3,651 results match your criteria British Medical Bulletin[Journal]


An alternative to sexual reproduction: artificial gametes and their implications for society.

Authors:
Anna Smajdor

Br Med Bull 2019 Feb 7. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Department of Philosophy, Classics, History of Art and Ideas, Faculty of Humanities, University of Oslo, 0313, Norway.

Introduction: Artificial gametes (AGs) are cells that have been 'reprogrammed' to function as sperm or eggs. Such cells may in the future enable people who cannot produce gametes, to have genetically-related offspring. In this paper, I consider the prospect of AGs in the context of declining birthrates and postponed parenthood across the Western world. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldz001DOI Listing
February 2019

Working together to deliver stratified medicine research effectively.

Br Med Bull 2019 Feb 7. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Departments of Women's and Children's Health, and Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology, Institute of Translational Medicine, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, L69 3BX, UK.

Introduction Or Background: Stratified medicine is an important area of research across all clinical specialties, with far reaching impact in many spheres. Despite recently formulated global policy and research programmes, major challenges for delivering stratified medicine studies persist. Across the globe, clinical research infrastructures have been setup to facilitate high quality clinical research. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldz003DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Scientific evidence on natural disasters and health emergency and disaster risk management in Asian rural-based area.

Br Med Bull 2019 Feb 7. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

François-Xavier Bagnoud Center for Health & Human Rights, Harvard University, François-Xavier Bagnoud Center for Health and Human Rights at Harvard University (FXB), Boston, MA 02138, UK.

Introduction: Disaster epidemiological studies indicate that Asia has the highest frequency of natural disasters. Rural communities are heavily impacted by natural disasters and have different healthcare needs to urban ones. Referencing Asian countries, this paper's objective is to provide an overview of health impacts and the current evidence for designing programmes and policies related to rural health emergency and disaster risk management (health-EDRM). Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/bmb/advance-article/doi/10.1093/bmb
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldz002DOI Listing
February 2019
4 Reads

Hip fractures in children and adolescents.

Br Med Bull 2019 Feb 7. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Department of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery, Campus Bio-Medico University of Rome, 00100 Rome, Italy.

Background: Femoral neck fractures account for <1% of the fractures in children, and are produced by high energy trauma. The most commonly accepted treatment for such fractures is gentle manual anatomical reduction and internal fixation, yielding a healing rate between 80% and 90%.

Sources Of Data: Electronic search through major web databases (Medline, Cochrane and Google Scholar). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldz004DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Sickness presenteeism at work: prevalence, costs and management.

Authors:
Gail Kinman

Br Med Bull 2019 Jan 11. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

School of Psychology, University of Bedfordshire, Luton, Bedfordshire, England, UK.

Introduction: Presenteeism is defined as continuing to attend work during illness. As a growing health concern, awareness of the factors that encourage presenteeism and the risks of this behaviour is needed.

Sources Of Data: A narrative review of research obtained via several databases, including Medline and Psycinfo, was conducted. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldy043DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

If electric cars are the answer, what was the question?

Authors:
Sarah J Jones

Br Med Bull 2019 Jan 7. Epub 2019 Jan 7.

Public Health Wales, Capital Quarter 2, Tyndall Street, Cardiff, UK.

Introduction: Roads facilitate trade, development and communication, as well as spread illness and disease, but since mass car use began, the disbenefits, including injuries, pollution and physical inactivity have been significantly magnified. Electric cars are now being seen by many as the solution to the problems associated with internal combustion engine cars.

Sources Of Data: This article reviews existing literature to determine the extent to which a switch to electrification can solve many of the problems that cars have wrought. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldy044DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Mild primary hyperparathyroidism-to treat or not to treat?

Br Med Bull 2018 Dec 20. Epub 2018 Dec 20.

Department of Endocrinology, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham, UK.

Introduction: The presentation of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) has shifted from a disease characterized by renal and skeletal complications to a mild or asymptomatic condition. Modern imaging allows localization of a surgical target in the majority of cases.

Sources Of Data: Data were collected from literature searches of online databases including PUBMED, MEDLINE and Cochrane. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/bmb/advance-article/doi/10.1093/bmb
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldy042DOI Listing
December 2018
15 Reads

Chest ultrasound for the diagnosis of paediatric pulmonary diseases: a systematic review and meta-analysis of diagnostic test accuracy.

Br Med Bull 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, MRC Unit on Child & Adolescent Health, Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital, University of Cape Town, Klipfontein Road, Rondebosch, Cape Town, South Africa.

Background: Chest ultrasound is an emerging imaging modality, for several paediatric pulmonary diseases.

Sources Of Data: MEDLINE and EMBASE (1946-47 to 10 March 2017) were searched to collect evidence on the diagnostic accuracy of chest ultrasound, compared to other imaging modalities, for the diagnosis of paediatric pulmonary diseases.

Areas Of Agreement: Eighteen pneumonia studies, comprising 2031 children, were included for meta-analysis; the summary estimate sensitivity was 95. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldy041DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Traumatic stress within disaster-exposed occupations: overview of the literature and suggestions for the management of traumatic stress in the workplace.

Br Med Bull 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

The National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Protection Research Unit in Emergency Preparedness and Response at King's College London, Weston Education Centre, 10 Cutcombe Road, London, UK.

Background: Many people who experience a disaster will do so as part of an occupational group, either by chance or due to the nature of their role.

Sources Of Data: This review is based on literature published in scientific journals.

Areas Of Agreement: There are many social and occupational factors, which affect post-disaster mental health. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldy040DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Mexico and mitochondrial replacement techniques: what a mess.

Br Med Bull 2018 12;128(1):97-107

Oxford Uehiro Centre for Practical Ethics, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Background: The first live birth following the use of a new reproductive technique, maternal spindle transfer (MST), which is a mitochondrial replacement technique (MRT), was accomplished by dividing the execution of the MST procedure between two countries, the USA and Mexico. This was done in order to avoid US legal restrictions on this technique.

Sources Of Data: Academic articles, news articles, documents obtained through freedom of information requests, laws, regulations and national reports. Read More

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http://fdslive.oup.com/www.oup.com/pdf/production_in_progres
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldy037DOI Listing
December 2018
10 Reads

The impact of the General Data Protection Regulation on health research.

Authors:
Victoria Chico

Br Med Bull 2018 12;128(1):109-118

School of Law, University of Sheffield, Bartolome House, Winter Street, Sheffield, UK.

Background: On the May 25, 2018 the General Data Protection Regulation (hereafter the GDPR or the Regulation) came into force, replacing the Data Protection Directive 95/46/EC (upon which the Data Protection Act 1998 is based), and imposing new responsibilities on organizations which process the data of European Union citizens.

Sources Of Data: This piece examines the impact of the Regulation on health research.

Areas Of Agreement: The Regulation seeks to harmonize data privacy laws across Europe, to protect and empower all EU citizen's data privacy and to reshape the way that organizations approach data privacy (See the GDPR portal at: https://www. Read More

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http://fdslive.oup.com/www.oup.com/pdf/production_in_progres
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldy038DOI Listing
December 2018
14 Reads

Autonomic dysfunction and chronic disease.

Br Med Bull 2018 12;128(1):61-74

Department of Hygiene, Epidemiology and Ergonomics, Division of Ergonomics and Exercise Physiology, Ludwik Rydygier Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Torun, ul. M. Sklodowskiej-Curie 9, Bydgoszcz, Poland.

Introduction: The majority of chronic diseases are accompanied by symptoms of more or less pronounced dysautonomia, which frequently and noticeably deteriorate the quality of patients' life.

Sources Of Data: Pubmed.

Areas Of Agreement: Functional disorders in the autonomic nervous system (ANS) require very precise diagnostics; frequently involving several specialists and a number of diagnostic tests. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/bmb/advance-article/doi/10.1093/bmb
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldy036DOI Listing
December 2018
18 Reads

The management of hypertension in women planning for pregnancy.

Br Med Bull 2018 12;128(1):75-84

Center of Clinical Pharmacology, Third Xiangya Hospital, Central South Univeristy, Changsha, China.

Introduction Or Background: Poorly-controlled hypertension in the first trimester significantly increases maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. The majority of guidelines and clinical trials focus on the management and treatments for hypertension during pregnancy and breast-feeding, while limited evidence could be applied to the management for hypertension before pregnancy. In this review, we summarized the existing guidelines and treatments of pre-pregnancy treatment of hypertension. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/bmb/advance-article/doi/10.1093/bmb
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldy035DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6289217PMC
December 2018
27 Reads

The latest treatment options for bladder cancer.

Br Med Bull 2018 12;128(1):85-95

Department of Urology, University Hospital Southampton NHS Foundation Trust, Southampton, Hampshire, UK.

Introduction: Bladder cancer carries a high healthcare burden and a poor prognosis once distant metastatic spread has occurred.

Sources Of Data: We utilised a PubMed/MEDLINE literature search using the terms bladder cancer, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, intra-vesical therapy, surgery and radiotherapy, and current clinical management guidelines (Association of Cancer Physicians, British Association of Urological Surgeons, National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, European Association of Urology).

Areas Of Agreement: Optimal bladder cancer management requires a multi-modal approach incorporating surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and immunotherapy. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/bmb/advance-article/doi/10.1093/bmb
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldy034DOI Listing
December 2018
3 Reads

Epigenetics: ethics, politics, biosociality.

Authors:
Luca Chiapperino

Br Med Bull 2018 12;128(1):49-60

STSLab, Faculty of Social and Political Sciences, Institute of Social Sciences, University of Lausanne, Quartier UNIL-Mouline, Bâtiment Géopolis, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Background: Epigenetics is a burgeoning field of contemporary biosciences, which has attracted a lot of interest both in biomedical and in social sciences.

Sources Of Data: Unsystematic literature analysis and retrospective mapping of highly cited work (source: Web of Science core collection) in the social sciences and humanities engaging with epigenetics.

Areas Of Agreement: Epigenetics poses no new ethical issue over and above those discussed in relation to genetics. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/bmb/advance-article/doi/10.1093/bmb
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldy033DOI Listing
December 2018
10 Reads

Prostate-specific membrane antigen positron emission tomography in the management of recurrent prostate cancer.

Br Med Bull 2018 12;128(1):37-48

Institute of Nuclear Medicine, University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.

Introduction: There is an unmet clinical need for early, accurate imaging of recurrent prostate cancer to improve patient outcomes. Staging, by conventional bone scintigraphy and CT have become outdated. 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT imaging in this setting has developed rapidly, with widespread International adoption in line with evidence-based guidelines in this group of patients. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/bmb/advance-article/doi/10.1093/bmb
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldy032DOI Listing
December 2018
6 Reads

Autism spectrum disorder.

Br Med Bull 2018 09;127(1):91-100

Department of Psychiatry, Sidra Medical and Research Center, Doha, Qatar.

Sources Of Data: This article is based on key recent published literature including international guidelines and relevant reviews and meta-analyses. Authors have also supplemented this material with their own clinical experience.

Areas Of Agreement: There is an agreement that autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have a strong hereditary component. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldy026DOI Listing
September 2018
3 Reads

Ethics and cloning.

Authors:
Matti Häyry

Br Med Bull 2018 12;128(1):15-21

Department of Management Studies, Philosophy of Management, Aalto University School of Business, Aalto, Finland.

Background: Scientists have cloned animals since the late 19th century, but the crucial step for ethics was the cloning of the first mammal by somatic cell nuclear transfer in 1997. This suggested that scientists could also clone, and possibly enhance, human beings.

Sources Of Data: This survey examines ethical literature on cloning since the 1960s. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldy031DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

Carry on editing.

Authors:
Andy Greenfield

Br Med Bull 2018 09;127(1):23-31

Mammalian Genetics Unit, Medical Research Council Harwell Institute, Oxfordshire, UK.

Introduction Or Background: Genome editing facilitates alterations to DNA, large or subtle, in a precise fashion. In its most popular form it uses the programmable endonuclease system, CRISPR/Cas9. Edits can be made to any genome, including the human genome. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/bmb/article/127/1/23/5042917
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldy020DOI Listing
September 2018
16 Reads

The role of neutrophils in cancer.

Br Med Bull 2018 12;128(1):5-14

Medical Research Council Centre for Inflammation Research, The Queen's Medical Research Institute, The University of Edinburgh, 47 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh, UK.

Introduction: It has been known for some time that neutrophils are present in the tumour microenvironment, but only recently have their roles been explored.

Sources Of Data: Comprehensive literature search of neutrophils and cancer (PubMed, Google Scholar and CrossRef) for key articles (systematic reviews, meta-analyses, primary research). References from these articles cross-checked for additional relevant studies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldy029DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6289220PMC
December 2018
2 Reads

The effectiveness of conservative and surgical treatment for shoulder stiffness: a systematic review of current literature.

Br Med Bull 2018 09;127(1):111-143

Department of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery, Campus Bio-Medico University, Via Alvaro del Portillo, Trigoria, Rome, Italy.

Introduction: Currently, no therapeutic intervention is universally accepted, and the most effective management for restoring motion and diminishing pain in patients with shoulder stiffness has yet to be defined. This systematic review analyses outcomes of conservative and surgical interventions to treat shoulder stiffness.

Source Of Data: A systematic review of literature according to the PRISMA guidelines was performed. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/bmb/article/127/1/111/5077487
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldy025DOI Listing
September 2018
20 Reads

Arthroscopic-assisted latissimus dorsi transfer for massive rotator cuff tear: a systematic review.

Br Med Bull 2018 12;128(1):23-35

Department of Musculoskeletal Disorders, University of Salerno, Italy.

Introduction: This systematic review provides a comprehensive description of different surgical techniques for massive rotator cuff tears (MRCTs) using arthroscopic-assisted latissimus dorsi transfer (A-LDT), reporting clinical outcomes and complications.

Sources Of Data: We searched the literature on Medline (PubMed), Web of Science and Scopus databases using the combined keywords 'latissimus dorsi', 'tendon', 'transfer', 'rotator cuff tears', 'shoulder' and 'arthroscopy' to identify articles published in English, Spanish, French and Italian. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement was followed for the manuscript selection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldy030DOI Listing
December 2018
4 Reads

Mental illness and the provision of mental health services in prisons.

Br Med Bull 2018 09;127(1):101-109

Offender Health Research Network, University of Manchester, Jean McFarlane Building, Oxford Road, Manchester, UK.

Introduction: Around 11 million people are held in prisons internationally, and criminal justice systems are overburdened with a high prevalence of multiple psychiatric disorders. In England and Wales over 200 000 people enter prisons each year, and in many cases, this facilitates their first contact with mental health services.

Sources Of Data: Research, evaluations, government reports and independent reviews. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldy027DOI Listing
September 2018
21 Reads

Being a good egg in the 21st century.

Br Med Bull 2018 09;127(1):83-89

MRC Centre for Reproductive Health, Queen's Medical Research Institute, University of Edinburgh and Institute of Cell Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.

Introduction: Women are increasingly having children at a later age, but this can conflict with declining fertility in the later 30's and thereafter.

Areas Of Agreement: Declining egg quality and quantity with age are well-established, although egg quality can only be surmised from reproductive success or failure.

Areas Of Controversy: Whether increasing the number of eggs that can be obtained from ovarian stimulation is of value, and whether there are precursor cells within the adult ovary that could become mature eggs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldy023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6127894PMC
September 2018
3 Reads

Radiolabelled leucocytes in human pulmonary disease.

Br Med Bull 2018 09;127(1):69-82

Department of Nuclear Medicine, Brighton and Sussex Medical School, Brighton, East Sussex, UK.

Introduction: Radionuclides for leucocyte kinetic studies have progressed from non-gamma emitting cell-labelling radionuclides through gamma emitting nuclides that allow imaging of leucocyte kinetics, to the next goal of positron emission tomography (PET).

Sources Of Data: Mostly the authors' own studies, following on from studies of the early pioneers.

Areas Of Controversy: From early imaging studies, it appeared that the majority of the marginated granulocyte pool was located in the lungs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldy022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6312042PMC
September 2018
5 Reads

Carry on editing.

Authors:
Andy Greenfield

Br Med Bull 2018 09;127(1):145

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldy024DOI Listing
September 2018
3 Reads

Biodiversity and human health: mechanisms and evidence of the positive health effects of diversity in nature and green spaces.

Br Med Bull 2018 09;127(1):5-22

Department of Chemical and Physical Health Risks, Unit Health Impact Assessment, Sciensano (Belgian Institute of Health), Brussels, Belgium.

Introduction: Natural environments and green spaces provide ecosystem services that enhance human health and well-being. They improve mental health, mitigate allergies and reduce all-cause, respiratory, cardiovascular and cancer mortality. The presence, accessibility, proximity and greenness of green spaces determine the magnitude of their positive health effects, but the role of biodiversity (including species and ecosystem diversity) within green spaces remains underexplored. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/bmb/article/127/1/5/5051732
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldy021DOI Listing
September 2018
7 Reads

Sudden cardiac death in young athletes with long QT syndrome: the role of genetic testing and cardiovascular screening.

Br Med Bull 2018 09;127(1):43-53

Department of Musculoskeletal Disorders, University of Salerno School of Medicine and Surgery, Salerno, Italy.

Introduction: Sudden cardiac death (SCD) of young athletes during competition or training is a tragic event. The long QT syndrome (LQTS) is an arrythmogenic disorder characterized by prolonged ventricular repolarization leading to torsade de pointes evident at electrocardiogram (ECG). Implantable cardioverter defibrillator is an option to revert ventricular fibrillation to sinus rhythm, although the implantation may result in denial of sports participations to the athlete. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldy017DOI Listing
September 2018
21 Reads

Treatment of type 2 diabetes: future approaches.

Br Med Bull 2018 06;126(1):123-137

Department of Biomedical Sciences, School of Life and Health Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, UK.

Introduction Or Background: Type 2 diabetes, which accounts for ~90% of all diabetes, is a heterogeneous and progressive disease with a variety of causative and potentiating factors. The hyperglycaemia of type 2 diabetes is often inadequately controlled, hence the need for a wider selection of glucose-lowering treatments.

Sources Of Data: Medline, PubMed, Web of Science and Google Scholar. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brimed/ldy013DOI Listing
June 2018
3 Reads

Cognitive Impairment in people living with HIV in the ART era: A Review.

Authors:
K Alford J H Vera

Br Med Bull 2018 09;127(1):55-68

Department of Global Health and Infection, Brighton and Sussex Medical School, University of Sussex Brighton, UK.

Background: Cognitive disorders are a common issue impacting those living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Effective antiretroviral treatment has lessened the severity but not the frequency of these impairments. Such deficits reduce quality of life and present a significant challenge to clinicians in the context of an ageing HIV population with a growing number of comorbidities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldy019DOI Listing
September 2018
2 Reads

Colonoscopy in the very elderly.

Br Med Bull 2018 09;127(1):33-41

Department of Gastroenterology, South Tyneside District Hospital, South Shields, UK.

Introduction: Colonoscopy is the gold standard test for investigating lower gastrointestinal symptoms and is an important therapeutic tool for colonic polypectomy. This paper is aimed at the general physician and examines the role of colonoscopy in very elderly patients by exploring the particular risks in this population, the yield of colonoscopy and potential alternative investigations.

Sources Of Data: Original research and review articles were identified through selective PubMed searches. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldy018DOI Listing
September 2018
4 Reads

How to talk about genome editing.

Authors:
Sandy Starr

Br Med Bull 2018 06;126(1):5-12

Progress Educational Trust, 140 Grays Inn Road, London, UK.

Background: Human genome editing is an area of growing prominence, with many potential therapeutic applications.

Sources Of Data: A project by two UK charities, whose participants included fertility sector patients and practitioners and also people affected by genetic disease and rare disease. Scientific research into, and wider discussion of, genomics and genome editing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldy015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5998984PMC
June 2018
7 Reads

Maternal vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy.

Br Med Bull 2018 06;126(1):57-77

MRC Lifecourse Epidemiology Unit, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK.

Introduction: Maternal vitamin D status in pregnancy has been linked to many health outcomes in mother and offspring. A wealth of observational studies have reported on both obstetric outcomes and complications, including pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, mode and timing of delivery. Many foetal and childhood outcomes are also linked to vitamin D status, including measures of foetal size, body composition and skeletal mineralization, in addition to later childhood outcomes, such as asthma. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldy010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6003599PMC
June 2018
4 Reads

Common mental disorders and work.

Authors:
Paul J Nicholson

Br Med Bull 2018 06;126(1):113-121

Retired Occupational Physician, London.

Background: Governments and employers' organizations have sustained focus on common mental disorders (CMD), how they impact a person's ability to gain or continue work, the costs of sickness absence, presenteeism and job loss, and the positive impact of work on wellbeing.

Sources Of Data: Scientific literature, mainly systematic reviews and grey literature, i.e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldy014DOI Listing
June 2018
5 Reads

Dubious space for Artelon joint resurfacing for basal thumb (trapeziometacarpal joint) osteoarthritis. A systematic review.

Br Med Bull 2018 06;126(1):79-84

Department of Musculoskeletal Disorders, Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, University of Salerno, Baronissi, Salerno, Italy.

Introduction: Trapeziometacarpal arthritis is a common and disabling condition. There is no evidence in the literature of superiority of one surgical procedure over others. Several prosthetic implants have been introduced to preserve joint mobility. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldy012DOI Listing
June 2018
16 Reads
3.660 Impact Factor

The cost-effectiveness of follow-up strategies after cancer treatment: a systematic literature review.

Br Med Bull 2018 06;126(1):85-100

School of Health and Related Research (ScHARR), University of Sheffield, Regent Court, 30 Regent Street, Sheffield, UK.

Introduction: The cost of treatment and follow-up of cancer patients in the UK is substantial. In a budget-constrained system such as the NHS, it is necessary to consider the cost-effectiveness of the range of management strategies at different points on cancer patients' care pathways to ensure that they provide adequate value for money.

Sources Of Data: We conducted a systematic literature review to explore the cost-effectiveness of follow-up strategies of patients previously treated for cancer with the aim of informing UK policy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldy011DOI Listing
June 2018
6 Reads

Genetic counselling in the era of genomic medicine.

Br Med Bull 2018 06;126(1):27-36

Society and Ethics Research, Connecting Science, Wellcome Genome Campus, Hinxton, UK.

Background: Genomic technology can now deliver cost effective, targeted diagnosis and treatment for patients. Genetic counselling is a communication process empowering patients and families to make autonomous decisions and effectively use new genetic information. The skills of genetic counselling and expertise of genetic counsellors are integral to the effective implementation of genomic medicine. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldy008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5998955PMC
June 2018
6 Reads

Fortune and hindsight: gene patents' muted effect on medical practice.

Br Med Bull 2018 06;126(1):37-45

Law and Health Sciences, University of Surrey School of Law, Faculty of Law, Guildford, Surrey, UK.

Introduction: Physicians have long worried about gene patents' potential to restrict their medical practices. Fortune and hindsight have proven these worries exaggerated both in the UK and elsewhere. Neither current nor future medical practices appear to be impinged by gene patents, although they may be subject to future intellectual property disputes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldy009DOI Listing
June 2018
5 Reads

Conscientious objection in medicine: accommodation versus professionalism and the public good.

Authors:
Udo Schuklenk

Br Med Bull 2018 06;126(1):47-56

Department of Philosophy, Queen's University, John Watson Hall 309, Bader Lane, Kingston, Ontario, Canada.

Introduction: In recent years questions have arisen about the moral justification for the accommodation of health care professionals who refuse, on conscience grounds as opposed to professional grounds, to provide particular professional services to eligible patients who request that kind of service.

Source Of Data: Literature review.

Areas Of Disagreement: Central to concerns about the accommodation claims of conscientious objectors is that health care professionals volunteer to join their professions that typically they are the monopoly providers of such services and that a health care professional's refusal to provide professional services on grounds that are not professional judgements amounts to unprofessional conduct. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldy007DOI Listing
June 2018
10 Reads

CD36 and lipid metabolism in the evolution of atherosclerosis.

Br Med Bull 2018 06;126(1):101-112

Centre for Lipid Research & Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology for Infectious Diseases (Ministry of Education), Institute for Viral Hepatitis, Department of Infectious Diseases, the Second Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Background: CD36 is a multi-functional class B scavenger receptor, which acts as an important modulator of lipid homeostasis and immune responses.

Sources Of Data: This review uses academic articles.

Areas Of Agreement: CD36 is closely related to the development and progression of atherosclerosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldy006DOI Listing
June 2018
6 Reads

Past, present, and future of nitrous oxide.

Authors:
V Lew E McKay M Maze

Br Med Bull 2018 03;125(1):103-119

Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA,USA.

Introduction: For a drug that has been omnipresent for nearly 200 years, nitrous oxide's (N2O) future seems less certain than its illustrious past. Environmental concerns are coming to the fore and may yet outweigh important clinical benefits.

Sources Of Data: After determining the scope of the review, the authors used PubMed with select phrases encompassing the words in the scope. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldx050DOI Listing
March 2018
7 Reads

Retinal gene therapy.

Br Med Bull 2018 06;126(1):13-25

NIHR Biomedical Research Centre for Ophthalmology at Moofields Eye Hospital and UCL, 162 City Road, London, UK.

Introduction: Inherited retinal diseases are the leading cause of sight impairment in people of working age in England and Wales, and the second commonest in childhood. Gene therapy offers the potential for benefit.

Sources Of Data: Pubmed and clinicaltrials. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldy005DOI Listing
June 2018
5 Reads

The role of the food industry in health: lessons from tobacco?

Br Med Bull 2018 03;125(1):131-143

Department of Public Health and Policy, University of Liverpool, Whelan Building, Quadrangle, Liverpool L69 3GB, UK.

Introduction: In this review, we highlight poor diet as the biggest risk factor for non-communicable diseases. We examine the denial tactics used by the food industry, how they reflect the tactics previously used by the tobacco industry, and how campaigners can use this knowledge to achieve future public health successes.

Sources Of Data: Data sources are wide ranging, notably publications relating to public health, obesity and processed food, the effectiveness hierarchy and food industry denialism tactics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldy002DOI Listing
March 2018
10 Reads

Looking behind the bars: emerging health issues for people in prison.

Br Med Bull 2018 03;125(1):15-23

WHO UK Collaborating Centre for Health in Prisons Programme, Public Health England, UK.

Introduction: There are more than 10 million people imprisoned worldwide. These individuals experience a higher burden of communicable and non-communicable disease, mental health and substance misuse problems than the general population and often come from marginalized and underserved groups in the community. Prisons offer an important opportunity for tackling health problems in a way that can deliver benefits to the individual and to the community. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldx052DOI Listing
March 2018
7 Reads

Osteoarthritis of the hip and knee in former male professional soccer players.

Br Med Bull 2018 03;125(1):121-130

Department of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery, Campus Bio-Medico University, Via Alvaro del Portillo, 200, 00128 Trigoria, Rome, Italy.

Background: Professional soccer (PS) players are at great risk of osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee and hip.

Sources Of Data: Following the PRISMA guidelines, the key words 'osteoarthritis' and 'soccer' or 'football' were matched with 'players' or 'former' or 'retired' and with 'hip' or 'knee' on December 24, 2017 in the following databases: PubMed, Cochrane, Google scholar, Embase and Ovid. Only comparative studies reporting the prevalence rate of OA of both hip and knee joint in former PS athletes (fPSa) and age and sex matched controls were considered. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldy001DOI Listing
March 2018
9 Reads

Utility of intracoronary imaging in the cardiac catheterization laboratory: comprehensive evaluation with intravascular ultrasound and optical coherence tomography.

Br Med Bull 2018 03;125(1):79-90

Division of Cardiology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, USA.

Background: Intracoronary imaging is an important tool for guiding decision making in the cardiac catheterization laboratory.

Sources Of Data: We have reviewed the latest available evidence in the field to highlight the various potential benefits of intravascular imaging.

Areas Of Agreement: Coronary angiography has been considered the gold standard test to appropriately diagnose and manage patients with coronary artery disease, but it has the inherent limitation of being a 2-dimensional x-ray lumenogram of a complex 3-dimensional vascular structure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldx049DOI Listing
March 2018
12 Reads

Devices in heart failure; diagnosis, detection and disease modification.

Br Med Bull 2018 03;125(1):91-102

Division of Cardiovascular and Diabetes Research, Leeds Institute for Cardiovascular and Metabolic Medicine, University of Leeds, Clarendon Way, Leeds LS29JT, UK.

Introduction/background: Implantable cardiac devices are widely used in chronic heart failure (CHF) therapy. This review covers current CHF treatment with electronic cardiac devices, areas of discussion and emerging technologies.

Sources Of Data: A comprehensive search of available literature resources including Pubmed, MEDLINE and EMBASE was performed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldx051DOI Listing
March 2018
14 Reads

Current issues in the impacts of transport on health.

Br Med Bull 2018 03;125(1):67-77

Health and Social Surveys Research Group, Research Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, UCL, 1-19 Torrington Place, London WC1E 6BT, UK.

Introduction Or Background: Transport affects health in many ways. Benefits include access to education, employment, goods, services and leisure, and opportunities for incorporating physical activity into daily living. There are major inequalities: benefits generally accrue to wealthier people and harms to the more deprived, nationally and globally. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldx048DOI Listing
March 2018
8 Reads

Management of Zika virus in pregnancy: a review.

Br Med Bull 2017 Dec;124(1):157-169

Institute for Women's Health, University College London Hospital, 74 Huntley Street, London, WC1E 6AU UK.

Introduction/background: Since 2015, an epidemic of Zika virus spread across the Americas. This coincided with an increased incidence of microcephaly reported at birth in Brazil, with subsequent evidence of a causal association.

Sources Of Data: Systemic reviews, observational studies, public health organizations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldx038v1DOI Listing
December 2017
9 Reads