143,281 results match your criteria British Journal of Social Work [Journal]


Periconceptional intake of folic acid among low-risk women in Canada: summary of a workshop aiming to align prenatal folic acid supplement composition with current expert guidelines.

Am J Clin Nutr 2018 Dec;108(6):1357-1368

School of Nutrition Sciences, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

The Government of Canada and the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada both recommend a daily multivitamin supplement containing 400 µg folic acid (FA) for the primary prevention of neural tube defects among low-risk women from before conception and throughout lactation. Prenatal supplements marketed and prescribed in Canada typically exceed the recommended dose, usually providing ≥1000 µg FA/d. This high daily dose, coupled with staple-food FA fortification, has resulted in the observation of very high blood folate concentrations among reproductive-aged women consuming FA-containing supplements. Read More

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December 2018

Gene expression models based on transcription factor binding events confer insight into functional cis-regulatory variants.

Bioinformatics 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Centre for Molecular Medicine and Therapeutics, Department of Medical Genetics, BC Children's Hospital Research Institute, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.

Motivation: Deciphering the functional roles of cis-regulatory variants is a critical challenge in genome analysis and interpretation. It has been hypothesized that altered transcription factor (TF) binding events are a central mechanism by which cis-regulatory variants impact gene expression levels. However, we lack a computational framework to understand and quantify such mechanistic contributions. Read More

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December 2018

Sexual mixing in opposite-sex partnerships in Britain and its implications for STI risk: findings from the third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3).

Int J Epidemiol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Institute for Global Health, University College London, London, UK.

Background: The extent to which individuals are similar to their sexual partners influences STI-transmission probabilities, yet there is a dearth of empirical data, especially those representative of the population.

Methods: Analyses of data reported by 10 759 sexually active people aged 16-74 y interviewed for a British national probability survey undertaken in 2010-12. Computer-assisted self-interviews asked about partner numbers and characteristics of participants' three most recent partnerships (MRPs). Read More

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December 2018

Management of paediatric patients with medically-refractory Crohn's disease using Ustekinumab: A multi-centred cohort study.

J Crohns Colitis 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Division of Gastroenterology, Montreal Children's Hospital, Department of Paediatrics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Background: Ustekinumab (UST) is effective in the treatment of adults with moderate to severe Crohn's disease (CD). There is a paucity of data on its use in children.

Aim: To evaluate the response to UST in children with moderate to severe CD. Read More

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December 2018
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Single-Cell Transcriptome Profiling of Mouse and hESC-Derived Pancreatic Progenitors.

Stem Cell Reports 2018 Dec;11(6):1551-1564

Diabetes Research Group, BC Children's Hospital Research Institute, Vancouver, BC V5Z 4H4, Canada; Departments of Surgery and Cellular and Physiological Sciences, University of British Columbia, 950 28(th) Avenue West, Vancouver, BC V5Z4H4, Canada. Electronic address:

Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are a potential unlimited source of insulin-producing β cells for diabetes treatment. A greater understanding of how β cells form during embryonic development will improve current hESC differentiation protocols. All pancreatic endocrine cells, including β cells, are derived from Neurog3-expressing endocrine progenitors. Read More

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December 2018

Computerization and the future of primary care: A survey of general practitioners in the UK.

PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0207418. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

General Medicine and Primary Care, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, United States of America.

Objective: To describe the opinions of British general practitioners regarding the potential of future technology to replace key tasks carried out in primary care.

Design: Cross sectional online survey.

Participants: 1,474 registered GPs in the United Kingdom. Read More

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December 2018
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Usefulness of baseline statin therapy in non-obstructive coronary artery disease by coronary computed tomographic angiography: From the CONFIRM (COronary CT Angiography EvaluatioN For Clinical Outcomes: An InteRnational Multicenter) study.

PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0207194. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Radiology, NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital and the Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York, United States of America.

Background: The extent to which the presence and extent of subclinical atherosclerosis by coronary computed tomography angiography influences a potential mortality benefit of statin is unknown. We evaluated the relationship between statin therapy, mortality, and subclinical atherosclerosis.

Methods: In the CONFIRM study, patients with normal or non-obstructive plaque (<50% diameter stenosis) for whom data on baseline statin use was available were included. Read More

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December 2018

The Epidemiology of Otosclerosis in a British Cohort.

Otol Neurotol 2019 Jan;40(1):22-30

University College London Ear Institute, University College London.

Objective: To analyse the epidemiology of otosclerosis in a British cohort collected between 2011 and 2017.

Design: Retrospective cohort study.

Setting: Five UK ENT Departments. Read More

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January 2019

Paired surveys for patients and physiologists in echocardiography: a single centre experience.

Echo Res Pract 2018 Dec 1. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

G Collins, Cardiology, Whipps Cross University Hospital, London, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

The British Society of Echocardiography (BSE) highlights the importance of patient questionnaires as part of the quality improvement process, To this end, we implemented a novel system whereby paired surveys were completed by patients and physiologists for transthoracic echocardiography scans, allowing for parallel comparison of the experiences of service providers and end users. Anonymised questionnaires were completed for each scan by the patient and physiologist for outpatient echocardiographic scans in a teaching hospital. In 26% of the responses, patient found the scans at least slightly painful, and in 24% of scans physiologists were in discomfort. Read More

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December 2018

Learning to Air-Breathe: The First Steps.

Physiology (Bethesda) 2019 Jan;34(1):14-29

Section for Zoophysiology, Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University , Aarhus , Denmark.

Air-breathing in vertebrates has evolved many times among the bony fish while in water. Its appearance has had a fundamental impact on the regulation of ventilation and acid-base status. We review the physico-chemical constraints imposed by water and air, place the extant air-breathing fish into this framework, and show how that the advantages of combining control of ventilation and acid-base status are only available to the most obligate of air-breathing fish, thus highlighting promising avenues for research. Read More

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January 2019

Lower Body Negative Pressure: Physiological Effects, Applications, and Implementation.

Physiol Rev 2019 Jan;99(1):807-851

Physiology Section, Otto Loewi Research Center for Vascular Biology, Immunology and Inflammation, Medical University of Graz , Graz , Austria ; Department of Biomedical Physiology and Kinesiology, Simon Fraser University , Burnaby, British Columbia , Canada ; Battlefield Health & Trauma Center for Human Integrative Physiology, Combat Casualty Care Research Program, US Army Institute of Surgical Research, JBSA Fort Sam Houston, Texas.

This review presents lower body negative pressure (LBNP) as a unique tool to investigate the physiology of integrated systemic compensatory responses to altered hemodynamic patterns during conditions of central hypovolemia in humans. An early review published in Physiological Reviews over 40 yr ago (Wolthuis et al. Physiol Rev 54: 566-595, 1974) focused on the use of LBNP as a tool to study effects of central hypovolemia, while more than a decade ago a review appeared that focused on LBNP as a model of hemorrhagic shock (Cooke et al. Read More

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January 2019
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Hippocampal volume and vasculature before and after exercise in treatment-resistant schizophrenia.

Schizophr Res 2018 Dec 29;202:158-165. Epub 2018 Jun 29.

Department of Radiology, University of British Columbia, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: Schizophrenia is associated with poor cognitive function and elevated cardiometabolic disease risk. These health concerns may exacerbate neurocognitive dysfunction associated with hippocampal abnormalities, particularly hippocampal volume reductions. Regular exercise is thought to improve symptom severity, reduce depression, and improve cognition in schizophrenia, and may trigger exercise-mediated hippocampal growth. Read More

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December 2018

People With Advanced Cancer: The Process of Living Well With Awareness of Dying.

Qual Health Res 2018 Dec 12:1049732318816298. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

1 Universidad de Navarra, ICS, Grupo ATLANTES, Pamplona, Spain.

Literature suggests that it is possible to live well with advanced cancer but little is known about the process. In this article, we present a secondary analysis of experiences of living with advanced cancer ( n = 22) that refines the theory of "Living Well with Chronic Illness" for a different context and population. The refined theory explains the experience of living well with advanced cancer illuminating a five-phase iterative process: struggling, accepting, living with advanced cancer, sharing the illness experience, and reconstructing life. Read More

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December 2018

Monoclonal Antibodies for the Treatment of Melanoma: Present and Future Strategies.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1904:83-108

Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Genentech Research and Early Development, South San Francisco, CA, USA.

Metastatic melanoma is a dreadful type of skin cancer arising due to uncontrolled proliferation of melanocytes. It has very poor prognosis, low 5-year survival rates and until recently there were only handful of treatment options for metastatic melanoma patients. The drugs that were approved for the treatment had low response rates and were associated with severe adverse events. Read More

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January 2019
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Autism Spectrum Disorder and the Experience of Traumatic Events: Review of the Current Literature to Inform Modifications to a Treatment Model for Children with Autism.

J Autism Dev Disord 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Educational and Counselling Psychology, Faculty of Education, University of British Columbia, 2125 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z4, Canada.

Children with autism incur trauma and have increased vulnerabilities for experiencing trauma. This paper summarizes the current literature in the study of trauma in typically developing children and those with autism. A treatment model for children with autism, drawing on components from cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), trauma-focused CBT, and CBT to teach emotion regulation and treat anxiety in children with autism is suggested. Read More

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December 2018

Blindness and eye disease in a Tibetan region of China: findings from a Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness survey.

BMJ Open Ophthalmol 2018 17;3(1):e000209. Epub 2018 Nov 17.

British Columbia Center for Epidemiology & International Ophthalmology and Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.

Introduction: The only population-based survey of blindness and visual impairment of a Tibetan population was conducted in the Tibet Autonomous Region in 1999.

Methods And Analysis: The Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness methodology was used to conduct a survey of Kandze Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan Province of China in the Fall 2017. Using the 2010 census, 100 clusters of 50 participants aged 50 years or older were randomly sampled using probability proportionate to size. Read More

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November 2018

Progression of subclinical and clinical cardiovascular disease in a UK SLE cohort: the role of classic and SLE-related factors.

Lupus Sci Med 2018 17;5(1):e000267. Epub 2018 Nov 17.

Arthritis Research UK Centre for Epidemiology, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research, Faculty of Biology Medicine and Health, The University of Manchester, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Manchester, UK.

Objectives: We aimed to describe the rate and determinants of carotid plaque progression and the onset of clinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a UK SLE cohort.

Methods: Female patients with SLE of white British ancestry were recruited from clinics in the North-West of England and had a baseline clinical and CVD risk assessment including measurement of carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and plaque using B-mode Doppler ultrasound. Patients were followed up (>3. Read More

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November 2018

Geography and Environment Shape Landscape Genetics of Mediterranean Alpine Species Poiret. (Caryophyllaceae).

Front Plant Sci 2018 27;9:1698. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Área de Biodiversidad y Conservación, Escuela Superior de Ciencias Experimentales y Tecnología (ESCET), Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Madrid, Spain.

The study of the drivers that shape spatial genetic structure across heterogeneous landscapes is one of the main approaches used to understand population dynamics and responses in changing environments. While the Isolation-by-Distance model (IBD) assumes that genetic differentiation increases among populations with geographical distance, the Isolation-by-Resistance model (IBR) also considers geographical barriers and other landscape features that impede gene flow. On the other hand, the Isolation-by-Environment model (IBE) explains genetic differentiation through environmental differences between populations. Read More

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November 2018

Bone Environment Influences Irreversible Adhesion of a Methicillin-Susceptible Strain.

Front Microbiol 2018 27;9:2865. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

EA 4691 Biomaterials and Inflammation in Bone Site (BIOS), SFR Cap Santé (FED 4231), University of Reims-Champagne-Ardenne, Reims, France.

Prosthesis and joint infections are an important threat in public health, especially due to the development of bacterial biofilms and their high resistance to antimicrobials. Biofilm-associated infections increase mortality and morbidity rates as well as hospitalization costs. Prevention is the best strategy for this serious issue, so there is an urgent need to understand the signals that could induce irreversible bacterial adhesion on a prosthesis. Read More

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November 2018

Abortion-related care and the role of the midwife: a global perspective.

Int J Womens Health 2018 23;10:751-762. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Midwifery Program, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

Introduction: The International Confederation of Midwives (ICM) represents 132 midwifery associations in 113 countries. The ICM disseminates the Essential Competencies for Basic Midwifery Practice (EC) that describes the global scope of midwifery practice. The basic (core) and expanded (additional or optional) role of midwives in providing abortion-related care services was first described in 2010. Read More

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November 2018
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Correlation of serum levels of HIF-1α and IL-19 with the disease progression of COPD: a retrospective study.

Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 2018 21;13:3791-3803. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Gansu Provincial Hospital, Lanzhou, China.

Background: The aim of this study was to disclose the correlation between the serum levels of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α) and IL-19 and stable COPD.

Methods: The serum levels of HIF-1α and IL-19 were tested by ELISA. The relationships between their levels and clinical parameters of stable COPD patients were analyzed by linear regression methods. Read More

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November 2018

Enhancing our understanding of the time course of acute exacerbations of COPD managed on an outpatient basis.

Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 2018 20;13:3759-3766. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Respiratory Research and Rehabilitation Laboratory Lab3R, School of Health Sciences, University of Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal,

Purpose: Acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD) are associated with pulmonary/systemic changes; however, quantification of those changes during AECOPD managed on an outpatient basis and factors influencing recovery are lacking. This study aimed to characterize patients' changes during AECOPD and identify factors influencing their recovery.

Methods: Body mass index, the modified British Medical Research Council questionnaire, number of exacerbations in the previous year, and the Charlson comorbidity index (independent variables) were collected within 24-48 hours of hospital presentation (T0). Read More

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November 2018

Seasonal and ecohydrological regulation of active microbial populations involved in DOC, CO, and CH fluxes in temperate rainforest soil.

ISME J 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Microbiology & Immunology, Life Sciences Institute, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

The Pacific coastal temperate rainforest (PCTR) is a global hot-spot for carbon cycling and export. Yet the influence of microorganisms on carbon cycling processes in PCTR soil is poorly characterized. We developed and tested a conceptual model of seasonal microbial carbon cycling in PCTR soil through integration of geochemistry, micro-meteorology, and eukaryotic and prokaryotic ribosomal amplicon (rRNA) sequencing from 216 soil DNA and RNA libraries. Read More

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December 2018

Positive airway pressure for sleep-disordered breathing in acute quadriplegia: a randomised controlled trial.

Thorax 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Respiratory and Sleep Medicine, Royal North Shore Hospital, St Leonards, New South Wales, Australia.

Rationale: Highly prevalent and severe sleep-disordered breathing caused by acute cervical spinal cord injury (quadriplegia) is associated with neurocognitive dysfunction and sleepiness and is likely to impair rehabilitation.

Objective: To determine whether 3 months of autotitrating CPAP would improve neurocognitive function, sleepiness, quality of life, anxiety and depression more than usual care in acute quadriplegia.

Methods And Measurements: Multinational, randomised controlled trial (11 centres) from July 2009 to October 2015. Read More

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December 2018

Ethnic inequalities and pathways to care in psychosis in England: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

BMC Med 2018 Dec 12;16(1):223. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Centre for Psychiatry, Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, Charterhouse Square, London, EC1M 6BQ, UK.

Background: As part of a national programme to tackle ethnic inequalities, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of research on ethnic inequalities in pathways to care for adults with psychosis living in England and/or Wales.

Methods: Nine databases were searched from inception to 03.07. Read More

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December 2018

Quality improvement priorities for safer out-of-hours palliative care: Lessons from a mixed-methods analysis of a national incident-reporting database.

Palliat Med 2018 Dec 12:269216318817692. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

1 Division of Population Medicine, School of Medicine, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK.

Background:: Patients receiving palliative care are often at increased risk of unsafe care with the out-of-hours setting presenting particular challenges. The identification of improved ways of delivering palliative care outside working hours is a priority area for policymakers.

Aim:: To explore the nature and causes of unsafe care delivered to patients receiving palliative care from primary-care services outside normal working hours. Read More

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December 2018

Multivariate base rates for the assessment of executive functioning among children and adolescents.

Child Neuropsychol 2018 Dec 11:1-23. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

a Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation , Harvard Medical School , Boston , MA , USA.

This study provides observed base rates of low executive functioning test scores among healthy children and adolescents, stratifies those base rates by narrow intellectual functioning and age groupings, and provides normative classification ranges to aid the interpretation of performances on the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS) in clinical practice and research. Participants included 875 children and adolescents between 8 and 19 years old from the D-KEFS normative sample (48% male; 52% female). Among these participants, 838 had complete data and were included in the current study. Read More

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December 2018

Think twice, look twice: Eustachian valve endocarditis due to .

J Cardiol Cases 2013 Feb 11;7(2):e51-e52. Epub 2012 Dec 11.

Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, British Heart Foundation Glasgow Clinical Research Centre, University of Glasgow, 126 University Place, Glasgow G12 8TA, UK.

Eustachian valve endocarditis is a rare cause of infective endocarditis. We present the case of a 72-year-old woman in whom this was found after a lengthy search. We then go on to discuss the prevalence and some of the difficulties found in the investigation of this disease. Read More

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February 2013

The pK values of the catalytic residues in the retaining glycoside hydrolase T26H mutant of T4 lysozyme.

Protein Sci 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada, V6T 1Z3.

T4 phage lysozyme (T4L) is an enzyme that cleaves bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan. Remarkably, the single substitution of the active site Thr26 to a His (T26H) converts T4L from an inverting to a retaining glycoside hydrolase with transglycosylase activity. It has been proposed that T26H-T4L follows a double displacement mechanism with His26 serving as a nucleophile to form a covalent glycosyl-enzyme intermediate (Kuroki et al. Read More

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December 2018
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Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in urban Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) populations: Epidemiology and the impacts of kill-trapping.

Zoonoses Public Health 2018 Dec 9. Epub 2018 Dec 9.

Canadian Wildlife Health Cooperative, Abbotsford, British Columbia, Canada.

Urban Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) populations can carry the bacteria methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). There are numerous knowledge gaps in the epidemiology of MRSA in these populations that limit understanding of its ecology in urban environments. For example, fecal shedding of MRSA, which may increase environmental contamination, has been reported in other species; however, it is unknown whether Norway rats carry the bacteria rectally. Read More

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December 2018

Aerodigestive and communicative behaviors in anencephalic and hydranencephalic infants.

Birth Defects Res 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Linguistics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.

The aerodigestive and communicative behaviors of anencephalic and hydranencephalic patients are assessed from literature sources and are compared with documented neural structures present in the brainstem, subcortical, and cortical regions of the brain. Much of the data analyzed corroborate previous neurological studies, which focus on central pattern generators and development in model organisms. However, findings suggest that further research is necessary to determine which components of these systems support these behaviors. Read More

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December 2018

Homeostatic maintenance of non-structural carbohydrates during the 2015-2016 El Niño drought across a tropical forest precipitation gradient.

Plant Cell Environ 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Earth and Environmental Sciences Area, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, 94720, USA.

Non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs) are essential for maintenance of plant metabolism, and may be sensitive to both short- and long-term climatic variation. NSC variation in moist tropical forests has rarely been studied, so regulation of NSCs in these systems is poorly understood. We measured foliar and branch NSC content in 23 tree species at three sites located across a large precipitation gradient in Panama during the 2015-2016 El Niño to examine how short- and long-term climatic variation impact carbohydrate dynamics. Read More

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December 2018

Impaired pressure natriuresis and non-dipping blood pressure in Rats with early type 1 diabetes mellitus.

J Physiol 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

The British Heart Foundation Centre for Cardiovascular Science, The Queen's Medical Research Institute, The University of Edinburgh, 47 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh, United Kingdom, EH16 4TJ.

Key Points Summary: Type 1 diabetes mellitus increases cardiovascular risk: hypertension amplifies this risk. Pressure natriuresis regulates long-term blood pressure. We induced type 1 diabetes in rats by streptozotocin injection and after three weeks demonstrated a substantial impairment of pressure natriuresis: acute increases in blood pressure did not increase renal medullary blood flow, and tubular sodium reabsorption was not downregulated. Read More

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December 2018

Science for Policy: A Case Study of Scientific Polarization, Values, and the Framing of Risk and Uncertainty.

Risk Anal 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

The Institute for Resources, Environment and Sustainability (IRES), University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

It is well documented that more research can lead to hardened positions, particularly when dealing with complex, controversial, and value-laden issues. This study is an attempt to unveil underlying values in a contemporary debate, where both sides use scientific evidence to support their argument. We analyze the problem framing, vocabulary, interpretation of evidence, and policy recommendations, with particular attention to the framing of nature and technology. Read More

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December 2018

Heart failure with reduced ejection fraction: comparison of patient characteristics and clinical outcomes within Asia and between Asia, Europe and the Americas.

Eur J Heart Fail 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

British Heart Foundation Cardiovascular Research Centre, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.

Aims: Nearly 60% of the world's population lives in Asia but little is known about the characteristics and outcomes of Asian patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) compared to other areas of the world.

Methods And Results: We pooled two, large, global trials, with similar design, in 13 174 patients with HFrEF (patient distribution: China 833, India 1390, Japan 209, Korea 223, Philippines 223, Taiwan 199 and Thailand 95, Western Europe 3521, Eastern Europe 4758, North America 613, and Latin America 1110). Asian patients were younger (55. Read More

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December 2018
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Heat acclimation does not affect maximal aerobic power in thermoneutral normoxic or hypoxic conditions.

Exp Physiol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Automation, Biocybernetics and Robotics, Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana, Slovenia.

What is the central question of this study? Controlled-hyperthermia heat acclimation protocols induce an array of thermoregulatory and cardiovascular adaptations that facilitate exercise in hot conditions. We investigated whether this ergogenic potential can be transferred to thermoneutral normoxic or hypoxic exercising conditions. What is the main finding and its importance? We show that heat acclimation did not affect maximal cardiac output or maximal aerobic power in thermoneutral normoxic/hypoxic conditions. Read More

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December 2018
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Characterization of the Citrobacter rodentium Cpx regulon and its role in host infection.

Mol Microbiol 2018 Dec 9. Epub 2018 Dec 9.

Michael Smith Laboratories, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

Envelope-localized proteins, such as adhesins and secretion systems, play critical roles in host infection by Gram-negative pathogens. As such, their folding is monitored by envelope stress response systems. Previous studies demonstrated that the Cpx envelope stress response is required for virulence of Citrobacter rodentium, a murine pathogen used to model infections by the human pathogens enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli; however, the mechanisms by which the Cpx response promotes host infection were previously unknown. Read More

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December 2018
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A Computational Study of Mechanical Performance of Bioresorbable Polymeric Stents with Design Variations.

Cardiovasc Eng Technol 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Materials, Loughborough University, Leicestershire, LE11 3TU, UK.

Purpose: The study compared the mechanical behavior of bioresorbable polymeric stents with various designs during deployment, and investigated their fatigue performance under pulsatile blood pressure loading.

Methods: Finite element simulations have been carried out to compare the mechanical performance of four bioresorbable polymeric stents, i.e. Read More

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December 2018

District-level implementation of British Columbia's school food and beverage sales policy: a realist evaluation exploring intervention mechanisms in urban and rural contexts.

Can J Public Health 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Centre for Sustainable Food Systems, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

Intervention: British Columbia's (BC) provincial school food and beverage sales policy.

Research Question: What are the processes associated with district-level implementation of BC's school food and beverage sales policy?

Methods: We adopted a realist approach and a qualitative, multiple case study design that included three urban and two rural BC school districts. Data collection involved semi-structured interviews and questionnaires with health, education, and industry stakeholders, observations, document analysis and website scans. Read More

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December 2018
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The necessity of a holistic approach when managing marine mammal-fisheries interactions: Environment and fisheries impact are stronger than seal predation.

Ambio 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University, Campus Frescati, Svante Arrhenius väg 20 F, 106 91, Stockholm, Sweden.

Seal populations are recovering in many regions around the world and, consequently, they are increasingly interacting with fisheries. We used an Ecopath with Ecosim model for the offshore Central Baltic Sea to investigate the interactions between the changes in fish stocks and grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) population under different fishing and environmental scenarios for the twenty-first century. The assumed climate, eutrophication and cod (Gadus morhua) fisheries scenarios modified seal predation impacts on fish. Read More

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December 2018

Contemporary Management of Heart Failure in the Elderly.

Drugs Aging 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

British Heart Foundation Cardiovascular Research Centre, Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, University of Glasgow, 126 University Place, Glasgow, G12 8TA, UK.

The foundation of the treatment of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction is a number of pharmacotherapies shown to reduce morbidity and mortality in large randomised multinational clinical trials. These include angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, beta-blockers, mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists, and more recently, a combined angiotensin receptor blocker neprilysin inhibitor, sacubitril/valsartan. In select cases, digoxin, ivabradine and hydralazine with isosorbide dinitrate have a role to play in the treatment of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. Read More

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December 2018
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The Final Size of a Serious Epidemic.

Authors:
Fred Brauer

Bull Math Biol 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Mathematics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

In an epidemic of a serious disease, there is likely to be behavioral response that decreases the epidemic size considerably, and taking this into account may lead to estimates of the final epidemic size that are much smaller and more realistic than estimates that do not take this into account. Read More

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December 2018

Preparing to migrate: expression of androgen signaling molecules and insulin-like growth factor-1 in skeletal muscles of Gambel's white-crowned sparrows.

J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Department of Neurobiology Physiology Behavior, University of California, Davis, USA.

Migratory birds, including Gambel's white-crowned sparrows (Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii), exhibit profound modifications of skeletal muscles prior to migration, notably hypertrophy of the pectoralis muscle required for powered flight. Muscle growth may be influenced by anabolic effects of androgens; however, prior to spring departure, circulating androgens are low in sparrows. A seasonal increase in local androgen signaling may occur within muscle to promote remodeling. Read More

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December 2018

A lavender ABC transporter confers resistance to monoterpene toxicity in yeast.

Planta 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Department of Biology, University of British Columbia, Kelowna, BC, V1V 1V7, Canada.

Main Conclusion: Functional expression of a multidrug resistance-type ABC transporter from Lavandula angustifolia improved yeast resistance to geraniol, a monoterpene constituent of lavender essential oil. Plant ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are a large family of membrane proteins involved in active and selective transport of structurally diverse compounds. In this study, we functionally evaluated LaABCB1, a multidrug resistance (MDR)-type ABC transporter strongly expressed in the secretory cells of lavender glandular trichomes, where monoterpene essential oil constituents are synthesized and secreted. Read More

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December 2018

Salt-Enrichment Impact on Biomass Production in a Natural Population of Peatland Dwelling Arcellinida and Euglyphida (Testate Amoebae).

Microb Ecol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Geography, University of Exeter, Exeter, EX4 4RJ, UK.

Unicellular free-living microbial eukaryotes of the order Arcellinida (Tubulinea; Amoebozoa) and Euglyphida (Cercozoa; SAR), commonly termed testate amoebae, colonise almost every freshwater ecosystem on Earth. Patterns in the distribution and productivity of these organisms are strongly linked to abiotic conditions-particularly moisture availability and temperature-however, the ecological impacts of changes in salinity remain poorly documented. Here, we examine how variable salt concentrations affect a natural community of Arcellinida and Euglyphida on a freshwater sub-Antarctic peatland. Read More

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December 2018

Investigating the Pathogenicity of VSX1 Missense Mutations and Their Association With Corneal Disease.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2018 Dec;59(15):5824-5835

Department of Biology, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada.

Purpose: Despite numerous studies associating Visual System Homeobox 1 (VSX1), with posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy and keratoconus, its role in these diseases is unclear. Here we examine the pathogenicity of VSX1 missense mutations in vitro and in a mouse genetic model.

Methods: Vsx1 transcriptional repressor activity, protein stability, and subcellular localization activity, was examined using luciferase reporter-based assays, western blotting and immunolabeling, respectively, in transfected human embryonic kidney 293T cells. Read More

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December 2018

IBDoc Canadian User Performance Evaluation.

Inflamm Bowel Dis 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Department of Gastroenterology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.

Background: Fecal calprotectin (FC) is a stool biomarker that has been shown to be sensitive and specific for mucosal inflammation in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The test is limited by the requirement for patients to collect and return stool samples. A home-based FC test may improve test adherence. Read More

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December 2018

Development and user evaluation of a rare disease gene prioritization workflow based on cognitive ergonomics.

J Am Med Inform Assoc 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Centre for Molecular Medicine and Therapeutics, BC Children's Hospital Research Institute, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

Objective: The clinical diagnosis of genetic disorders is undergoing transformation, driven by whole exome sequencing and whole genome sequencing (WES/WGS). However, such nucleotide-level resolution technologies create an interpretive challenge. Prior literature suggests that clinicians may employ characteristic cognitive processes during WES/WGS investigations to identify disruptions in genes causal for the observed disease. Read More

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December 2018