar;43(3):459-462
    Department of Dermatology, Ho Wen Tsao Skin Clinic, New Taipei City, Taiwan National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Health Research Institutes, Zhunan, Miaoli, Taiwan Department of Dermatology, National Skin Centre, Singapore.

    Clinical and epidemiological features of coryneform skin infections at a tertiary hospital.
    Indian Dermatol Online J 2016 May-Jun;7(3):168-73
    Department of Dermatology, Father Muller Medical College, Mangalore, Karnataka, India.
    Background: Skin infections caused by coryneform bacteria are common dermatological conditions. However, to the best of our knowledge, no studies are available on the clinical characteristics and epidemiological features of this group of disorders as one entity from India and abroad.

    Aims: To study the clinical and epidemiological features of coryneform skin infections. Read More

    Treatment of axillary bromhidrosis through a mini-incision with subdermal vascular preservation: a retrospective study in 396 patients.
    Int J Dermatol 2016 Aug 21;55(8):919-25. Epub 2016 May 21.
    Department of Pharmacy, the First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.
    Background: Axillary bromhidrosis is a condition presenting as malodor caused by an interaction between the discharge of apocrine glands and bacteria. Topical agents, liposuction, and elective surgery are currently the main therapeutic modalities. However, the efficiency of these treatments and incidences of side effects are various and frequent, and depend on patient characteristics, surgical technique, and other unknown factors. Read More

    Hyperhidrosis, bromhidrosis, and chromhidrosis: Fold (intertriginous) dermatoses.
    Clin Dermatol 2015 Jul-Aug;33(4):483-91. Epub 2015 Apr 8.
    Tokuda Hospital, Sofia, Bulgaria.
    Human sweat glands disorders are common and can have a significant impact on the quality of life and on professional, social, and emotional burdens. It is of paramount importance to diagnose and treat them properly to ensure optimal patient care. Hyperhidrosis is characterized by increased sweat secretion, which can be idiopathic or secondary to other systemic conditions. Read More

    Excision of apocrine glands with preservation of axillary superficial fascia for the treatment of axillary bromhidrosis.
    Dermatol Surg 2015 May;41(5):640-4
    *Department of Dermatology, The Second Hospital of Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, China; †Department of Dermatology, General Hospital, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, China.
    Background: Axillary bromhidrosis is a distressing problem, which has a strong negative effect on one's social life.

    Objective: To evaluate the effects and complications of the surgical modality for the treatment of axillary bromhidrosis.

    Methods: One hundred fifteen patients with axillary bromhidrosis were treated. Read More

    A case of generalized bromhidrosis following whole-body depilatory laser.
    J Cosmet Laser Ther 2015 6;17(6):318-20. Epub 2015 Apr 6.
    a Department of Dermatology , Hotel Dieu de France University Hospital, Beirut, Lebanon and Faculty of Medicine, Saint Joseph University , Beirut , Lebanon.
    Background: Laser treatment is a widespread method for hair removal. Despite its very common use, side effects remain relatively rare and transient.

    Objective: Axillary hyperhidrosis and bromhidrosis have already been reported in the literature after depilatory lasers. Read More

    [Diseases treated by moxibustion and fire needling in clinical practice based on data mining: a comparison study].
    Zhongguo Zhen Jiu 2014 Nov;34(11):1093-7
    Objective: To discuss the specificity of diseases treated by moxibustion and fire needling in clinical practice, so as to provide references for clinical treatment.

    Methods: With data mining of modern computer technique, journal and literature databases regarding moxibustion and fire needling were established, respectively. Literature regarding moxibustion and fire needling for the past 60 years has been collected, screened, included, reviewed and abstracted. Read More

    A Minimally Invasive Procedure for Axillary Osmidrosis: Subcutaneous Curettage Combined with Trimming Through a Small Incision.
    Aesthetic Plast Surg 2015 Feb 5;39(1):106-13. Epub 2014 Dec 5.
    Department of Plastic Surgery, Wuhan Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College of Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430022, Hubei, People's Republic of China.
    Background: Though minimally invasive procedures often yield excellent esthetic results for axillary osmidrosis, the high recurrence rates of malodor limit its further application. Incomplete removal of the apocrine glands would lead to recurrence of the axillary bromhidrosis, while excessive resection of the apocrine glands firmly attached to the dermis would easily result in local skin necrosis. Therefore, accurate management of the apocrine glands is extraordinarily important, particularly with a limited access. Read More

    A Prospective, Long-Term Follow-Up Study of 1,444 nm Nd:YAG Laser: A New Modality for Treating Axillary Bromhidrosis.
    Ann Dermatol 2014 Apr 30;26(2):184-8. Epub 2014 Apr 30.
    Department of Dermatology, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
    Background: Surgery for bromhidrosis has a high risk of complications such as hematoma and necrosis. New nonsurgical methods may reduce the burden on surgery and the risks for the patient.

    Objective: This study was performed to evaluate the efficacy and side-effects of the 1,444 nm Nd:YAG interstitial laser for treating axillary bromhidrosis. Read More

    Endoscopic surgical treatment of bromhidrosis: a report of 18 consecutive patients from 2010 to 2013.
    J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A 2014 May 21;24(5):323-7. Epub 2014 Mar 21.
    1 Department of General Surgery, Wuxi People's Hospital , Wuxi, Jiangsu Province, China.
    Background: The current treatments available for bromhidrosis, such as subdermal excision of the apocrine glands, liposuction-curettage, and laser therapy, have certain drawbacks, for example, requirement of repeated treatments, high recurrence rate, and induration, pain, and scarring in the armpits. In this study we aimed to investigate the clinical efficacy and complications of endoscopic surgery for treatment of bromhidrosis.

    Patients And Methods: From August 2010 to June 2013, 18 patients (15 women and 3 men; mean age, 31 years old; age range, 19-40 years) with axillary bromhidrosis underwent endoscopic resection of the apocrine glands. Read More

    Subdermal Coagulation Treatment of Axillary Bromhidrosis by 1,444 nm Nd:YAG Laser: A Comparison with Surgical Treatment.
    Ann Dermatol 2014 Feb 17;26(1):99-102. Epub 2014 Feb 17.
    Department of Dermatology, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
    Bromhidrosis is a disease presenting as malodor caused by interaction between the discharge of apocrine glands and bacteria. The main therapeutic modalities are applying topical agents, liposuction surgery, and elective surgery. Among these, elective surgery is reported to be most effective. Read More

    Unnecessary surgical treatment in a case of olfactory reference syndrome.
    Gen Hosp Psychiatry 2013 Nov-Dec;35(6):683.e3-4. Epub 2013 Aug 28.
    Psychiatry Department, Complejo Asistencial de Palencia, 34 005 Palencia, Spain. Electronic address:
    We present a case of olfactory reference syndrome (ORS) with complaints of bromhidrosis. This patient underwent a lumbar sympathectomy to correct the imagined body odor problem. The patient reported experiencing an improvement after surgery, but later, the olfactory symptoms returned. Read More

    Reversibility of hyperhidrosis post axillary depilatory laser.
    Lasers Med Sci 2014 Mar 26;29(2):717-21. Epub 2013 Jul 26.
    Faculty of Medicine, Saint Joseph University, Achrafieh, Lebanon.
    Hyperhidrosis and bromhidrosis were lately reported as novel side effects of laser-assisted removal of axillary hair. The goal of our study was to evaluate the reversibility of these two side effects. An observational, single-center cohort study included over a 30-month screening period 30 patients with newly reported hyperhidrosis and/or bromhidrosis related to axillary depilatory laser. Read More

    Hyperhidrosis and bromhidrosis -- a guide to assessment and management.
    Aust Fam Physician 2013 May;42(5):266-9
    Department of Dermatology, Epworth Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
    Background: Hyperhidrosis and bromhidrosis are two common conditions, which are troublesome for patients and carry a significant psychosocial burden.

    Objective: This article details an approach to the assessment and management of hyperhidrosis and bromhidrosis, and outlines current treatment options.

    Discussion: Hyperhidrosis can be either generalised or focal. Read More

    Modified tumescent liposuction-curettage through mini incisions for the treatment of secondary axillary bromhidrosis with subcutaneous scarring.
    Plast Reconstr Surg 2012 Dec;130(6):916e-918e
    Department of Plastic Surgery, The First Affliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, People's Republic of China.

    Trichobacteriosis: case report and dermoscopic study.
    An Bras Dermatol 2012 Mar-Apr;87(2):315-6
    Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho, Botucatu, SP, Brazil.
    The authors report a case of axillary trichobacteriosis in a 16 year-old patient whose complaints were bromhidrosis and hyperhidrosis axillaris. Although it can be diagnosed clinically, dermoscopy may be useful in some cases and reveal remarkable academic images. Read More

    A close positive correlation between malodor and sweating as a marker for the treatment of axillary bromhidrosis with Botulinum toxin A.
    J Dermatolog Treat 2012 Dec 31;23(6):461-4. Epub 2011 Jul 31.
    Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Shanghai 9th People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, PR China.
    Background: Botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) has been demonstrated to be only effective for some types of axillary bromhidrosis. It is necessary to explore the indications for BTX-A application.

    Methods: Sixty-seven consecutive outpatients with axillary bromhidrosis were recruited after informed content. Read More

    Excision of apocrine glands and axillary superficial fascia as a single entity for the treatment of axillary bromhidrosis.
    J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2012 Jun 21;26(6):704-9. Epub 2011 Jun 21.
    Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Shanghai 9th People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.
    Background:   Surgical excision of apocrine glands is the effective treatment for axillary bromhidrosis. Skin necrosis, the most serious adverse result observed postoperatively, results in a prolonged wound healing and leads to unsightly scars in the axillary fossae. It is mainly caused by the skin damage during the operation and postoperative seroma or haematoma formation. Read More

    Treatment of bromhidrosis with a glycine-soja sterocomplex topical product.
    J Cosmet Dermatol 2011 Mar;10(1):74-7
    Hyperhidrosis clinic, Andreas Sygros Hospital, Athens, Greece.
    Aims: Bromhidrosis is a common problem with a severe negative impact on the patient's social and emotional life. The objective of this open-label study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a local product with the main active ingredient of glycine-soja sterocomplex in the treatment of local bromhidrosis.

    Patients/methods: Eighteen patients with axillary bromhidrosis and eight patients with bromhidrosis of the genital area were included. Read More

    Multiple Intranasal Foreign Bodies: An Incidental Diagnosis.
    Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2010 Sep-Dec;3(3):203-5. Epub 2010 Sep 15.
    Professor, Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Yenepoya Dental College, Derlakatte, Mangalore, Karnataka, India.
    Inquisitive children often insert foreign bodies into their nose or other body orifices while they explore their own bodies in early childhood. Intranasal foreign bodies are found in children, most commonly in 2-4 years olds. Common symptoms in such cases include pain or discomfort, nasal discharge, nasal congestion, nasal odor, including bromhidrosis (foul body odor). Read More

    Sweaty, smelly hands and feet.
    Aust Fam Physician 2009 Sep;38(9):666-9
    Skin and Cancer Foundation, Carlton, Victoria.
    Background: Palmoplantar hyperhidrosis, with or without offensive odour (bromhidrosis), can have a devastating effect on a patient's life. The condition usually begins in childhood or adolescence and can impact greatly on education, career choices and social development.

    Objective: This article describes the presentation, investigation and management options for palmoplantar hyperhidrosis. Read More

    Bromhidrosis induced by sphingomonas paucimobilis: a case report.
    Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol 2009 Jul-Sep;22(3):845-8
    Bromhidrosis is a clinical disorder characterized by excessive or abnormal foul axillary odour due to the interaction of apocrine glands with micro-organisms which causes a serious personal and social handicap for affected people. We present the case of a 50-year-old caucasian female with bromhidrosis. The patient referred that this symptom had begun two months previously. Read More

    [Novel adverse effects of laser-assisted axillary hair removal].
    Ann Dermatol Venereol 2009 Jun-Jul;136(6-7):495-500. Epub 2009 May 21.
    Département de dermatologie, université Saint-Joseph, Hôtel-Dieu de France, BP 166830 Achrafieh, Beyrouth, Liban.
    Background: Several adverse effects of depilatory laser may now be commonly expected in relation to skin type and anatomic location. We report and analyse unusual events in patients undergoing laser-assisted axillary hair removal, including hyperhidrosis, bromhidrosis and leukotrichia.

    Objective: The aim of this study was to examine a large patient population, assess the frequency of these adverse effects, and establish a correlation with different hair-removal laser protocols. Read More

    A refined surgical treatment modality for bromhidrosis: double w incision approach with tumescent technique.
    Dermatol Surg 2009 Aug 21;35(8):1258-62. Epub 2009 Jan 21.
    Department of Dermatology, First Hospital, Peking University, Beijing, China.
    Background: Axillary bromhidrosis has a strong negative effect on one's social life. A high success rate and few complications are criteria for an ideal treatment method.

    Objective: To evaluate a new surgical treatment modality for bromhidrosis: Double W incision with full-exposure excision under tumescent anesthesia. Read More

    Innervation and receptor profiles of the human apocrine (epitrichial) sweat gland: routes for intervention in bromhidrosis.
    Br J Dermatol 2008 Sep 15;159(3):653-60. Epub 2008 Jul 15.
    Department of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow G4 0BA, UK.
    Background: Human apocrine (epitrichial) sweat glands secrete in response to local or systemic administration of catecholamines and cholinergic agonists. As the process of secretion in human apocrine glands is not fully understood and no literature detailing the expression of adrenergic, cholinergic and purinergic receptors is available, there is a need to know the receptor types. Such data could provide new approaches for the treatment of axillary bromhidrosis. Read More

    Tumescent superficial liposuction with curettage for treatment of axillary bromhidrosis.
    J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2008 Jan;22(1):30-5
    Department of Dermatology, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Seo-gu, Busan, South Korea.
    Background: Axillary bromhidrosis is a common but unpleasant and distressing problem faced by many societies, particularly in Asia, where malodour is reflected as a social handicap. Currently, local surgery is the treatment of choice among various non-surgical and surgical treatment.

    Objectives: To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of tumescent superficial liposuction and curettage in treating axillary bromhidrosis. Read More

    Treatment of facial chromhidrosis with botulinum toxin type A.
    J Am Acad Dermatol 2005 Jan;52(1):89-91
    University of California School of Medicine, San Francisco, USA.
    Background: Hyperhidrosis is an idiopathic condition of exaggerated sweat production by the eccrine glands that affects approximately 1% of the population. There are many viable therapeutic options and the use of botulinum toxin has become an important treatment option and received FDA approval for this disorder in July 2004. The other forms of aberrant sweating; bromhidrosis (malodorous) and chromhidrosis (pigmented) are much rarer and more recalcitrant to treatment. Read More

    A case of foul genital odor treated with botulinum toxin A.
    Dermatol Surg 2004 Sep;30(9):1233-5
    Department of Dermatology, College of Medicine, Pusan National University, Busan, Korea.
    Background: Genital odor is an uncommon condition characterized by an offensive and malodorous smell in the genital area. Although the etiology of foul genital odor is multifactorial, an important cause is sweat secretion and decomposition of sweat components by bacteria. Different methods are effective in reducing body odor secondary to bromhidrosis. Read More

    [Do you have a good nose? Small lexicon of bromhidroses and other body odors].
    Rev Med Liege 1999 Dec;54(12):931-4
    Laboratoire adjoint, Université de Liège.
    Body odours have a semiological significance in dermatology and in internal medicine and pediatrics as well. Most of them are brought by the eccrine or apocrine sweat. The term bromhidrosis refers to such conditions. Read More

    [How I treat ... idiopathic hyperhidrosis].
    Rev Med Liege 1999 Nov;54(11):846-9
    Service de Dermatopathologie, Université de Liège.
    Palmo-plantar and/or axillary idiopathic hyperhidrosis is unpleasant and sometimes invalidating. Its malodorous variant which is due to biodegradation by bacterias is called bromhidrosis. According to the severity of the condition, several therapies exist including psychotherapy, various topical products, iontophoresis, botulinic toxin injections and thoracic sympathectomy. Read More

    Treatment of axillary bromhidrosis with superficial liposuction.
    Plast Reconstr Surg 1998 Oct;102(5):1479-85
    Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan.
    Axillary bromhidrosis or osmidrosis is a distressing problem that causes a serious personal and social handicap, especially in an Asian society. Surgical excision of the subcutaneous tissue, with or without skin excision in the axillary hair-bearing area, has been the treatment of choice for several decades. However, the complications of partial necrosis of wound edges or hematoma, and the possibility of the obvious unsightly scars, are always problems. Read More

    Histopathology of apocrine bromhidrosis.
    Plast Reconstr Surg 1996 Aug;98(2):288-92
    Department of Plastic Surgery, Inha General Hospital, Seoul, Korea.
    A histologic study of axillary skin taken from 20 Korean bromhidrosis patients and 10 normal Korean subjects without axillary odor was undertaken. Under light microscope, the skin specimens, stained with hematoxylin and eosin, were examined. Compared with the controls, the apocrine glands were numerous and the gland size large in the bromhidrosis skin. Read More

    Electrosurgery using insulated needles: treatment of axillary bromhidrosis and hyperhidrosis.
    J Dermatol Surg Oncol 1988 Jul;14(7):749-52
    Center of Dermatology and Plastic Surgery, Hamamatsu, Japan.
    This paper deals with operative techniques and clinical aspects of electrically treating axillary bromhidrosis and hyperhidrosis using insulated needles. Most patients were treated 5 or 6 times using 2 types of needles, one for electroelimination of sweat glands and the other mainly for epilation. The results for most patients were satisfactory, with scarring occurring only in the early developmental stages of the technique. Read More

    [Dermatoses caused by footwear made of synthetic material: the rubber-boot syndrome].
    Med Cutan Ibero Lat Am 1987 ;15(4):285-92
    Policlínico I. Carrasco, Argentina.
    One hundred patients, workers from a meat packing plant that wear rubber boots while working, were studied. Besides the well known allergic manifestations to rubber or other plastic materials used in footwear other pathologic findings included mycotic and bacterial lesions formed by plantar hyperhidrosis with the development of bromhidrosis and plantar xanthokeratoderma. These occupational dermatoses are a medical problem, but also have social and economical implications. Read More

    Regeneration of axillary hair and related phenomena after removal of deep dermal and subcutaneous tissue by a special "shaving" technique.
    J Dermatol Surg Oncol 1978 Dec;4(12):921-5
    A subcutaneous tissue "shaver" was used in the treatment of axillary bromhidrosis. Regeneration of axillary hair was observed postoperatively even if subcutaneous tissue and dermis were removed almost up to the level of sebaceous ducts. Hair regenerated more often in male patients whose sebaceous glands and follicular isthmus were designedly left intact than in female patients whose sebaceous glands were designedly removed completely. Read More

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