3,697 results match your criteria British Medical Bulletin[Journal]


Health inequalities are worsening in the North East of England.

Br Med Bull 2020 May 28. Epub 2020 May 28.

NIHR Applied Research Collaborative North East and North Cumbria, Cumbria, Northumberland and Tyne and Wear NHS Foundation Trust, The Clocktower Building, St Nicholas Hospital, Gosforth, Newcastle NE3 3XT, UK.

Background: The North of England, particularly the North East (NE), has worse health (e.g. 2 years lower life expectancy) and higher health inequalities compared to the rest of England. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldaa008DOI Listing

Posterior shoulder instability: a systematic review.

Br Med Bull 2020 May 18. Epub 2020 May 18.

Department of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery, Campus Bio-Medico University, Via Alvaro del Portillo, 200, 00128 Trigoria, Rome, Italy.

Introduction: This review aims to provide information on outcomes of surgical procedures for soft tissue or bony glenoid and/or humeral abnormalities in case of posterior shoulder instability.

Source Of Data: A systematic review of the literature according to the PRISMA guidelines was performed. A comprehensive search of PubMed, Medline, CINAHL, Cochrane, Embase, Ovid and Google Scholar databases using various combinations of the keywords 'shoulder', 'posterior instability', 'dislocation', 'reversed bony bankart', 'reversed Hill Sachs', and 'capsulolabral' was performed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldaa009DOI Listing

Non-insulin therapies in addition to insulin in Type 1 DM treatment.

Br Med Bull 2020 May 14. Epub 2020 May 14.

Department of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Clinical Pharmacology, Glasgow Royal Infirmary, 84 Castle Street, Glasgow, G4 0SF, UK.

Introduction: Complications of Type 1 diabetes (T1DM) remain prevalent due to suboptimal glycaemic control despite advances in analogue insulin, its delivery and technological advances in glucose monitoring. Intensive insulin therapy is associated with hypoglycaemia and weight gain. Non-insulin-dependent glucose lowering strategies may provide a strategy in improving glycaemic control without hypoglycaemia and weight gain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldaa011DOI Listing

The mental health status of asylum seekers in middle- to high-income countries: a synthesis of current global evidence.

Br Med Bull 2020 May 14. Epub 2020 May 14.

Mental Health and Suicide Prevention Research Group, Clinical and Health Sciences, The University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA 5001, Australia.

Introduction: The last 5 years have witnessed a significant increase in the number of people fleeing their countries of origin and seeking refuge in host countries. By the end of 2018, there were 3.5 million asylum seekers awaiting outcomes on their applications, the majority of whom were hosted by middle- to high-income countries. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldaa010DOI Listing

Targeted biologic therapy for asthma.

Br Med Bull 2020 May;133(1):16-35

Respiratory Medicine Unit and Oxford Respiratory NIHR BRC, Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7FZ, UK.

Background: Asthma is a common and potentially serious condition affecting 300 million people worldwide. For many years, we have relied on a one-size-fits-all approach to its management, using corticosteroids and bronchodilators for all symptomatic patients. However, with more recent advances, it has become clear that asthma is a heterogeneous condition with multiple different underlying pathways. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldaa004DOI Listing

The epidemiology of osteoporosis.

Br Med Bull 2020 May;133(1):105-117

The MRC Lifecourse Epidemiology Unit, University of Southampton, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton SO16 6YD, UK.

Introduction: With a worldwide ageing population, the importance of the prevention and management of osteoporotic fragility fractures is increasing over time. In this review, we discuss in detail the epidemiology of fragility fractures, how this is shaped by pharmacological interventions and how novel screening programmes can reduce the clinical and economic burden of osteoporotic fractures.

Sources Of Data: PubMed and Google Scholar were searched using various combinations of the keywords 'osteoporosis', 'epidemiology', 'fracture', 'screening', `FRAX' and 'SCOOP'. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldaa005DOI Listing

Obeticholic acid-a new therapy in PBC and NASH.

Br Med Bull 2020 May;133(1):95-104

Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, University Offices, Wellington Square, Oxford OX1 2JD, UK.

Introduction: Obeticholic acid (OCA) is a semi-synthetic hydrophobic bile acid (BA) analogue that is highly selective agonist of farnesoid X receptor (FXR), a key nuclear BA receptor, which induces expression of gut-derived hormones, in particular fibroblast growth factor 19. The resulting beneficial effects of OCA on glucose and lipid metabolism and particularly hepatic inflammation make it a candidate for the treatment of a variety of conditions including primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH).

Sources Of Data: In PBC patients who have not initially responded to ursodeoxycholic acid, OCA has been shown in double-blind controlled clinical trials to significantly reduce serum alkaline phosphatase. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldaa006DOI Listing

Things Fall Apart: the British Health Crisis 2010-2020.

Br Med Bull 2020 May;133(1):4-15

Department of Health Services Research and Policy, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, 15-17 Tavistock Place, London WC1H 9SH, UK.

Background: A very large number of studies have reported a stalling of health improvements in the UK since 2010.

Sources Of Data: Almost all relevant data are produced by the Office for National Statistics and other national statistical agencies.

Areas Of Agreement: There has been a dramatic slowdown in life expectancy and diverging trends in infant mortality in the UK as a whole and England and Wales, respectively. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldz041DOI Listing

Therapeutic potential of microRNA in tendon injuries.

Br Med Bull 2020 May;133(1):79-94

Department of Musculoskeletal Disorder, Faculty of Medicine, Surgery and Dentistry, University of Salerno, Via San Leonardo 1, 84131 Salerno, Italy.

Introduction: The regulatory role of microRNA (miRNA) in several conditions has been studied, but their function in tendon healing remains elusive. This review summarizes how miRNAs are related to the pathogenesis of tendon injuries and highlights their clinical potential, focusing on the issues related to their delivery for clinical purposes.

Sources Of Data: We searched multiple databases to perform a systematic review on miRNA in relation to tendon injuries. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldaa002DOI Listing

Understanding the genetic basis of congenital insensitivity to pain.

Br Med Bull 2020 May;133(1):65-78

Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, University of Cambridge, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, The Keith Peters Building, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 0XY, UK.

Introduction Or Background: Congenital insensitivity to pain (CIP) is caused by extremely rare Mendelian genetic disorders. CIP individuals demonstrate the unexpectedly severe consequences of painlessness. Although only a small number of causative conditions and genes are known, most have led to profound insights into human nociception. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldaa003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7227775PMC

The role of the immune system in tendon healing: a systematic review.

Br Med Bull 2020 May;133(1):49-64

Department of Musculoskeletal Disorders, School of Medicine and Surgery, University of Salerno, Via Salvator Allende 23, Baronissi, 89100 Salerno, Italy.

Introduction: The role of the immune system in tendon healing relies on polymorphonucleocytes, mast cells, macrophages and lymphocytes, the 'immune cells' and their cytokine production. This systematic review reports how the immune system affects tendon healing.

Sources Of Data: We registered our protocol (registration number: CRD42019141838). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldz040DOI Listing
May 2020
3.658 Impact Factor

Corrigendum to: Biomechanical issues of tissue-engineered constructs for articular cartilage regeneration: in vitro and in vivo approaches.

Br Med Bull 2020 Feb 11. Epub 2020 Feb 11.

Department of Musculoskeletal Disorders, Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, University of Salerno, Via San Leonardo 1, 84131 Salerno, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldaa001DOI Listing
February 2020

Challenges in molecular diagnosis of X-linked Intellectual disability.

Br Med Bull 2020 May;133(1):36-48

Center for Human Genetics, University Hospitals Leuven, 3000 Leuven, Belgium.

Background: Intellectual disability (ID) affects 1-3% of the Western population and is heterogeneous in origin. Mutations in X-linked genes represent 5-10% of ID in males. Fragile X syndrome, due to the silencing of the FMR1 gene, is the most common form of ID, with a prevalence of around 1:5000 males. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldz039DOI Listing

A case study of new approaches to address health inequalities: Due North five years on.

Authors:
Paul W Johnstone

Br Med Bull 2019 12;132(1):17-31

Public Health England, UK. Also Visiting Professor, Leeds Beckett University.

Introduction: When local councils took on responsibility for public health in England in 2013, leaders from across the north of England met to consider the scale of the challenge. As a result, Public Health England commissioned the Due North Report which outlined new approaches in tackling health inequalities. This second paper outlines what has been learnt in five years as a case study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldz037DOI Listing
December 2019

Biomechanical issues of tissue-engineered constructs for articular cartilage regeneration: in vitro and in vivo approaches.

Br Med Bull 2019 12;132(1):53-80

Department of Musculoskeletal Disorders, Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, University of Salerno, Via San Leonardo 1, 84131 Salerno, Italy.

Background: Given the limited regenerative capacity of injured articular cartilage, the absence of suitable therapeutic options has encouraged tissue-engineering approaches for its regeneration or replacement.

Sources Of Data: Published articles in any language identified in PubMed and Scopus electronic databases up to August 2019 about the in vitro and in vivo properties of cartilage engineered constructs. A total of 64 articles were included following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldz034DOI Listing
December 2019

Avian influenza viruses in humans: lessons from past outbreaks.

Br Med Bull 2019 12;132(1):81-95

Programme in Emerging Infectious Diseases, Duke-NUS Medical School, 8 College Road, Singapore 169857.

Background: Human infections with avian influenza viruses (AIV) represent a persistent public health threat. The principal risk factor governing human infection with AIV is from direct contact with infected poultry and is primarily observed in Asia and Egypt where live-bird markets are common.

Areas Of Agreement: Changing patterns of virus transmission and a lack of obvious disease manifestations in avian species hampers early detection and efficient control of potentially zoonotic AIV. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldz036DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6992886PMC
December 2019

Tendon healing in presence of chronic low-level inflammation: a systematic review.

Br Med Bull 2019 12;132(1):97-116

Department of Musculoskeletal Disorders, Via Salvador Allende, 43, 84081 Baronissi SA, Italy, Salerno, Italy.

Background: Tendinopathy is a common musculoskeletal condition affecting subjects regardless of their activity level. Multiple inflammatory molecules found in ex vivo samples of human tendons are related to the initiation or progression of tendinopathy. Their role in tendon healing is the subject of this review. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldz035DOI Listing
December 2019
3.658 Impact Factor

Liver abscess: diagnostic and management issues found in the low resource setting.

Br Med Bull 2019 12;132(1):45-52

Diagnostic Microbiology Development Program, 12152, Phnom-Penh, Cambodia.

Introduction: Liver abscesses are mainly caused by parasitic or bacterial infection and are an important cause of hospitalization in low-middle income countries (LMIC). The pathophysiology of abscesses is different depending on the etiology and requires different strategies for diagnosis and management. This paper discusses pathophysiology and epidemiology, the current diagnostic approach and its limitations and management of liver abscess in low resource settings. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldz032DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6992887PMC
December 2019

Gram-negative bloodstream infections and sepsis: risk factors, screening tools and surveillance.

Br Med Bull 2019 12;132(1):5-15

Population Health Sciences Institute, Newcastle University, UK.

Introduction And Background: Incidence of gram-negative bloodstream infections (GNBSIs) and sepsis are rising in the UK. Healthcare-associated risk factors have been identified that increase the risk of infection and associated mortality. Current research is focused on identifying high-risk patients and improving the methods used for surveillance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldz033DOI Listing
December 2019

The temporal effect of intra-articular ozone injections on pain in knee osteoarthritis.

Br Med Bull 2019 12;132(1):33-44

Department of Trauma and Orthopaedic Surgery, AOU San Giovanni di Dio e Ruggi D'Aragona, Via San Leonardo 1, 84131 Salerno, Italy.

Background: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a most common orthopaedic condition, often complicated by inflammatory features.

Sources Of Data: A systematic search in PubMed, Embase, Google Scholar and Scopus databases (to January 2019) was performed to define the effect obtained in patients with OA of the knee by injections of ozone, on pain and physical function. Six RCTs and 353 patients were included. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldz028DOI Listing
December 2019
1 Read

New concepts in C. difficile management.

Authors:
Y R Mahida

Br Med Bull 2019 09;131(1):109-118

Nottingham Digestive Diseases Centre, Queen's Medical Centre, Nottingham, UK.

Background: Clostridium difficile infection is transmitted via spores, and the disease is mediated via secreted toxins. It represents a significant healthcare problem, and clinical presentation can range from asymptomatic carriage to life-threatening pseudomembranous colitis.

Sources Of Data: publications in the field, with a focus on recent developments and concepts. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldz029DOI Listing
September 2019
3 Reads

Advances in the treatment of cytomegalovirus.

Br Med Bull 2019 09;131(1):5-17

Department of Medicine, Addenbrooke's Hospital, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

Background: Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a threat to immunologically weak patients. HCMV cannot yet be eliminated with a vaccine, despite recent advances.

Sources Of Data: Sources of data are recently published research papers and reviews about HCMV treatments. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldz031DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6821982PMC
September 2019

Community-acquired acute bacterial meningitis in adults: a clinical update.

Br Med Bull 2019 09;131(1):57-70

Hospital for Tropical Diseases, University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, 235 Euston Rd, Bloomsbury, London, UK.

Background: Acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) in adults is associated with a mortality that may exceed 30%. Immunization programs have reduced the global burden; in the UK, declining incidence but persistently high mortality and morbidity mean that clinicians must remain vigilant.

Sources Of Data: A systematic electronic literature search of PubMed was performed to identify all ABM literature published within the past 5 years. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldz023DOI Listing
September 2019
1 Read

Hydration Interventions for older people living in residential and nursing care homes: overview of the literature.

Br Med Bull 2019 09;131(1):71-79

Department of Nursing, Midwifery and Health, Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.

Introduction: Care home populations experiencing high levels of multi-morbidity and dementia require support from caregivers to meet their hydration requirements. This article provides an overview of literature related to hydration interventions and highlights gaps in knowledge.

Sources Of Data: This paper draws on UK-focused literature from Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts (ASSIA), CINAHL, Medline, Proquest Hospital Premium Collection, Cochrane Library and RCN databases on hydration interventions for older people living with multi-morbidity and dementia in care homes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldz027DOI Listing
September 2019

The counter-intuitive role of the neutrophil in the acute respiratory distress syndrome.

Br Med Bull 2019 09;131(1):43-55

Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB2 0QQ UK.

Introduction: Neutrophils are the primary effectors of the innate immune system but are profoundly histotoxic cells. The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is considered to be a prime example of neutrophil-mediated tissue injury.

Sources Of Data: The information presented in this review is acquired from the published neutrophil cell biology literature and the longstanding interest of the senior authors in ARDS pathogenesis and clinical management. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldz024DOI Listing
September 2019
1 Read
3.658 Impact Factor

Ethical and policy issues raised by uterus transplants.

Br Med Bull 2019 09;131(1):19-28

Department of Politics, Philosophy, & Religion, County South, Lancaster University, Lancaster, LA1 4YQ, United Kingdom.

Introduction: In 2014, Brännström and colleagues reported the first human live birth following uterine transplantation (UTx). Research into this treatment for absolute uterine factor infertility has since grown with clinical trials currently taking place across centers in at least thirteen countries worldwide.

Sources Of Data: This review summarizes and critiques the academic literature on ethical and policy issues raised by UTx. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldz022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6821981PMC
September 2019
1 Read

Optimal management of gestational diabetes.

Br Med Bull 2019 09;131(1):97-108

College of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences, National University of Ireland, Galway H91 TK33, Ireland.

Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is highly prevalent and has both short- and long-term implications for mother and infant.

Sources Of Data: Literature search using PubMed with keywords 'Gestational diabetes' and 'diabetes in pregnancy' together with published papers known to the authors.

Areas Of Agreement: The cornerstone of management is medical nutrition therapy with regular self-monitoring of capillary blood glucose levels and intensification of therapy if glycaemic goals are not achieved. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldz025DOI Listing
September 2019
3 Reads

Hip scores: A current concept review.

Br Med Bull 2019 09;131(1):81-96

Department of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery, Campus Bio-Medico University, Via Alvaro del Portillo, 200, 00128 Trigoria, Rome, Italy.

Introduction: During the past decades, several rating scales have been developed to assess the functional status of patients with hip pain.

Source Of Data: A search in Medline, PubMed, Cochrane and CINAHL was performedusing combinations of the following'hip', 'scoring system', 'scale', 'scores', 'outcome assessment', 'arthroplasty', 'arthroscopy' and 'clinical evaluation'.

Areas Of Agreement: A total 16 scoring systems are currently available for the evaluation of the hip. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldz026DOI Listing
September 2019
1 Read

Arthroscopic primary repair of the anterior cruciate ligament in adults: a systematic review.

Br Med Bull 2019 09;131(1):29-42

Department of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery, Campus Bio-Medico University of Rome, Via Alvaro del Portillo, 21, 00128 Roma, Lazio, Italy.

Background: The most common procedure to manage a torn anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is surgical reconstruction. Primary repair of the ACL is returning on the forefront in the management of acute ACL, aiming to be less invasive and preserve the original ligament. Several techniques have been reported; the present systematic review investigates the clinical outcomes of ACL primary repair in adults. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldz019DOI Listing
September 2019

Corrigendum to: The presence of residents during orthopedic operation exerts no negative influence on outcome.

Br Med Bull 2019 09;131(1):121

Queen Mary University of London, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Centre for Sports and Exercise Medicine, Mile End Hospital, Bancroft Road, London, UK.

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http://fdslive.oup.com/www.oup.com/pdf/production_in_progres
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldz020DOI Listing
September 2019
22 Reads

Corrigendum to: MicroRNA in osteoarthritis: physiopathology, diagnosis and therapeutic challenge.

Br Med Bull 2019 Jun 28. Epub 2019 Jun 28.

Department of Trauma and Orthopaedic Surgery, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria, San Giovanni di Dio e Ruggi D'Aragona, Via San Leonardo 1, Salerno, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldz021DOI Listing
June 2019
3 Reads

Hospices and palliative care for children: converging stories.

Authors:
Richard D W Hain

Br Med Bull 2019 06;130(1):81-88

Paediatric Palliative Medicine, Noah's Ark Children's Hospital for Wales, Cardiff CF14, Wales, UK.

Introduction: Children's hospices offer support to children and their families according to a model that is quite different from adult hospices and has evolved in parallel with specialist paediatric palliative medicine services.

Sources Of Data: Published research, Together for Short Lives.

Areas Of Agreement: The services hospices offer are highly valued by families. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldz012DOI Listing

Abnormal uterine bleeding.

Br Med Bull 2019 09;131(1):119

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldz008DOI Listing
September 2019

Immunohistochemical features of rotator cuff tendinopathy.

Br Med Bull 2019 06;130(1):105-123

Department of Musculoskeletal Disorders, Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, University of Salerno, Baronissi, Italy.

Background: Rotator cuff tendinopathy is a common musculoskeletal ailment in sedentary and athletic individuals. Various mediators of inflammation have been detected in human tendons: they are thought to initiate or progress the course of tendinopathy.

Sources Of Data: An online search was conducted using AMED, CINAHL, Embase, The Cochrane Library, PEDro and Pubmed, using the terms tendinopathy, tendon, tendinitis, tendinosis, histology, histopathology, immunohistochemistry, immunohistochemical, rotator cuff and pain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldz016DOI Listing
June 2019
7 Reads

Tremor.

Authors:
Tabish A Saifee

Br Med Bull 2019 06;130(1):51-63

UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London, UK.

Introduction Or Background: Tremor is one of the commonest movement disorders and can be disabling. There are many causes and treatment options include medications, adaptations, botulinum toxin injections and functional neurosurgery.

Sources Of Data: Pubmed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldz017DOI Listing
June 2019
11 Reads

Global nurse shortages-the facts, the impact and action for change.

Br Med Bull 2019 06;130(1):25-37

Centre for Health & Social Care Research, Joint Faculty of Kingston University & St. George's University of London, St. George's University of London, Cranmer Terrace, London ,UK.

Introduction: Nurses comprise half the global health workforce. A nine million shortage estimated in 2014 is predicted to decrease by two million by 2030 but disproportionality effect regions such as Africa. This scoping review investigated: what is known about current nurse workforces and shortages and what can be done to forestall such shortages?

Sources Of Data: Published documents from international organisations with remits for nursing workforces, published reviews with forward citation and key author searches. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldz014DOI Listing
June 2019
1 Read

Health impact of climate change in cities of middle-income countries: the case of China.

Br Med Bull 2019 06;130(1):5-24

Collaborating Centre for Oxford University and CUHK for Disaster and Medical Humanitarian Response (CCOUC), Division of Global Health and Humanitarian Medicine, The Jockey Club School of Public Health and Primary Care, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.

Background: This review examines the human health impact of climate change in China. Through reviewing available research findings under four major climate change phenomena, namely extreme temperature, altered rainfall pattern, rise of sea level and extreme weather events, relevant implications for other middle-income population with similar contexts will be synthesized.

Sources Of Data: Sources of data included bilingual peer-reviewed articles published between 2000 and 2018 in PubMed, Google Scholar and China Academic Journals Full-text Database. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldz011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6587073PMC
June 2019
3 Reads

MicroRNA in osteoarthritis: physiopathology, diagnosis and therapeutic challenge.

Br Med Bull 2019 06;130(1):137-147

Department of Trauma and Orthopaedic Surgery, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria, San Giovanni di Dio e Ruggi D'Aragona, Via San Leonardo, Salerno, Italy.

Background: Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most orthopedic condition. The pattern of gene expression and the transcription factors that exert control of chondrogenesis have been extensively studied.

Sources Of Data: A systematic search (up to July 2018) of articles assessing the role of microRNA (miRNA) in physiopathology, diagnosis and therapy of OA was performed, with the purpose of giving a critical perspective of the possibilities for diagnostic and therapeutic use of miRNA in the management of OA. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/bmb/advance-article/doi/10.1093/bmb
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldz015DOI Listing
June 2019
15 Reads

Neuroinflammation is a putative target for the prevention and treatment of perioperative neurocognitive disorders.

Br Med Bull 2019 06;130(1):125-135

Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care, University of California, San Francisco, 1001 Potrero Avenue Box 1363, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA.

Introduction: The demographics of aging of the surgical population has increased the risk for perioperative neurocognitive disorders in which trauma-induced neuroinflammation plays a pivotal role.

Sources Of Data: After determining the scope of the review, the authors used PubMed with select phrases encompassing the words in the scope. Both preclinical and clinical reports were considered. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldz010DOI Listing
June 2019
2 Reads

The presence of residents during orthopedic operation exerts no negative influence on outcome.

Br Med Bull 2019 06;130(1):65-80

Department of Musculoskeletal Disorder, Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, University of Salerno, Salerno Italy.

Background: Operative procedural training is a key component of orthopedic surgery residency. It is unclear how and whether residents participation in orthopedic surgical procedures impacts on post-operative outcomes.

Sources Of Data: A systematic search was performed to identify articles in which the presence of a resident in the operating room was certified, and was compared with interventions without the presence of residents. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldz009DOI Listing
June 2019
2 Reads

Return to sport following surgical management of triangular fibrocartilage tears: a systematic review.

Br Med Bull 2019 06;130(1):89-103

Edinburgh Orthopaedic Trauma Unit, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, 51 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom.

Introduction: This review aims to provide information on return rates and times to return to sport following surgical management of triangular fibrocartilage (TFC) tears.

Sources Of Data: A systematic search of CINAHAL, Cochrane, EMBASE, Google Scholar, Medline, PEDro, Scopus, SPORTDiscus and Web of Science was performed using the keywords 'triangular', 'fibro-cartilage', 'complex', 'tear', 'distal radio-ulnar joint', 'athletes', 'sports', 'non-operative', 'conservative', 'operative' and 'return to sport'.

Areas Of Agreement: In all of the 10 studies included, conservative management for 6 weeks to 6 months was the first-line treatment. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/bmb/article/130/1/89/5425250
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldz013DOI Listing
June 2019
1 Read

Biological and chemical changes in fluoroquinolone-associated tendinopathies: a systematic review.

Br Med Bull 2019 06;130(1):39-49

Department of Musculoskeletal Disorders, School of Medicine and Surgery, University of Salerno, Salerno, Italy.

Introduction: The present systematic review investigates the biological and chemical mechanisms that affect the health and structure of tendons following the use of fluoroquinolones (FQs).

Sources Of Data: A total of 12 articles were included, organized, and reported following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines.

Areas Of Agreement: Five mechanisms were identified: arrest of proliferation through a decreased activity of cyclin B, CDK-1, CHK-1, and increased PK-1; decrease tenocytes migration through decreased phosphorylation of FAK; decrease type I collagen metabolism through increased MMP-2; chelate effect on ions that influence epigenetics and several enzymes; fluoroquinolones-induced ROS (radical oxygen species) production in mitochondria. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldz006DOI Listing
June 2019
19 Reads

The West African Ebola emergency and reconstruction; lessons from Public Health England.

Br Med Bull 2019 03;129(1):79-89

Public Health England, North of England. Blenheim House, West One, Leeds, UK.

Background: West African governments, the WHO and wider international community were caught unprepared for the world's largest Ebola outbreak of 2014-16. This was an unprecedented challenge to local services and international agencies, since the emergency required high-tech molecular diagnostic services operated by specialist staff and a coordinated emergency response in addition to humanitarian support, which was not available at the beginning of the outbreak. Public Health England (PHE), as a new national public health agency was well placed to provide support for these needs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldz005DOI Listing
March 2019
7 Reads

An alternative to sexual reproduction: artificial gametes and their implications for society.

Authors:
Anna Smajdor

Br Med Bull 2019 03;129(1):5-11

Department of Philosophy, Classics, History of Art and Ideas, Faculty of Humanities, University of Oslo, Norway.

Introduction: Artificial gametes (AGs) are cells that have been 'reprogrammed' to function as sperm or eggs. Such cells may in the future enable people who cannot produce gametes, to have genetically-related offspring. In this paper, I consider the prospect of AGs in the context of declining birthrates and postponed parenthood across the Western world. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldz001DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Working together to deliver stratified medicine research effectively.

Br Med Bull 2019 03;129(1):107-116

Departments of Women's and Children's Health, and Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology, Institute of Translational Medicine, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK.

Introduction Or Background: Stratified medicine is an important area of research across all clinical specialties, with far reaching impact in many spheres. Despite recently formulated global policy and research programmes, major challenges for delivering stratified medicine studies persist. Across the globe, clinical research infrastructures have been setup to facilitate high quality clinical research. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldz003DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Scientific evidence on natural disasters and health emergency and disaster risk management in Asian rural-based area.

Br Med Bull 2019 03;129(1):91-105

Collaborating Centre for Oxford University and CUHK for Disaster and Medical Humanitarian Response (CCOUC), Division of Global Health and Humanitarian Medicine, The Jockey Club School of Public Health and Primary Care, Division of Global Health and Humanitarian Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.

Introduction: Disaster epidemiological studies indicate that Asia has the highest frequency of natural disasters. Rural communities are heavily impacted by natural disasters and have different healthcare needs to urban ones. Referencing Asian countries, this paper's objective is to provide an overview of health impacts and the current evidence for designing programmes and policies related to rural health emergency and disaster risk management (health-EDRM). Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/bmb/advance-article/doi/10.1093/bmb
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldz002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6413858PMC
March 2019
45 Reads

Hip fractures in children and adolescents.

Br Med Bull 2019 03;129(1):117-128

Department of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery, Campus Bio-Medico University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

Background: Femoral neck fractures account for <1% of the fractures in children, and are produced by high energy trauma. The most commonly accepted treatment for such fractures is gentle manual anatomical reduction and internal fixation, yielding a healing rate between 80% and 90%.

Sources Of Data: Electronic search through major web databases (Medline, Cochrane and Google Scholar). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldz004DOI Listing
March 2019
4 Reads