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    19826 results match your criteria British Journal of Ophthalmology[Journal]

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    Natural history of primary paediatric optic nerve sheath meningioma: case series and review.
    Br J Ophthalmol 2017 Nov 16. Epub 2017 Nov 16.
    Department of Ophthalmology, South Australian Institute of Ophthalmology, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia.
    Purpose: To study the natural history, clinical and radiological characteristics of primary paediatric optic nerve sheath meningioma (PPONSM).

    Methods: Retrospective study of eight paediatric patients who were treated between 1994 and 2016 at the University Hospital Zurich, Switzerland and the Royal Adelaide Hospital, Australia. Clinical records and imaging studies were reviewed. Read More

    Comparison among adjuvant treatments for primary pterygium: a network meta-analysis.
    Br J Ophthalmol 2017 Nov 16. Epub 2017 Nov 16.
    Department of Radiotherapy, School of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil.
    Purpose: Pterygium is a frequent ocular disease, where the major challenge is the high level of recurrence after its surgical removal. We performed a network meta-analysis to identify, among several adjuvant treatments for primary pterygium, which is the best to prevent recurrence.

    Methods: A search was conducted using PubMed, Scientific Electronic Library Online, Latin American and Caribbean Centre on Health Sciences and Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register between 1993 and 2015 for randomisedclinical trials (RCTs) comparing adjuvant treatments following primary pterygium surgery. Read More

    Blepharitis as an early sign of metabolic syndrome: a nationwide population-based study.
    Br J Ophthalmol 2017 Nov 16. Epub 2017 Nov 16.
    Department of Medical Research, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan.
    Background: To investigate the relationship between blepharitis and metabolic syndrome (MetS) by using the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database (LHID) of Taiwan.

    Methods: This retrospective cohort study was conducted using data collected from the LHID for the period from 2009 to 2013. This study enrolled patients who received a diagnosis of blepharitis according to the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, diagnostic code. Read More

    Visual field indices and patterns of visual field deficits in mesopic and dark-adapted two-colour fundus-controlled perimetry in macular diseases.
    Br J Ophthalmol 2017 Nov 16. Epub 2017 Nov 16.
    Department of Ophthalmology, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany.
    Background/aims: To analyse the retest reliability of visual field indices and to describe patterns of visual field deficits in mesopic and dark-adapted two-colour fundus-controlled perimetry (FCP) in macular diseases.

    Methods: Seventy-seven eyes (30 eyes with macular diseases and 47 normal eyes) underwent duplicate mesopic and dark-adapted two-colour FCP (Scotopic Macular Integrity Assessment, CenterVue). Non-weighted (mean defect, loss variance), variability-weighted (mean deviation, pattern standard deviation (PSD)) and graphical (cumulative defect (Bebie) curves) indices were computed. Read More

    Non-aesthetic indications for periocular hyaluronic acid filler treatment: a review.
    Br J Ophthalmol 2017 Nov 16. Epub 2017 Nov 16.
    Corneo-plastic Unit, Queen Victoria Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, East Grinstead, United Kingdom.
    Dermal fillers have been in use for many years for aesthetic rejuvenation of the face. More recently, however, fillers have been increasingly used as an alternative to traditional surgical procedures for non-aesthetic indications. These indications include lagophthalmos, eyelid malpositions and orbital volume deficiency. Read More

    Is there consensus in defining childhood cerebral visual impairment? A systematic review of terminology and definitions.
    Br J Ophthalmol 2017 Nov 16. Epub 2017 Nov 16.
    Developmental Neurosciences Programme, UCL GOS Institute of Child Health University College London, London, UK.
    The childhood condition of visual difficulties caused by brain damage, commonly termed cortical or cerebral visual impairment (CVI), is well established but has no internationally accepted definition. Clarification of its core features is required to advance research and clinical practice. This systematic review aimed to identify the definitions of childhood CVI in the original scientific literature to describe and critically appraise a consensual definition of the condition. Read More

    Prevalence and factors associated with age-related macular degeneration in a southwestern island population of Japan: the Kumejima Study.
    Br J Ophthalmol 2017 Nov 16. Epub 2017 Nov 16.
    Kanto Central Hospital of The Mutual Aid Association of Public School Teachers, Tokyo, Japan.
    Aims: To evaluate the prevalence of and factors associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in a rural population of southwestern Japan.

    Methods: This population-based cross-sectional study of all residents aged 40 years or older was conducted on the island of Kumejima, Okinawa, Japan. Of 4632 eligible residents, 3762 completed a comprehensive questionnaire and underwent ocular examination (participant rate, 81. Read More

    Ocular findings in Loeys-Dietz syndrome.
    Br J Ophthalmol 2017 Nov 16. Epub 2017 Nov 16.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Charité-University Medicine Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Background: Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS), an autosomal-dominant connective tissue disorder, is characterised by systemic manifestations including arterial aneurysm and craniofacial dysmorphologies. Although ocular involvement in LDS has been reported, detailed information on those manifestations is lacking.

    Methods: Retrospective chart review of patients with diagnosed LDS and comparison with age-matched control patients. Read More

    Keratolimbal allograft for limbal stem cell deficiency after severe corneal chemical injury: a systematic review.
    Br J Ophthalmol 2017 Nov 15. Epub 2017 Nov 15.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
    Purpose: To review the published literature on outcomes of keratolimbal allograft (KLAL) for the surgical treatment of limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD) and corneal blindness after severe corneal chemical injury.

    Methods: Literature searches were conducted in the following electronic databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index, CINAHL, LILACS and the Cochrane Library. Standard systematic review methodology was applied. Read More

    Adaptive optics imaging of inherited retinal diseases.
    Br J Ophthalmol 2017 Nov 15. Epub 2017 Nov 15.
    UCL Institute of Ophthalmology, University College London, London, UK.
    Adaptive optics (AO) ophthalmoscopy allows for non-invasive retinal phenotyping on a microscopic scale, thereby helping to improve our understanding of retinal diseases. An increasing number of natural history studies and ongoing/planned interventional clinical trials exploit AO ophthalmoscopy both for participant selection, stratification and monitoring treatment safety and efficacy. In this review, we briefly discuss the evolution of AO ophthalmoscopy, recent developments and its application to a broad range of inherited retinal diseases, including Stargardt disease, retinitis pigmentosa and achromatopsia. Read More

    Comparison of preservation and transportation protocols for preloaded Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty.
    Br J Ophthalmol 2017 Nov 13. Epub 2017 Nov 13.
    Department of Eye and Vision Science, University of Liverpool Institute of Ageing and Chronic Disease, Liverpool, UK.
    Background/aims: Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) preparation is technically demanding and is a limiting factor for uptake of this kind of surgery. Supply methods that simplify the procedure for surgeons are key to increasing uptake. This study compares two different shipping protocols for DMEK. Read More

    Ruthenium-106 brachytherapy for iris and iridociliary melanomas.
    Br J Ophthalmol 2017 Nov 9. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.
    Background And Purpose: To evaluate ruthenium-106 (Ru106) brachytherapy as eye-conserving treatment of iris melanomas (IMs) and iridociliary melanomas (ICMs).

    Materials And Methods: Eighty-eight patients received Ru106 brachytherapy between 2006 and 2016. Primary outcome was local control, and secondary outcomes were metastasis, survival, eye preservation, complications and visual acuity (VA). Read More

    Comparative evaluation of progression rate in keratoconus before and after collagen crosslinking.
    Br J Ophthalmol 2017 Nov 9. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.
    Purpose: To compare the rate of disease progression in keratoconus before and after corneal collagen crosslinking (CXL).

    Methods: 145 eyes were followed without CXL (no-CXL group) for a median duration of 31 months whereas 45 eyes were followed up for 41 months before (pre-CXL) and after (post-CXL) accelerated, epithelium-off crosslinking. Progression was defined based on significant slope found in linear mixed effect models against time. Read More

    Posterior keratoconus.
    Br J Ophthalmol 2017 Nov 9. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, University of Chicago Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois, USA.
    Posterior keratoconus (PKC) is a rare, typically non-inflammatory condition that is characterised by an abnormal posterior corneal curvature, which may be accompanied by overlying stromal opacification. It is usually congenital and can be associated with other ocular and systemic abnormalities. PKC remains a clinical diagnosis, although imaging techniques including ultrasound biomicroscopy and anterior segment optical coherence tomography may be useful tools for confirmation and classification. Read More

    Metagenomic deep sequencing of aqueous fluid detects intraocular lymphomas.
    Br J Ophthalmol 2017 Nov 9. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    Francis I Proctor Foundation, University of California, San Francisco, California, USA.
    Introduction: Currently, the detection of pathogens or mutations associated with intraocular lymphomas heavily relies on prespecified, directed PCRs. With metagenomic deep sequencing (MDS), an unbiased high-throughput sequencing approach, all pathogens as well as all mutations present in the host's genome can be detected in the same small amount of ocular fluid.

    Methods: In this cross-sectional case series, aqueous fluid samples from two patients were submitted to MDS to identify pathogens as well as common and rare cancer mutations. Read More

    Comparing a new hydroexpression technique with conventional forceps method for SMILE lenticule removal.
    Br J Ophthalmol 2017 Nov 9. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong.
    Background: We described a modified 'hydroexpression' technique for the lenticule removal during small-incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) surgery and compared the results with conventional forceps method.

    Methods: This was a retrospective, comparative study of 50 patients who underwent SMILE surgery by the same surgeon. We compared the 1-week and 3-months postoperative results after SMILE using the hydroexpression technique with the conventional forceps technique. Read More

    Treatment of conjunctival melanoma in a Dutch referral centre.
    Br J Ophthalmol 2017 Nov 9. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.
    Aims: To evaluate the treatment of conjunctival melanoma at a large Dutch referral centre and to make recommendations for clinical management.

    Methods: A retrospective review was performed of clinical and histological data of 70 patients treated for a primary conjunctival melanoma between 2001 and 2014 at the Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands. Detailed follow-up data were available for all patients. Read More

    Optical coherence tomographic angiography identifies peripapillary microvascular dilation and focal non-perfusion in giant cell arteritis.
    Br J Ophthalmol 2017 Nov 9. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
    Aims: We set out to determine the optical coherence tomographic angiography (OCT-A) characteristics of arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy (AAION) in the context of giant cell arteritis (GCA).

    Methods: This is an observational case series of four patients with AAION secondary to GCA, three with unilateral AAION and one with bilateral AAION. We reviewed the charts, fundus photography, visual fields, fluorescein angiography (FA) and OCT-A images for all patients to identify a unifying theme in a range of AAION clinical severity. Read More

    Ocular manifestations, complications and management of congenital ichthyoses: a new look.
    Br J Ophthalmol 2017 11 3. Epub 2017 Nov 3.
    Department of Dermatology, University Hospital Münster, Munster, Germany.
    Congenital ichthyoses (CI) are rare genetic skin keratinisation diseases characterised by generalised scaling and a variable degree of erythema and hyperkeratosis. Ocular involvement includes the eyelids, conjunctiva and all layers of the cornea. Ophthalmic input should include regular slit lamp review with the primary aim to prevent a corneal epithelial defect, secondary bacterial infection, scarring or perforation. Read More

    Role of microRNA-146a in regulation of fibrosis in orbital fibroblasts from patients with Graves' orbitopathy.
    Br J Ophthalmol 2017 Nov 3. Epub 2017 Nov 3.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Severance Hospital, The Institute of Vision Research, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
    Aim: To examine the role of microRNA-146a (miR-146a) in the regulation of fibrosis in an in vitro model of Graves' orbitopathy (GO).

    Methods: Orbital fat/connective tissues were harvested from patients with GO and non-GO for primary orbital fibroblast cultures. The effects of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), a potent cytokine that promotes fibrosis, on miR-146a expression were analysed in GO and non-GO orbital fibroblasts using quantitative real-time PCR. Read More

    Topographic correlation between juxtapapillary choroidal thickness and parapapillary deep-layer microvasculature dropout in primary open-angle glaucoma.
    Br J Ophthalmol 2017 Nov 3. Epub 2017 Nov 3.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seongnam, Korea.
    Purpose: To investigate the topographic relationship between parapapillary deep-layer microvasculature dropout (MvD) as assessed by optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography (OCTA) and the juxtapapillary choroidal thickness (JPCT) in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG).

    Methods: A total of 194 eyes (138 POAG and 56 control eyes) having parapapillary atrophy (PPA) were imaged using the swept-source OCT and OCTA to examine the microstructure of PPA and measure the JPCT, and to determine the presence of the MvD. MvD was defined as a focal sectoral capillary dropout without any visible microvascular network identified in the parapapillary deep-layer in the en face OCTA images. Read More

    Spironolactone versus observation in the treatment of acute central serous chorioretinopathy.
    Br J Ophthalmol 2017 Oct 31. Epub 2017 Oct 31.
    Department of Ophthalmology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.
    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of oral spironolactone in patients with acute central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC).

    Methods: This is a prospective, randomised controlled clinical study. Thirty patients with acute CSC were the participants, including 18 patients who were treated with spironolactone (40 mg orally, twice daily) for 2 months in the experimental group and 12 patients who received observation in the control group. Read More

    Assessment of retinoblastoma RNA reflux after intravitreal injection of melphalan.
    Br J Ophthalmol 2017 Oct 31. Epub 2017 Oct 31.
    Unit of Clinical Pharmacokinetics, Hospital de Pediatría JP Garrahan, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    Background: Intravitreal injection of chemotherapy in retinoblastoma eyes with vitreous seeds may lead to a risk of extraocular tumour dissemination that has not been assessed so far.

    Aims: To develop a sensitive and clinically feasible technique to assess for potential retinoblastoma cell reflux after intravitreal injection of melphalan.

    Methods: Filter papers were cut in 6 mm diameter circles and sterilised before use. Read More

    Calculating the individual probability of successful ocriplasmin treatment in eyes with VMT syndrome: a multivariable prediction model from the EXPORT study.
    Br J Ophthalmol 2017 Oct 31. Epub 2017 Oct 31.
    Department of Ophthalmology, University Medical Center Goettingen, Göttingen, Germany.
    Background/aims: To evaluate predictive factors for the treatment success of ocriplasmin and to use these factors to generate a multivariate model to calculate the individual probability of successful treatment.

    Methods: Data were collected in a retrospective, multicentre cohort study. Patients with vitreomacular traction (VMT) syndrome without a full-thickness macular hole were included if they received an intravitreal injection (IVI) of ocriplasmin. Read More

    Macular capillary plexuses after epiretinal membrane surgery: an optical coherence tomography angiography study.
    Br J Ophthalmol 2017 Oct 31. Epub 2017 Oct 31.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
    Aims: To investigate macular vascular integrity using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in patients undergoing vitrectomy for idiopathic epiretinal membrane (ERM) removal and to determine its association with structural and visual outcomes.

    Methods: Forty-three patients with unilateral ERM who were followed for ≥6 months after surgery were included. Ophthalmological evaluations included best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and spectral-domain OCT (SD-OCT) before surgery and 6 months after surgery. Read More

    Example of monitoring measurements in a virtual eye clinic using 'big data'.
    Br J Ophthalmol 2017 Oct 26. Epub 2017 Oct 26.
    Department of Visual Neuroscience, Faculty of Brain Sciences, Institute of Ophthalmology, University College London, London, UK.
    Aim: To assess the equivalence of measurement outcomes between patients attending a standard glaucoma care service, where patients see an ophthalmologist in a face-to-face setting, and a glaucoma monitoring service (GMS).

    Methods: The average mean deviation (MD) measurement on the visual field (VF) test for 250 patients attending a GMS were compared with a 'big data' repository of patients attending a standard glaucoma care service (reference database). In addition, the speed of VF progression between GMS patients and reference database patients was compared. Read More

    Treatment of Advanced Glaucoma Study: a multicentre randomised controlled trial comparing primary medical treatment with primary trabeculectomy for people with newly diagnosed advanced glaucoma-study protocol.
    Br J Ophthalmol 2017 Oct 26. Epub 2017 Oct 26.
    Centre for Healthcare Randomised Trials (CHaRT), Health Services Research Unit, University of Aberdeen, Health Services Research Unit, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK.
    Background: Presentation with advanced glaucoma is the major risk factor for lifetime blindness. Effective intervention at diagnosis is expected to minimise risk of further visual loss in this group of patients.

    Aim: To compare clinical and cost-effectiveness of primary medical management compared with primary surgery for people presenting with advanced open-angle glaucoma (OAG). Read More

    Outcome of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy for neovascular age-related macular degeneration in real-life setting.
    Br J Ophthalmol 2017 Oct 26. Epub 2017 Oct 26.
    Tays Eye Centre, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland.
    Aims: To evaluate outcome of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy for the treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) in the real-life setting and to compare incidence of ocular serious adverse events (SAE) after injections administered by nurses and physicians.

    Methods: Retrospective, single-centre study. Medical records of patients receiving anti-VEGF treatment for nAMD between 2008 and 2013 with three-loading-dose regimen were evaluated. Read More

    Phenotypic diversity in autosomal-dominant cone-rod dystrophy elucidated by adaptive optics retinal imaging.
    Br J Ophthalmol 2017 Oct 26. Epub 2017 Oct 26.
    University of Rochester, Flaum Eye Institute, Rochester, New York, USA.
    Purpose: Several genes causing autosomal-dominant cone-rod dystrophy (AD-CRD) have been identified. However, the mechanisms by which genetic mutations lead to cellular loss in human disease remain poorly understood. Here we combine genotyping with high-resolution adaptive optics retinal imaging to elucidate the retinal phenotype at a cellular level in patients with AD-CRD harbouring a defect in the GUCA1A gene. Read More

    Comparative analysis of autofluorescence and OCT angiography in Stargardt disease.
    Br J Ophthalmol 2017 Oct 26. Epub 2017 Oct 26.
    Department of Smt Kanuri Santhamma Centre for Vitreo Retinal Diseases, LV Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, India.
    Aims: To characterise the vasculature of the retina in patients with Stargardt disease (STGD) using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) and to compare these functional findings with fundus autofluorescence (FAF) imaging.

    Methods: This observational study included consecutive patients with STGD. The choriocapillaris (CC) layer was analysed on OCTA and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) changes were assessed on FAF. Read More

    Orbital trapdoor fractures: different clinical profiles between adult and paediatric patients.
    Br J Ophthalmol 2017 Oct 21. Epub 2017 Oct 21.
    Department of Oculoplastic, Orbital and Lacrimal Surgery, Aichi Medical University Hospital, Aichi, Japan.
    Background: To compare clinical findings of orbital trapdoor fractures between adult and paediatric patients.

    Methods: Paediatric patients were categorised into two groups by age: children (0-9 years) and adolescents (10-19 years). Adult patients were categorised into two groups by age: early (20-44 years) and middle-late adulthood (≥45 years). Read More

    Macular imaging by optical coherence tomography in the diagnosis and management of glaucoma.
    Br J Ophthalmol 2017 Oct 21. Epub 2017 Oct 21.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
    The macular area is important to the detection of glaucomatous retinal ganglion cell (RGC) damage. Macular thickness complementary to peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thickness can well reflect glaucomatous damage, given that the macula contains more than 50% of the RGCs in a multilayered pattern and larger RGC bodies compared with their axons. Thus, macular ganglion cell thickness parameters recently have been considered to be an effective glaucoma-diagnostic tool comparable to RNFL thickness parameters. Read More

    Prevalence of blindness and cataract surgical coverage in Narayani Zone, Nepal: a rapid assessment of avoidable blindness (RAAB) study.
    Br J Ophthalmol 2017 Oct 21. Epub 2017 Oct 21.
    British Columbia Centre for Epidemiologic and International Ophthalmology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.
    Background: The 1981 Nepal Blindness Survey first identified the Narayani Zone as one of the regions with the highest prevalence of blindness in the country. Subseuqently, a 2006 survey of the Rautahat District of the Narayani Zone found it to have the country's highest blindness prevalence. This study examines the impact on blind avoidable and treatable eye conditions in this region after significant increase in eye care services in the past decade. Read More

    Significant correlation between meibomian gland dysfunction and keratitis in young patients with Demodex brevis infestation.
    Br J Ophthalmol 2017 Oct 21. Epub 2017 Oct 21.
    Ocular Surface Clinic, Ocular Surface Center, Miami, Florida, USA.
    Aims: To report the clinical characteristics and correlation between meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) and keratitis in young patients with ocular demodicosis.

    Methods: Observational case series of 60 patients younger than 35 years with ocular demodicosis, of which the diagnosis was based on microscopic counting of Demodex folliculorum and D. brevis of epilated lashes. Read More

    Safety profile and efficacy of tacrolimus in the treatment of birdshot retinochoroiditis: a retrospective case series review.
    Br J Ophthalmol 2017 Oct 19. Epub 2017 Oct 19.
    Department of Medical Retina, Moorfields Eye Hospital, London, UK.
    Aim: Evaluation of the use of tacrolimus in the treatment of birdshot retinochoroiditis (BRC) at a tertiary referral centre with the aim to describe its safety and efficacy.

    Methods: The medical records of 25 patients diagnosed with BRC at uveitis service, Moorfields Eye Hospital, and who had received tacrolimus treatment were retrospectively reviewed. The main outcome measures of the study were (1) safety of tacrolimus in terms of side effects and (2) efficacy, as measured both by control of inflammation and visual function assessed by Humphrey visual fields and electrophysiological testing over at least 6 months and then 1 year. Read More

    How does sevoflurane induction, followed by a ketamine maintenance infusion, affect intraocular pressure? Establishment of an anaesthetic protocol for paediatric glaucoma examinations under anaesthesia.
    Br J Ophthalmol 2017 Oct 19. Epub 2017 Oct 19.
    Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Accurate measurement of intraocular pressure (IOP) is essential in paediatric glaucoma management. Children require serial measurements and examination under anaesthesia (EUA). Most anaesthetic agents reduce IOP, and the ideal time to measure IOP under anaesthesia is questionable. Read More

    Asymmetrical accommodation in hyperopic anisometropic amblyopia.
    Br J Ophthalmol 2017 Oct 19. Epub 2017 Oct 19.
    Infant Vision Laboratory, School of Psychology & Clinical Language Sciences, University of Reading, Reading, UK.
    Background/aims: To investigate the presence of asymmetrical accommodation in hyperopic anisometropic amblyopia.

    Methods: Accommodation in each eye and binocular vergence were measured simultaneously using a PlusoptiX SO4 photorefractor in 26 children aged 4-8 years with hyperopic anisometropic amblyopia and 13 controls (group age-matched) while they viewed a detailed target moving in depth.

    Results: Without spectacles, only 5 (19%) anisometropes demonstrated symmetrical accommodation (within the 95% CI of the mean gain of the sound eye of the anisometropic group), whereas 21 (81%) demonstrated asymmetrical accommodation. Read More

    Multimodal imaging of small hard retinal drusen in young healthy adults.
    Br J Ophthalmol 2017 Oct 19. Epub 2017 Oct 19.
    Faculty of Health Sciences, National Centre for Optics, Vision and Eye Care, University College of Southeast Norway, Kongsberg, Norway.
    Background: Small hard macular drusen can be observed in the retina of adults as young as 18 years of age. Here, we seek to describe the in vivo topography and geometry of these drusen.

    Methods: Retinal images were acquired in young, healthy adults using colour fundus photography, spectral domain optic coherence tomography (SD-OCT), reflectance flood-illuminated adaptive optic ophthalmoscopy (AO flood) and reflectance adaptive optic scanning light ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO) in both confocal and non-confocal split-detection modalities. Read More

    Impact of baseline Diabetic Retinopathy Severity Scale scores on visual outcomes in the VIVID-DME and VISTA-DME studies.
    Br J Ophthalmol 2017 Oct 19. Epub 2017 Oct 19.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Universit of Bonn, Bonn, Germany.
    Background/aims: To evaluate intravitreal aflibercept versus laser in subgroups of patients with baseline Diabetic Retinopathy Severity Scale (DRSS) scores ≤43, 47, and ≥53 in VIVID-DME and VISTA-DME.

    Methods: Patients with diabetic macular oedema were randomised to receive intravitreal aflibercept 2 mg every 4 weeks (2q4), intravitreal aflibercept 2 mg every 8 weeks after five initial monthly doses (2q8), or macular laser photocoagulation at baseline with sham injections at every visit. These post hoc analyses evaluate outcomes based on baseline DRSS scores in patients in the integrated dataset. Read More

    Corneal complications after orbital radiotherapy for primary epithelial malignancies of the lacrimal gland.
    Br J Ophthalmol 2017 Oct 19. Epub 2017 Oct 19.
    Orbital Clinic, Moorfields Eye Hospital, London, UK.
    Purpose: To review the long-term corneal complications after high-dose external beam orbital radiotherapy given to patients for lacrimal gland carcinomas. The impact of prophylactic measures to improve long-term ocular surface health is also assessed.

    Design: Retrospective case series. Read More

    Synergistic divergence: case series and literature review.
    Br J Ophthalmol 2017 Oct 12. Epub 2017 Oct 12.
    Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.
    Background: To present the data of a series of patients with synergistic divergence, to propose a different modality of surgical correction and to perform a literature review of such a rare entity.

    Methods: A retrospective study was performed on all patients who presented with unilateral or bilateral synergistic divergence to the Ophthalmology Department, Cairo University, during the period from January 2007 to July 2016. The demographic data, the results of sensorimotor examination, the surgical procedures performed and the ophthalmological as well as the systemic findings of all patients were collected and tabulated. Read More

    Should tumbling E go out of date in amblyopia screening? Evidence from a population-based sample normative in children aged 3-4 years.
    Br J Ophthalmol 2017 Oct 7. Epub 2017 Oct 7.
    Centro Cirúrgico de Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal.
    Aims: To determine a normative of tumbling E optotype and its feasibility for visual acuity (VA) assessment in children aged 3-4 years.

    Methods: A cross-sectional study of 1756 children who were invited to participate in a comprehensive non-invasive eye exam. Uncorrected monocular VA with crowded tumbling E with a comprehensive ophthalmological examination were assessed. Read More

    Treatment of experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis with intravitreal injection of infliximab encapsulated in liposomes.
    Br J Ophthalmol 2017 Oct 6. Epub 2017 Oct 6.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Eye and ENT Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Visual Impairment and Restoration, Shanghai, China.
    Aims: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of intravitreal injection of liposomes encapsulating infliximab in experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU) rats.

    Methods: Liposomes containing infliximab were prepared and characterised for mean particle size, entrapment efficiency, polydispersity index (PDI) and zeta potential. In vitro release profile and the stability of infliximab-lip were evaluated. Read More

    Macular pigment is associated with glare-affected visual function and central visual field loss in glaucoma.
    Br J Ophthalmol 2017 Oct 5. Epub 2017 Oct 5.
    School of Physics, Clinical and Optometric Sciences, College of Sciences and Health, Dublin Institute of Technology, Dublin, Ireland.
    Aim: To evaluate the relationship between macular pigment optical density (MPOD) and glare disability in open-angle glaucoma.

    Methods: A cross-sectional analysis of baseline data (88 subjects; median age, 67 (range 36-84) years) collected during the Macular Pigment and Glaucoma Trial (ISRCTN registry number: 56985060). MPOD at 0. Read More

    The laser in glaucoma and ocular hypertension (LiGHT) trial. A multicentre randomised controlled trial: baseline patient characteristics.
    Br J Ophthalmol 2017 10 5. Epub 2017 Oct 5.
    NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, Moorfields Eye Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.
    Purpose: The laser in glaucoma and ocular hypertension (LiGHT) trial aims to establish whether initial treatment with selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT) is superior to initial treatment with topical medication for primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) or ocular hypertension (OHT).

    Design: LiGHT is a prospective unmasked, multicentre, pragmatic, randomised controlled trial (RCT).

    Participants: 718 previously untreated patients with POAG or OHT were recruited at 6 UK centres between 2012 and 2014. Read More

    Mutation spectrum of NDP, FZD4 and TSPAN12 genes in Indian patients with retinopathy of prematurity.
    Br J Ophthalmol 2017 Oct 5. Epub 2017 Oct 5.
    Kallam Anji Reddy Molecular Genetics Laboratory, Brien Holden Eye Research Centre, L V Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, India.
    Aim: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a vasoproliferative eye disease in preterm infants. Based on its phenotypic similarities with familial exudative vitreo retinopathy (FEVR), the present study was conducted to screen the Norrin signalling pathway genes (already been implicated in FEVR) for understanding their involvement among Indian patients with ROP.

    Methods: The study cohort consisted of patients with ROP (n=246) and controls (n=300) that included full term (n=110) and preterm babies devoid of ROP (n=190). Read More

    Macular capillary plexuses after macular hole surgery: an optical coherence tomography angiography study.
    Br J Ophthalmol 2017 Oct 5. Epub 2017 Oct 5.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
    Aims: To investigate the structural changes of the superficial capillary plexuses (SCP) and deep capillary plexuses (DCP) using optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography (OCTA) in patients with idiopathic macular hole (MH) after surgery, determine the factors related to changes of macular capillary plexuses and evaluate its association with postoperative visual outcomes.

    Methods: Thirty-three patients with unilateral MH who were followed for ≥6 months after surgery were included. Ophthalmologic evaluations included best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and spectral-domain OCT before surgery and 6 months postsurgery. Read More

    Neuroimaging and endocrine disorders in paediatric optic nerve hypoplasia.
    Br J Ophthalmol 2017 Oct 5. Epub 2017 Oct 5.
    Department of Pediatric Ophthalmology, Children's Hospital and Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska, USA.
    Purpose: Optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH) is one of the leading causes of blindness among children. The purpose of this retrospective study is to determine the risk factors and association between brain MRI findings, pituitary abnormalities and endocrine disorders with the presence of ONH.

    Methods: A retrospective review of patients seen at paediatric ophthalmology clinics from January 2006 to December 2016 at Children's Hospital and Medical Center and the University of Nebraska Medical Center was performed. Read More

    Swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography in serpiginous choroiditis.
    Br J Ophthalmol 2017 Oct 5. Epub 2017 Oct 5.
    Department of Ophthalmology, University Vita-Salute, IRCCS Ospedale San Raffaele, Milan, Italy.
    Background/aims: To analyse choroidal vascular density of affected and non-affected areas in active and inactive serpiginouschoroiditis (SC) by means of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A).

    Methods: In this cross-sectional and observational study, 22 eyes of 11 patients diagnosed with SC were included. All patients underwent blue-light fundus autofluorescence (spectralis Heidelberg retinalangiography+OCT) and swept-source OCT-A (AngioPlex Elite 9000 SS-OCT, Carl Zeiss Meditech) to analyse qualitative features and choroidal vessel density of areas considered affected, and the inner and the outer border of the lesions. Read More

    In vitro synergy of natamycin and voriconazole against clinical isolates of Fusarium, Candida, Aspergillus and Curvularia spp.
    Br J Ophthalmol 2017 Oct 5. Epub 2017 Oct 5.
    Cornea Service, L V Prasad Eye Institute, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India.
    Aim: To determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of voriconazole and natamycin, alone and in combination, against the clinical isolates of Fungus and to evaluate the synergy between the drugs in an experimental in vitro study.

    Methods: In an experimental in vitro study, clinical isolates of Fusarium, Aspergillus, Candida and Curvularia spp were maintained on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar and used for the study. The MICs of natamycin and voriconazole, used alone and in combination, were evaluated by checkerboard microdilution technique based on the standard protocol proposed by the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute. Read More

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