143,242 results match your criteria British Journal of Plastic Surgery [Journal]


The pK values of the catalytic residues in the retaining glycoside hydrolase T26H mutant of T4 lysozyme.

Protein Sci 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada, V6T 1Z3.

T4 phage lysozyme (T4L) is an enzyme that cleaves bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan. Remarkably, the single substitution of the active site Thr26 to a His (T26H) converts T4L from an inverting to a retaining glycoside hydrolase with transglycosylase activity. It has been proposed that T26H-T4L follows a double displacement mechanism with His26 serving as a nucleophile to form a covalent glycosyl-enzyme intermediate (Kuroki et al. Read More

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December 2018
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Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in urban Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) populations: Epidemiology and the impacts of kill-trapping.

Zoonoses Public Health 2018 Dec 9. Epub 2018 Dec 9.

Canadian Wildlife Health Cooperative, Abbotsford, British Columbia, Canada.

Urban Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) populations can carry the bacteria methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). There are numerous knowledge gaps in the epidemiology of MRSA in these populations that limit understanding of its ecology in urban environments. For example, fecal shedding of MRSA, which may increase environmental contamination, has been reported in other species; however, it is unknown whether Norway rats carry the bacteria rectally. Read More

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December 2018

Aerodigestive and communicative behaviors in anencephalic and hydranencephalic infants.

Birth Defects Res 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Linguistics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.

The aerodigestive and communicative behaviors of anencephalic and hydranencephalic patients are assessed from literature sources and are compared with documented neural structures present in the brainstem, subcortical, and cortical regions of the brain. Much of the data analyzed corroborate previous neurological studies, which focus on central pattern generators and development in model organisms. However, findings suggest that further research is necessary to determine which components of these systems support these behaviors. Read More

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December 2018

Homeostatic maintenance of non-structural carbohydrates during the 2015-2016 El Niño drought across a tropical forest precipitation gradient.

Plant Cell Environ 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Earth and Environmental Sciences Area, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, 94720, USA.

Non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs) are essential for maintenance of plant metabolism, and may be sensitive to both short- and long-term climatic variation. NSC variation in moist tropical forests has rarely been studied, so regulation of NSCs in these systems is poorly understood. We measured foliar and branch NSC content in 23 tree species at three sites located across a large precipitation gradient in Panama during the 2015-2016 El Niño to examine how short- and long-term climatic variation impact carbohydrate dynamics. Read More

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December 2018

Impaired pressure natriuresis and non-dipping blood pressure in Rats with early type 1 diabetes mellitus.

J Physiol 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

The British Heart Foundation Centre for Cardiovascular Science, The Queen's Medical Research Institute, The University of Edinburgh, 47 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh, United Kingdom, EH16 4TJ.

Key Points Summary: Type 1 diabetes mellitus increases cardiovascular risk: hypertension amplifies this risk. Pressure natriuresis regulates long-term blood pressure. We induced type 1 diabetes in rats by streptozotocin injection and after three weeks demonstrated a substantial impairment of pressure natriuresis: acute increases in blood pressure did not increase renal medullary blood flow, and tubular sodium reabsorption was not downregulated. Read More

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December 2018

Science for Policy: A Case Study of Scientific Polarization, Values, and the Framing of Risk and Uncertainty.

Risk Anal 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

The Institute for Resources, Environment and Sustainability (IRES), University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

It is well documented that more research can lead to hardened positions, particularly when dealing with complex, controversial, and value-laden issues. This study is an attempt to unveil underlying values in a contemporary debate, where both sides use scientific evidence to support their argument. We analyze the problem framing, vocabulary, interpretation of evidence, and policy recommendations, with particular attention to the framing of nature and technology. Read More

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December 2018

Heart failure with reduced ejection fraction: comparison of patient characteristics and clinical outcomes within Asia and between Asia, Europe and the Americas.

Eur J Heart Fail 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

British Heart Foundation Cardiovascular Research Centre, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.

Aims: Nearly 60% of the world's population lives in Asia but little is known about the characteristics and outcomes of Asian patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) compared to other areas of the world.

Methods And Results: We pooled two, large, global trials, with similar design, in 13 174 patients with HFrEF (patient distribution: China 833, India 1390, Japan 209, Korea 223, Philippines 223, Taiwan 199 and Thailand 95, Western Europe 3521, Eastern Europe 4758, North America 613, and Latin America 1110). Asian patients were younger (55. Read More

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December 2018
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Heat acclimation does not affect maximal aerobic power in thermoneutral normoxic or hypoxic conditions.

Exp Physiol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Automation, Biocybernetics and Robotics, Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana, Slovenia.

What is the central question of this study? Controlled-hyperthermia heat acclimation protocols induce an array of thermoregulatory and cardiovascular adaptations that facilitate exercise in hot conditions. We investigated whether this ergogenic potential can be transferred to thermoneutral normoxic or hypoxic exercising conditions. What is the main finding and its importance? We show that heat acclimation did not affect maximal cardiac output or maximal aerobic power in thermoneutral normoxic/hypoxic conditions. Read More

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December 2018

Characterization of the Citrobacter rodentium Cpx regulon and its role in host infection.

Mol Microbiol 2018 Dec 9. Epub 2018 Dec 9.

Michael Smith Laboratories, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

Envelope-localized proteins, such as adhesins and secretion systems, play critical roles in host infection by Gram-negative pathogens. As such, their folding is monitored by envelope stress response systems. Previous studies demonstrated that the Cpx envelope stress response is required for virulence of Citrobacter rodentium, a murine pathogen used to model infections by the human pathogens enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli; however, the mechanisms by which the Cpx response promotes host infection were previously unknown. Read More

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December 2018
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A Computational Study of Mechanical Performance of Bioresorbable Polymeric Stents with Design Variations.

Cardiovasc Eng Technol 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Materials, Loughborough University, Leicestershire, LE11 3TU, UK.

Purpose: The study compared the mechanical behavior of bioresorbable polymeric stents with various designs during deployment, and investigated their fatigue performance under pulsatile blood pressure loading.

Methods: Finite element simulations have been carried out to compare the mechanical performance of four bioresorbable polymeric stents, i.e. Read More

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December 2018

District-level implementation of British Columbia's school food and beverage sales policy: a realist evaluation exploring intervention mechanisms in urban and rural contexts.

Can J Public Health 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Centre for Sustainable Food Systems, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

Intervention: British Columbia's (BC) provincial school food and beverage sales policy.

Research Question: What are the processes associated with district-level implementation of BC's school food and beverage sales policy?

Methods: We adopted a realist approach and a qualitative, multiple case study design that included three urban and two rural BC school districts. Data collection involved semi-structured interviews and questionnaires with health, education, and industry stakeholders, observations, document analysis and website scans. Read More

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December 2018
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The necessity of a holistic approach when managing marine mammal-fisheries interactions: Environment and fisheries impact are stronger than seal predation.

Ambio 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University, Campus Frescati, Svante Arrhenius väg 20 F, 106 91, Stockholm, Sweden.

Seal populations are recovering in many regions around the world and, consequently, they are increasingly interacting with fisheries. We used an Ecopath with Ecosim model for the offshore Central Baltic Sea to investigate the interactions between the changes in fish stocks and grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) population under different fishing and environmental scenarios for the twenty-first century. The assumed climate, eutrophication and cod (Gadus morhua) fisheries scenarios modified seal predation impacts on fish. Read More

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December 2018

Contemporary Management of Heart Failure in the Elderly.

Drugs Aging 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

British Heart Foundation Cardiovascular Research Centre, Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, University of Glasgow, 126 University Place, Glasgow, G12 8TA, UK.

The foundation of the treatment of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction is a number of pharmacotherapies shown to reduce morbidity and mortality in large randomised multinational clinical trials. These include angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, beta-blockers, mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists, and more recently, a combined angiotensin receptor blocker neprilysin inhibitor, sacubitril/valsartan. In select cases, digoxin, ivabradine and hydralazine with isosorbide dinitrate have a role to play in the treatment of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. Read More

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December 2018
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The Final Size of a Serious Epidemic.

Authors:
Fred Brauer

Bull Math Biol 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Mathematics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

In an epidemic of a serious disease, there is likely to be behavioral response that decreases the epidemic size considerably, and taking this into account may lead to estimates of the final epidemic size that are much smaller and more realistic than estimates that do not take this into account. Read More

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December 2018

Preparing to migrate: expression of androgen signaling molecules and insulin-like growth factor-1 in skeletal muscles of Gambel's white-crowned sparrows.

J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Department of Neurobiology Physiology Behavior, University of California, Davis, USA.

Migratory birds, including Gambel's white-crowned sparrows (Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii), exhibit profound modifications of skeletal muscles prior to migration, notably hypertrophy of the pectoralis muscle required for powered flight. Muscle growth may be influenced by anabolic effects of androgens; however, prior to spring departure, circulating androgens are low in sparrows. A seasonal increase in local androgen signaling may occur within muscle to promote remodeling. Read More

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December 2018

A lavender ABC transporter confers resistance to monoterpene toxicity in yeast.

Planta 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Department of Biology, University of British Columbia, Kelowna, BC, V1V 1V7, Canada.

Main Conclusion: Functional expression of a multidrug resistance-type ABC transporter from Lavandula angustifolia improved yeast resistance to geraniol, a monoterpene constituent of lavender essential oil. Plant ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are a large family of membrane proteins involved in active and selective transport of structurally diverse compounds. In this study, we functionally evaluated LaABCB1, a multidrug resistance (MDR)-type ABC transporter strongly expressed in the secretory cells of lavender glandular trichomes, where monoterpene essential oil constituents are synthesized and secreted. Read More

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December 2018

Salt-Enrichment Impact on Biomass Production in a Natural Population of Peatland Dwelling Arcellinida and Euglyphida (Testate Amoebae).

Microb Ecol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Geography, University of Exeter, Exeter, EX4 4RJ, UK.

Unicellular free-living microbial eukaryotes of the order Arcellinida (Tubulinea; Amoebozoa) and Euglyphida (Cercozoa; SAR), commonly termed testate amoebae, colonise almost every freshwater ecosystem on Earth. Patterns in the distribution and productivity of these organisms are strongly linked to abiotic conditions-particularly moisture availability and temperature-however, the ecological impacts of changes in salinity remain poorly documented. Here, we examine how variable salt concentrations affect a natural community of Arcellinida and Euglyphida on a freshwater sub-Antarctic peatland. Read More

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December 2018

Investigating the Pathogenicity of VSX1 Missense Mutations and Their Association With Corneal Disease.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2018 Dec;59(15):5824-5835

Department of Biology, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada.

Purpose: Despite numerous studies associating Visual System Homeobox 1 (VSX1), with posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy and keratoconus, its role in these diseases is unclear. Here we examine the pathogenicity of VSX1 missense mutations in vitro and in a mouse genetic model.

Methods: Vsx1 transcriptional repressor activity, protein stability, and subcellular localization activity, was examined using luciferase reporter-based assays, western blotting and immunolabeling, respectively, in transfected human embryonic kidney 293T cells. Read More

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December 2018

IBDoc Canadian User Performance Evaluation.

Inflamm Bowel Dis 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Department of Gastroenterology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.

Background: Fecal calprotectin (FC) is a stool biomarker that has been shown to be sensitive and specific for mucosal inflammation in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The test is limited by the requirement for patients to collect and return stool samples. A home-based FC test may improve test adherence. Read More

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December 2018

Development and user evaluation of a rare disease gene prioritization workflow based on cognitive ergonomics.

J Am Med Inform Assoc 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Centre for Molecular Medicine and Therapeutics, BC Children's Hospital Research Institute, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

Objective: The clinical diagnosis of genetic disorders is undergoing transformation, driven by whole exome sequencing and whole genome sequencing (WES/WGS). However, such nucleotide-level resolution technologies create an interpretive challenge. Prior literature suggests that clinicians may employ characteristic cognitive processes during WES/WGS investigations to identify disruptions in genes causal for the observed disease. Read More

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December 2018

Childhood cognition and age-related change in standing balance performance from mid to later life: findings from a British birth cohort.

J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

MRC Unit for Lifelong Health and Ageing at UCL, London, UK.

Background: Cognitive processing plays a crucial role in the integration of sensory input and motor output that facilitates balance. However, whether balance ability in adulthood is influenced by cognitive pathways established in childhood is unclear, especially as no study has examined if these relationships change with age. We aimed to investigate associations between childhood cognition and age-related change in standing balance between mid and later life. Read More

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December 2018

Application of the Test-Negative Design to General Laboratory Submissions.

JAMA Pediatr 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Institut National de Santé Publique du Québec, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada.

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December 2018

Burden of Children Hospitalized With Pertussis in Canada in the Acellular Pertussis Vaccine Era, 1999-2015.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Vaccine Evaluation Center, BC Children's Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.

Background: Recent increases in pertussis morbidity and mortality rates among young infants have led to a recommendation in some countries for vaccination against pertussis during pregnancy. Having data on the burden of pediatric pertussis in a large population over time is important for establishing the true burden of disease in the acellular pertussis (aP) vaccine era. Here, we describe age-specific epidemiology and morbidity and mortality rates in children hospitalized with pertussis over 17 years across Canada in the aP vaccine era. Read More

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December 2018

Targeting Semaphorin 3C in Prostate Cancer With Small Molecules.

J Endocr Soc 2018 Dec 11;2(12):1381-1394. Epub 2018 Oct 11.

The Vancouver Prostate Centre, Vancouver General Hospital, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

Despite the amenability of early-stage prostate cancer to surgery and radiation therapy, locally advanced and metastatic prostate cancer is clinically problematic. Chemical castration is often used as a first-line therapy for advanced disease, but progression to the castration-resistant prostate cancer phase occurs with dependable frequency, largely through mutations to the androgen receptor (AR), aberrant AR signaling, and AR-independent mechanisms, among other causes. Semaphorin 3C (SEMA3C) is a secreted signaling protein that is essential for cardiac and neuronal development and has been shown to be regulated by the AR, to drive epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and stem features in prostate cells, to activate receptor tyrosine kinases, and to promote cancer progression. Read More

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December 2018

Eating disorders in biological males: clinical presentation and consideration of sex differences in a pediatric sample.

J Eat Disord 2018 26;6:40. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

1Provincial Specialized Eating Disorders Program for Children & Adolescents, British Columbia Children's Hospital, Box 178, 4500 Oak St., Vancouver, BC V6H 3N1 Canada.

Background: The growing body of research on eating disorders among male adolescents reveals some sex differences in clinical presentation. The current study set out to replicate and extend recent research on the clinical and medical characteristics of male youth with eating disorders, and examine sex differences between biological males and females in a tertiary pediatric eating disorder treatment setting.

Methods: A retrospective chart review was conducted with all biological males who were admitted to the Eating Disorders Programs at British Columbia Children's Hospital (2003-2015) or the Looking Glass Residence (2011-2015). Read More

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November 2018
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An Introduction to the Approximate Number System.

Child Dev Perspect 2018 Dec 10;12(4):223-229. Epub 2018 Apr 10.

University of California, Berkeley.

What are young children's first intuitions about numbers and what role do these play in their later understanding of mathematics? Traditionally, has been viewed as a culturally derived breakthrough occurring relatively recently in human history that requires years of education to master. Contrary to this view, research in cognitive development indicates that our minds come equipped with a rich and flexible sense of number-the Approximate Number System (ANS). Recently, several major challenges have been mounted to the existence of the ANS and its value as a domain-specific system for representing number. Read More

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December 2018

Genome Sequencing of Sub-Arctic Mesomycetozoean Sphaeroforma sirkka Strain B5, Performed with the Oxford Nanopore minION and Illumina HiSeq Systems.

Microbiol Resour Announc 2018 Oct 18;7(15). Epub 2018 Oct 18.

Department of Arctic and Marine Biology, Universitetet i Tromsø-Norges arktiske universitet, Tromsø, Norway.

The Mesomycetozoea branch near the animal-fungal divergence and are believed to be important to understanding the origins of multicellularity. In 2012, a free-living saprotrophic mesomycetozoean was isolated from the sub-Arctic Bering Sea. A hybrid assembly using Illumina and Nanopore sequences yielded 2,688 contigs with a total length of 125,635,304 bases. Read More

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October 2018

TPP2 mutation associated with sterile brain inflammation mimicking MS.

Neurol Genet 2018 Dec 13;4(6):e285. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Department of Neurology (E.M.R., S.P., C.S., F.L., F.Z., A.Z.), Medical University of Vienna, Austria; Institut für Humangenetik (E.G., T.W., T.S.), Helmholtz Zentrum München, Germany; Center for Brain Research (T.Z., H.L.), Medical University of Vienna; Division of Nephrology and Dialysis (C.K.), Department of Internal Medicine III, Medical University of Vienna; Department of Physical Medicine (M.K.), Rehabilitation and Occupational Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, Austria; Lübeck Interdisciplinary Platform for Genome Analytics (C.M.L.), Institutes of Neurogenetics and for Cardiogenetics, University of Lübeck; Department of Neurology and Neuroimaging Center (NIC) (C.M.L.), Focus Program Translational Neuroscience (FTN), University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz; Department of Human Genetics (S.H., J.T.E.), Ruhr-University Bochum; Herdecke (J.T.E.), ZBAF, Faculty of Health, University Witten; Department of Neurology (U.K.Z., M.H.), Neuroimmunological Section, University of Rostock; Department of Neurology (A.D.), Department of Clinical Genomics (A.D.), Department of Neuroscience (A.D.), Jeweils Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL; Department of Neurology (S.G.M.), University of Muenster, Germany; Department of Physiology and Biochemistry (M.A., B.M.), School of Medicine, the University of Jordan; The National Center (Institute) for Diabetes (M.E.-K.), Endocrinology and Genetics (NCDEG), Amman, Jordan; Department of Medical Genetics (C.V.-G., A.D.S.), University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada; Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology (B.T.), Uppsala University, Sweden; Karl Landsteiner Institute for Neuroimmunological and Neurodegenerative Disorders (W.K.), SMZ-Ost-Donauspital, Vienna, Austria; and Institute for Neuroimmunological and Neurodegenerative Disorders (W.K.), SMZ-Ost-Donauspital, Vienna, Austria.

Objective: To ascertain the genetic cause of a consanguineous family from Syria suffering from a sterile brain inflammation mimicking a mild nonprogressive form of MS.

Methods: We used homozygosity mapping and next-generation sequencing to detect the disease-causing gene in the affected siblings. In addition, we performed RNA and protein expression studies, enzymatic activity assays, immunohistochemistry, and targeted sequencing of further MS cases from Austria, Germany, Canada and Jordan. Read More

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December 2018

Novel genotype-phenotype and MRI correlations in a large cohort of patients with mutations.

Neurol Genet 2018 Dec 24;4(6):e279. Epub 2018 Oct 24.

Academic Directorate of Neurosciences (C.A.A.H., R.O'.M., M.K.R., S.P., Z.P., S.B., C.J.M., P.J.S., M.H.), Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Royal Hallamshire Hospital; Sheffield Institute for Translational Neuroscience (SITraN) (C.A.A.H., R.S., T.R., C.J.M., P.J.S., M.H.), University of Sheffield; Sheffield Diagnostic Genetics Service (N.J.B., J.M.), Sheffield Children's NHS Foundation Trust; Department of Clinical Neurophysiology (G.R., P.S.), Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Royal Hallamshire Hospital; Academic Unit of Radiology (N.H.), University of Sheffield, Royal Hallamshire Hospital; and Sheffield NIHR Biomedical Research Centre for Translational Neuroscience (C.A.A.H., N.H., R.S., P.S., S.B., C.J.M., P.J.S., M.H.), United Kingdom.

Objective: To clinically, genetically, and radiologically characterize a large cohort of patients.

Methods: We used data from next-generation sequencing panels for ataxias and hereditary spastic paraplegia to identify a characteristic phenotype that helped direct genetic testing for variations in . We analyzed MRI. Read More

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December 2018

S100A12 Serum Levels and PMN Counts Are Elevated in Childhood Systemic Vasculitides Especially Involving Proteinase 3 Specific Anti-neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibodies.

Front Pediatr 2018 23;6:341. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Department of Pediatric Rheumatology and Immunology, University Hospital Muenster, Muenster, Germany.

Chronic primary systemic vasculitidies (CPV) are a collection of rare diseases involving inflammation in blood vessels, often in multiple organs. CPV can affect adults and children and may be life- or organ-threatening. Treatments for adult CPV, although effective, have known severe potential toxicities; safety and efficacy of these drugs in pediatric patients is not fully understood. Read More

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November 2018

Biogeography and genotypic diversity of Metarhizium brunneum and Metarhizium robertsii in northwestern North American soils.

Can J Microbiol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 6337, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada ;

The biogeography and genotype diversity of Metarhizium species in northwestern North American soils was examined; twenty ecoregions were sampled, including 58 agricultural and 80 natural habitat subsites, and areas that were glaciated during the Pleistocene epoch. One hundred and twenty nine isolates of M. brunneum, 26 isolates of M. Read More

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December 2018

Understanding the burden of bacterial sexually transmitted infections and Trichomonas vaginalis among black Caribbeans in the United Kingdom: Findings from a systematic review.

PLoS One 2018 7;13(12):e0208315. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Institute for Global Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom.

Background: In the UK, people of black Caribbean (BC) ethnicity continue to be disproportionately affected by bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV). We systematically reviewed evidence on the association between bacterial STIs/TV and ethnicity (BC compared to white/white British (WB)) accounting for other risk factors; and differences between these two ethnic groups in the prevalence of risk factors associated with these STIs, sexual healthcare seeking behaviours, and contextual factors influencing STI risk.

Methods: Studies presenting relevant evidence for participants aged ≥14 years and living in the UK were eligible for inclusion. Read More

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December 2018

Warming shortens flowering seasons of tundra plant communities.

Nat Ecol Evol 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

WSL Institute for Snow and Avalanche Research , Davos, Switzerland.

Advancing phenology is one of the most visible effects of climate change on plant communities, and has been especially pronounced in temperature-limited tundra ecosystems. However, phenological responses have been shown to differ greatly between species, with some species shifting phenology more than others. We analysed a database of 42,689 tundra plant phenological observations to show that warmer temperatures are leading to a contraction of community-level flowering seasons in tundra ecosystems due to a greater advancement in the flowering times of late-flowering species than early-flowering species. Read More

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December 2018

Time-resolved synchrotron X-ray micro-tomography datasets of drainage and imbibition in carbonate rocks.

Sci Data 2018 Dec 11;5:180265. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Qatar Carbonates and Carbon Storage Research Centre, Department of Earth Science and Engineering, Imperial College London, SW7 2AZ London, U.K.

Multiphase flow in permeable media is a complex pore-scale phenomenon, which is important in many natural and industrial processes. To understand the pore-scale dynamics of multiphase flow, we acquired time-series synchrotron X-ray micro-tomographic data at a voxel-resolution of 3.28 μm and time-resolution of 38 s during drainage and imbibition in a carbonate rock, under a capillary-dominated flow regime at elevated pressure. Read More

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December 2018

Genome-wide study of hair colour in UK Biobank explains most of the SNP heritability.

Nat Commun 2018 Dec 10;9(1):5271. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

MRC Human Genetics Unit, Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Crewe Road, Edinburgh, EH4 2XU, UK.

Natural hair colour within European populations is a complex genetic trait. Previous work has established that MC1R variants are the principal genetic cause of red hair colour, but with variable penetrance. Here, we have extensively mapped the genes responsible for hair colour in the white, British ancestry, participants in UK Biobank. Read More

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December 2018

Reduction of Inappropriate Antimicrobial Prescriptions in a Tertiary Neonatal Intensive Care Unit After Antimicrobial Stewardship Care Bundle Implementation.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2019 Jan;38(1):54-59

From the Department of Pediatrics, University of British Columbia.

Background: Our objective was to evaluate the appropriateness of antibiotic prescriptions in the neonatal intensive care unit using standardized criteria and determine the effects of an antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) on patterns of antibiotic usage.

Methods: A retrospective audit of antibiotic use from July 2010 to June 2013 was conducted, focusing on prescriptions of vancomycin, cefotaxime, meropenem and linezolid for >3 calendar-days. We evaluated the appropriateness of each course of antibiotic treatment based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 12-Step Guidelines to Prevent Antimicrobial Resistance (steps 4, 6 and 9). Read More

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January 2019

Determinants of Restoration of CD4 and CD8 Cell Counts and their Ratio in HIV-1 Positive Individuals with Sustained Virological Suppression on Antiretroviral Therapy.

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Academic Medical Center of the University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Background: An increasing number of HIV-positive individuals now start antiretroviral therapy (ART) with high CD4 cell counts. We investigated whether this makes restoration of CD4 and CD8 cell counts and the CD4:CD8 ratio during virologically suppressive ART to median levels seen in HIV uninfected individuals more likely and whether restoration depends on gender, age and other individual characteristics.

Methods: We determined median and quartile reference values for CD4 and CD8 cell count and their ratio using cross-sectional data from 2,309 HIV-negative individuals. Read More

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December 2018

HIV and amenorrhea: A meta-analysis.

AIDS 2018 Nov 27. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.

Objective: There is conflicting literature to support a link between HIV and amenorrhea. Here, we conduct a meta-analysis to summarize the results from landmark studies in this area and shed light on this important clinical association.

Methods: Using a search of Ovid Medline and Embase, a total of 322 articles were screened for controlled matched observational studies of amenorrhea in premenopausal women living with HIV (WLWH). Read More

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November 2018

A cross-sectional examination of the relationship between approaches to learning and perceived stress among medical students in Malaysia.

Educ Health (Abingdon) 2018 May-Aug;31(2):80-86

Newcastle University Medicine Malaysia, Iskandar Puteri, Johor, Malaysia.

Background: Learning approaches have been proposed to affect the experience of psychological stress among tertiary students in recent years. This relationship becomes important in stressful environments such as medical schools. However, the relationship between stress and learning approaches is not well understood, and often studies done cannot be generalized due to different sociocultural differences. Read More

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December 2018

The Adaption of the Client Sociodemographic and Service Receipt Inventory for Costing Mental Health Services in Brazil.

J Ment Health Policy Econ 2018 Sep;21(3):131-142

Centro de Economia em Saude Mental (CESM) Departamento de Psiquiatria, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP) Rua Borges Lagoa 570, 1 andar, Vila Clementino, Sao Paulo, 04038-000, Brazil,

Background: There is a scarcity of tested instruments for measuring mental health services and costs. The Client Sociodemographic Service Receipt Inventory (CSSRI) is the most used tool in economic evaluation in mental health in Europe; it was translated into five languages, and it was mainly used to evaluate deinstitutionalisation process in mental health system reform.

Aims Of The Study: To translate and adapt to the Brazilian healthcare system, and to test its inter-rater reliability, validity and its feasibility in a deinstitutionalized sample of psychiatric hospital living in residential facilities. Read More

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September 2018

Nitrogen handling in the elasmobranch gut: a role for microbial urease.

J Exp Biol 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Bamfield Marine Sciences Centre, 100 Pachena Road, Bamfield, BC, V0R 1B0, Canada.

Ureotelic elasmobranchs require nitrogen for both protein growth and urea-based osmoregulation, and therefore are probably nitrogen-limited in nature. Mechanisms exist for retaining and/or scavenging nitrogen at gills, kidney, rectal gland, and gut, but as yet, the latter are not well characterized. Intestinal sac preparations of the Pacific spiny dogfish shark () incubated strongly reabsorbed urea from the lumen after feeding, but mucosal fluid ammonia concentrations increased with incubation time. Read More

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December 2018

For debate: on-the-person battlefield antibiotics.

J R Army Med Corps 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Emergency Department, St Mary's Hospital, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London, UK.

Wound infection has always been an important contributor to mortality and morbidity on the battlefield. On-the-person antibiotics have long been suggested as one way to help combat this, which have already been implemented by some North Atlantic Treaty Organization partners. This paper is an up-to-date review of the evidence of the efficacy of on-the-person antibiotics and whether the British military should look to use them in the near future. Read More

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December 2018

Extracellular protons accelerate hERG channel deactivation by destabilizing voltage sensor relaxation.

J Gen Physiol 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Biomedical Physiology and Kinesiology, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada

hERG channels underlie the delayed-rectifier K channel current (I), which is crucial for membrane repolarization and therefore termination of the cardiac action potential. hERG channels display unusually slow deactivation gating, which contributes to a resurgent current upon repolarization and may protect against post-depolarization-induced arrhythmias. hERG channels also exhibit robust mode shift behavior, which reflects the energetic separation of activation and deactivation pathways due to voltage sensor relaxation into a stable activated state. Read More

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December 2018

Creation of an Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) Guideline for neonatal intestinal surgery patients: a knowledge synthesis and consensus generation approach and protocol study.

BMJ Open 2018 Dec 9;8(12):e023651. Epub 2018 Dec 9.

Department of Surgery, Alberta Children's Hospital, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

Introduction: Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) guidelines integrate evidence-based practices into multimodal care pathways designed to optimise patient recovery following surgery. The objective of this project is to create an ERAS protocol for neonatal abdominal surgery. The protocol will identify and attempt to bridge the gaps between current practices and best evidence. Read More

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December 2018

Enterovirus and parechovirus meningitis in infants younger than 90 days old in the UK and Republic of Ireland: a British Paediatric Surveillance Unit study.

Arch Dis Child 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Paediatric Infectious Diseases Research Group, St George's University of London, London, UK.

Objectives: This study aimed to prospectively collect detailed clinical information for all enterovirus (EV) and human parechovirus (HPeV) meningitis cases in infants aged <90 days in the UK and Ireland.

Participants, Design And Setting: Prospective, active national surveillance during July 2014 to July 2015 through the British Paediatric Surveillance Unit. Reporting paediatricians completed questionnaires requesting information on clinical presentation, investigations, management and outcomes at hospital discharge and after 12 months. Read More

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December 2018

Operationalising a conceptual framework for a contiguous hospitalisation episode to study associations between surgical timing and death after first hip fracture: a Canadian observational study.

BMJ Open 2018 Dec 6;8(12):e020372. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Vancouver Coastal Health Research Institute, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

Objective: We describe steps to operationalise a published conceptual framework for a contiguous hospitalisation episode using acute care hospital discharge abstracts. We then quantified the degree of bias induced by a first abstract episode, which does not account for hospital transfers.

Design: Retrospective observational study. Read More

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December 2018

Moral distress is associated with general workplace distress in intensive care unit personnel.

J Crit Care 2018 Nov 29;50:122-125. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Center for Health Evaluation and Outcome Sciences, St. Paul's Hospital, University of British Columbia, 1081 Burrard Street, Vancouver, BC V6Z 1Y6, Canada; School of Population and Public Health, University of British Columbia, 2206 East Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z3, Canada. Electronic address:

Purpose: To assess the association between moral distress and general workplace distress in intensive care unit (ICU) personnel.

Materials And Methods: We administered the Moral Distress Scale Revised and the Job Content Questionnaire to all clinicians (870 nurses, 68 physicians, 452 other health professionals) in 13 ICUs (3 tertiary, 3 large community, 7 small community) in British Columbia, Canada. We used mixed effects regression, treating ICUs as clusters, to examine the association between the Moral Distress Score and each Job Content Questionnaire scale (decision latitude, psychological stressors, social support, psychological strain) after adjusting for age, sex, and years of experience of respondents; separate analyses were done for each profession. Read More

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November 2018

Prenatal alcohol exposure and sleep-wake behaviors: exploratory and naturalistic observations in the clinical setting and in an animal model.

Sleep Med 2018 Oct 25;54:101-112. Epub 2018 Oct 25.

Department of Cellular & Physiological Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

Introduction: Clinical research and studies using animal models have revealed a complex and relatively under-explored interaction between prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) and alterations in sleep-wake behaviors.

Objectives: To utilize a structured naturalistic observation-based methodology, consisting of descriptive elements, to provide insight into possible links between altered sleep and disruptive daytime presentations in children and adolescents with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). To apply a similar structured behavioral observation protocol in a PAE animal model to compare outcomes from the experimental and clinical studies utilizing naturalistic observational methodology. Read More

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October 2018