16,365 results match your criteria British Journal of Radiology[Journal]


Microcalcification-associated breast cancer: HER2-enriched molecular subtype is associated with mammographic features.

Br J Radiol 2018 Jun 21:20170942. Epub 2018 Jun 21.

The First Affiliated Hospital, and College of Clinical Medicine of Henan University of Science and Technology , Luoyang , China.

Purpose: To investigate whether the mammographic features were different between breast cancer HER2-enriched molecular subtype and non-HER2-enriched molecular subtype.

Methods: 283 microcalcification-associated breast cancers were identified (HER2-enriched: n = 57; non-HER2-enriched: n = 226). Mammographic tumor mass and calcification features in relation to HER2 molecular subtype were analyzed. Read More

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June 2018
2 Reads

ADC histogram analysis of muscle lymphoma - Correlation with histopathology in a rare entity.

Br J Radiol 2018 Jun 21:20180291. Epub 2018 Jun 21.

1 Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany.

Objective: Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) is able to reflect histopathology architecture. A novel imaging approach, namely histogram analysis, is used to further characterize lesion on MRI. The purpose of this study is to correlate histogram parameters derived from apparent diffusion coefficient- (ADC) maps with histopathology parameters in muscle lymphoma. Read More

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Colon cancer screening with CT colonography: logistics, cost effectiveness, efficiency and progress.

Br J Radiol 2018 Jun 21:20180307. Epub 2018 Jun 21.

1 Centre for Medical Imaging, University College London , London , UK.

Colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality can be significantly reduced by population screening. Several different screening methods are currently in use, and this review focuses specifically on the imaging technique computed tomography colonography (CTC). The challenges and logistics of CTC screening, as well as the importance of test accuracy, uptake, quality assurance and cost-effectiveness will be discussed. Read More

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Breast compression across consecutive examinations among women participating in Breast screen Norway.

Br J Radiol 2018 Jun 21:20180209. Epub 2018 Jun 21.

1 Oslo Metropolitan University , Oslo , Norway.

Objective: Breast compression is used in mammography to improve image quality and reduce radiation dose. However, optimal values for compression force are not known, and studies has found large variation in use of compression forces between breast centres and radiographers. We investigated breast compression, including compression force, compression pressure and compressed breast thickness across four consecutive full field digital mammography (FFDM) screening examinations for 25,143 subsequently screened women aged 50-69 years. Read More

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Comparative effectiveness of 18F-FDG PET-CT and contrast-enhanced CT in the diagnosis of suspected large-vessel vasculitis.

Br J Radiol 2018 Jun 21:20180247. Epub 2018 Jun 21.

1 Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, St James's University Hospital , Leeds , UK.

Objectives: Large-vessel vasculitis (LVV) is a serious illness with potentially life-threatening consequences. F-FDG PET-CT has emerged as a valuable diagnostic tool in suspected LVV, combining the strengths of functional and structural imaging. This study aimed to compare the accuracy of FDG PET-CT and contrast-enhanced CT (CECT) in the evaluation of patients with LVV. Read More

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Detection of recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma after surgical resection: Non-contrast liver MR imaging with diffusion-weighted imaging versus gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR imaging.

Br J Radiol 2018 Jun 21:20180177. Epub 2018 Jun 21.

4 Biostatics and Clinical Epidemiology Center, Research Institute for Future Medicine, Samsung Medical Center , Seoul , Republic of Korea.

Objectives: To compare the diagnostic performance of non-contrast liver magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to whole MR imaging using gadoxetic acid for detection of recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after hepatectomy.

Methods: This retrospective study analyzed 483 patients who underwent surveillance with liver MR imaging after hepatectomy for HCC (median time interval, 7.7 months). Read More

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Imaging findings in essure related complications.

Br J Radiol 2018 Jun 21:20170686. Epub 2018 Jun 21.

1 Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Interventional Radiology, Caen University and Medical Center , Caen , France.

Tubal sterilization with Essure inserts has become a prevalent alternative to laparoscopic sterilization because of its minimal invasiveness. It is a well-tolerated ambulatory procedure that provides reliable permanent contraception without the risks associated with laparoscopic surgery and general anesthesia. Correct positioning of the Essure device is necessary to achieve the fibrotic reaction induced by the polyethylene terephthalate fibers, subsequently resulting in tubal occlusion usually within 3 months. Read More

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June 2018
1 Read

Peripheral vision: abdominal pathology missed outside the centre of gaze.

Br J Radiol 2018 Jun 21:20180142. Epub 2018 Jun 21.

Department of Radiology, Gastrointestinal Imaging Group, University Hospitals of Leicester, Leicester General Hospital , Leicester , UK.

Radiology misses have been the subject of much debate on both sides of the Atlantic in recent years. There is now greater focus in trying to reduce radiology errors by continuous education and changing the working environment to try and protect the radiologist, and ultimately the patient from potential harm. Duty of candour is a relevant and sensitive area. Read More

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Survival outcomes and patterns of failure after D2 dissection and adjuvant chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced gastric cancer: a retrospective study.

Br J Radiol 2018 Jun 21:20170594. Epub 2018 Jun 21.

1 Department of Radiation Oncology, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center , Shanghai , China.

Objective: The goal of the study was to analyze the incidence and patterns of failure in patients with gastric cancer who received D2 dissection and adjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT).

Methods: From January 2004 to October 2015, 324 patients with gastric cancer who underwent radical D2 resection followed by postoperative CRT were enrolled. Clinicopathological characteristics and patterns of failure were retrospectively reviewed to identify factors associated with survival and recurrence. Read More

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Imaging peritoneal metastasis of gastric cancer with 18F-fluorothymidine positron emission tomography/computed tomography: a proof-of-concept study.

Br J Radiol 2018 Jun 19:20180259. Epub 2018 Jun 19.

1 Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology Division, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

Objective: Peritoneal metastasis (PM) is the most frequent form of metastasis in gastric cancer (GC). The sensitivity of detecting PM by preoperative imaging modalities is low. Utility of positron emission tomography (PET) with 18F-fluorodeoxiglucose (FDG) for GC is limited, because diffuse-type tumors are not FDG-avid. Read More

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June 2018
1 Read

Early and delayed phases of contrast-enhanced CT for evaluating patients with malignant pleural effusion. Results of pairwise comparison by multiple observers.

Br J Radiol 2018 Jun 19:20180254. Epub 2018 Jun 19.

2 Department of Radiology, Hospital General Universitario de Alicante , Alicante , Spain.

Objective: To compare images from early and delayed phases of contrast-enhanced thoracic CT for assessing pleural thickening or nodules in a series of patients with malignant pleural effusions.

Methods: Blinded images from 36 patients with malignant pleural effusions showing pleural lesions in both early (35 s delayed) and delayed (70 s delayed) phases of thoracic and abdominal contrast-enhanced CT scan were retrospectively assessed by six observers. First, images were individually scored in a six-point scale grading the quality of visualization of pleural findings such as pleural thickening or nodules. Read More

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An investigation into the validity of utilising the CDRAD 2.0 phantom for optimisation studies in digital radiography.

Br J Radiol 2018 Jun 15:20180317. Epub 2018 Jun 15.

1 School of Health Sciences, University of Salford , Salford , United Kingdom.

Objectives: To determine if a relationship exists between low contrast detail (LCD) detectability using the CDRAD 2.0 phantom, visual measures of image quality (IQ) and simulated lesion visibility (LV) when performing digital chest radiography (CXR).

Methods: Using a range of acquisition parameters, a CDRAD 2. Read More

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An appreciation of the science and philanthropy of sir Oliver Scott, founder of the Gray Cancer Institute.

Br J Radiol 2018 Jun 15:20180402. Epub 2018 Jun 15.

1 Formerly of the Cancer Research UK Gray Cancer Institute, Mount Vernon Hospital , Northwood , UK.

This Commentary focuses on the landmark paper about hypoxia in radiotherapy by Gray, Scott et al published in 1953. By then, it was known that hypoxic regions in tumours could make them resistant to radiation treatment and that this was a possible cause of failure. The paper proposed that oxygen breathing could substantially decrease this resistance without incurring significant additional damage to normal tissues, thus reducing the likelihood of recurrence. Read More

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June 2018
1 Read

Technical note: CT-guided percutaneous core biopsy for assessment of morphologically normal adrenal glands showing high FDG uptake in patients with lung cancer.

Br J Radiol 2018 Jun 15:20180090. Epub 2018 Jun 15.

3 Department of Pathology, Groupe Hospitalier Cochin Broca Hôtel-Dieu - Université Paris Descartes , 75014 Paris , FRANCE.

Objectives: Increased FDG uptake in morphologically normal adrenal glands on PET-CT is a diagnostic challenge with major implications on treatment. The purpose of this retrospective study was to report our experience of CT-guided percutaneous core biopsy of morphologically normal adrenal glands showing increased FDG uptake in a context of lung cancer.

Methods: Biopsies for non-enlarged adrenal glands showing increased FDG uptake in lung cancer patients performed at our institution from December 2014 to December 2016 were retrospectively analyzed. Read More

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The effect of preparative solid food status on the occurrence of nausea, vomiting and aspiration symptoms in enhanced CT examination: prospective observational study.

Br J Radiol 2018 Jun 15:20180198. Epub 2018 Jun 15.

1 Department of Radiology, The Third Affiliated Hospital, Army Medical University , Chongqing , China.

Objectives: To evaluate the correlation between preparative solid food status and the incidence of nausea, vomiting and aspiration symptoms in contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) examination, and to provide direction for standardizing the preparative dietary policies.

Methods: Patients who underwent routine enhanced CT examination at our hospital between June 2015 and June 2017 (110,836 cases) were enrolled and allocated into solid food fasting group (51,807 cases) and solid food non-fasting group (59,029 cases). Fluids ingestion was not restricted for any case. Read More

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June 2018
2 Reads

Adjuvant chemoradiotherapy versus adjuvant chemotherapy for R1 resected gastric cancer: a retrospective cohort study.

Br J Radiol 2018 Jun 15:20180276. Epub 2018 Jun 15.

1 Department of Radiation Oncology, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center , Shanghai , PR China.

Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of adjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) and adjuvant chemotherapy (ChT) on the survival of locally advanced gastric cancer (LAGC) patients treated with R1 resection.

Methods: The patients with LAGC and microscopically positive margins after a potentially curative gastrectomy in our hospital were retrospectively identified. The patients who were referred to our hospital for adjuvant CRT after an R1 resection elsewhere were also included. Read More

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June 2018
2 Reads

Radionuclide bone SPECT/CT in the evaluation of knee pain: comparing two-phase bone scintigraphy, SPECT and SPECT/CT.

Br J Radiol 2018 Jun 15:20180168. Epub 2018 Jun 15.

1 Department of Nuclear Medicine, Guy's and St Thomas' Hospital NHS Foundation Trust , London , United Kingdom.

Objective: To assess the role of SPECT/CT in the evaluation of knee pain as well as comparing bone scintigraphy (BS), SPECT and SPECT/CT, and assessing the incremental value of SPECT/CT.

Methods: BS, SPECT and SPECT/CT of patients with knee pain (39 patients, 65 knees, 105 lesions) were directly compared for lesion detection, localisation and characterisation using lesion-based, knee-based and patient-based analyses in this retrospective study.

Results: Lesion detection: BS (91. Read More

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Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging and radiogenomic biomarkers for gliomas characterisation: a systematic review.

Br J Radiol 2018 Jun 14:20170930. Epub 2018 Jun 14.

1 Department of Biomedical Imaging, University of Malaya , Kuala Lumpur , Malaysia.

Objective:   The diversity of tumour characteristics among glioma patients, even within same tumour grade, is a big challenge for disease outcome prediction. A possible approach for improved radiological imaging could come from combining information obtained at molecular level. This review assembles recent evidence highlighting the value of using radiogenomic biomarkers to infer underlying biology of gliomas and correlation with imaging features. Read More

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The diagnostic value of combining conventional, diffusion-weighted imaging and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI for salivary gland tumors.

Br J Radiol 2018 Jun 14:20170707. Epub 2018 Jun 14.

1 Department of Radiology, Jining NO.1 People's Hospital , Jining , China.

Objectives: To determine the diagnostic value of combining conventional MRI, diffusion-weighted (DWI) and dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) in salivary gland tumors.

Methods: Forty-five patients with salivary gland tumors were evaluated with conventional MRI, DWI and DCE-MRI prior to surgery and confirmed by pathologic findings. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) was calculated from DWI that was obtained with a factor of 0 and 1000 s/mm. Read More

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Ovarian serous surface papillary borderline tumor: characteristic imaging features with clinicopathological correlation.

Br J Radiol 2018 Jun 21:20170689. Epub 2018 Jun 21.

3 Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital , Gyeonggi-do , Korea.

Objective: To retrospectively evaluate the clinical, pathological, and imaging features of ovarian serous surface papillary borderline tumors (SSPBTs).

Methods: Imaging features were analyzed, including the tumor size, laterality, tumor spread and the presence of ascites. Morphological nature (encased normal ovary, characteristics on MRI) and contrast enhancement (increased flow on Doppler ultrasound) were also evaluated. Read More

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Differentiating solid, non-macroscopic fat containing, enhancing renal masses using fast Fourier transform analysis of multiphase CT.

Br J Radiol 2018 Jun 21:20170789. Epub 2018 Jun 21.

1 Department of Radiology, University of Southern California , Los Angeles, CA , USA.

Objective: To test the feasibility of two-dimensional fast Fourier transforms (FFT)-based imaging metrics in differentiating solid, non-macroscopic fat containing, enhancing renal masses using contrast-enhanced CT images. We quantify image-based intratumoral textural variations (indicator of tumor heterogeneity) using frequency-based (FFT) imaging metrics.

Methods: In this Institutional Review Board approved, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act -compliant, retrospective case-control study, we evaluated 156 patients with predominantly solid, non-macroscopic fat containing, enhancing renal masses identified between June 2009 and June 2016. Read More

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June 2018
1 Read

Oesophageal stenting: Status quo and future challenges.

Br J Radiol 2018 Jun 11:20170935. Epub 2018 Jun 11.

4 Department of Radiology, The Christie NHS Foundation Trust , Manchester , UK.

Oesophageal stents are widely used for palliating dysphagia from malignant obstruction. They are also used with increasing frequency in the treatment of oesophageal perforation, as well as benign strictures from a variety of causes. Improved oncological treatments have led to prolonged survival of patients treated with palliative intent; as a consequence, stents need to function and last longer in order to avoid repeat procedures. Read More

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Relationship between MRI quantified small bowel motility and abdominal symptoms in Crohn's disease patients-a validation study.

Br J Radiol 2018 Jun 19:20170914. Epub 2018 Jun 19.

1 Centre for Medical Imaging, University College London (UCL) , London , United Kingdom.

Objective: Previous single-centre MRI data suggests an inverse correlation between normal small bowel motility variance and abdominal symptoms in Crohn's disease (CD) patients. The current work prospectively assesses this observation in a larger, two-centre study.

Methods: MR enterography datasets were analysed from 82 patients (38 male, aged 16-68), who completed a contemporaneous Harvey-Bradshaw index (HBI) questionnaire. Read More

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Radiation biology and oncology in the genomic era.

Br J Radiol 2018 Jun 14:20170949. Epub 2018 Jun 14.

6 Departments of Radiation Oncology, Genetics and Genomic Sciences, and Dermatology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai , New York, NY , USA.

Radiobiology research is building the foundation for applying genomics in precision radiation oncology. Advances in high-throughput approaches will underpin increased understanding of radiosensitivity and the development of future predictive assays for clinical application. There is an established contribution of genetics as a risk factor for radiotherapy side effects. Read More

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Diagnostic accuracy of image guided biopsies in small (<4cm) renal masses with implications for active surveillance: A systematic review.

Br J Radiol 2018 Jun 11:20170761. Epub 2018 Jun 11.

1 Academic Section of Urology, Division of Cancer, School of Medicine, Ninewells Hospital, Dundee, UK.

Objective: To determine the safety and diagnostic accuracy of renal tumour biopsies in a defined population of small renal masses only <4cm using 3x2 table, intention to diagnose approach. 3x2 table approach examines indeterminate results as a separate category rather than pushing these through traditional 2x2 table (four-cell matrix) approach.

Methods: A highly sensitive search was performed in the Cochrane Library, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects; MEDLINE and MEDLINE in Process, EMBASE and conference proceedings (1966 to 2016) for the acquisition of data on the diagnostic accuracy and complications of RTB in patients with SRM <4cm. Read More

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A comparison of bladder volumes based on treatment planning Computed Tomography and BladderScan® BVI 6100 ultrasound device in a prostate radiation therapy population.

Br J Radiol 2018 Jun 11:20180160. Epub 2018 Jun 11.

2 Cancer Trials Ireland (formerly ICORG) , Dublin , Ireland.

Objective:   The aim of this study is to investigate if a handheld ultrasound device (BladderScan BVI 6100) can accurately measure bladder volumes in prostate radiation therapy (RT) patients.

Methods: A comparison was made of contoured bladder volumes based on treatment planning Computed Tomography (TPCT) and BladderScan BVI 6100 ultrasound device in a large prostate RT population. Three bladder volume measurements were taken using the BVI device on prostate RT patients immediately prior to TPCT (n = 190). Read More

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Diffusion-weighted imaging for staging chronic kidney disease: a meta-analysis.

Br J Radiol 2018 Jun 21:20170952. Epub 2018 Jun 21.

1 Department of Diagnostic Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University , Xi'an, Shaanxi Province , China.

Objective: To evaluate stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) by apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) obtained from diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) using a meta-analysis.

Methods: Literature databases were searched from PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane and Embase to identify relevant articles about DWI in CKD between 1999 and 2017. ADC values were extracted from the healthy group and CKD patients with different stages. Read More

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The influence of endorectal filling on rectal cancer staging with MRI.

Br J Radiol 2018 Jun 14:20180205. Epub 2018 Jun 14.

3 Department of Radiology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute , Amsterdam , The Netherlands.

Objective: To assess the influence of endorectal filling (EF) on rectal cancer staging.

Methods: 47 patients who underwent a staging MRI of rectal cancer in the period from 2011 to 2014 were included. The MRI protocol included T weighted fast spin echo sequences without and with EF at 3 T (EF-MRI). Read More

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A perspective on a rapid and radiation-free tracer imaging modality, magnetic particle imaging, with promise for clinical translation.

Br J Radiol 2018 Jun 21:20180326. Epub 2018 Jun 21.

1 Department of Bioengineering, University of California , Berkeley, CA , USA.

Magnetic particle imaging (MPI), introduced at the beginning of the twenty-first century, is emerging as a promising diagnostic tool in addition to the current repertoire of medical imaging modalities. Using superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIOs), that are available for clinical use, MPI produces high contrast and highly sensitive tomographic images with absolute quantitation, no tissue attenuation at-depth, and there are no view limitations. The MPI signal is governed by the Brownian and Néel relaxation behavior of the particles. Read More

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Dosimetric evaluation of VMAT for palliative radiotherapy for non-small cell lung carcinoma.

Br J Radiol 2018 Jun 14:20180146. Epub 2018 Jun 14.

2 Department of Radiotherapy Physics, Northern Centre for Cancer Care, The Newcastle upon Tyne Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust , Newcastle upon Tyne , UK.

Objective: To compare the dosimetric consequences of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) for high-dose palliative thoracic radiotherapy through comparison with conventionally used isocentric parallel opposed pair (POP) of fields.

Methods: 20 consecutive patients with non-small cell lung cancer who received 36 Gy in 12 fractions using a POP technique were re-planned using a single VMAT arc. Salient dosimetric parameters were compared between the plans using a paired t-test. Read More

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Gene expression profiling of breast cancer cell lines treated with proton and electron radiations.

Br J Radiol 2018 Jun 11:20170934. Epub 2018 Jun 11.

1 Institute of Molecular Bioimaging and Physiology, IBFM-CNR, Cefalù, Italy.

Objective: Technological advances in radiation therapy are evolving with the use of hadrons, such as protons, indicated for tumors where conventional radiotherapy does not give significant advantages or for tumors located in sensitive regions, which need the maximum of dose-saving of the surrounding healthy tissues. The genomic response to conventional and non conventional Linear Energy Transfer exposure is a poor investigated topic and became an issue of radiobiological interest. The aim of this work was to analyze and compare molecular responses in term of gene expression profiles, induced by electron and proton irradiation in breast cancer cell lines. Read More

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Utility of quantitative apparent diffusion coefficient measurements and normalized apparent diffusion coefficient ratios in the diagnosis of clinically significant peripheral zone prostate cancer.

Br J Radiol 2018 Jun 21:20180091. Epub 2018 Jun 21.

1 Radiological Sciences, University of California, Irvine Medical Center , Orange, CA , USA.

Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the utility of quantitative apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements and normalized ADC ratios in multiparametric MRI for the diagnosis of clinically significant peripheral zone (PZ) prostate cancer particularly among equivocally suspicious prostate lesions.

Methods: A retrospective analysis of 95 patients with PZ lesions by PI-RADSv2 criteria, and who underwent subsequent MRI-US fusion biopsy, was approved by an institutional review board. Two radiologists independently measured ADC values in regions of interest (ROIs) of PZ lesions and calculated normalized ADC ratio based on ROIs in the bladder lumen. Read More

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Shear wave elastography in the evaluation of renal parenchymal stiffness in patients with chronic kidney disease.

Br J Radiol 2018 Jun 21:20180235. Epub 2018 Jun 21.

1 Department of Biomedical Imaging, University of Malaya , Kuala Lumpur , Malaysia.

Objective: To investigate the use of shear wave elastography (SWE)-derived estimates of Young's modulus (YM) as an indicator to detect abnormal renal tissue diagnosed by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR).

Methods: The study comprised 106 chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients and 203 control subjects. Conventional ultrasound was performed to measure the kidney length and cortical thickness. Read More

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The utilisation of convolutional neural networks in detecting pulmonary nodules: a review.

Br J Radiol 2018 Jun 19:20180028. Epub 2018 Jun 19.

4 Department of Radiology, University of Melbourne , Parkville, VIC , Australia.

Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related fatality in the world. Patients display few or even no signs or symptoms in the early stages, resulting in up to 75% of patients diagnosed in the later stages of the disease. Consequently, there has been a call for lung cancer screening amongst at-risk populations. Read More

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Doppler ultrasound follow-up of middle hepatic vein tributaries-interposition vessel graft in recipients of living donor liver transplantation using modified right lobe grafts.

Br J Radiol 2018 Jun 14:20180066. Epub 2018 Jun 14.

3 Division of Liver Transplantation and Hepatobiliary Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center , Seoul , South Korea.

Objective: To investigate the value of Doppler ultrasound (US) in recipients of living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) using modified right-lobe grafts (mRLGs) with obstruction of the middle hepatic vein tributaries (MHVTs)-interposition vessel graft (IVG).

Methods: This study included 240 consecutive LDLT recipients in whom 564 MHVTs (>5 mm) were reconstructed using IVG. Regular follow-up Doppler US was performed to assess the patency of the MHVTs-IVG and, if there was an obstruction, to evaluate for the establishment of collateral drainage. Read More

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Obesity, metabolic disease and the pancreas-Quantitative imaging of pancreatic fat.

Br J Radiol 2018 Jun 14:20180267. Epub 2018 Jun 14.

1 UCL Centre for Medical Imaging, Division of Medicine, University College London , London , UK.

The association between pancreatic fat, obesity and metabolic disease is well-documented, and although a potentially exciting target for novel therapies, remains poorly understood. Non-invasive quantitative imaging-derived biomarkers can provide insights into pathophysiology and potentially provide robust trial endpoints for development of new treatments. In this review, we provide an overview of the pathophysiology of non-alcoholic fatty pancreas disease and associations with metabolic factors, obesity and diabetes. Read More

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Imaging following bariatric surgery: roux-en-y gastric bypass, laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding, and sleeve gastrectomy.

Br J Radiol 2018 Jun 5:20180031. Epub 2018 Jun 5.

Department of Radiology, VCU Health System, Richmond, VA, USA.

Morbid obesity is an increasing health problem, and bariatric surgery is a popular treatment option. Radiologists must be familiar with performing and interpreting studies in this patient population. The typical postoperative findings of the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP), laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB), and sleeve gastrectomy (SG) procedures on upper gastrointestinal (UGI) series and computerized tomography (CT) are presented. Read More

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Technical challenges of imaging & image-guided interventions in obese patients.

Authors:
Raul N Uppot

Br J Radiol 2018 Jun 5:20170931. Epub 2018 Jun 5.

1 Division of Interventional Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital , Boston, MA , USA.

Obese patients challenge imaging departments in their ability to obtain diagnostic quality images and to perform image-guided interventions. These technical challenges include properly accommodating large patients on imaging equipment, adjusting equipment settings to address imaging limitations, and pre-planning and preparation for image-guided interventions to insure safe and successful outcomes. Knowing and addressing these challenges can result in successfully addressing the imaging and image-guided interventions needs of obese patients. Read More

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Image quality comparison of two adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR, ASiR-V) algorithms and filtered back projection in routine liver CT.

Br J Radiol 2018 Jun 6:20170655. Epub 2018 Jun 6.

1 Department of Diagnostic Radiology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University , Xi'an , China.

Objective: To compare image quality of two adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR and ASiR-V) algorithms using objective and subjective metrics for routine liver CT, with the conventional filtered back projection (FBP) reconstructions as reference standards.

Methods: This institutional review board-approved study included 52 patients with clinically suspected hepatic metastases. Patients were divided equally into ASiR and ASiR-V groups with same scan parameters. Read More

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Appropriateness of CT scans for patients with non-traumatic acute abdominal pain.

Br J Radiol 2018 Jun 5:20180158. Epub 2018 Jun 5.

1 Department of General Surgery, Capital and Coast DHB , Wellington , New Zealand.

Objective: Acute abdominal pain is the most common reason for surgical admission. CT scans are increasingly used to aid early diagnosis. Excessive use of CT scans is associated with increased length of stay, healthcare costs and radiation. Read More

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The vast potential and bright future of neuroimaging.

Br J Radiol 2018 Jun 6:20170505. Epub 2018 Jun 6.

1 Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology, Stanford University , Palo Alto, CA , USA.

Significant advances in anatomical and functional neuroimaging techniques have allowed researchers and clinicians to visualize the brain in action. The field of neuroimaging currently includes newer and faster scanners, improved image quality, higher spatial and temporal resolution and diverse methods of acquisition and analysis. Beyond simply imaging brain structures, these developments enable quantitative assessment of the microstructural and functional architecture, perfusion and metabolism of the brain. Read More

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June 2018
3 Reads

Relationship between background parenchymal enhancement on breast MRI and pathological tumor response in breast cancer patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

Br J Radiol 2018 Jun 5:20170550. Epub 2018 Jun 5.

1 Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine , Seoul , South Korea.

Objective: To evaluate the impact of background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) on breast MRI and pathological tumor responses to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in breast cancer patients.

Methods: A panel of 372 MRI from 186 pathologically confirmed breast cancer patients who underwent breast MRI before and after NAC were selected. BPE was classified into four categories before and after NAC. Read More

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Cone beam computed tomography improves the detection of injured vessels and involved vascular territories in patients with bleeding of uncertain origin.

Br J Radiol 2018 Jun 12:20170562. Epub 2018 Jun 12.

1 Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Tuebingen , Tuebingen , Germany.

Objective: The purpose of this preliminary retrospective study was to analyse if cone beam CT (CBCT) is able to identify more bleeding sites and corresponding feeding arteries in patients with haemorrhage of uncertain origin.

Methods: In 18 vascular territories (16 patients), pre-interventional CT angiography (CTA) and selective angiograms resulted in discordant information regarding the suspected bleeding site and hence received CBCT. Image data of CTA and selective angiograms in comparison to CBCT were independently reviewed by two interventional radiologists. Read More

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90-kVp low-tube-voltage CT pulmonary angiography in combination with advanced modeled iterative reconstruction algorithm: effects on radiation dose, image quality and diagnostic accuracy for the detection of pulmonary embolism.

Br J Radiol 2018 Jun 5:20180269. Epub 2018 Jun 5.

1 Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Frankfurt , Frankfurt , Germany.

Objective: To evaluate low-tube-voltage 90-kVp CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) with advanced modeled iterative reconstruction algorithm (Admire) compared to 120-kVp equivalent dual-energy (DE) acquisition with regards to radiation exposure, image quality and diagnostic accuracy for pulmonary embolism (PE) assessment.

Methods: CTPA studies of 40 patients with suspected PE (56.7 ± 16. Read More

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June 2018
1 Read

Effect of CT window settings on size measurements of the solid component in subsolid nodules: evaluation of prediction efficacy of the degree of pathological malignancy in lung adenocarcinoma.

Br J Radiol 2018 Jun 6:20180251. Epub 2018 Jun 6.

1 Department of Radiology, Changzheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University , Shanghai , China.

Objective: To investigate the predictive value of size measurements of the solid components in pulmonary subsolid nodules with different CT window settings and to evaluate the degree of pathological malignancy in lung adenocarcinoma.  Methods: The preoperative chest CT images and pathological data of 125 patients were retrospectively evaluated. The analysis included 127 surgically resected lung adenocarcinomas that manifested as subsolid nodules. Read More

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Different MR features for differentiation of intrahepatic mass-forming cholangiocarcinoma from hepatocellular carcinoma according to tumor size.

Br J Radiol 2018 Jun 5:20180017. Epub 2018 Jun 5.

1 Department of Radiology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, and Shanghai Medical Imaging Institute , Shanghai , China.

Objective: To identify reliable magnetic resonance (MR) features for distinguishing mass-forming type of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (IMCC) from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) based on tumor size.

Methods: This retrospective study included 395 patients with pathologically confirmed IMCCs (n = 180) and HCCs (n = 215) who underwent pre-operative contrast-enhanced MRI including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). MR features were evaluated and clinical data were also recorded. Read More

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June 2018
3 Reads

Diagnostic accuracy and complications of CT-guided core needle lung biopsy of solid and part-solid lesions.

Br J Radiol 2018 Jun 1:20170946. Epub 2018 Jun 1.

2 Department of Pathology, Kosin University Gospel Hospital, Kosin University College of Medicine , Busan , South Korea.

Objective: To evaluate whether diagnostic accuracy and complications of CT-guided core needle biopsy (CNB) differ for solid and part-solid lung lesions Methods: This retrospective study included 354 consecutive patients from April 2012 to July 2016 who underwent CT-guided CNB of lung lesions by a radiologist. Patient demographics, lung lesions' characteristics; solid or part-solid, underlying pulmonary disease, distance of path, procedure time, complications (hemorrhage or pneumothorax), histopathological results of biopsy specimens and final diagnosis were reviewed. The diagnostic yields, biopsy-related factors and complications were compared for patients with solid lesions and patients with part-solid lesions. Read More

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Carotid artery stenosis screening: where are we now?

Br J Radiol 2018 Jun 11:20170380. Epub 2018 Jun 11.

3 Consultant Radiology, East Sussex Healthcare Trust , Eastbourne , UK.

Stroke poses a significant burden on healthcare and is the second largest cause of death globally. Both medical and surgical interventions to reduce the risk of stroke in asymptomatic patients have been shown to be effective but identifying the target at risk population is more problematic. Screening for carotid artery stenosis offers one pathway for this, as there is some correlation between risk of stroke and extent of stenosis. Read More

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The diagnostic value of using combined MR diffusion tensor imaging parameters to differentiate between low- and high-grade meningioma.

Br J Radiol 2018 May 31:20180088. Epub 2018 May 31.

1 ¹Department of Radiology, Ondokuz Mayis University Faculty of Medicine , Samsun , Turkey.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine whether the combined use of MR diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) parameters [DTI-apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), fractional anisotropy (FA), axial diffusivity (AD), and radial diffusivity (RD)] could provide a more accurate diagnosis in differentiating between low-grade and atypical/anaplastic (high-grade) meningioma.

Methods: Pathologically proven 45 meningioma patients [32 low-grade, 13 high-grade (11 atypical and 2 anaplastic)] who had received DTI before surgery were assessed retrospectively by 2 independent observers. For each lesion, MR DTI parameters (ADCmin, ADCmax, ADCmean, FA, AD, and RD) and ratios (rADCmin, rADCmax, rADCmean, rFA, rAD, and rRD) were calculated. Read More

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May 2018
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Lessons learned from the PRESERVE trial.

Br J Radiol 2018 Jun 5:20180092. Epub 2018 Jun 5.

2 Section of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology, Louis Stokes Cleveland Veterans Affairs Medical Center , Cleveland, OH , USA.

The recently published Prevention of Serious Adverse Events Following Angiography (PRESERVE) trial is presently the largest and most comprehensive clinical trial comparing commonly applied strategies for prevention of iodinated contrast-induced acute kidney injury in high-risk patients. The fundamental conclusion of the PRESERVE trial is that oral acetylcysteine and i.v. Read More

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