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    16200 results match your criteria British Journal of Radiology[Journal]

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    Quantitative analysis of enhanced malignant and benign lesions on contrast-enhanced spectral mammography.
    Br J Radiol 2018 Feb 16:20170605. Epub 2018 Feb 16.
    1 Department of Medical Imaging and Intervention, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkuo and Taoyuan, Taiwan.
    Objective: To retrospectively analyse the quantitative measurement and kinetic enhancement among pathologically proven benign and malignant lesions using contrast enhanced spectral mammography (CESM).

    Methods: We investigated the differences in enhancement between 44 benign and 108 malignant breast lesions in CESM, quantifying the extent of enhancements and the relative enhancements between early (between 2-3 minutes after contrast medium injection) and late (3-6 minutes) phases.

    Results: The enhancement was statistically stronger in malignancies compared to benign lesions, with good performance by the ROC curve (0. Read More

    Development and validation of a radiomic signature to predict HPV (p16) status from standard CT imaging: a multicenter study.
    Br J Radiol 2018 Feb 16:20170498. Epub 2018 Feb 16.
    1 The D-Lab: Decision Support for Precision Medicine GROW - School for Oncology and Developmental Biology & MCCC Maastricht University Medical Centre+ Maastricht, Maastricht, Netherlands.
    Objectives: HPV positive oropharyngeal cancer (OPSCC) is biologically and clinically different from HPV negative OPSCC. Here, we evaluate the use of a radiomic approach to identify the HPV status of OPSCC.

    Methods: Four independent cohorts, totaling 778 OPSCC patients with HPV determined by p16 were collected. Read More

    Vacuum assisted breast biopsy (VAB) excision of subcentimeter microcalcifications as an alternative to open biopsy for atypical ductal hyperplasia.
    Br J Radiol 2018 Feb 16:20180003. Epub 2018 Feb 16.
    2 Department of Surgey, Policlinico San Martino, Genoa, Italy.
    Objective: To report the results of the conservative management with mammographic checks of patients with ADH diagnosed by vacuum assisted breast biopsy (VAB), without residual calcifications.

    Methods: The authors accessed the institutional database of radiological, surgical and pathologic anatomy. Inclusion criteria were: ADH diagnosed by VAB on a single group of microcalcifications, without residual post-procedure; follow-up at least of 12 months. Read More

    Hepatocellular carcinoma surveillance with ultrasound-cost effectiveness, high-risk populations, uptake.
    Br J Radiol 2018 Feb 15:20170436. Epub 2018 Feb 15.
    1 Department of Radiology, University Hospitals Paris Nord Val de Seine, Beaujon , Clichy, Hauts-de-Seine , France.
    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most frequent primary liver cancer and the second cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. In most cases, it is diagnosed in patients with identified risk factors, mainly cirrhosis from all causes. These patients are candidates for a surveillance program that, depending on guidelines, involves regular liver ultrasound alone or combined with serum markers. Read More

    Dual-energy CT iodine maps as an alternative quantitative imaging biomarker to abdominal CT perfusion: determination of appropriate trigger delays for acquisition using bolus tracking.
    Br J Radiol 2018 Feb 15:20170351. Epub 2018 Feb 15.
    1 Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (DIR), University Hospital Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Objective: Quantitative evaluation of different bolus-tracking trigger delays for acquisition of dual-energy (DE) computed tomography (CT) iodine maps as an alternative to CT perfusion.

    Methods: Prior to this retrospective analysis of prospectively acquired data, DECT perfusion sequences were dynamically acquired in 22 patients with pancreatic carcinoma using dual-source CT at 80/140kVwith tin filtration. After deformable motion-correction, perfusion maps of blood flow (BF) were calculated from 80kVp image series of DECT, and iodine maps were calculated for each of the 34 DECT acquisitions per patient. Read More

    Credentialing of radiotherapy centres in Australasia for TROG 09.02 (Chisel) a Phase III clinical trial on stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy of early stage lung cancer.
    Br J Radiol 2018 Feb 15:20170737. Epub 2018 Feb 15.
    2 Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, University of Melbourne , Parkville, VIC , Australia.
    Objective: A randomised clinical trial comparing Stereotactic Ablative Body Radiotherapy (SABR) with conventional radiotherapy for early stage lung cancer has been conducted in Australia and New Zealand under the auspices of the TransTasman Radiation Oncology Group (NCT01014130). We report on the technical credentialing program as prerequisite for centres joining the trial.

    Methods: Participating centres were asked to develop treatment plans for two test cases to assess their ability to create plans according to protocol. Read More

    Comparing photon and proton based hypofractioned sbrt for prostate cancer accounting for robustness and realistic treatment deliverability.
    Br J Radiol 2018 Feb 13:20180010. Epub 2018 Feb 13.
    1 Department of Radiation Oncology, Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY, USA.
    Objective: To investigate whether photon or proton based SBRT is the preferred modality for high dose hypofractionation prostate cancer treatment. Achievable dose distributions were compared when uncertainties in target positioning and range uncertainties were appropriately accounted for.

    Methods: Ten patients with prostate cancer previously treated at our institution with photon SBRT using volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) were identified. Read More

    Mammography cancer detection: comparison of single 8MP and pair of 5MP reporting monitors.
    Br J Radiol 2018 Feb 13:20170246. Epub 2018 Feb 13.
    1 National Co-ordinating Centre for the Physics of Mammography, Royal Surrey County Hospital NHS Foundation Trust , Guildford , UK.
    Objective: To compare breast cancer detection using a single 8MP display with using a standard pair of 5MP monitors.

    Methods: An observer study was carried out in which mammograms were read using full field views only, and again with the additional use of magnified quadrant views. Seven observers read 300 cases, one view per breast, using each display type. Read More

    Image-guided biopsy of small (≤4 cm) renal masses: the effect of size and anatomical location on biopsy success rate and complications.
    Br J Radiol 2018 Feb 22:20170666. Epub 2018 Feb 22.
    1 Department of Radiology, St. George's Hospital , London , UK.
    Objective: To study the influence of tumour diameter and anatomy on the success and complication rates of small renal mass (SRM, ≤4 cm) core biopsy.

    Methods: Retrospective analysis of SRMs that underwent ultrasound or CT-guided biopsy. Diagnostic and complication rates were compared according to tumour size (subcategorised as axial diameter ≤2 cm, >2 to- ≤3 cm, >3-≤4 cm) and anatomical disposition (exophytic/endophytic, centrality, polar location and anterior/posterior). Read More

    Targeting tumour hypoxia: shifting focus from oxygen supply to demand.
    Br J Radiol 2018 Feb 19:20170843. Epub 2018 Feb 19.
    CRUK/MRC Oxford Institute for Radiation Oncology, University of Oxford , Oxford , UK.
    Tumour hypoxia is a well-recognised barrier to anti-cancer therapy and represents one of the best validated targets in oncology. Previous attempts to tackle hypoxia have focussed primarily on increasing tumour oxygen supply; however, clinical studies using this approach have yielded only modest clinical benefit, with often significant toxicity and practical limitations. Therefore, there are currently no anti-hypoxia treatments in widespread clinical use. Read More

    Histogram analysis derived from apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) is more sensitive to reflect serological parameters in myositis than conventional ADC analysis.
    Br J Radiol 2018 Feb 20:20170900. Epub 2018 Feb 20.
    1 Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Leipzig , Leipzig , Germany.
    Objective: Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) has the potential of being able to reflect histopathology architecture. A novel imaging approach, namely histogram analysis, is used to further characterize tissues on MRI. The aim of this study was to correlate histogram parameters derived from apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps with serological parameters in myositis. Read More

    Fat suppression in magnetic resonance imaging of the head and neck region: is the two-point DIXON technique superior to spectral fat suppression?
    Br J Radiol 2018 Feb 13:20170078. Epub 2018 Feb 13.
    1 Department of Radiology, University Hospital Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany.
    Objective: The aim of our study was to systematically compare two-point Dixon fat suppression (FS) and spectral FS techniques in contrast enhanced imaging of the head and neck region.

    Methods: Three independent readers analysed coronal T1-weighted images recorded after contrast medium injection with Dixon and spectral FS techniques with regard to fat suppression homogeneity, motion artefacts, lesion contrast, image sharpness and overall image quality.

    Results: 85 patients were prospectively enrolled in the study. Read More

    Brain Focused Ultrasound: what's the 'FUS' all about? A review of current and emerging neurological applications.
    Br J Radiol 2018 Feb 8:20170481. Epub 2018 Feb 8.
    Imperial College, Healthcare NHS Trust, London, UK.
    Magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound surgery (MRgFUS) allows for precise non-invasive thermal ablation of target tissues for a wide range of clinical applications. It is an innovative and rapidly expanding technology which has already established itself as an effective and safe incisionless alternative in the treatment of various soft tissue tumours, with many more research studies underway to extend its therapeutic envelope. The non-invasiveness of the procedure makes FUS particularly attractive in functional neurosurgery, where existing treatment options are not suitable for all patients. Read More

    Evaluation of principal component analysis based data driven respiratory gating for positron emission tomography.
    Br J Radiol 2018 Feb 8:20170793. Epub 2018 Feb 8.
    1 Radiation Physics and Protection, Churchill Hospital, Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Oxford, UK.
    Objective: Respiratory motion can degrade PET image quality and lead to inaccurate quantification of lesion uptake. Such motion can be mitigated via respiratory gating. Our objective was to evaluate a data driven gating (DDG) technique that is being developed commercially for clinical PET/CT. Read More

    Anatomic distribution of hematoma following pelvic fracture.
    Br J Radiol 2018 Feb 22:20170840. Epub 2018 Feb 22.
    6 Department of Radiology, Uppsala University Hospital , Uppsala , Sweden.
    Objective: To assess the extent of pelvic hemorrhage on CT and to estimate its significance on outcome in patients with blunt high-energy pelvic trauma.

    Methods: 576 patients with blunt high-energy pelvic fractures in 2005-2011 were identified in the hospital's Trauma Registry (a major Trauma Center). 60 of these met our further inclusion criteria of initial systolic blood pressure ≤100 mmHg and pelvic-related hemorrhage. Read More

    Accuracy and precision of manual segmentation of the maxillary sinus in MR images - a method study.
    Br J Radiol 2018 Feb 8:20170663. Epub 2018 Feb 8.
    2 3D Craniofacial Image Research Laboratory (School of Dentistry, University of Copenhagen, Centre of Head and Orthopaedics, Copenhagen University Hospital Rigshospitalet, and DTU Compute, Technical University of Copenhagen) , Copenhagen , Denmark.
    Objective: To assess the accuracy and precision of segmentation of the maxillary sinus in MR images to evaluate the potential usefulness of this modality in longitudinal studies of sinus development.

    Methods: A total of 15 healthy subjects who had been both craniofacial CT and MR scanned were included and the 30 maxillary sinus volumes were evaluated using segmentation. Two of the authors did segmentation of MRI and one of these authors did double segmentation. Read More

    Beyond ulcers and osteomyelitis: imaging of less common musculoskeletal complications in diabetes mellitus.
    Br J Radiol 2018 Feb 22:20170301. Epub 2018 Feb 22.
    2 Department of Radiology, Musculoskeletal division, University of Michigan , Ann Arbor, MI , USA.
    Metabolic perturbations in diabetes mellitus affect various organ systems and can lead to end-organ failure. Though most musculoskeletal (MSK) complications of diabetes mellitus are usually not life-threatening, they are often the cause of significant morbidity. While some of the MSK complications have a proven association with diabetes mellitus, others have been loosely associated because of their frequent coexistence, as are the rheumatologic complications. Read More

    Subtraction CT angiography in head and neck with low radiation and contrast dose dual-energy Spectral CT using rapid kV-switching technique.
    Br J Radiol 2018 Feb 7:20170631. Epub 2018 Feb 7.
    1 Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Affiliated Hospital of Shaanxi University of Chinese Medicine, Xianyang, China.
    Objective: To investigate the application of low radiation and contrast dose Spectral CT angiology (CTA) using rapid kV-switching technique in the head and neck with subtraction method for bone removal.

    Methods: This prospective study was approved by the local ethics committee. 64 cases for head and neck CTA were randomly divided into groups A (n=32) and B (n=32). Read More

    Measurement of the perfusion fraction in brain tumors with intravoxel incoherent motion MR imaging: validation with histopathological vascular density in meningiomas.
    Br J Radiol 2018 Feb 16:20170912. Epub 2018 Feb 16.
    1 Departments of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University , Fukuoka , Japan.
    Objective: To evaluate the quantification performance of the perfusion fraction (f) measured with intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) MR imaging in a comparison with the histological vascular density in meningiomas.

    Methods: 29 consecutive patients with meningioma (59.0 ± 16. Read More

    Integrating mammographic breast density in glandular dose calculation.
    Br J Radiol 2018 Feb 13:20180032. Epub 2018 Feb 13.
    1 Medical Radiation Sciences, The University of Sydney, Faculty of Health Sciences. Cumberland Campus , Lidcombe, NSW , Australia.
    Objective: This work proposes the use of mammographic breast density (MBD) to estimate actual glandular dose (AGD), and assesses how AGD compares to mean glandular dose (MGD) estimated using Dance et al method.

    Methods: A retrospective sample of anonymised mammograms (52,405) was retrieved from a central database. Technical parameters and patient characteristics were exported from the Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine (DICOM) header using third party software. Read More

    Ultrasound elastography as an imaging biomarker for detection of early tumor response to chemotherapy in a murine breast cancer model: a feasibility study.
    Br J Radiol 2018 Feb 20:20170698. Epub 2018 Feb 20.
    1 Department of Ultrasound, Collaborative Innovation Center of Cancer Medicine, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center , Guangzhou , PR China.
    Objective: This study investigated the feasibility of using strain elastography (SE) and real time shear wave elastography (RT-SWE) to evaluate early tumor response to cytotoxic chemotherapy in a murine xenograft breast cancer tumor model.

    Methods: MCF-7 breast cancer-bearing nude mice were treated with either cisplatin 2 mg kgplus paclitaxel 10 mg kg(treatment group) or sterile saline (control group) once daily for 5 days. The tumor elasticity was measured by SE or RT-SWE before and after therapy. Read More

    Target volume motion during anal cancer image guided radiotherapy using cone-beam computed tomography.
    Br J Radiol 2018 Feb 2:20170654. Epub 2018 Feb 2.
    Clinical Oncology, The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Downs Road, Sutton, UK.
    Objective: Literature regarding image-guidance and interfractional motion of the anal canal (AC) during anal cancer radiotherapy is sparse. This study investigates interfractional AC motion during anal cancer radiotherapy.

    Methods: Bone matched cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images were acquired for 20 patients receiving anal cancer radiotherapy allowing population systematic and random error calculations. Read More

    Functional and molecular MRI of the bone marrow in multiple myeloma.
    Br J Radiol 2018 Feb 13:20170389. Epub 2018 Feb 13.
    1 First Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens , Athens , Greece.
    MRI plays an important role in the management of patients with plasma cell neoplasms and has been recognized as a biomarker of malignancy in the novel criteria for the diagnosis of multiple myeloma. Functional and molecular MRI techniques such as diffusion-weighted imaging (spinal or whole body), intravoxel incoherent motion, and dynamic contrast enhanced MRI, provide additional information related to tumor cellularity and angiogenesis, which may have prognostic implications for patients with smoldering and symptomatic myeloma. These non-invasive functional techniques are also being evaluated as imaging biomarkers for response assessment in myeloma patients. Read More

    Detection of vertebral metastases: a comparison between the modified Dixon turbo spin echo T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and conventional T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging: a preliminary study in a tertiary center.
    Br J Radiol 2018 Feb 2:20170782. Epub 2018 Feb 2.
    1 Department of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Medical Convergence Research Institute, and Severance Biomedical Science Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
    Objective: To compare the diagnostic performance of modified Dixon (mDxion) turbo spin echo (TSE) T2-weighted MRI and conventional T1-weighted MRI in vertebral metastasis detection.

    Methods: Between September 2014 and October 2016, 33 patients with 68 metastases who had undergone whole-spine MRI were enrolled. The following sagittal image sets were evaluated: T1WI, and mDixon TSE T2-weighted water and fat images. Read More

    Evaluation of periprostatic neurovascular fibers before and after radical prostatectomy by means of 1.5 T MRI diffusion tensor imaging.
    Br J Radiol 2018 Feb 16:20170318. Epub 2018 Feb 16.
    2 Department of Radiology, Policlinico G.B. Rossi - Università di Verona , Verona , Italy.
    Objective: To evaluate if diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is able to detect changes of periprostatic neurovascular fibers (PNFs) before and after radical prostatectomy (RP), and if these changes are related to post-surgical urinary incontinence and erectile dysfunction.

    Methods: 22 patients (mean age 62.6 years) with biopsy-proven prostate cancer underwent 1. Read More

    Spectrum of MRI brain lesion patterns in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder: a pictorial review.
    Br J Radiol 2018 Feb 5:20170690. Epub 2018 Feb 5.
    1 Department of Radiology, Baylor College of Medicine , Houston, TX , USA.
    Neuromyelitis optica is a neurotropic autoimmune inflammatory disease of the central nervous system traditionally thought to exclusively involve the optic nerves and spinal cord. With the discovery of the disease-specific aquaporin-4 antibody and the increasing recognition of clinical and characteristic imaging patterns of brain involvement in what is now termed neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD), MRI now plays a greater role in diagnosis of NMOSD based on the 2015 consensus criteria and in distinguishing it from other inflammatory disorders, particularly multiple sclerosis (MS). Several brain lesion patterns are highly suggestive of NMOSD, whereas others may serve as red flags. Read More

    Stromal fibrosis: imaging features with diagnostic contribution of diffusion-weighted MRI.
    Br J Radiol 2018 Feb 16:20170706. Epub 2018 Feb 16.
    1 Department of Radiology, Istanbul University, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine , Fatih, Istanbul , Turkey.
    Objective: To describe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasonography findings of breast stromal fibrosis (SF) and compare apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) stromal fibrosis values with breast cancer and normal parenchyma.

    Methods: 45 patients (ages 22‒74) with histopathologically proven SF who underwent MRI were included in this study. Their MRI and ultrasonography features were examined and categorized. Read More

    Preoperative evaluation of neurovascular relationship in trigeminal neuralgia by three-dimensional fast low angle shot (3D-FLASH) and three-dimensional constructive interference in steady-state (3D-CISS) MRI sequence.
    Br J Radiol 2018 Feb 13:20170557. Epub 2018 Feb 13.
    3 Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University , Wenzhou, Zhejiang , China.
    Objective: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the value of high-resolution three-dimensional fast low angle shot (3D-FLASH) and three-dimensional constructive interference in steady-state (3D-CISS) MRI sequence solely or the combination of both in the visualization of neurovascular relationship in patients with trigeminal neuralgia (TN).

    Methods: 65 patients with unilateral TN underwent 3D-FLASH and 3D-CISS imaging were retrospectively studied. Neurovascular relationship at the intracisternal segment of trigeminal nerve was reviewed by two experienced neuroradiologist, who was blinded to the clinical details. Read More

    The role of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue measurements and their ratio by magnetic resonance imaging in subjects with prediabetes, diabetes and healthy controls from a general population without cardiovascular disease.
    Br J Radiol 2018 Feb 19:20170808. Epub 2018 Feb 19.
    1 Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Tuebingen , Tuebingen , Germany.
    Objective: To study the relationship of area- and volumetric-based visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue (VAT and SAT) by MRI and their ratio in subjects with impaired glucose metabolism from the general population.

    Methods: Subjects from a population-based cohort with established prediabetes, diabetes and healthy controls without prior cardiovascular diseases underwent 3 T MRI. VAT and SAT were assessed as total volume and area on a single slice, and their ratio (VAT/SAT) was calculated. Read More

    Management of Elderly patients with Glioblastoma - Multiforme.
    Br J Radiol 2018 Jan 29:20170271. Epub 2018 Jan 29.
    2 Consultant Clinical Oncologist, Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Leeds, UK.
    The management of elderly patients with glioblastoma-multiforme (GBM) remains poorly defined with many experts advocating best supportive care in view of limited evidence on efficacy of more aggressive treatment protocols. There is randomised evidence (NORDIC and NA-O8 studies) to support the use of surgery followed by adjuvant monotherapy with either radiotherapy (RT) using hypo-fractionated regimes (e.g. Read More

    Evaluation of spinal involvement in children with mucopolysaccharidosis VI: the role of MRI.
    Br J Radiol 2018 Feb 13:20170744. Epub 2018 Feb 13.
    1 Department of Radiology, Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine , Ankara , Turkey.
    Objective: To evaluate spinal MRI features of mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) VI and to assess the correlation with clinical findings.

    Methods: We retrospectively evaluated spinal MRI scans and clinical findings at the time of imaging in 14 patients (8 male, 6 female) with MPS VI. Craniometric measurements were performed and the images were assessed for bony anomalies, spinal stenosis and spinal cord compression. Read More

    The diagnostic accuracy of cross-sectional imaging for detecting acute scaphoid fractures in children: a systematic review.
    Br J Radiol 2018 Jan 29:20170883. Epub 2018 Jan 29.
    3 Emergency Medicine Department, Sheffield Children's NHS Foundation Trust, Sheffield, UK.
    Objective: To determine the diagnostic accuracy of cross-sectional imaging for the diagnosis of acute scaphoid fractures in children.

    Methods: A systematic review of Medline, Embase and Cochrane databases between 1980 and July 2017 was independently performed by two observers. Criteria for study inclusion in a meta-analysis and assessment of the quality of such studies using the QADAS tool, were predetermined. Read More

    Estimation of proton density fat fraction of the salivary gland.
    Br J Radiol 2018 Feb 6:20170671. Epub 2018 Feb 6.
    1 Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Faculty of Dental Science, Kyushu University , Fukuoka , Japan.
    Objective: Our first objective was to prove the validity of the six-point Dixon method for estimating the proton density fat fraction (PDFF) of the salivary gland. The second objective was to estimate the salivary gland PDFF using Dixon method to evaluate the pathological conditions.

    Methods: At first, 12 volunteers underwent two types of sequences: single-voxel magnetic resonance spectroscopy and the Dixon method and the PDFFs obtained by the two methods were compared. Read More

    Paraspinal arteriovenous shunts: classification based on experience and a review of the literature.
    Br J Radiol 2018 Jan 29:20170337. Epub 2018 Jan 29.
    1 Neuroradiologische Klinik, Neurozentrum, Klinikum Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany.
    The term "paraspinal arteriovenous shunts" (PAVS) summarizes an inhomogeneous variety of rare vascular disorders. PAVSs have been observed as congenital or acquired lesions. The clinical course of PAVSs may be asymptomatic or present with life threatening symptoms. Read More

    3D cinematic rendering of the calvarium, maxillofacial structures, and skull base: preliminary observations.
    Br J Radiol 2018 Jan 24:20170826. Epub 2018 Jan 24.
    The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.
    3D visualizations of volumetric data from CT have gained widespread clinical acceptance and are an important method for evaluating complex anatomy and pathology. Recently, cinematic rendering (CR), a new 3D visualization methodology, has become available. CR utilizes a lighting model that allows for the production of photorealistic images from isotropic voxel data. Read More

    Obesity, body weight regulation and the brain: insights from fMRI.
    Br J Radiol 2018 Feb 16:20170910. Epub 2018 Feb 16.
    1 Department of Medicine, Centre for Obesity Research, Rayne Institute, University College London , London , UK.
    Obesity constitutes a major global health threat. Despite the success of bariatric surgery in delivering sustainable weight loss and improvement in obesity-related morbidity, effective non-surgical treatments are urgently needed, necessitating an increased understanding of body weight regulation. Neuroimaging studies undertaken in people with healthy weight, overweight, obesity and following bariatric surgery have contributed to identifying the neurophysiological changes seen in obesity and help increase our understanding of the mechanisms driving the favourable eating behaviour changes and sustained weight loss engendered by bariatric surgery. Read More

    Practice patterns for the radical treatment of nasopharyngeal cancer by head and neck oncologists in the United Kingdom.
    Br J Radiol 2018 Feb 13:20170590. Epub 2018 Feb 13.
    1 Head and Neck Unit, The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust , London , UK.
    Objective: Advances in radiation delivery, imaging techniques, and chemotherapy have significantly improved treatment options for non-metastatic nasopharyngeal cancers (NPC). However, their impact on the practice in the United Kingdom (UK), where this tumour is rare, is unknown. This study examined the current attitudes of UK head and neck oncologists to the treatment of NPC. Read More

    A radiofrequency device for tract ablation after liver biopsy: a single-institution human feasibility study.
    Br J Radiol 2018 Jan 22:20170585. Epub 2018 Jan 22.
    2 Department of Radiology, Guri Hospital, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Guri, Republic of Korea.
    Objective: The need for liver biopsy has been increasing because genetic testing of specimens has become important for determining prognosis and management in patients with hepatic malignancy. We evaluated the feasibility of a device for biopsy tract ablation in patients with hepatic masses.

    Methods: This prospective single-center pilot study was approved by our institutional review board and patients provided written informed consent. Read More

    Commemoration of Jack Fowler's life, work, impact and legacy.
    Br J Radiol 2018 Feb 20:20170967. Epub 2018 Feb 20.
    Department of Medical Physics, Christie Hospital , Manchester , UK.
    Jack Fowler [formally Professor John Francis Fowler PhD, DSc, MD (Hon), FInstP, FRCR, FBIR, FAAPM, FASTRO, FACRO] was a remarkable scientist, known to many in the field of clinical radiation biology as at the forefront of applying linear-quadratic dose-fractionation-time modelling to help improve a wide range of cancer treatments using radiotherapy. His death on 1st December 2016 after a long career of 60 years was marked by Obituaries in six scientific journals in his field e.g. Read More

    Computed tomographic evaluation of the thymus - Does obesity affect thymic fatty involution in a healthy young adult population?
    Br J Radiol 2018 Jan 22. Epub 2018 Jan 22.
    2 Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA.
    Objective: To determine a relationship between increased body mass index (BMI) and fatty involution of the thymus in subjects aged between 20-30 years.

    Methods: CT images of 94 patients aged between 20-30 years were reviewed. Quantitative thymic mean attenuation was recorded and qualitative thymic attenuation was assigned to 1 of 4 possible grades. Read More

    Use of helical tomotherapy in locally advanced and/or metastatic breast cancer for locoregional treatment.
    Br J Radiol 2018 Feb 5:20170822. Epub 2018 Feb 5.
    1 Institut Curie , Paris , France.
    Objective: Helical tomotherapy (HT) is a new promising tool whose use remains to be studied. This work assesses its impact for local irradiation in terms of side effects, as well as tumour control in locally advanced (LABC) and metastatic breast cancer (MBC).

    Methods: We retrospectively reviewed data of 66 patients with LABC and MBC. Read More

    Effectiveness and Safety of CT-guided Percutaneous Radiofrequency Ablation of Adrenal Metastases.
    Br J Radiol 2018 Jan 19:20170607. Epub 2018 Jan 19.
    2 Department of Anesthesiology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Beijing, China.
    Objective: The imaging-guided percutaneous radiofrequency (RF) ablation of adrenal metastases is a relatively new treatment procedure, compared to the more widespread application of the technique for the treatment of liver and renal cancers, the present study aims to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the computed tomography (CT)-guided percutaneous radiofrequency ablation of adrenal metastases in a cohort of patients.

    Methods: Thirty-three patients with 38 adrenal metastases who received percutaneous CT-guided radiofrequency ablation between 2012 to 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. The average diameter of the treated adrenal metastases was 3. Read More

    Changes in radiotherapy fractionation - breast cancer.
    Br J Radiol 2018 Jan 18:20170489. Epub 2018 Jan 18.
    Division of Radiotherapy and Imaging, The Institute of Cancer Research, London, UK.
    Conventional fractionation for half a century has been justified on the basis that 2.0 Gy fractions spare dose-limiting late-responding normal tissues to a greater degree than cancerous tissues. Early indications that breast cancer responds more strongly to fraction size than many other common cancers were followed several decades of investigation, but there is now reliable level I evidence that this is the case. Read More

    Respiratory-gated PET/CT for pulmonary lesion characterisation-promises and problems.
    Br J Radiol 2018 Feb 5:20170640. Epub 2018 Feb 5.
    1 Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust , Leeds , United Kingdom.
    2-deoxy-2-(Fluorine)-fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) PET/CT is an integral part of lung carcinoma staging and frequently used in the assessment of solitary pulmonary nodules. However, a limitation of conventional three-dimensional PET/CT when imaging the thorax is its susceptibility to motion artefact, which blurs the signal from the lesion resulting in inaccurate representation of size and metabolic activity. Respiratory gated (four-dimensional) PET/CT aims to negate the effects of motion artefact and provide a more accurate interpretation of pulmonary nodules and lymphadenopathy. Read More

    Retroareolar masses and intraductal abnormalities detected on screening ultrasound: can biopsy be avoided?
    Br J Radiol 2018 Feb 6:20170816. Epub 2018 Feb 6.
    1 Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, Yale New Haven Hospital , New Haven, CT , USA.
    To investigate the malignancy rate of retroareolar masses and intraductal abnormalities discovered in asymptomatic females during screening whole breast ultrasound (US-S) and determine if biopsy can be avoided.

    Methods: This is a HIPAA compliant retrospective study. Our radiology electronic medical records were searched for the phrases "retroareolar mass" or "intraductal mass" combined with "screening whole breast ultrasound" performed between 10/1/2009 and 5/30/2015. Read More

    Safety and feasibility of prostate stereotactic ablative radiotherapy using multimodality imaging and flattening filter free.
    Br J Radiol 2018 Feb 1:20170625. Epub 2018 Feb 1.
    1 Department of Clinical Oncology, Beatson West of Scotland Cancer Centre , Glasgow , UK.
    Objective: To investigate feasibility and safety of stereotactic ablative radiotherapy in the management of prostate cancer while employing MR/CT fusion for delineation, fiducial marker seeds for positioning and Varian RapidArc with flattening filter free (FFF) delivery.

    Methods: 41 patients were treated for low-intermediate risk prostate cancer with initial prostate-specific antigen of ≤20 ng ml, Gleason score 6-7. Patients had MR/CT fusion for delineation of prostate ±seminal vesicles. Read More

    Investigation of the use of external aluminium targets for portal imaging in a medical accelerator using Geant4 Monte Carlo simulation.
    Br J Radiol 2018 Feb 6:20170376. Epub 2018 Feb 6.
    3 Department of Radiation Oncology, Dongguk University Gyeongju Hospital , Gyeongju , South Korea.
    Objective: To install a low-Z target on the wedge tray mount of a medical linear accelerator to create a new image beam and to confirm image contrast enhancement.

    Methods: Experimental low-energy photon beams were produced with the linac running in the 6 MeV electron mode and with a low-Z target installed on the wedge tray mount [denoted 6 MeV (low-Z target)]. Geant4 Monte Carlo simulation was performed to analyse the energy spectrum and image contrast of a 6 MeV (low-Z target) beam. Read More

    Safety of working patterns among UK neuroradiologists: what can we learn from the aviation industry and cognitive science?
    Br J Radiol 2018 Feb 1:20170284. Epub 2018 Feb 1.
    1 Department of Neuroradiology, Newcastle Upon Tyne Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust , Newcastle upon Tyne , UK.
    As the volume and complexity of imaging in the UK continues to rise, there is pressure on radiologists to spend increasing lengths of time reporting to cope with the growing workload. However, there is limited guidance for radiologists about structuring the working day to strike the necessary balance between achieving satisfactory reporting volume and maintaining quality and safety. We surveyed 86 neuroradiologists (receiving 59 responses), regarding time spent reporting, frequency and duration of work breaks, and break activities. Read More

    WB MRI and oncology: recent major advances.
    Br J Radiol 2018 01 15:20170664. Epub 2018 Jan 15.
    1 Department of Radiology, Centre du Cancer et Institut de Recherche Expérimentale et Clinique (IREC), Cliniques Universitaires Saint Luc, Université Catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium.
    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a very attractive approach for tumor detection and oncological staging with its absence of ionizing radiation, high soft tissue contrast and spatial resolution. Less than ten years ago the use of Whole Body MRI (WB-MRI) protocols was uncommon due to many limitations, such as the long acquisition times and limited availability. This decade has marked substantial progress in WB-MRI protocols. Read More

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