41,989 results match your criteria British journal of medical & surgical urology[Journal]


Pregnancy outcomes and postpartum relapse rates in women with RRMS treated with alemtuzumab in the phase 2 and 3 clinical development program over 16 years.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2020 May 6;43:102146. Epub 2020 May 6.

University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Background: Relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) is frequently diagnosed in women of reproductive age. Because the use of disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) early in the disease course is increasing, it is important to evaluate the safety of DMTs in pregnant women and their developing fetuses. Alemtuzumab, approved for the treatment of relapsing forms of MS, is administered as 2 courses of 12 mg/day on 5 consecutive days at baseline and on 3 consecutive days 12 months later. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msard.2020.102146DOI Listing

A baculoviral system for the production of human β-glucocerebrosidase enables atomic resolution analysis.

Acta Crystallogr D Struct Biol 2020 Jun 29;76(Pt 6):565-580. Epub 2020 May 29.

Department of Chemistry, York Structural Biology Laboratory, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD, United Kingdom.

The lysosomal glycoside hydrolase β-glucocerebrosidase (GBA; sometimes called GBA1 or GC) catalyses the hydrolysis of glycosphingolipids. Inherited deficiencies in GBA cause the lysosomal storage disorder Gaucher disease (GD). Consequently, GBA is of considerable medical interest, with continuous advances in the development of inhibitors, chaperones and activity-based probes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1107/S205979832000501XDOI Listing

Randomised controlled trial of multi-modular motion-assisted memory desensitisation and reconsolidation (3MDR) for male military veterans with treatment-resistant post-traumatic stress disorder.

Acta Psychiatr Scand 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Netherlands.

Objective: To explore the potential efficacy of multi-modular motion-assisted memory desensitisation and reprocessing (3MDR) in British military veterans with treatment-resistant, service-related PTSD.

Methods: Exploratory single-blind, randomised, parallel arm, cross-over controlled trial with nested process evaluation to assess fidelity, adherence and factors that influence outcome.

Results: 42 participants (all male) were randomised with 83% retention at 12 weeks and 86% at 26 weeks. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acps.13200DOI Listing

Weight Loss After Bariatric Surgery Significantly Improves Carotid and Cardiac Function in Apparently Healthy People with Morbid Obesity.

Obes Surg 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Brunel University London, Kingston Lane, Uxbridge, Middlesex, UB8 3PH, UK.

Purpose: Obesity clearly increases cardiovascular risk, often inducing high blood pressure (BP), impaired left ventricular (LV) function, and increased arterial stiffness. Intensive weight loss and bariatric surgery induce improvement in hypertension and diabetes for morbid obesity. Carotid artery haemodynamics is a powerful prognostic indicator for stroke and cognitive decline independent of BP. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11695-020-04686-yDOI Listing

Inflammation and salt in young adults: the African-PREDICT study.

Eur J Nutr 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Hypertension in Africa Research Team (HART), North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa.

Purpose: Low-grade inflammation and a diet high in salt are both established risk factors for cardiovascular disease. High potassium (K) intake was found to counter increase in blood pressure due to high salt intake and may potentially also have protective anti-inflammatory effects. To better understand these interactions under normal physiological conditions, we investigated the relationships between 22 inflammatory mediators with 24-h urinary K in young healthy adults stratified by low, medium and high salt intake (salt tertiles). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00394-020-02292-3DOI Listing

Sperm DNA damage causes genomic instability in early embryonic development.

Sci Adv 2020 Apr 15;6(16):eaaz7602. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

Center for Molecular Medicine and Oncode Institute, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht University, Universiteitsweg 100, Utrecht 3584 CG, Netherlands.

Genomic instability is common in human embryos, but the underlying causes are largely unknown. Here, we examined the consequences of sperm DNA damage on the embryonic genome by single-cell whole-genome sequencing of individual blastomeres from bovine embryos produced with sperm damaged by γ-radiation. Sperm DNA damage primarily leads to fragmentation of the paternal chromosomes followed by random distribution of the chromosomal fragments over the two sister cells in the first cell division. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aaz7602DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7159919PMC

RSPO3 impacts body fat distribution and regulates adipose cell biology in vitro.

Nat Commun 2020 Jun 3;11(1):2797. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Radcliffe Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX3 7LE, UK.

Fat distribution is an independent cardiometabolic risk factor. However, its molecular and cellular underpinnings remain obscure. Here we demonstrate that two independent GWAS signals at RSPO3, which are associated with increased body mass index-adjusted waist-to-hip ratio, act to specifically increase RSPO3 expression in subcutaneous adipocytes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-16592-zDOI Listing

Guidance for otolaryngology health care workers performing aerosol generating medical procedures during the COVID-19 pandemic.

J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2020 Jun 3;49(1):36. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

BC Rotary Hearing and Balance Centre at St. Paul's Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus responsible for Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has a predilection for infecting the mucosa of the upper and lower airways. Otolaryngologists and supporting health care workers (HCWs) are particularly at high risk of becoming infected while treating patients as many in-office procedures and surgeries are Aerosol Generating Medical Procedures (AGMP). Based on a review of the literature and various guidelines, recommendations are made to mitigate the risk to health care workers of becoming infected with SARS-CoV-2 while providing clinical care. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40463-020-00429-2DOI Listing

MAUDE: inferring expression changes in sorting-based CRISPR screens.

Genome Biol 2020 Jun 3;21(1):134. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Klarman Cell Observatory, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, 02142, USA.

Improved methods are needed to model CRISPR screen data for interrogation of genetic elements that alter reporter gene expression readout. We create MAUDE (Mean Alterations Using Discrete Expression) for quantifying the impact of guide RNAs on a target gene's expression in a pooled, sorting-based expression screen. MAUDE quantifies guide-level effects by modeling the distribution of cells across sorting expression bins. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13059-020-02046-8DOI Listing

Smart triage: triage and management of sepsis in children using the point-of-care Pediatric Rapid Sepsis Trigger (PRST) tool.

BMC Health Serv Res 2020 Jun 3;20(1):493. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Anesthesiology, Pharmacology & Therapeutics, University of British Columbia, 217-2176 Health Sciences Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z3, Canada.

Background: Sepsis is the leading cause of death and disability in children. Every hour of delay in treatment is associated with an escalating risk of morbidity and mortality. The burden of sepsis is greatest in low- and middle-income countries where timely treatment may not occur due to delays in diagnosis and prioritization of critically ill children. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12913-020-05344-wDOI Listing

Distinctions between sex and time in patterns of DNA methylation across puberty.

BMC Genomics 2020 Jun 3;21(1):389. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Psychology, Stanford University, 450 Jane Stanford Way, Stanford, CA, 94305, USA.

Background: There are significant sex differences in human physiology and disease; the genomic sources of these differences, however, are not well understood. During puberty, a drastic neuroendocrine shift signals physical changes resulting in robust sex differences in human physiology. Here, we explore how shifting patterns of DNA methylation may inform these pathways of biological plasticity during the pubertal transition. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12864-020-06789-3DOI Listing

Impact of Transcatheter Aortic Valve Durability on Life Expectancy in Low Risk Patients with Severe Aortic Stenosis.

Circulation 2020 Jun 4. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Division of Cardiac Surgery, Department of Surgery, Schulich Heart Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada; Institute of Health Policy, Management and Evaluation, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.

Recent clinical trial results showed that transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is non-inferior and may be superior to surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) for mortality, stroke, and rehospitalization. However, the impact of transcatheter valve durability remains uncertain. Discrete event simulation (DES) was used to model hypothetical scenarios of TAVR versus SAVR durability where TAVR failure times were varied to determine the impact of TAVR valve durability on life-expectancy in a cohort of low risk patients similar to those in recent trials. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.119.044559DOI Listing

Multiple Sequence Variants in STAC3 Affect Interactions with Ca1.1 and Excitation-Contraction Coupling.

Structure 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z3, Canada. Electronic address:

STAC3 is a soluble protein essential for skeletal muscle excitation-contraction (EC) coupling. Through its tandem SH3 domains, it interacts with the cytosolic II-III loop of the skeletal muscle voltage-gated calcium channel. STAC3 is the target for a mutation (W284S) that causes Native American myopathy, but multiple other sequence variants have been reported. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.str.2020.05.005DOI Listing

Mitochondrial ion channels as targets for cardioprotection.

J Cell Mol Med 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Padova, Padova, Italy.

Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and the heart failure (HF) that often result remain the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. As such, new therapeutic targets need to be discovered to protect the myocardium against acute ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in order to reduce myocardial infarct (MI) size, preserve left ventricular function and prevent the onset of HF. Mitochondrial dysfunction during acute I/R injury is a critical determinant of cell death following AMI, and therefore, ion channels in the inner mitochondrial membrane, which are known to influence cell death and survival, provide potential therapeutic targets for cardioprotection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcmm.15341DOI Listing

Evaluation of a Novel Protocol for Assessment and Treatment of Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome in Psychiatric Inpatients.

Am J Addict 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Psychiatry, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada.

Background And Objectives: Despite the high incidence of alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) in psychiatric inpatients, standardized methods for assessing and treating AWS have been studied only once before in this population. We evaluated a novel AWS assessment and treatment protocol designed for psychiatric inpatients.

Methods: This retrospective cohort study evaluated outcomes before and after implementation of the protocol. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ajad.13058DOI Listing

Impact of an Open Access Nationwide Treatment Model on Hepatitis C Virus Antiviral Drug Resistance.

Hepatol Commun 2020 Jun 6;4(6):904-915. Epub 2020 Apr 6.

Storr Liver Centre The Westmead Institute for Medical Research The University of Sydney and Westmead Hospital Sydney Australia.

Direct acting antivirals (DAAs) have revolutionized hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment, but drug resistance could undermine proposed global elimination targets. Real-world studies are needed to inform the impact of widespread DAA treatment on antiviral resistance in the community. The prevalence and range of posttreatment resistance-associated substitutions (RASs) was determined in Australian patients with open access to DAAs through a wide range of prescribers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep4.1496DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7262285PMC

Impact of Recurrence Score on type and duration of chemotherapy in breast cancer.

Curr Oncol 2020 Apr 1;27(2):e86-e92. Epub 2020 May 1.

Medical Oncology, BC.

Background: The use of Oncotype dx (Genomic Health, Redwood City, CA, U.S.A. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3747/co.27.5635DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7253753PMC

A catalyst for transforming health systems and person-centred care: Canadian national position statement on patient-reported outcomes.

Curr Oncol 2020 Apr 1;27(2):90-99. Epub 2020 May 1.

Alberta: Department of Oncology, University of Calgary, Calgary (Barbera, Bebb, Cheung); University of Calgary, Calgary (Crump, Temple); Departments of Surgery and Oncology, University of Calgary, Calgary (McKinnon); Department of Oncology, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary (Pink, Santana); University of Calgary and Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary (Robinson); Faculty of Nursing, University of Calgary, Calgary (Sinclair).

Background: Patient-reported outcomes (pros) are essential to capture the patient's perspective and to influence care. Although pros and pro measures are known to have many important benefits, they are not consistently being used and there is there no Canadian pros oversight. The Position Statement presented here is the first step toward supporting the implementation of pros in the Canadian health care setting. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3747/co.27.6399DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7253746PMC

Impact of COVID-19 on Canadian medical oncologists and cancer care: Canadian Association of Medical Oncologists survey report.

Curr Oncol 2020 04 1;27(2):71-74. Epub 2020 May 1.

Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS.

Background: The covid-19 pandemic has presented unprecedented professional and personal challenges for the oncology community. Under the auspices of the Canadian Association of Medical Oncologists, we conducted an online national survey to better understand the impact of the pandemic on the medical oncology community in Canada.

Methods: An English-language multiple-choice survey, including questions about demographics, covid-19 risk, use of personal protective equipment (ppe), personal challenges, and chemotherapy management was distributed to Canadian medical oncologists. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3747/co.27.6643DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7253737PMC

Surgical cancellation rates due to peri-operative hypertension: implementation of multidisciplinary guidelines across primary and secondary care.

Anaesthesia 2020 Jun 2. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London, UK.

Patients with uncontrolled hypertension are at increased risk of complications during general anaesthesia but the number of patients whose surgery is delayed or cancelled due to hypertension remains unknown. Prospective, regional multicentre service evaluations were performed on consecutive patients undergoing elective surgery before and after the publication of new guidelines from the Association of Anaesthetists and the British Hypertensive Society. The aim was to quantify the number of operations cancelled due to hypertension alone and to assess impact of the guidelines on cancellation rates. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/anae.15084DOI Listing

Trehalose Inhibits Aβ Generation and Plaque Formation in Alzheimer's Disease.

Mol Neurobiol 2020 Jun 2. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Chongqing City Key Lab of Translational Medical Research in Cognitive Development and Learning and Memory Disorders, Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease, and there has been no disease-modifying treatment for AD. Recent studies suggest that trehalose may have beneficial effect on neurodegenerative diseases through regulating autophagy and facilitating aggregated protein clearance. However, the effects of trehalose on AD-related neuropathologies are still unknown. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-020-01942-1DOI Listing

The Human Leukocyte Antigen Locus and Rheumatic Heart Disease Susceptibility in South Asians and Europeans.

Sci Rep 2020 Jun 2;10(1):9004. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

The Wellcome Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, Oxfordshire, OX3 7BN, UK.

Rheumatic heart disease (RHD), an autoinflammatory heart disease, was recently declared a global health priority by the World Health Organization. Here we report a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of RHD susceptibility in 1,163 South Asians (672 cases; 491 controls) recruited in India and Fiji. We analysed directly obtained and imputed genotypes, and followed-up associated loci in 1,459 Europeans (150 cases; 1,309 controls) from the UK Biobank study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-65855-8DOI Listing

Evaluating the ASTHMAXcel Mobile Application Regarding Asthma Knowledge and Clinical Outcomes.

Respir Care 2020 Jun 2. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, New York.

Background: We sought to longitudinally assess the efficacy of the patient-facing ASTHMAXcel mobile application in improving asthma knowledge and outcomes in adults with asthma.

Methods: ASTHMAXcel is a novel smartphone application consistent with the National Asthma Education and Prevention Program, Global Initiative for Asthma, and British Thoracic Society/Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network guidelines. The intervention was provided for 1-time use at baseline only. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4187/respcare.07550DOI Listing

Master Sculptor at Work: Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Infection Uniquely Modifies Mitochondrial Proteolysis during Its Control of Human Cell Death.

mSystems 2020 Jun 2;5(3). Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Department of Microbiology & Immunology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada

Enteropathogenic (EPEC) causes severe diarrheal disease and is present globally. EPEC virulence requires a bacterial type III secretion system to inject >20 effector proteins into human intestinal cells. Three effectors travel to mitochondria and modulate apoptosis; however, the mechanisms by which effectors control apoptosis from within mitochondria are unknown. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mSystems.00283-20DOI Listing

Ionoregulatory aspects of the hypoxia-induced osmorespiratory compromise in the euryhaline Atlantic killifish (): the effects of salinity.

J Exp Biol 2020 Jun 2. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Department of Zoology, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z4, Canada.

The osmorespiratory compromise is a physiological trade-off between the characteristics of the gill that promote respiratory gas-exchange and those that limit passive fluxes of ions and water with the environment. In hypoxia, changes in gill blood flow patterns and functional surface area that increase gas transfer can promote an exacerbation in ion and water fluxes. Our goal was to determine whether the osmorespiratory compromise is flexible, depending on environmental salinity (fresh, isosmotic and sea water) and oxygen levels (hypoxia) in euryhaline killifish, Plasma ion concentrations were minimally affected by hypoxia, indicating a maintenance of osmoregulatory homeostasis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jeb.216309DOI Listing

The effect of a dementia awareness class on changing dementia attitudes in adolescents.

BMC Geriatr 2020 Jun 2;20(1):188. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Faculty of Health, University of Plymouth, Plymouth, UK.

Background: Current evidence suggests that negative and stigmatising attitudes towards dementia may develop at a young age. There are a number of dementia education and awareness initiatives aimed at reducing stigma, though they have not been robustly evaluated to establish the impact on dementia attitudes or suitability in adolescent populations. This study explored the efficacy and satisfaction of one such initiative (Dementia Friends) in a British adolescent sample. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12877-020-01589-6DOI Listing

Feasibility of the Oberlin Procedure in Late Presentation Cases of C5-C6 and C5-C7 Brachial Plexus Injuries in Adults.

Hand (N Y) 2020 Jun 2:1558944720918325. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Hand Surgery and Microsurgery Group, Faculdade de Medicina do ABC, Santo Ándre, Brazil.

Oberlin et al presented a new technique for nerve transfer that completely changed the prognosis of patients with brachial plexus injury. Currently, most of the literature addresses cases submitted to early surgical intervention, before 12 months from injury, showing consistent good results. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of the Oberlin procedure in late presentation cases (≥12 months), comparing the elbow flexion strength with patients operated earlier. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1558944720918325DOI Listing

Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy for the Comprehensive Treatment of Oligometastatic Cancers: Long-Term Results of the SABR-COMET Phase II Randomized Trial.

J Clin Oncol 2020 Jun 2:JCO2000818. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Amsterdam University Medical Center, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Purpose: The oligometastatic paradigm hypothesizes that patients with a limited number of metastases may achieve long-term disease control, or even cure, if all sites of disease can be ablated. However, long-term randomized data that test this paradigm are lacking.

Methods: We enrolled patients with a controlled primary malignancy and 1-5 metastatic lesions, with all metastases amenable to stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.20.00818DOI Listing

Expanding the Phenotype of Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration With FUS-Positive Pathology (FTLD-FUS).

J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 2020 Jun 1. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of British Columbia (VH-R, IRM), Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

Atypical frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin-positive inclusions (aFTLD-U) is an uncommon cause of frontotemporal dementia characterized by fused in sarcoma-positive inclusions. It is classified as a subtype of frontotemporal lobar degeneration with FUS pathology. Cases with aFTLD-U pathology typically display an early onset of symptoms and severe psychobehavioral changes in the absence of significant aphasia, cognitive-intellectual dysfunction or motor features. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnen/nlaa045DOI Listing

Duty to treat: where do the limits lie?

BMJ 2020 Jun 1;369:m2150. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

British Medical Association, London.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m2150DOI Listing

Radiological diagnostic accuracy study comparing Lenke, Bridwell, BSF, and CT-HU fusion grading scales for minimally invasive lumbar interbody fusion spine surgery and its correlation to clinical outcome.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2020 May;99(21):e19979

Neurosurgeon and Minimally Invasive Spine Surgeon of The American-British Cowdray Medical Center IAP. Campus Santa Fe Neurosurgeon of the Regional General Hospital #25, Mexican Institute of Social Security (HGR#25, IMSS).

Prospective randomized double-blinded diagnostic accuracy study about radiological grading of fusion after minimally invasive lumbar interbody fusion procedures (MI-LIFP).To determinate the intra and the inter-observer correlation between different radiological lumbar interbody fusion grading scales (RLIFGS) in patients undergoing MI-LIFP and their correlation to clinical outcome.Besides technological improvements in medical diagnosis and the many existing RLIFGS, surgical exploration continues to be the gold-standard to assess fusion in patients with radiological pseudarthrosis, with little if any research on the relationship between RLIFGS and clinical outcome. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000019979DOI Listing

Whole blood transcriptional responses of very preterm infants during late-onset sepsis.

PLoS One 2020 1;15(6):e0233841. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Medical, Molecular and Forensic Sciences, Murdoch University, Perth, WA, Australia.

Background: Host immune responses during late-onset sepsis (LOS) in very preterm infants are poorly characterised due to a complex and dynamic pathophysiology and challenges in working with small available blood volumes. We present here an unbiased transcriptomic analysis of whole peripheral blood from very preterm infants at the time of LOS.

Methods: RNA-Seq was performed on peripheral blood samples (6-29 days postnatal age) taken at the time of suspected LOS from very preterm infants <30 weeks gestational age. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0233841PLOS

Views and experiences of decision-makers on organizational safety culture and medication errors.

Int J Clin Pract 2020 Jun 1:e13560. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Women's Wellness and Research Center, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar.

Background: In 2017, the World Health Organization published 'Medication Without Harm, WHO Global Patient Safety Challenge', to reduce patient harm caused by unsafe medication use practices. While the five objectives emphasize the need to create a framework for action, engaging key stakeholders and others, most published research has focused on the perspectives of health professionals. The aim was to explore the views and experiences of decision-makers in Qatar on organizational safety culture, medication errors and error reporting. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ijcp.13560DOI Listing

T reg-specific insulin receptor deletion prevents diet-induced and age-associated metabolic syndrome.

J Exp Med 2020 Aug;217(8)

Department of Surgery, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.

Adipose tissue (AT) regulatory T cells (T regs) control inflammation and metabolism. Diet-induced obesity causes hyperinsulinemia and diminishes visceral AT (VAT) T reg number and function, but whether these two phenomena were mechanistically linked was unknown. Using a T reg-specific insulin receptor (Insr) deletion model, we found that diet-induced T reg dysfunction is driven by T reg-intrinsic insulin signaling. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1084/jem.20191542DOI Listing

A Consensus Statement on the Surgical Treatment of Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease.

Foot Ankle Int 2020 Jun 1:1071100720922220. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Background: Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease is a hereditary motor-sensory neuropathy that is often associated with a cavovarus foot deformity. Limited evidence exists for the orthopedic management of these patients. Our goal was to develop consensus guidelines based upon the clinical experiences and practices of an expert group of foot and ankle surgeons. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1071100720922220DOI Listing

The Stanford Hall consensus statement for post-COVID-19 rehabilitation.

Br J Sports Med 2020 May 31. Epub 2020 May 31.

Defence Medical Rehabilitation Centre, Stanford Hall, Loughborough, United Kingdom.

The highly infectious and pathogenic novel coronavirus (CoV), severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV-2, has emerged causing a global pandemic. Although COVID-19 predominantly affects the respiratory system, evidence indicates a multisystem disease which is frequently severe and often results in death. Long-term sequelae of COVID-19 are unknown, but evidence from previous CoV outbreaks demonstrates impaired pulmonary and physical function, reduced quality of life and emotional distress. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2020-102596DOI Listing

Efficacy of teriparatide compared with risedronate on FRAX-defined major osteoporotic fractures: results of the VERO clinical trial.

Osteoporos Int 2020 May 30. Epub 2020 May 30.

Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

FRAX calculates the 10-year probability of major osteoporotic fractures (MOF), which are considered to have a greater clinical impact than other fractures. Our results suggest that, in postmenopausal women with severe osteoporosis, those treated with teriparatide had a 60% lower risk of FRAX-defined MOF compared with those treated with risedronate.

Introduction: The VERO trial was an active-controlled fracture endpoint clinical trial that enrolled postmenopausal women with severe osteoporosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00198-020-05463-4DOI Listing

Epidemiology of UK Military Exercise SAIF SAREEA 3: future planning for hot climates.

BMJ Mil Health 2020 May 30. Epub 2020 May 30.

5 Armoured Medical Regiment, British Army, Catterick, UK

Introduction: Epidemiological data captured from military exercises and operations can highlight treatment requirements specific to operating in certain environmental conditions. Such data is invaluable to enable accurate planning for future exercises. Epidemiological data were collected during Exercise SAIF SAREEA 3 (SS3) to provide an insight into medical provision requirements for low-tempo military operations in hot, desert climates. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjmilitary-2019-001360DOI Listing

Managing mental health on a prolonged deployment: UK military exercise SAIF SAREEA 3.

BMJ Mil Health 2020 May 30. Epub 2020 May 30.

5 Armoured Medical Regiment, British Army, Catterick Garrison, UK

Introduction: This paper presents the burden of mental health cases throughout UK military exercise SAIF SAREEA 3 (SS3), a low-tempo armoured brigade exercise in Oman from June to November 2018, and aims to discuss ways that mental health may be better managed on future large exercises.

Methods: A retrospective review of all attendances at army medical facilities and relevant computerised medical records was undertaken.

Results: 14 mental health cases were identified, which required 51 follow-up presentations throughout the duration of SS3. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjmilitary-2019-001355DOI Listing

Command application of UK military climatic guidance on Exercise SAIF SAREEA 3.

Authors:
M B Smith S White

BMJ Mil Health 2020 May 30. Epub 2020 May 30.

Department of Military Medicine, Royal Centre for Defence Medicine, Queen Elizabeth Hospital Birmingham, Birmingham, UK.

Health and risk management of personnel in hot climates remains a Commander's responsibility, with Joint Service Publication 539 Heat Illness and Cold Injury: Prevention and Management (JSP 539) being the guiding document for the UK military. This policy can be challenging to interpret occasionally, needing medical professionals to provide ongoing advice to commanders. This is to achieve a shared understanding of scientific concepts and risks to allow a more informed decision-making by commanders. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjmilitary-2019-001358DOI Listing

Historical database cohort study addressing the clinical patterns prior to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) diagnosis in UK primary care.

BMJ Open 2020 May 30;10(5):e034428. Epub 2020 May 30.

Observational and Pragmatic Research Institute Pte Ltd, Singapore

Objective: To explore the clinical pathways, including signs and symptoms, and symptom progression patterns preceding idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) diagnosis.

Design And Setting: A historical cohort study was conducted using primary care patient records from the Optimum Patient Care Research Database.

Participants: Patients included were at least 30 years, had IPF diagnosis, identified via clinical-coding and free-text records and had a consultation with a chest specialist prior to IPF diagnosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2019-034428DOI Listing

Driving Restrictions and Early Arrhythmias in Patients Receiving a Primary Prevention Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator (DREAM-ICD study).

Can J Cardiol 2020 May 28. Epub 2020 May 28.

Heart Rhythm Services, Division of Cardiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: Current guidelines recommend 4 weeks of private driving restriction after implantation of a primary prevention implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD). These driving restrictions result in significant inconvenience and social implications. Advances in medical treatment and ICD programming have lowered the overall rate of device therapies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cjca.2020.05.029DOI Listing

Regional variability in Canadian routine care of type 2 diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertension: Results from the The Cardio-Vascular and metabolic treatments in Canada: Assessment of REal-life therapeutic value (CV-CARE) registry.

J Cardiol 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

Bausch Health, Laval, QC, Canada.

Background: Regional differences in the profile and treatment strategies of patients with cardiometabolic diseases have been studied in several different countries. The Cardio-Vascular and metabolic treatments in Canada: Assessment of REal-life therapeutic value (CV-CARE) registry was designed to evaluate patient profiles and medical management of cardiometabolic diseases in routine clinical care settings across Canada. Primary objectives were to (1) evaluate regional variability of patient profiles with cardiometabolic disease(s) and (2) assess treatment differences of patients treated for type 2 diabetes (T2D), hypercholesterolemia (HCh), and hypertension (HTN) across Canada. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jjcc.2020.04.008DOI Listing

Prognostic gene expression signature for high-grade serous ovarian cancer.

Ann Oncol 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

School of Women's and Children's Health, Faculty of Medicine. University of NSW Sydney. Sydney, New South Wales: Australia; 2052; Adult Cancer Program, Lowy Cancer Research Centre. University of NSW Sydney. Sydney, New South Wales: Australia; 2052. Electronic address:

Background: Median overall survival (OS) for women with high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) is approximately four years, yet survival varies widely between patients. There are no well-established, gene expression signatures associated with prognosis. The aim of this study was to develop a robust prognostic signature for overall survival in HGSOC patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.annonc.2020.05.019DOI Listing

Alternatives to amyloid for Alzheimer's disease therapies-a symposium report.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2020 May 29. Epub 2020 May 29.

Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

For decades, Alzheimer's disease research has focused on amyloid as the primary pathogenic agent. This focus has driven the development of numerous amyloid-targeting therapies; however, with one possible exception, none of these therapies have been effective in preventing or delaying cognitive decline in patients, and there are no approved disease-modifying agents. It is becoming more apparent that alternative drug targets are needed to address this complex disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nyas.14371DOI Listing

Ethics briefing.

J Med Ethics 2020 Jun;46(6):397-398

Medical Ethics, British Medical Association, London, UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/medethics-2020-106338DOI Listing

'[Her] hostess … is anxious to have her back when she is cured': The impact of the evacuation of children on wartime local services, England, 1939-1945.

Authors:
Jonathan Taylor

Med Humanit 2020 May 29. Epub 2020 May 29.

Faculty of History, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK

World War II had a profound, but uneven, impact on the delivery of services designed to support the bodies and minds of English children. This article, which is based on a study of a rural local authority located in North-West England, explores the influence of World War II on children's welfare services. Drawing on detailed case files relating to individual children and reports published by local and national policy makers, the article advances three related arguments which together nuance existing understandings of the conflict and its longer-term consequences. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/medhum-2019-011784DOI Listing

Physical capability markers used to define sarcopenia and their association with cardiovascular and respiratory outcomes and all-cause mortality: A prospective study from UK Biobank.

Maturitas 2020 May 5. Epub 2020 May 5.

Institute of Health and Wellbeing, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK; British Heart Foundation Glasgow Cardiovascular Research Centre, Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK; Centre of Exercise Physiology Research (CIFE), Universidad Mayor, Chile; Research Group in Education, Physical Activity and Health (GEEAFyS), Universidad Católica del Maule, Talca, Chile. Electronic address:

Introduction: It is unclear what combinations of physical capability markers used to define sarcopenia have the strongest associations with health outcomes.

Aim: To compare the associations between different combinations of physical capability markers of sarcopenia with cardiovascular and respiratory outcomes and all-cause mortality.

Study Design: 469,830 UK Biobank participants were included in this prospective study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.maturitas.2020.04.017DOI Listing

Are We Ready for NGS HIV Drug Resistance Testing? The Second "Winnipeg Consensus" Symposium.

Viruses 2020 May 27;12(6). Epub 2020 May 27.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Brown University Alpert Medical School, Providence, RI 02906, USA.

HIV drug resistance is a major global challenge to successful and sustainable antiretroviral therapy. Next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) assays enable more sensitive and quantitative detection of drug-resistance-associated mutations (DRMs) and outperform Sanger sequencing approaches in detecting lower abundance resistance mutations. While NGS is likely to become the new standard for routine HIVDR testing, many technical and knowledge gaps remain to be resolved before its generalized adoption in regular clinical care, public health, and research. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v12060586DOI Listing

Incidence, predictors and outcomes of valve-in-valve TAVI: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Int J Cardiol 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

Division of Cardiology, Cardiovascular and Thoracic Department, Città della Salute e della Scienza Hospital and University of Turin, Italy.

Aims: Surgical aortic valve replacement has been the treatment of choice for patients with aortic valve disease before the arrival of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVI), although limited by degeneration of the bioprosthesis. "Redo" intervention itself is burdened by high risk of complications and valve-in-valve (ViV) TAVI could be a valid strategy of redo for patients with comorbidities.

Methods And Results: Two independent reviewers screened all studies investigating patients undergoing ViV TAVI. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2020.05.058DOI Listing