Objective: To develop an in vitro model to allow electrophysiological recordings from pelvic nerve afferents of the urinary bladder in the rat and to ascertain the stability and reproducibility of the model with time.
Materials And Methods: Six male Wistar rats (body weight approximately 100 g) were used in the study. The bladder (complete with accessory organs of prostate and seminal vesicles), urethra and penis, together with the attached pelvic nerve and L6/S1 nerve trunk, were removed intact and placed in a specially designed recording chamber containing oxygenated Krebs solution maintained at 30 degrees C. Read More
Objective: To investigate the histological changes in bladder innervation in response to partial bladder outlet obstruction in a rat model.
Materials And Methods: Forty-eight adult female rats had their bladder outlet partially obstructed by ligating the proximal urethra over a 20 G angiocatheter; 18 shamoperated rats served as controls. Animals were killed after 1, 2 and 4 weeks, and their bladders evaluated using computerized morphometry. Read More
Objective: To examine the effect of different concentrations of calcium on the contractile responses of isolated strips of rabbit bladder detrusor to various forms of stimulation after 2 h incubation in the presence of substrate and oxygen depletion (in vitro ischaemia), followed by 1 h of recovery. The resultant contractile responses were correlated with the level of lipid peroxidation as determined by malonedialdehyde (MDA) concentration.
Materials And Methods: Isolated strips of rabbit bladder detrusor smooth muscle were incubated in Tyrode's solution containing different concentrations of calcium (0-5. Read More
Objective: To determine whether Dexon mesh, closely applied to the kidney, provides purchase for sutures to permit bladder/parenchymal apposition on autotransplantation and that, if this line of apposition were some distance from but surrounding renal papillae, urothelium would proliferate to cover exposed parenchyma to form a widely patent lumen; this should facilitate removal of the whole of an upper tract collecting system, retaining renal parenchyma alone.
Materials And Methods: To test this possibility and explore the practicability of the concept, nine dogs underwent bilateral nephrectomy followed by unilateral autotransplantation: the other kidney was discarded. Because the canine renal pelvis is intrarenal, the ureter was stretched maximally before passing fine scissors into the renal hilum to transect the collecting system as close to the kidney as possible in six of the nine dogs. Read More
Objective: To evaluate the potential of heat-killed Mycobacterium vaccae (SRL172) as a nonspecific immunostimulant and as an adjuvant to whole tumour cell vaccination in the rat model of prostate cancer.
Materials And Methods: SRL172 was used as a vaccine in the prevention and treatment of subcutaneous tumours in rats. Prevention experiments were conducted using subcutaneous MAT-LyLu tumours in Copenhagen rats, comparing vaccination with SRL172 alone, SRL172 plus autologous cells, and bacille Calmette-Guèrin (BCG) plus autologous cells before tumour implantation. Read More
Objective: To evaluate the surgical procedures required for anatomical reconstruction of the bladder and penis in the exstrophy-epispadias complex.
Patients And Methods: All primary exstrophy-epispadias repairs carried out by one surgeon between 1987 and 1997 were reviewed. Bladder closure consisted of full extraperitoneal mobilization, transpositional omphaloplasty, drainage with ureteric and urethral catheters and immobilization with a 'frog-leg' plaster-cast or 'mermaid' dressings. Read More
Objective: To evaluate the pharmacokinetics of both oxybutynin and its active metabolite, N-desethyl oxybutynin (NDO), when the drug is instilled directly into the bladder in children with myelodysplasia and neurogenic bladder disturbance, in whom it may improve continence and decrease the risk of upper urinary tract deterioration.
Patients And Methods: The study comprised 13 children (five girls and eight boys, mean age 9.3 years, range 1-15) with neurogenic bladders who were treated using clean intermittent catheterization and intravesical instillation of a sterile, pharmacy-produced solution of oxybutynin. Read More
Objective: To evaluate the impact of treatment for erectile dysfunction on the quality of life of men and their partners.
Patients And Methods: The study included 249 men with organic erectile dysfunction of more than 3 months' duration who self-administered transurethral alprostadil in an open-label, dose-escalating manner in an outpatient medical setting. Patients with a sufficient response (159) were randomly assigned in a double-blind protocol to either active medication or placebo for 3 months at home. Read More
Objective: To evaluate quantitatively and qualitatively the degree of sexual dysfunction in an unselected population of men attending a prostate-assessment clinic using a sexual-function inventory, and to ascertain the degree of correlation between sexual dysfunction, urinary symptoms and age.
Patients And Methods: In all, 168 men with symptomatic BPH attending a prostate assessment clinic were investigated prospectively using the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), BPH Impact Index (BPHII), a measurement of urinary flow rate and residual urine volume, and a sexual function questionnaire. The results were assessed using Spearman's rank order correlation to discern any correlations between the measured variables. Read More
Objective: To evaluate our experience with primary carcinomas of the female urethra, by analysing the impact of tumour variables and treatment on overall, disease-specific, local recurrence- and metastasis-free survival.
Patients And Methods: Between 1958 and 1994, 72 women (median age 60 years, mean 59, range 21-84) with primary urethral carcinoma were identified. They were followed for a median (range) of 85 (0-384) months. Read More
Objective: To compare the efficacy of three different doses of intravesical interferon alpha-2b (IFN alpha-2b) in reducing recurrence and progression rates in superficial grade II, transitional cell carcinoma (TCC).
Patients And Methods: Eighty-nine patients with primary or recurrent TCC stage Ta/T1, grade II, were randomly allocated into four groups after transurethral resection (TUR) of the tumour. Group A (20 patients) received no further treatment, serving as the control group; group B (22 patients) received 40 MU of IFN alpha-2b, group C (24 patients) 60 MU and group D (23 patients) 80 MU. Read More
Objectives: To report the outcome at a minimum follow-up of 7 years of a cohort of tumours that were asymptomatic at presentation and detected in a previous community-based screening programme (with reduced mortality and progression at 3 years of follow-up).
Patients And Methods: In the original screening, 2356 men aged > or = 60 years had a dipstick test for microscopic haematuria; 474 (20%) had positive results and of these, 317 agreed to further investigation. Twenty-one were found to have bladder tumours; this was reduced to 17 after pathological review. Read More
Objective: To evaluate the clinical outcome of female patients with spinal cord injury who underwent a variety of surgical procedures to treat urethral injury and incontinence from prolonged indwelling urethral catheterization.
Patients And Methods: The study included 18 female patients (mean age 53.6 years, range 17-75), most of whom had spinal cord injury, who had indwelling urethral catheterization for a mean of 3. Read More
Objective: To analyse the striated external urethral sphincter (EUS) and pelvic floor muscles using two different electromyography (EMG) techniques in women with dysfunctional voiding and/or urinary retention.
Patients And Methods: Fifteen women (mean age 38.2 years, range 18-61) with dysfunctional voiding and/or unexplained voiding dysfunction associated with urinary retention were examined neurologically and urologically; urodynamics and kinesiological EMG of the bilateral pubococcygeal and external urethral striated sphincter muscles were obtained. Read More