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    3599 results match your criteria British Medical Bulletin[Journal]

    1 OF 72

    Managing diabetic kidney disease.
    Br Med Bull 2017 Dec 5:1-12. Epub 2017 Dec 5.
    QE2 Hospital Howlands Welwyn Garden City, Welwyn GC AL7 4HQ, UK.
    Introduction: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is the leading cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD). This review covers the pillars of care essential for the management of diabetic kidney disease (DKD) including (1) early diagnosis, (2) improved glycaemic control, (3) treatment of hypertension, (4) identification and treatment of associated metabolic bone disease and (5) identification and effective management of dyslipidaemia and additional cardiovascular risk factors.

    Sources Of Data: We searched PubMed for articles using search terms: diabetic nephropathy, diabetic kidney disease, diabetes and chronic kidney disease. Read More

    Control of healthcare- and community-associated MRSA: recent progress and persisting challenges.
    Br Med Bull 2017 Nov 28:1-17. Epub 2017 Nov 28.
    Pathology Queensland Central Laboratory, Herston, Queensland 4029, Australia.
    Background: Healthcare adapted meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has spread to hospitals around the world over 50 years. More recently, other strains of MRSA have emerged with the ability to spread in the community and infect otherwise healthy individuals. Morbidity and mortality associated with MRSA remains high and its control in both the healthcare and community setting has proven challenging. Read More

    A review of systemic anticancer therapy in disease palliation.
    Br Med Bull 2017 Nov 28:1-11. Epub 2017 Nov 28.
    North Wales Cancer Treatment Centre, Betsi Cadwaladr University Health Board, Ysbyty Glan Clwyd, Rhyl LL18 5UJ, UK.
    Background: Systemic anticancer therapy (SACT) is a collective term to describe the growing number of differing therapies used in malignancy to achieve palliation. Improving symptoms, quality of life (QOL) and where possible quantity of life are the goals of these treatments.

    Sources Of Data: A comprehensive literature review was undertaken using Medline, Embase and the Cochrane database. Read More

    Outcome of ankle arthrodesis and ankle prosthesis: a review of the current status.
    Br Med Bull 2017 Nov 23:1-22. Epub 2017 Nov 23.
    Department of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery, Campus Bio-Medico University, Via Alvaro del Portillo, 200, 00128 Trigoria, Rome, Italy.
    Introduction: In advanced stages of ankle osteoarthritis (OA), ankle arthrodesis (AA) or total ankle arthroplasty (TAR) may be necessary. Our purpose is to compare AA and total ankle replacement for the surgical management of end stage ankle OA.

    Sources Of Data: We conducted a literature search of PubMed, Medline, CINAHL, Cochrane, Embase and Google Scholar databases using the terms 'ankle' in combination with 'OA', 'arthrodesis', 'arthroplasty', 'joint fusion', 'joint replacement'. Read More

    Faecal transplantation for IBD management-pitfalls and promises.
    Br Med Bull 2017 Nov 13:1-10. Epub 2017 Nov 13.
    Department of Gastroenterology, Queen Elizabeth Hospital Birmingham, Mindelsohn Way, Birmingham B15 2TH, UK.
    Background: Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) as a potential treatment for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an area of active current research, having been stimulated by the remarkable efficacy of FMT in treatment of Clostridium difficile-associated colitis.

    Sources Of Data: This review is based on data from numerous case series on FMT in IBD since 1989 and results of four RCTs in ulcerative colitis (UC); three fully published.

    Areas Of Agreement: Early signals of short to medium-term efficacy of FMT for UC are promising. Read More

    Perioperative management of the obese surgical patient.
    Br Med Bull 2017 Nov 13:1-21. Epub 2017 Nov 13.
    Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care, University of California, San Francisco, 1001 Potrero Avenue Box 1363, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA.
    Introduction: The escalation in the prevalence of obesity throughout the world has led to an upsurge in the number of obese surgical patients to whom perioperative care needs to be delivered.

    Sources Of Data: After determining the scope of the review, the authors used PubMed with select phrases encompassing the words in the scope. Both preclinical and clinical reports were considered. Read More

    Management of Zika virus in pregnancy: a review.
    Br Med Bull 2017 Oct 31:1-13. Epub 2017 Oct 31.
    Institute for Women's Health, University College London Hospital, 74 Huntley Street, London, WC1E 6AU UK.
    Introduction/background: Since 2015, an epidemic of Zika virus spread across the Americas. This coincided with an increased incidence of microcephaly reported at birth in Brazil, with subsequent evidence of a causal association.

    Sources Of Data: Systemic reviews, observational studies, public health organizations. Read More

    The rise and potential fall of pancreas transplantation.
    Br Med Bull 2017 Oct 27:1-9. Epub 2017 Oct 27.
    Oxford Transplant Centre, Nuffield Department of Surgical Science, University of Oxford, Churchill Hospital, Old Road, Oxford, OX3 7LE, UK.
    Background: The aim of this review is to bring pancreatic transplantation out of the specialist realm, informing practitioners about this important procedure, so that they feel better equipped to refer suitable patients for transplantation and manage, counsel and support when encountering them within their own speciality.

    Sources Of Data: Narrative review conducted in May 2017. OVID interface searching EMBASE and MEDLINE databases, using Timeframe: Inception to June 1, 2017. Read More

    Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), and their implementation: A national global framework for health, development and equity needs a systems approach at every level.
    Br Med Bull 2017 Oct 24:1-10. Epub 2017 Oct 24.
    Global Public Health, Public Health England.
    Introduction: The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are a set of global goals for fair and sustainable health at every level: from planetary biosphere to local community. The aim is to end poverty, protect the planet and ensure that all people enjoy peace and prosperity, now and in the future.

    Sources Of Data: The UN has established web-sites to inform the implementation of the SDGs and an Inter-Agency and Expert Group on an Indicator Framework. Read More

    The role of complement inhibition in kidney transplantation.
    Br Med Bull 2017 Oct 21:1-13. Epub 2017 Oct 21.
    Laboratoire d'Immunologie Biologique, Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de paris, Paris, France.
    Introduction And Background: The complement system which belongs to the innate immune system acts both as a first line of defence against various pathogens and as a guardian of host homeostasis. The role of complement has been recently highlighted in several aspects of kidney transplantation: ischaemia-reperfusion, antibody-mediated rejection and native kidney disease recurrence.

    Sources Of Data: Experimental data, availability of complement-blocking molecules (mainly the anti-C5 monoclonal antibody, eculizumab) and several trials in human kidney transplant recipients has led to some areas of agreement and some disappointment. Read More

    Friedreich's ataxia: clinical features, pathogenesis and management.
    Br Med Bull 2017 Oct 19:1-12. Epub 2017 Oct 19.
    Department of Molecular Neuroscience, Ataxia Centre, UCL Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London, UK.
    Introduction: Friedreich's ataxia is the most common inherited ataxia.

    Sources Of Data: Literature search using PubMed with keywords Friedreich's ataxia together with published papers known to the authors.

    Areas Of Agreement: The last decade has seen important advances in our understanding of the pathogenesis of disease. Read More

    Who bears the cost of NICE public health recommendations?
    Br Med Bull 2017 Oct 19:1-8. Epub 2017 Oct 19.
    Centre for Health Economics, University of York, York, UK.
    Background: In the UK, NICE issues guidance on public health initiatives. Failure to report which sectors of the economy are affected by their implementation precludes the appropriate accounting for the full opportunity costs, and has the potential to result in erroneous decision making and inefficient budgetary planning.

    Sources Of Data: We reviewed all NICE public health guidances available at the time of research, categorizing the sector on which the cost burden of the public health initiatives fall and the extent to which this burden was estimated. Read More

    Pharmacogenetics: a general review on progress to date.
    Br Med Bull 2017 Oct 11:1-15. Epub 2017 Oct 11.
    Institute of Cellular Medicine, Newcastle University, Framlington Place, Newcastle upon Tyne NE2 4HH, UK.
    Background: Pharmacogenetics is not a new subject area but its relevance to drug prescribing has become clearer in recent years due to developments in gene cloning and DNA genotyping and sequencing.

    Sources Of Data: There is a very extensive published literature concerned with a variety of different genes and drugs.

    Areas Of Agreement: There is general agreement that pharmacogenetic testing is essential for the safe use of drugs such as the thiopurines and abacavir. Read More

    Management of chronic pain through pain management programmes.
    Br Med Bull 2017 Sep 13:1-10. Epub 2017 Sep 13.
    Pain Medicine and Anaesthesia, Trust Headquarters, Mid-Yorkshire Hospitals NHS Trust, Aberford Rd, Wakefield WF1 4DG, UK.
    Introduction: Chronic pain carries significant impact and is difficult to treat with limited success. Pain management programmes (PMPs) use cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT)-based multidisciplinary rehabilitative approaches to drive functional improvement.

    Sources Of Data: A search was conducted using Medline and the Cochrane Library to identify published literature about PMPs or CBT to treat chronic pain. Read More

    Abnormal uterine bleeding.
    Br Med Bull 2017 Sep;123(1):103-114
    MRC Centre for Reproductive Health, University of Edinburgh.
    Introduction: It is not uncommon for a woman to suffer from abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) or heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) at some point during her lifetime. Once pathology is excluded, in practice, management needs to be individualised, taking into account the improvement of the woman's symptoms and quality of life.

    Sources Of Data: Peer-reviewed journals, governmental and professional society publications. Read More

    Paediatric nuclear medicine imaging.
    Br Med Bull 2017 Sep;123(1):127-148
    Department of Radiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, London WC1N 3JH, UK.
    Background: Nuclear medicine imaging explores tissue viability and function by using radiotracers that are taken up at cellular level with different mechanism. This imaging technique can also be used to assess blood flow and transit through tubular organs. Nuclear medicine imaging has been used in paediatrics for decades and this field is continuously evolving. Read More

    Think adult-think child! Why should staff caring for dying adults ask what the death means for children in the family?
    Br Med Bull 2017 Sep;123(1):5-17
    Visiting Professor of Advocacy for Children and Childhood, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham NG1 5LT, UK.
    Introduction: Bereaved children and young people in the UK are 'hidden mourners'.

    Sources Of Data: Review of primary and secondary evidence on childhood bereavement.

    Area Of Agreement: Children experience grief that varies according to the circumstance of death and their cognitive ability. Read More

    Genomic medicine and data sharing.
    Br Med Bull 2017 Sep;123(1):35-45
    PHG Foundation, 2 Worts Causeway, Cambridge, CB1 8RN, UK.
    Introduction: Effective data sharing does not occur in the UK despite being essential for the delivery of high-quality genomic services to patients across clinical specialities and to optimize advances in genomic medicine.

    Sources Of Data: Original papers, reviews, guidelines, policy papers and web-resources.

    Areas Of Agreement: Data sharing for genomic medicine requires appropriate infrastructure and policies, together with acceptance by health professionals and the public of the necessity of data sharing for clinical care. Read More

    Paediatric and maternal schistosomiasis: shifting the paradigms.
    Br Med Bull 2017 Sep;123(1):115-125
    Center for International Health Research, Rhode Island Hospital, 55 Claverick Street, Suite 101, Providence, RI 02903, USA.
    Background: In endemic areas, schistosomiasis causes both overt and subclinical disease in young children and their mothers, as well as in returned travellers.

    Sources Of Data: Key recently published literature.

    Areas Of Agreement: An action plan for paediatric schistosomiasis and female genital schistosomiasis (FGS) is needed with expanded access to praziquantel (PZQ) treatment required. Read More

    Transtendon repair in partial articular supraspinatus tendon tear.
    Br Med Bull 2017 Sep;123(1):19-34
    Department of Musculoskeletal Disorders, School of Medicine and Surgery, University of Salerno, Salerno, Italy.
    Introduction: Partial thickness rotator cuff tears (PTRCTs) are common, with an incidence between 17% and 37%, and a high prevalence in throwing athletes. Different surgical procedures are suggested when partial tears involve the articular portion of the rotator cuff, including arthroscopic debridement of the tear, debridement with acromioplasty, tear completion and repair, and lately transtendon repair. This systematic review describes the transtendon repair and examines indications, contraindications, complications and clinical outcome. Read More

    Pricing as a means of controlling alcohol consumption.
    Br Med Bull 2017 Sep;123(1):149-158
    Centre for Health Economics, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800, Australia.
    Background: Reducing the affordability of alcohol, by increasing its price, is the most effective strategy for controlling alcohol consumption and reducing harm.

    Sources Of Data: We review meta-analyses and systematic reviews of alcohol tax/price effects from the past decade, and recent evaluations of tax/price policies in the UK, Canada and Australia.

    Areas Of Agreement: While the magnitudes of price effects vary by sub-group and alcoholic beverage type, it has been consistently shown that price increases lead to reductions in alcohol consumption. Read More

    The contribution of genetics and environment to obesity.
    Br Med Bull 2017 Sep;123(1):159-173
    Research Center for Anthropology and Health (CIAS), Department of Life Sciences, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal.
    Background: Obesity is a global health problem mainly attributed to lifestyle changes such as diet, low physical activity or socioeconomics factors. However, several evidences consistently showed that genetics contributes significantly to the weight-gain susceptibility.

    Sources Of Data: A systematic literature search of most relevant original, review and meta-analysis, restricted to English was conducted in PubMed, Web of Science and Google scholar up to May 2017 concerning the contribution of genetics and environmental factors to obesity. Read More

    Dystonia.
    Br Med Bull 2017 Sep;123(1):91-102
    Reta Lila Weston Institute of Neurological Studies, UCL institute of Neurology, 1 Wakefield Street, WC1N 1PJ London, UK.
    Introduction: Dystonia is a clinically heterogeneous group of hyperkinetic movement disorders. Recent advances have provided a better understanding of these conditions with significant clinical impact.

    Sources Of Data: Peer reviewed journals and reviews. Read More

    Anticoagulation after coronary stenting: a systemic review.
    Br Med Bull 2017 Sep;123(1):79-89
    Department of Cardiology, China-Japan Friendship Hospital, No. 2 Yinghua Dongjie, Beijing 100029, China.
    Introduction Or Background: Anticoagulant therapy is mainly used to prevent patients from suffering coronary and systemic thromboembolism after stenting. Many studies have been done to formulate an optimized regimen of a post-PCI or long-time anticoagulant therapy. Recent advances in the selection and duration of anticoagulant agents will be conducive to the management of patients who are considered to need anticoagulant therapy after stenting. Read More

    Management of combined injuries of the posterior cruciate ligament and posterolateral corner of the knee: a systematic review.
    Br Med Bull 2017 Sep;123(1):47-57
    Department of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery, Campus Bio-Medico University, Via Alvaro del Portillo200, 00128 Trigoria, Rome, Italy.
    Background: Approximately 60% of posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injury are associated with a posterolateral corner (PLC) tear.

    Sources Of Data: We performed a systematic review of the literature according to the PRISMA guidelines. The following key words were searched on Medline, Cochrane, EMBASE, Google Scholar, and Ovid: 'posterior cruciate ligament' or 'PCL' with 'posterolateral corner' or 'PLC' and 'chronic'; 'injury'; 'management'; 'reconstruction'; 'outcomes'; 'complications'. Read More

    Is elimination of hepatitis C from the UK by 2030 a realistic goal?
    Br Med Bull 2017 Sep;123(1):59-67
    Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Hill's Road, Cambridge, CB2 0QQ, UK.
    Introduction: Highly effective, combination therapy for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is now available. Current cure rates are close to 100% and applicable to all patients irrespective of race, age, severity of liver disease or viral genotype. Remarkably for persistent infection, current treatment is recommended for as little as 12 weeks; recent studies suggest even shorter courses. Read More

    Physiotherapy management of lower limb osteoarthritis.
    Br Med Bull 2017 Jun;122(1):151-161
    Arthritis Research UK Primary Care Centre, Research Institute for Primary Care and Health Sciences, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG, UK.
    Background: Osteoarthritis (OA) of the lower limb affects millions of people worldwide, and results in pain and reduced function. We reviewed guidelines and Cochrane reviews for physical therapy interventions to manage the condition.

    Sources Of Data: Evidence from meta-analyses and systematic reviews was included. Read More

    Return to sport following stress fractures of the great toe sesamoids: a systematic review.
    Br Med Bull 2017 Jun;122(1):135-149
    Edinburgh Orthopaedic Trauma Unit, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, 5/6 Gladstone Terrace, Edinburgh EH9 1LX, UK.
    Introduction: This review aims to provide information on return rates and times to sport following stress fractures of the great toe sesamoids (SFGTSs).

    Sources Of Data: A systematic search of CINAHAL, Cochrane, EMBASE, Google Scholar, Medline, PEDro, Scopus, SPORTDiscus and Web of Science was performed using the keywords 'stress', 'fractures', 'great', 'toe', 'sesamoid', 'athletes', 'sports', 'non-operative', 'conservative', 'operative' and 'return to sport'.

    Areas Of Agreement: Fourteen studies were included: three studies reported on the outcome of conservatively-managed SFGTSs; thirteen studies reported on the outcome of surgically-managed SFGTSs. Read More

    Sudden cardiac death.
    Br Med Bull 2017 Jun;122(1):5-15
    Sarver Heart Center, University of Arizona, 1501 N. Campbell Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85724, USA.
    Introduction: Sudden cardiac arrest continues to be the leading cause of death in the industrialized world.

    Sources Of Data: Original papers, reviews and guidelines.

    Areas Of Agreement: Community programs for lay bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and automatic external defibrillation improve outcomes. Read More

    Expect the unexpected: screening for secondary findings in clinical genomics research.
    Br Med Bull 2017 Jun;122(1):109-122
    Department of Bioethics, Faculty of Medicine, Dalhousie University, 5849 University Avenue, Room C-312, CRC Bldg, PO Box 15000, Halifax NS, Canada B3H 4R2.
    Background: Due to decreasing cost, and increasing speed and precision, genomic sequencing in research is resulting in the generation of vast amounts of genetic data. The question of how to manage that information has been an area of significant debate. In particular, there has been much discussion around the issue of 'secondary findings' (SF)-findings unrelated to the research that have diagnostic significance. Read More

    Apoptosis and rotator cuff tears: scientific evidence from basic science to clinical findings.
    Br Med Bull 2017 Jun;122(1):123-133
    Department of Trauma and Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Salerno, Italy.
    Introduction: Excessive apoptosis has been hypothesized as possible cause of tendinopathy and tear in the tendons of the rotator cuff (RC). Different mechanisms and molecules play a key role in cell regulation. Biological interventions can affect the process of apoptosis to control the tendinopathy process, and may be useful to design new treatments. Read More

    Colour vision requirements in visually demanding occupations.
    Br Med Bull 2017 Jun;122(1):51-77
    Applied Vision Research Centre, School of Health Sciences, City, University of London, Northampton Square, London EC1V 0HB, UK.
    Normal trichromatic colour vision (CV) is often required as a condition for employment in visually demanding occupations. If this requirement could be enforced using current, colour assessment tests, a significant percentage of subjects with anomalous, congenital trichromacy who can perform the suprathreshold, colour-related tasks encountered in many occupations with the same accuracy as normal trichromats would fail. These applicants would therefore be discriminated against unfairly. Read More

    Effect of vitamin D deficiency in developed countries.
    Br Med Bull 2017 Jun;122(1):79-89
    Department of Endocrinology, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Birmingham B15 2TH, UK.
    Introduction: Vitamin D deficiency is common worldwide with adverse effects on skeletal health. In recent years, there has been great interest in non-classical actions of vitamin D. Basic research has uncovered actions in a range of non-skeletal tissues, and observational studies have identified inverse relationships with risk of a number of disease states including sarcopenia, obesity, the metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, cancer and autoimmune diseases. Read More

    The effectiveness of prolotherapy in treating knee osteoarthritis in adults: a systematic review.
    Br Med Bull 2017 Jun;122(1):91-108
    Department of Musculoskeletal Disorders, University of Salerno School of Medicine and Dentistry, Salerno, Italy.
    Introduction: Osteoarthritis (OA) often leads to symptoms such as pain, stiffness and decreased function. OA is treated with a wide range of modalities, both conservatively and surgically. Prolotherapy has been used to treat various musculoskeletal problems and has shown some promise. Read More

    Ethical issues of CRISPR technology and gene editing through the lens of solidarity.
    Br Med Bull 2017 Jun;122(1):17-29
    School of Law, University of Manchester, Williamson Building-2.13, Manchester M13 9PL, UK.
    Background: The avalanche of commentaries on CRISPR-Cas9 technology, a bacterial immune system modified to recognize any short DNA sequence, cut it out, and insert a new one, has rekindled hopes for gene therapy and other applications and raised criticisms of engineering genes in future generations.

    Sources Of Data: This discussion draws on articles that emphasize ethics, identified partly through PubMed and Google, 2014-2016.

    Areas Of Agreement: CRISPR-Cas9 has taken the pace and prospects for genetic discovery and applications to a high level, stoking anticipation for somatic gene engineering to help patients. Read More

    Surgical versus conservative management of Type III acromioclavicular dislocation: a systematic review.
    Br Med Bull 2017 Jun;122(1):31-49
    Department of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery, Campus Bio-Medico University, Via Alvaro del Portillo, 200, 00128 Trigoria, Rome, Italy.
    Introduction: The management of Type III acromioclavicular (AC) dislocations is still controversial. We wished to compare the rate of recurrence and outcome scores of operative versus non-operative treatment of patients with Type III AC dislocations.

    Source Of Data: A systematic review of the literature was performed by applying the PRISMA guidelines according to the PRISMA checklist and algorithm. Read More

    Stem cell therapy for ischemic heart diseases.
    Br Med Bull 2017 Jan;121(1):135-154
    Department of Cardiology, Second Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, 310009, P.R. China.
    Introduction: Ischemic heart diseases, especially the myocardial infarction, is a major hazard problem to human health. Despite substantial advances in control of risk factors and therapies with drugs and interventions including bypass surgery and stent placement, the ischemic heart diseases usually result in heart failure (HF), which could aggravate social burden and increase the mortality rate. The current therapeutic methods to treat HF stay at delaying the disease progression without repair and regeneration of the damaged myocardium. Read More

    Utilization of health care services by migrants in Europe-a systematic literature review.
    Br Med Bull 2017 Jan;121(1):5-18
    Department of Health Services Research, CAPHRI, Maastricht University Medical Centre, Faculty of Health, Medicine and Life Sciences, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.
    Introduction: Our study reviewed the empirical evidence on the utilization of health care services by migrants in Europe, and on differences in health service utilization between migrants and non-migrants across European countries.

    Sources Of Data: A systematic literature review was performed, searching the databases Medline, Cinahl and Embase and covering the period from January 2009 to April 2016. The final number of articles included was 39. Read More

    The ethics of reporting all the results of clinical trials.
    Br Med Bull 2017 Jan;121(1):19-29
    CSEP/School of Law, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL, UK.
    Introduction Or Background: The terms 'publication bias' and 'reporting bias' describe aspects of a phenomenon by which data from trials are not publicized, and so remain inaccessible. This may generate a false impression about the world; but those facts may have important implications for clinical decisions. Thus, the bias may leave patients worse off than they might be. Read More

    Measuring maternal mortality: a systematic review of methods used to obtain estimates of the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) in low- and middle-income countries.
    Br Med Bull 2017 Jan;121(1):121-134
    Centre for Maternal and Newborn Health, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke Place, Liverpool L3 5QA, UK.
    Background: The new global target for maternal mortality ratio (MMR) is a ratio below 70 maternal deaths per 100 000 live births by 2030. We undertook a systematic review of methods used to measure MMR in low- and middle-income countries.

    Sources Of Data: Systematic review of the literature; 59 studies included. Read More

    Ocular oncology: advances in retinoblastoma, uveal melanoma and conjunctival melanoma.
    Br Med Bull 2017 Jan;121(1):107-119
    Retinoblastoma Service, Royal London Hospital, Whitechapel Road, London E1 1BB, UK.
    Background: Retinoblastoma, uveal and conjunctival melanomas are important malignancies within the remit of ocular oncology. Outlined are the diagnostic features and management principles, as well as advancements in the field and current challenges.

    Sources Of Data: Original papers, reviews and guidelines. Read More

    Public health in England in 2016-the health of the public and the public health system: a review.
    Br Med Bull 2017 Jan;121(1):31-46
    Faculty of Education, Health and Wellbeing, University of Wolverhampton, Walsall Campus, Gorway Road, Walsall WS1 3BD, UK.
    Background: This article describes the current state of the health of the public in England and the state of the public health professional service and systems.

    Sources Of Data: Data sources are wide ranging including the Global Burden of Disease, the Commonwealth Fund and Public Health England reports.

    Areas Of Agreement: There is a high burden of preventable disease and unacceptable inequalities in England. Read More

    The effect of economic development on population health: a review of the empirical evidence.
    Br Med Bull 2017 Jan;121(1):47-60
    Department of Economics & Center for Modern Indian Studies, University of Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany.
    Background: Economic growth is considered an important determinant of population health.

    Sources Of Data: Relevant studies investigating the effect of economic growth on health outcomes were identified from Google Scholar and PubMed searches in economics and medical journals.

    Areas Of Agreement: Additional resources generated through economic growth are potentially useful for improving population health. Read More

    Implementing electronic records in NHS secondary care organizations in England: policy and progress since 1998.
    Br Med Bull 2017 Jan;121(1):95-106
    Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of York, Area 4 Seebohm Rowntree Building, York, YO10 5DD, UK.
    Background: A number of different policies have aimed to introduce electronic records into National Health Service (NHS) secondary care organizations in England over recent years. There has been little formal attempt to explore the overall impact of these policies (as opposed to evaluations of individual initiatives) and how they have developed and progressed over time.

    Sources Of Data: National NHS IT policy documents and evaluations of national NHS IT policy between 1998 and 2015. Read More

    The cancer risk related to meat and meat products.
    Br Med Bull 2017 Jan;121(1):73-81
    Institute of Food Research, Norwich Research Park, Colney, NorwichNR4 7UA, UK.
    Introduction: Meat has been classified by International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as carcinogenic to humans. The evidence and the implications for health are reviewed.

    Sources Of Data: Evidence was obtained from published reports and systematic reviews published before and since the IARC decision. Read More

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