147,794 results match your criteria British Politics[Journal]


Depression in Neurodegenerative Diseases: Common Mechanisms and Current Treatment Options.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2019 Apr 14. Epub 2019 Apr 14.

Island Medical Program, University of British Columbia, Victoria, BC, Canada; Division of Medical Sciences, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, Canada. Electronic address:

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a highly prevalent psychiatric disorder and a major cause of disability worldwide. This neurological condition is commonly associated with neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's Disease (AD), Parkinson's Disease (PD) and Huntington's Disease (HD), and has a significant impact on the increasing burden of these neuropathologies. Over the past decades, some of the pathophysiological and molecular mechanisms that contribute to these diseases have been elucidated and these findings indicate that, despite presenting distinct features, there are several similarities between the neurobiological alterations that lead to MDD and neurodegeneration in AD, PD and HD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2019.04.002DOI Listing

Evolutionary history of burrowing asps (Lamprophiidae: Atractaspidinae) with emphasis on fang evolution and prey selection.

PLoS One 2019 17;14(4):e0214889. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas, United States of America.

Atractaspidines are poorly studied, fossorial snakes that are found throughout Africa and western Asia, including the Middle East. We employed concatenated gene-tree analyses and divergence dating approaches to investigate evolutionary relationships and biogeographic patterns of atractaspidines with a multi-locus data set consisting of three mitochondrial (16S, cyt b, and ND4) and two nuclear genes (c-mos and RAG1). We sampled 91 individuals from both atractaspidine genera (Atractaspis and Homoroselaps). Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0214889PLOS
April 2019
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Screen-time is associated with inattention problems in preschoolers: Results from the CHILD birth cohort study.

PLoS One 2019 17;14(4):e0213995. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.

Background: Pre-school children spend an average of two-hours daily using screens. We examined associations between screen-time on pre-school behavior using data from the Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) study.

Methods: CHILD participant parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) at five-years of age. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0213995PLOS

Visual cortex neurons phase-lock selectively to subsets of LFP oscillations.

J Neurophysiol 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Biology II, LMU Munich, Germany.

It is generally thought that apart from receptive field differences, such as preferred orientation and spatial frequency selectivity, primary visual cortex neurons are functionally similar to each other. However the genetic diversity of cortical neurons plus the existence of inputs additional to those required to explain known receptive field properties, might suggest otherwise. Here we report the existence of desynchronised states in anesthetised cat area 17 lasting up to 45 minutes, characterised by variable narrow-band local field potential (LFP) oscillations in the range 2 - 100 Hz and the absence of a synchronised 1/f frequency spectrum. Read More

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https://www.physiology.org/doi/10.1152/jn.00496.2018
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00496.2018DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Digest.

J Sport Exerc Psychol 2019 Apr 17:1-5. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

10 California State University-Fullerton.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/jsep.2019-0031DOI Listing

Identification of Group 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells in Mouse Lung, Liver, Small Intestine, Bone Marrow, and Mediastinal and Mesenteric Lymph Nodes.

Curr Protoc Immunol 2019 Apr 17:e73. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a heterogeneous family of lymphocytes that populate barrier and non-barrier tissues. ILCs regulate immune responses to pathogens and commensals but also sustain metabolic homeostasis, tissue remodeling after injury and establish dialogue with the nervous system. ILCs rapidly become activated in the absence of adaptive antigen receptors by responding to signaling molecules provided by hematopoietic or non-hematopoietic cells. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/cpim.73
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cpim.73DOI Listing
April 2019
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Fabella prevalence rate increases over 150 years, and rates of other sesamoid bones remain constant: a systematic review.

J Anat 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Bioengineering, Imperial College London, London, UK.

The fabella is a sesamoid bone located behind the lateral femoral condyle. It is common in non-human mammals, but the prevalence rates in humans vary from 3 to 87%. Here, we calculate the prevalence of the fabella in a Korean population and investigate possible temporal shifts in prevalence rate. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/joa.12994DOI Listing

H-index and Academic Medicine.

Am J Clin Pathol 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Biomedical Branch Library University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcp/aqz037DOI Listing

β-Lactam Allergy in the Operating Theater: Comment.

Anesthesiology 2019 May;130(5):853-854

University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada (A.T.M.).

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0000000000002688DOI Listing

EWSR1-NFATC2 Translocation-associated Sarcoma Clinicopathologic Findings in a Rare Aggressive Primary Bone or Soft Tissue Tumor.

Am J Surg Pathol 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Departments of Pathology.

In recent years, a novel small round cell sarcoma harboring EWSR1-NFATC2 translocation with immunomorphologic overlap with Ewing sarcoma (ES), myoepithelial tumors, and extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma has emerged. There has not been a case series devoted to describing its detailed clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical characteristics. Six sarcomas harboring EWSR1-NFATC2 fusion transcripts by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and amplification of the fusion gene by fluorescence in situ hybridization were identified. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAS.0000000000001260DOI Listing

On Histologic Variability of HPV-associated Endocervical Adenocarcinomas.

Am J Surg Pathol 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Pathology, University of British Columbia, Royal Columbian Hospital, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAS.0000000000001259DOI Listing

Children under 10 years of age were more affected by the 2018/19 influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 epidemic in Canada: ‎possible cohort effect following the 2009 influenza pandemic.

Euro Surveill 2019 Apr;24(15)

University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.

IntroductionFindings from the community-based Canadian Sentinel Practitioner Surveillance Network (SPSN) suggest children were more affected by the 2018/19 influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 epidemic.AimTo compare the age distribution of A(H1N1)pdm09 cases in 2018/19 to prior seasonal influenza epidemics in Canada.MethodsThe age distribution of unvaccinated influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 cases and test-negative controls were compared across A(H1N1)pdm09-dominant epidemics in 2018/19, 2015/16 and 2013/14 and with the general population of SPSN provinces. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2019.24.15.1900104DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Medical Information Commons to Support Learning Healthcare Systems: Examples From Canada.

J Law Med Ethics 2019 Mar;47(1):97-105

Tania Bubela, Ph.D., J.D., F.C.A.H.S., is an expert in health and intellectual property law and policy, combining her training in genetics (Ph.D. Biology, University of Sydney) and law (Gold medalist, University of Alberta). She is the Dean of Faculty of Health Sciences at Simon Fraser University (Burnaby, British Columbia), developing sector-leading policies, processes, practices, and infrastructure to support excellence in interdisciplinary education, research, and engagement that will improve health, health equity, and well-being. Shelagh K. Genuis, Ph.D., is the project manager for the Genome Canada's Precision Medicine Policy Network, based in the Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry at the University of Alberta, Alberta. Naveed Z. Janjua, M.D., Ph.D., is a Senior Scientist at the BC Centre for Disease Control and Clinical Associate Professor at School of Population and Public Health, University of British Columbia. Mel Krajden, M.D., F.R.C.P.C., is the Director of BC's Public Health Laboratory and the Medical Head, Hepatitis at the British Columbia Centre for Disease Control. He is also a Professor of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine at the University of British Columbia. He has extensive clinical trials expertise and is a Co-investigator/Mentor on the CIHR funded National Research Training Program (CanHepC). Nicole Mittmann, Ph.D., is the Chief Research Officer at CCO. She is an Assistant Professor at the University of Toronto in the Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology and an Associate Scientist at Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre. Katerina Podolak is the Group Manager for Data Acquisition and Disclosure at Cancer Care Ontario, working with data partners to bring data into CCO, and health system partners who want access to CCO data. Katerina has extensive experience with information management in the hospital setting, as well as Ontario's Ministry of Health and Long-term Care. Larry Svenson, Ph.D., F.R.S.P.H., is the Provincial Health Analytics Officer and Executive Director for Analytics and Performance Reporting at Alberta Health. He is also an Associate Professor with the Division of Preventive Medicine at the University of Alberta and an Adjunct Professor with the School of Public Health at the University of Alberta and the Cumming School of Medicine at the University of Calgary.

We explore how principles predicting the success of a medical information commons (MIC) advantaged or disadvantaged three MIC initiatives in three Canadian provinces. Our MIC case examples demonstrate that practices and policies to promote access to and use of health information can help improve individual healthcare and inform a learning health system. MICs were constrained by heterogenous health information protection laws across jurisdictions and risk-averse institutional cultures. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1073110519840488DOI Listing

Public involvement in designing a study on patient-witnessed cardiopulmonary resuscitation in hospital.

Nurs Crit Care 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

School of Nursing and Midwifery, Faculty of Health and Human Sciences, University of Plymouth, Plymouth, UK.

The aim of this paper is to report the findings of the consultation rounds with former patients and health care professionals to inform the design of a qualitative study. We aimed to understand stakeholders' views regarding the relevance of a proposed study looking at the impact of patients witnessing cardiopulmonary resuscitation on other patients in hospital, the appropriateness of the proposed methodology and ethical aspects. We conducted an online survey (n = 22) and telephone interviews (n = 4) with former patients linked to the British Heart Foundation charity and a focus group (n = 15) with hospital health care professionals involved in cardiopulmonary resuscitation activities. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/nicc.12429
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nicc.12429DOI Listing
April 2019
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A consensus redefinition of transfusion-related acute lung injury.

Transfusion 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Pathology, University British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

Background: Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is a serious complication of blood transfusion and is among the leading causes of transfusion-related morbidity and mortality in most developed countries. In the past decade, the pathophysiology of this potentially life-threatening syndrome has been increasingly elucidated, large cohort studies have identified associated patient conditions and transfusion risk factors, and preventive strategies have been successfully implemented. These new insights provide a rationale for updating the 2004 consensus definition of TRALI. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/trf.15311
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/trf.15311DOI Listing
April 2019
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Scaling of cardiac morphology is interrupted by birth in the developing sheep Ovis aries.

J Anat 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Zoological Sciences, College of Natural and Computational Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Scaling of the heart across development can reveal the degree to which variation in cardiac morphology depends on body mass. In this study, we assessed the scaling of heart mass, left and right ventricular masses, and ventricular mass ratio, as a function of eviscerated body mass across fetal and postnatal development in Horro sheep Ovis aries (~50-fold body mass range; N = 21). Whole hearts were extracted from carcasses, cleaned, dissected into chambers and weighed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/joa.12990DOI Listing

Sex ratio and maternal age in a natural fertility, subsistence population: Daughters, sons, daughters.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Maternal and Child Health Laboratory, Faculty of Health Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada.

Objective: To evaluate putative links between birth sex ratios (BSR = male:female births) and maternal age in a traditional, agricultural, natural fertility population. Metabolic energy, social support, and the costs and benefits associated with producing sons versus daughters can affect BSR. These variables fluctuate with maternal age. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/ajpa.23838
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.23838DOI Listing
April 2019
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Entrustment Ratings in Internal Medicine Training: Capturing Meaningful Supervision Decisions or Just Another Rating?

J Gen Intern Med 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Northern Medical Program, University of Northern British Columbia, Prince George, Canada.

The implementation of Entrustable Professional Activities has led to the simultaneous development of assessment based on a supervisor's entrustment of a learner to perform these activities without supervision. While entrustment may be intuitive when we consider the direct observation of a procedural task, the current implementation of rating scales for internal medicine's non-procedural tasks, based on entrustability, may not translate into meaningful learner assessment. In these Perspectives, we outline a number of potential concerns with ad hoc entrustability assessments in internal medicine post-graduate training: differences in the scope of procedural vs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11606-019-04878-yDOI Listing

[From symptom to diagnosis-symptom checkers re-evaluated : Are symptom checkers finally sufficient and accurate to use? An update from the ENT perspective].

HNO 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Symptoma GmbH, Neuhofen 5, 4864, Attersee am Attersee, Österreich.

Background: Every seventh diagnosis is a misdiagnosis. Each year, 1.5 million lives could be saved worldwide with the correct diagnosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00106-019-0666-yDOI Listing

Long-term prognostic utility of computed tomography coronary angiography in older populations.

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Radiology, New York-Presbyterian Hospital and Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY, USA.

Aims: The long-term prognostic value of coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA)-identified coronary artery disease (CAD) has not been evaluated in elderly patients (≥70 years). We compared the ability of coronary CCTA to predict 5-year mortality in older vs. younger populations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ehjci/jez067DOI Listing

An ATF3-CreERT2 Knock-In Mouse for Axotomy-Induced Genetic Editing: Proof of Principle.

eNeuro 2019 Mar-Apr;6(2). Epub 2019 Apr 9.

International Collaboration on Repair Discoveries, the University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada V5Z 1M9.

Genome editing techniques have facilitated significant advances in our understanding of fundamental biological processes, and the Cre-Lox system has been instrumental in these achievements. Driving Cre expression specifically in injured neurons has not been previously possible: we sought to address this limitation in mice using a Cre-ERT2 construct driven by a reliable indicator of axotomy, activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3). When crossed with reporter mice, a significant amount of recombination was achieved (without tamoxifen treatment) in peripherally-projecting sensory, sympathetic, and motoneurons after peripheral nerve crush in hemizygotes (65-80% by 16 d) and was absent in uninjured neurons. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/ENEURO.0025-19.2019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6464513PMC

Attitudes towards antimicrobial use and factors associated with antimicrobial use in western Canadian cow-calf herds.

Can Vet J 2019 Apr;60(4):391-398

Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5B4 (Waldner, Parker, Campbell); Public Health Agency of Canada, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5B4 (Gow); Animal Welfare Program, Land and Food Systems, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z4 (Wilson).

One hundred cow-calf producers in western Canada were surveyed to determine their perceptions regarding antimicrobial use (AMU) and how these perceptions and other herd management factors were associated with AMU. Veterinarians were the most important source of AMU information. Half of the producers considered antimicrobial resistance (AMR) when choosing antimicrobials, while 24% considered the influence of AMU on AMR in human health. Read More

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Structure and functional reselection of the Mango-III fluorogenic RNA aptamer.

Nat Chem Biol 2019 May 15;15(5):472-479. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Biochemistry and Biophysics Center, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Several turn-on RNA aptamers that activate small-molecule fluorophores have been selected in vitro. Among these, the ~30 nucleotide Mango-III is notable because it binds the thiazole orange derivative TO1-Biotin with high affinity and fluoresces brightly (quantum yield 0.55). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41589-019-0267-9DOI Listing

Standard laboratory housing for mice restricts their ability to segregate space into clean and dirty areas.

Sci Rep 2019 Apr 16;9(1):6179. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Animal Welfare Program, University of British Columbia, 2357 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z4, Canada.

Laboratory mice (Mus musculus) are typically housed in simple cages consisting of one open space. These standard cages may thwart mouse ability to segregate resting areas from areas where they eliminate, a behaviour that is prevalent across the animal kingdom. No scientific work has directly tested whether mice engage in such segregation behaviour, or whether the ability to do so may have welfare consequences. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-42512-3DOI Listing

Multi-platform discovery of haplotype-resolved structural variation in human genomes.

Nat Commun 2019 Apr 16;10(1):1784. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

The Jackson Laboratory for Genomic Medicine, Farmington, CT, 06032, USA.

The incomplete identification of structural variants (SVs) from whole-genome sequencing data limits studies of human genetic diversity and disease association. Here, we apply a suite of long-read, short-read, strand-specific sequencing technologies, optical mapping, and variant discovery algorithms to comprehensively analyze three trios to define the full spectrum of human genetic variation in a haplotype-resolved manner. We identify 818,054 indel variants (<50 bp) and 27,622 SVs (≥50 bp) per genome. Read More

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http://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-018-08148-z
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-018-08148-zDOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Romaine Amiel: a French surgeon in the British Army during the Napoleonic Wars.

J R Army Med Corps 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Academic Clinical Fellow, Academic Department of Military General Practice, Birmingham, UK

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http://jramc.bmj.com/lookup/doi/10.1136/jramc-2019-001223
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jramc-2019-001223DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Provisional Validation of a Pediatric Early Warning Score for Resource-Limited Settings.

Pediatrics 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut.

Background And Objectives: The use of Pediatric Early Warning Scores is becoming widespread to identify and rapidly respond to patients with deteriorating conditions. The ability of Pediatric Early Warning Scores to identify children at high risk of deterioration or death has not, however, been established in resource-limited settings.

Methods: We developed the Pediatric Early Warning Score for Resource-Limited Settings (PEWS-RL) on the basis of expert opinion and existing scores. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2018-3657DOI Listing

Preference for caesarean attitudes toward birth in a Chilean sample of young adults.

Women Birth 2019 Apr 13. Epub 2019 Apr 13.

Birth Place Lab., University of British Columbia, BC Women's Hospital Shaughnessy Building E418 4500 Oak Street, Vancouver, BC V6H 3N1, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: Little empirical research exists about what motivates birth mode preferences, and even less about this topic in Latin America, where obstetric interventions and caesareans are some of the highest worldwide.

Aim: To identify factors associated with caesarean preference among Chilean men and women who plan to have children and to inform childbirth education and informed consent procedures.

Methods: An online cross-sectional survey measuring attitudes toward birth was administered to graduate students at a large public university in Chile. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wombi.2019.03.012DOI Listing

The Effect of an Audiovisual Preoperative Intervention in Reducing Parental Anxiety Prior to a Child's Sedation Appointment: A Pilot Study.

Pediatr Dent 2019 Mar;41(2):112-118

Dr. Mathu-Muju is associate professor of pediatric dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada;, Email:

The purpose of this pilot study was to determine whether an audiovisual intervention was more effective than verbal instructions at reducing preoperative anxiety levels for parents whose children were having their first experience of dental treatment with the use of oral sedation. A prospective clinical trial was conducted. Parents were systematically assigned to either view an animated video (intervention group) or receive standardized verbal instructions (control group). Read More

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March 2019
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The 'Scientific' phrenologist - Bernard Hollander (1864-1934).

Authors:
David F McEniery

J Med Biogr 2019 Apr 16:967772019840170. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.

Bernard Hollander (1864-1934), a Viennese-born British physician, scientist, and author, was best known for his late 19th century and early 20th century revival of a 'Scientific Phrenology'. Hollander, motivated by the advances in cerebral localisation and neuroscience that appeared to justify Franz Joseph Gall's (1758-1828) initial interests in craniology, hoped to use this new framework to substantively improve the lot of his patients and his community. Ridiculed and derided by his colleagues while maintaining a measure of public prominence, Hollander discussed contemporary issues including notions of human nature, mental illness, education, development, women's rights, and sociobiology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0967772019840170DOI Listing

An observational cohort study of exercise and education for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease not meeting criteria for formal pulmonary rehabilitation programmes.

Chron Respir Dis 2019 Jan-Dec;16:1479973119838283

1 National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London, UK.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) is offered to patients with functional breathlessness. However, access to PR is limited. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1479973119838283DOI Listing

Little things.

Authors:
Brett Schrewe

CMAJ 2018 Apr;190(17):E543-E544

Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, and Department of Educational Studies & Centre for Health Education Scholarship, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC.

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http://www.cmaj.ca/lookup/doi/10.1503/cmaj.180114
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1503/cmaj.180114DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5929895PMC
April 2018
1 Read

Effects of 'pre-fracking' operations on ambient air quality at a shale gas exploration site in rural North Yorkshire, England.

Sci Total Environ 2019 Apr 8;673:445-454. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

British Geological Survey, Keyworth, UK.

Rural observations of air quality and meteorological parameters (NO, O, NMHCs, SO, PM) were made over a 2.5-year period (2016-2018) before, during and after preparations for hydraulic fracturing (fracking) at a shale gas exploration site near Kirby Misperton, North Yorkshire, England. As one of the first sites to apply for permits to carry out hydraulic fracturing, it has been subject to extensive regulatory and public scrutiny, as well as the focus for a major programme of long-term environmental monitoring. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.04.077DOI Listing

Next generation sequencing in recurrent pregnancy loss-approaches and outcomes.

Eur J Med Genet 2019 Apr 13. Epub 2019 Apr 13.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of British Columbia and, Child and Family Research Institute, 950 West 28th, Vancouver BC, Canada. Electronic address:

Next generation sequencing (NGS) has revolutionized the diagnosis of postnatal genetic diseases, but so far has been used less frequently to study reproductive disorders. Here we provide an overview of approaches and outcomes of genome sequencing for identifying causes of recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). This includes exome sequencing to look for pathogenic sequence changes in the whole exome or in a preselected list of genes considered important for early embryonic development and pregnancy maintenance, as well as low coverage whole genome sequencing useful for identifying cryptic balanced chromosome rearrangements and copy number variants (CNVs) in couples with RPL and miscarriages. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmg.2019.04.001DOI Listing

Lowering the P Value Threshold.

JAMA 2019 04;321(15):1532-1533

Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2019.0566DOI Listing

Mobility and Participation of People With Disabilities Using Mobility Assistive Technologies: Protocol for a Mixed-Methods Study.

JMIR Res Protoc 2019 Apr 16;8(4):e12089. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Occupational Science and Occupational Therapy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

Background: Many community-dwelling individuals living with a disability use mobility assistive technologies (MATs). MAT devices are generally beneficial for individuals with mobility impairments. However, less is known about the specific factors that may foster or deter mobility and community participation. Read More

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https://www.researchprotocols.org/2019/4/e12089/
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/12089DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Preface for the Forum on Applications of Metal Complexes with Ligand-Centered Radicals.

Inorg Chem 2018 Aug;57(16):9577-9579

Department of Chemistry , Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur , Kanpur , Uttar Pradesh 208016 , India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.inorgchem.8b02171DOI Listing

Canagliflozin and Renal Outcomes in Type 2 Diabetes and Nephropathy.

N Engl J Med 2019 Apr 14. Epub 2019 Apr 14.

From the George Institute for Global Health, University of New South Wales Sydney (V.P., M.J.J., B.N., S. Bompoint), the Royal North Shore Hospital (V.P.), Concord Repatriation General Hospital (M.J.J.), and the Charles Perkins Centre, University of Sydney (B.N.), Sydney, and the Kolling Institute of Medical Research, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Royal North Shore Hospital, St. Leonards, NSW (C.P.) - all in Australia; Imperial College London (B.N.) and the Department of Renal Medicine, UCL Medical School (D.C.W.) - both in London; the Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands (H.J.L.H., D.Z.); the Nephrology Division, NYU School of Medicine and NYU Langone Medical Center, New York (D.M.C.); Baim Institute for Clinical Research (D.M.C., C.P.C., B.M.B.), the Cardiovascular Division (C.P.C.) and the Renal Division and Department of Medicine (B.M.B), Brigham and Women's Hospital, and Harvard Medical School (B.M.B.) - all in Boston; Janssen Research and Development, Raritan, NJ (R.E., S. Bull, G.C., P.-L.C., Y.Y., G.M.); Indiana University School of Medicine and Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Indianapolis (R.A.); the Department of Medicine, University of Chicago Medicine, Chicago (G.B.); the Division of Biostatistics, Department of Population Health Sciences, University of Utah, Salt Lake City (T.G.); the Division of Nephrology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver (A.L.), and the Lunenfeld-Tanenbaum Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto (B.Z.) - all in Canada; the Renal Division, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing (H.Z.); and the Stanford Center for Clinical Research, Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (K.W.M.).

Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus is the leading cause of kidney failure worldwide, but few effective long-term treatments are available. In cardiovascular trials of inhibitors of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2), exploratory results have suggested that such drugs may improve renal outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Methods: In this double-blind, randomized trial, we assigned patients with type 2 diabetes and albuminuric chronic kidney disease to receive canagliflozin, an oral SGLT2 inhibitor, at a dose of 100 mg daily or placebo. Read More

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http://www.nejm.org/doi/10.1056/NEJMoa1811744
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1811744DOI Listing
April 2019
5 Reads

Which is the cart and which is the horse? Getting more out of cross-sectional epidemiological studies.

Authors:
Taylor McLinden

Public Health Nutr 2019 Apr 16:1-3. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

British Columbia Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS608-1081 Burrard StreetVancouver,BC,Canada,V6Z

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1368980019000624DOI Listing

Assigning Medical Students Learning Goals: Do They Do It, and What Happens When They Don't?

Teach Learn Med 2019 Apr 16:1-8. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

a Wilson Centre , University Health Network ; Faculty of Medicine , University of Toronto , Toronto , Ontario , Canada.

Theory: Medical curricula now include more time for trainees to manage their studying independently, yet evidence suggests that time is not well spent without guidance. Social-cognitivist models of self-regulated learning suggest value when guiding learners to set goals related to their performance processes (actions producing outcomes) versus their performance outcomes (products of performance).

Hypotheses: We expected participants oriented to set process goals would demonstrate better suturing skill retention compared with participants oriented to set outcome goals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10401334.2019.1600520DOI Listing
April 2019
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Review article: A primer for clinical researchers in the emergency department: Part IX. How to conduct a systematic review in the field of emergency medicine.

Emerg Med Australas 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Cochrane Hypertension Group, Department of Anesthesiology, Pharmacology, and Therapeutics, Faculty of Medicine, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

In this series we address important topics for emergency clinicians who either participate in research as part of their work, or use the knowledge generated by research studies. Emergency clinicians are routinely in the position of applying new evidence in clinical practice. With an ever-increasing volume of evidence generated, this can be problematic when studies are conducted in different settings, and include different patient groups, different interventions and different outcomes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1742-6723.13298DOI Listing

Supporting families involved in court cases about life-sustaining treatment: Working as academics, advocates and activists.

Bioethics 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

School of Journalism, Media and Culture, Cardiff University, Cardiff, Wales, UK.

This article explores the links between our roles as academics, advocates, and activists, focusing on our research on treatment decisions for patients in vegetative and minimally conscious states. We describe how our work evolved from personal experience through traditional social science research to public engagement activities and then to advocacy and activism. We reflect on the challenges we faced in navigating the relationship between our research, advocacy, and activism, and the implications of these challenges for our research ethics and methodology-giving practical examples of how we worked with research participants, wrote up case studies and developed interventions into legal debates. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bioe.12583DOI Listing

Bacterial Community Composition and Diversity Respond to Nutrient Amendment but Not Warming in a Maritime Antarctic Soil.

Microb Ecol 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Scotland's Rural College, Peter Wilson Building, West Mains Road, Edinburgh, EH9 3JG, UK.

A resumption of climate warming in maritime Antarctica, arising from continued greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere, is predicted to lead to further expansions of plant populations across the region, with consequent increases in nutrient inputs to soils. Here, we test the main and interactive effects of warming, applied with open top chambers (OTCs), and nutrient amendment with tryptic soy broth (TSB), an artificial growth substrate, on bacterial community composition and diversity using Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA genes in soil from a field experiment in the southern maritime Antarctic. Substantial effects of TSB application on bacterial communities were identified after 49 months, including reduced diversity, altered phylogenetic community assembly processes, increased Proteobacteria-to-Acidobacteria ratios and significant divergence in community composition, notably increases in the relative abundances of the gram-positive genera Arthrobacter, Paeniglutamicibacter and Planococcus. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00248-019-01373-z
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00248-019-01373-zDOI Listing
April 2019
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Omalizumab in patients with severe asthma and persistent sputum eosinophilia.

Allergy Asthma Clin Immunol 2019 3;15:21. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

1Department of Medicine, Division of Respirology, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON Canada.

Omalizumab, a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody targeting the IgE molecule, is the first biologic approved for moderate-to-severe allergic asthmatics, who remain uncontrolled despite high dose inhaled corticosteroid and bronchodilators. Steroid-sparing effect of omalizumab has not been demonstrated in asthmatics with persistent airway eosinophilia in a randomised controlled trial till date. From this double-blind, placebo-controlled, multi-centred, randomized parallel group design, we report that omalizumab is possibly inadequate to control sputum eosinophilia, and therefore may not have a steroid-sparing effect, especially in those maintained on oral corticosteroids daily. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13223-019-0337-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6448265PMC

The spatial correspondence and genetic influence of interhemispheric connectivity with white matter microstructure.

Nat Neurosci 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Wellcome Centre for Integrative Neuroimaging, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Microscopic features (that is, microstructure) of axons affect neural circuit activity through characteristics such as conduction speed. To what extent axonal microstructure in white matter relates to functional connectivity (synchrony) between brain regions is largely unknown. Using MRI data in 11,354 subjects, we constructed multivariate models that predict functional connectivity of pairs of brain regions from the microstructural signature of white matter pathways that connect them. Read More

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http://www.nature.com/articles/s41593-019-0379-2
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41593-019-0379-2DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Type IV pili: dynamics, biophysics and functional consequences.

Nat Rev Microbiol 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Institute for Biological Physics, University of Cologne, Köln, Germany.

The surfaces of many bacteria are decorated with long, exquisitely thin appendages called type IV pili (T4P), dynamic filaments that are rapidly polymerized and depolymerized from a pool of pilin subunits. Cycles of pilus extension, binding and retraction enable T4P to perform a phenomenally diverse array of functions, including twitching motility, DNA uptake and microcolony formation. On the basis of recent developments, a comprehensive understanding is emerging of the molecular architecture of the T4P machinery and the filament it builds, providing mechanistic insights into the assembly and retraction processes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41579-019-0195-4DOI Listing

Synchronized failure of global crop production.

Nat Ecol Evol 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

UBC School of Public Policy and Global Affairs, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

Multiple breadbasket failure is a risk to global food security. However, there are no global analyses that have quantitatively assessed if global crop production has actually tended towards synchronized failure historically. We show that synchronization in production within major commodities such as maize and soybean has declined in recent decades, leading to increased global stability in production of these crops. Read More

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http://www.nature.com/articles/s41559-019-0862-x
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41559-019-0862-xDOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Ancient genomes indicate population replacement in Early Neolithic Britain.

Nat Ecol Evol 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Earth Sciences, Natural History Museum, London, UK.

The roles of migration, admixture and acculturation in the European transition to farming have been debated for over 100 years. Genome-wide ancient DNA studies indicate predominantly Aegean ancestry for continental Neolithic farmers, but also variable admixture with local Mesolithic hunter-gatherers. Neolithic cultures first appear in Britain circa 4000 BC, a millennium after they appeared in adjacent areas of continental Europe. Read More

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http://www.nature.com/articles/s41559-019-0871-9
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41559-019-0871-9DOI Listing
April 2019
4 Reads

A rich British stout is dissected with a virtual 'scalpel'.

Authors:

Nature 2019 Apr;568(7752):279

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/d41586-019-01132-7DOI Listing

Genome-wide association and transcriptome studies identify target genes and risk loci for breast cancer.

Authors:
Manuel A Ferreira Eric R Gamazon Fares Al-Ejeh Kristiina Aittomäki Irene L Andrulis Hoda Anton-Culver Adalgeir Arason Volker Arndt Kristan J Aronson Banu K Arun Ella Asseryanis Jacopo Azzollini Judith Balmaña Daniel R Barnes Daniel Barrowdale Matthias W Beckmann Sabine Behrens Javier Benitez Marina Bermisheva Katarzyna Białkowska Carl Blomqvist Natalia V Bogdanova Stig E Bojesen Manjeet K Bolla Ake Borg Hiltrud Brauch Hermann Brenner Annegien Broeks Barbara Burwinkel Trinidad Caldés Maria A Caligo Daniele Campa Ian Campbell Federico Canzian Jonathan Carter Brian D Carter Jose E Castelao Jenny Chang-Claude Stephen J Chanock Hans Christiansen Wendy K Chung Kathleen B M Claes Christine L Clarke Fergus J Couch Angela Cox Simon S Cross Kamila Czene Mary B Daly Miguel de la Hoya Joe Dennis Peter Devilee Orland Diez Thilo Dörk Alison M Dunning Miriam Dwek Diana M Eccles Bent Ejlertsen Carolina Ellberg Christoph Engel Mikael Eriksson Peter A Fasching Olivia Fletcher Henrik Flyger Eitan Friedman Debra Frost Marike Gabrielson Manuela Gago-Dominguez Patricia A Ganz Susan M Gapstur Judy Garber Montserrat García-Closas José A García-Sáenz Mia M Gaudet Graham G Giles Gord Glendon Andrew K Godwin Mark S Goldberg David E Goldgar Anna González-Neira Mark H Greene Jacek Gronwald Pascal Guénel Christopher A Haiman Per Hall Ute Hamann Wei He Jane Heyworth Frans B L Hogervorst Antoinette Hollestelle Robert N Hoover John L Hopper Peter J Hulick Keith Humphreys Evgeny N Imyanitov Claudine Isaacs Milena Jakimovska Anna Jakubowska Paul A James Ramunas Janavicius Rachel C Jankowitz Esther M John Nichola Johnson Vijai Joseph Beth Y Karlan Elza Khusnutdinova Johanna I Kiiski Yon-Dschun Ko Michael E Jones Irene Konstantopoulou Vessela N Kristensen Yael Laitman Diether Lambrechts Conxi Lazaro Goska Leslie Jenny Lester Fabienne Lesueur Sara Lindström Jirong Long Jennifer T Loud Jan Lubiński Enes Makalic Arto Mannermaa Mehdi Manoochehri Sara Margolin Tabea Maurer Dimitrios Mavroudis Lesley McGuffog Alfons Meindl Usha Menon Kyriaki Michailidou Austin Miller Marco Montagna Fernando Moreno Lidia Moserle Anna Marie Mulligan Katherine L Nathanson Susan L Neuhausen Heli Nevanlinna Ines Nevelsteen Finn C Nielsen Liene Nikitina-Zake Robert L Nussbaum Kenneth Offit Edith Olah Olufunmilayo I Olopade Håkan Olsson Ana Osorio Janos Papp Tjoung-Won Park-Simon Michael T Parsons Inge Sokilde Pedersen Ana Peixoto Paolo Peterlongo Paul D P Pharoah Dijana Plaseska-Karanfilska Bruce Poppe Nadege Presneau Paolo Radice Johanna Rantala Gad Rennert Harvey A Risch Emmanouil Saloustros Kristin Sanden Elinor J Sawyer Marjanka K Schmidt Rita K Schmutzler Priyanka Sharma Xiao-Ou Shu Jacques Simard Christian F Singer Penny Soucy Melissa C Southey John J Spinelli Amanda B Spurdle Jennifer Stone Anthony J Swerdlow William J Tapper Jack A Taylor Manuel R Teixeira Mary Beth Terry Alex Teulé Mads Thomassen Kathrin Thöne Darcy L Thull Marc Tischkowitz Amanda E Toland Diana Torres Thérèse Truong Nadine Tung Celine M Vachon Christi J van Asperen Ans M W van den Ouweland Elizabeth J van Rensburg Ana Vega Alessandra Viel Qin Wang Barbara Wappenschmidt Jeffrey N Weitzel Camilla Wendt Robert Winqvist Xiaohong R Yang Drakoulis Yannoukakos Argyrios Ziogas Peter Kraft Antonis C Antoniou Wei Zheng Douglas F Easton Roger L Milne Jonathan Beesley Georgia Chenevix-Trench

Nat Commun 2019 Apr 15;10(1):1741. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Genetics and Computational Biology, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Brisbane, QLD, 4006, Australia.

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 170 breast cancer susceptibility loci. Here we hypothesize that some risk-associated variants might act in non-breast tissues, specifically adipose tissue and immune cells from blood and spleen. Using expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) reported in these tissues, we identify 26 previously unreported, likely target genes of overall breast cancer risk variants, and 17 for estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer, several with a known immune function. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-018-08053-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6465407PMC