Background: Young people with autism spectrum conditions (ASC) face many educational challenges, particularly in terms of academic achievement, social inclusion, and mental health. School connectedness is linked to many positive outcomes and may be of particular salience at the primary-secondary school transition, when young people with ASC are expected to cope in new and unfamiliar settings.
Aims: This study explores for the first time school connectedness across the primary to secondary school transition for young people with ASC. Read More
Centre for Family Research, University of Cambridge, UK.
Background: Traditional measures of school readiness are labour-intensive and do not assess family support.
Aims: The current study used the newly developed Brief Early Skills and Support Index (BESSI: Hughes, Daly, Foley, White and Devine 2015) to examine 6-month longitudinal stability and change in teachers' ratings of young children's school readiness and investigate the role of family support as a predictor of school readiness.
Sample: Five hundred and seventy-eight children (270 boys; 74. Read More
Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, UK.
Background: School attainment tests and Cognitive Abilities Tests are used in the United Kingdom to set targets for educational outcome. Whilst these are good predictors, they depend not only on basic ability but also on learnt knowledge and skills, such as reading.
Method And Aims: VESPARCH is an online group test of verbal and spatial reasoning, which we propose gives a measure that more closely approximates to basic ability - fluid intelligence. Read More
Background: The elaborated environmental stress hypothesis (EESH) provides a framework that describes how motor skills may indirectly cause internalizing problems through various mediating psychosocial factors. While there is evidence to support this framework, little is known about how the proposed relationships may vary across different stages of development.
Aims: This study aimed to investigate whether peer problems and perceived self-competence mediated the relationship between motor skills and internalizing problems in pre-primary children, and at 18-month follow up. Read More
Department of Educational Psychology, Faculty of Education, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong.
Background: Prior studies on fraction magnitude understanding focused mainly on students with relatively sufficient formal instruction on fractions whose fraction magnitude understanding is relatively mature.
Aim: This study fills a research gap by investigating fraction magnitude understanding in the early stages of fraction instruction. It extends previous findings to children with limited and primary formal fraction instruction. Read More
Background: Spatial skills have been linked to better performance in mathematics.
Aim: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between teacher spatial skills and their instruction, including teacher content and pedagogical knowledge, use of pictorial representations, and use of gestures during geometry instruction.
Sample: Fifty-six middle school teachers participated in the study. Read More
Department of Health Promotion, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Bergen, Norway.
Background: Sleep difficulties are common among university students and may detrimentally affect academic outcomes. Despite this, remarkably little information is currently available during this critical developmental period of early adulthood, and thus, the direct effect on measurable domains of academic ability and proficiency is equivocal.
Aims: To evaluate the associations between difficulties initiating and maintaining sleep (DIMS) and subjective and objective academic performance in a large sample of university students. Read More
School of Psychology, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton, UK.
Background: Typical scaffolding coding schemes provide overall scores to compare across a sample. As such, insights into the scaffolding process can be obscured: the child's contribution to the learning; the particular skills being taught and learned; and the overall changes in amount of scaffolding over the course of the task.
Aims: This study applies a transition of regulation framework to scaffolding coding, using a self-regulation and other-regulation coding scheme, to explore how rich and detailed data on mother-child dyadic interactions fit alongside collapsed sample-level scores. Read More
Psychology Department, University of California, Santa Cruz, California, USA.
Background: The conceptualization of the role of race and culture in students' experience of school has been limited. This study presents a more comprehensive and multidimensional framework than previously conceptualized and includes the two domains of (1) intergroup interactions (frequency of interaction, quality of interaction, equal status, and support for positive interaction) and (2) school racial socialization (cultural socialization, mainstream socialization, promotion of cultural competence, colourblind socialization, critical consciousness socialization, and stereotyping) (Byrd, 2015, Journal of Educational Research, 108, 10).
Aims: The scale presents a measure of school racial climate for middle and high school students and tests for evidence of reliability and validity in two independent, nationwide samples. Read More
Department of Training and Education Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Antwerp, Belgium.
Background: Up until now, empirical studies in the Student Approaches to Learning field have mainly been focused on the use of self-report instruments, such as interviews and questionnaires, to uncover differences in students' general preferences towards learning strategies, but have focused less on the use of task-specific and online measures.
Aims: This study aimed at extending current research on students' learning strategies by combining general and task-specific measurements of students' learning strategies using both offline and online measures. We want to clarify how students process learning contents and to what extent this is related to their self-report of learning strategies. Read More
Background: Self-regulated learning (SRL) models position metacognitive monitoring as central to SRL processing and predictive of student learning outcomes (Winne & Hadwin, 2008; Zimmerman, 2000). A body of research evidence also indicates that depth of strategy use, ranging from surface to deep processing, is predictive of learning performance.
Aims: In this study, we investigated the relationships among the frequency of metacognitive monitoring and the utilization of deep and surface-level strategies, and the connections between these SRL processes and learning outcomes across two academic domains, science and history. Read More
Background: This investigation was designed to uncover the relations between students' cognitive and metacognitive strategies used during a complex climate simulation. While cognitive strategy use during science inquiry has been studied, the factors related to this strategy use, such as concurrent metacognition, prior knowledge, and prior interest, have not been investigated in a multidimensional fashion.
Aims: This study addressed current issues in strategy research by examining not only how metacognitive, surface-level, and deep-level strategies influence performance, but also how these strategies related to each other during a contextually relevant science simulation. Read More
Background: While the literature on strategy use is relatively mature, measures of strategy use overwhelmingly measure only one aspect of that use, frequency, when relating that strategy use to performance outcomes. While this might be one important attribute of strategy use, there is increasing evidence that quality and conditional use of cognitive and metacognitive strategies may also be important.
Aims: This study examines how multiple aspects of strategy use, namely frequency, quality, and conjunctive use of strategies, influence task performance on both well- and ill-structured task outcomes in addition to other concomitant variables that may interact with strategic processing during reading. Read More
Background: Deep versus surface knowledge is widely discussed by educational practitioners. A corresponding construct, levels of processing, has received extensive theoretical and empirical attention in learning science and psychology. In both arenas, lower levels of information and shallower levels of processing are predicted and generally empirically demonstrated to limit knowledge learners gain, curtail what they can do with newly acquired knowledge, and shorten the life span of recently acquired knowledge. Read More
Leibniz-Institut für Wissensmedien, Tübingen, Germany.
Background: When learning with text and pictures, learners often fail to adequately process the materials, which can be explained as a failure to self-regulate one's learning by choosing adequate cognitive learning processes. Eye movement modelling examples (EMME) showing how to process multimedia instruction have improved elementary school children's learning from text and pictures in previous studies.
Aims: We tested whether the positive effects of EMME for improving self-regulated multimedia learning extend to university students and teaching of more comprehensive processing strategies. Read More
Background: Given that the ultimate academic goal of many education systems in the developed world is for students to graduate from college, grades have a considerable bearing on how effective colleges are in meeting their primary objective. Prior academic performance informs predominantly the selection and retention of teacher candidates. However, there remains a dearth of evidence linking academic performance with outcomes in teacher preparation or the workplace. Read More
Background: Contemporary models of student learning within higher education are often inclusive of processing and regulation strategies. Considerable research has examined their use over time and their (person-centred) convergence. The longitudinal stability/variability of learning strategy use, however, is poorly understood, but essential to supporting student learning across university experiences. Read More
Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Linköping University, Sweden.
Background: Developing sufficient mathematical skills is a prerequisite to function adequately in society today. Given this, an important task is to increase our understanding regarding the cognitive mechanisms underlying young people's acquisition of early number skills and formal mathematical knowledge.
Aims: The purpose was to examine whether the pathways to mathematics model provides a valid account of the cognitive mechanisms underlying symbolic-number processing and mathematics in adolescents. Read More
Background: The multiple goal perspective posits that certain combinations of achievement goals are more favourable than others in terms of educational outcomes.
Aims: This study aimed to examine longitudinally whether students' achievement goal profiles and transitions between profiles are associated with developments in self-reported and teacher-rated effort and academic achievement in upper elementary school.
Sample: Participants were 722 fifth-grade students and their teachers in fifth and sixth grade (N = 68). Read More
Background: Previous prospective studies have documented that mastery-approach goals are adaptive because they facilitate less negative psychological responses to unfavourable social comparisons than performance-approach goals.
Aims: This study aimed to confirm this so-called 'mastery goal advantage' effect experimentally.
Methods: A 2 × 3 design was adopted where achievement goals (mastery vs. Read More
Background: Numerous studies, most of them involving adolescents and adults, have evidenced a moderate negative relationship between math anxiety and math performance. There are, however, a limited number of studies that have addressed the mechanisms underlying this relation.
Aims: This study aimed to investigate the role of two possible mediational mechanisms between math anxiety and math performance. Read More
Background: Bullying research has gained a substantial amount of interest in recent years because of the implications for child and adolescent development.
Aim And Sample: We conducted a meta-analysis of traditional and cyberbullying studies in the Republic and North of Ireland to gain an understanding of prevalence rates and associated issues (particularly psychological correlates and intervention strategies) among young people (primary and secondary school students).
Method: Four electronic databases were searched (PsychArticles, ERIC, PsychInfo and Education Research Complete) for studies of traditional bullying and cyberbullying behaviours (perpetrators, victims or both) published between January 1997 and April 2016. Read More
Background: Research has shown that self-determination theory can be useful in the study of motivation in sport and other forms of physical activity. The Perceived Locus of Causality (PLOC) scale was originally designed to study both.
Aim: The current research presents and validates the new PLOC-U scale to measure academic motivation in the university context. Read More
Background: Considerable research has investigated the deleterious effects of teachers responding aggressively to students who misbehave, but the mechanism underlying this dysfunctional behaviour remains unknown.
Aims: This study investigated whether the mechanism underlying teacher aggression follows I(3) theory or General Aggression Model (GAM) metatheory of human aggression. I(3) theory explains exceptional, catastrophic events of human aggression, whereas the GAM explains common human aggression behaviours. Read More
Background: In most Western countries, the individual, social, and family characteristics associated with students' dropout in the general population are well documented. Yet, there is a lack of large-scale studies to establish whether these characteristics have the same influence for students with an immigrant background.
Aims: The first aim of this study was to assess the differences between first-, second-, and third-generation-plus students in terms of the individual, social, and family factors associated with school dropout. Read More
Background: Task avoidance is a significant predictor of literacy skills. However, it remains unclear whether the relation between the two is reciprocal and whether it is affected by the type of literacy outcome, who is rating children's task avoidance, and the children's gender.
Aim: The purpose of this longitudinal study was to examine the cross-lagged relations between teacher and parent ratings of children's task avoidance and different literacy skills. Read More
Background: Student affect plays a considerable role in mathematical problem solving performance, yet is rarely formally assessed. In this manuscript, an instrument and its properties are discussed to enable educational psychologists the opportunity to assess student affect.
Aims: The study was conducted to norm the CAIMPS (instrument) with gifted students. Read More
Background: Previous work indicates widespread preference for White over Black people in attitudes and behaviour. However, there are instances where Black people receive preferential treatment over White people.
Aims: This study aimed to investigate whether a sample of education professionals would favour Black or White applicants to an academic honour society, and the extent to which any biases were related to conscious intentions. Read More
Background: Irish educational psychologists frequently use the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - Fourth UK Edition (WISC-IV(UK) ; Wechsler, 2004, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth UK Edition, London, UK, Harcourt Assessment) in clinical assessments of children with learning difficulties. Unfortunately, reliability and validity studies of the WISC-IV(UK) standardization sample have not yet been reported. Watkins et al. Read More
Background: Social relationships can serve as important risk or protective factors for child development in general, and academic adjustment in particular.
Aims: This study investigated the role of teacher-child interactions in academic adjustment among preschool boys at risk of externalizing behaviour, using a randomized controlled trial study with Playing-2-gether (P2G), a 12-week indicated two-component intervention aimed at improving the affective quality of the teacher-child relationship and teacher behaviour management.
Sample: In a sample of 175 preschool boys showing signs of externalizing behaviour (Mage = 4 years, 9 months, SDage = 7 months) and their teachers, we investigated P2G effects on academic engagement as well as on language achievement. Read More
Background: The format of a mathematics problem often influences students' problem-solving performance. For example, providing diagrams in conjunction with story problems can benefit students' understanding, choice of strategy, and accuracy on story problems. However, it remains unclear whether providing diagrams in conjunction with symbolic equations can benefit problem-solving performance as well. Read More
Background: A growing body of recent research has shown that parent-child mathematical activities have a strong effect on children's mathematical learning. However, this research was conducted predominantly in Western societies and focused mainly on mothers' involvement in such activities.
Aims: This study aimed to examine both mother-child and father-child numeracy activities in Hong Kong Chinese families and both parents' unique roles in predicting young Chinese children's mathematics ability. Read More
Background: Reading difficulties (RDs) and behaviour problems (BPs) are two common childhood problems that have a high degree of stability and often negatively affect well-being in both the short and longer terms.
Aims: The study aimed to shed light on the unique and joint consequences of these two childhood problems for educational and occupational outcomes in early adulthood.
Sample: Data were drawn from a life-course longitudinal study of psychosocial development, the Australian Temperament Project. Read More
Background: Children have been found to report and demonstrate math anxiety as early as the first grade. However, previous results concerning the relationship between math anxiety and performance are contradictory, with some studies establishing a correlation between them while others do not. These contradictory results might be related to varying operationalizations of math anxiety. Read More
Background: Scaffolding can be observed during learning-based interactions, when interventions by parents are adjusted according to children's observed abilities, with the main goal of enabling the child to work independently (Wood et al., 1976, Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, 17, 89). Such contingent instruction behaviours occur from infancy, and are said to be relevant for children's development of executive function, language acquisition, and cognitive and academic abilities. Read More
Background: Bullying remains a persistent phenomenon in schools, but the extent to which day-to-day policies and practices relate to bullying prevalence has not been widely studied. In this study, we use an educational effectiveness framework to interrogate this relationship.
Aims: The aim was to study the relationship between school factors and prevalence of bullying in primary schools. Read More
Background: It is often argued that the negative development of intrinsic motivation in elementary school strongly depends on the presence of school grades because grades represent extrinsic consequences and achievement feedback that are supposed to influence intrinsically motivated behaviour. However, only a few studies have tested this hypothesis.
Aims: Therefore, we investigated the role of school grades in inter- and intra-individual changes in elementary school students' intrinsic motivation from when grades were first introduced until the end of elementary school, when students in Germany receive recommendations for a secondary school type on the basis of their prior performance in school. Read More
Background: Although spatial ability and mathematics performance are highly correlated, there is scant research on the extent to which spatial ability training can improve mathematics performance.
Aims: This study evaluated the efficacy of a visuospatial intervention programme within classrooms to determine the effect on students' (1) spatial reasoning and (2) mathematics performance as a result of the intervention.
Sample: The study involved grade six students (ages 10-12) in eight classes. Read More
Background: Students with attention/deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) continue to languish behind their peers with regard to academic achievement and education attainment. School engagement is potentially modifiable, and targeting engagement may be a means to improve education outcomes.
Aims: To investigate school engagement for students with ADHD during the crucial high school transition period and to identify factors associated with low school engagement. Read More
Background: A fundamental aim of standardized educational assessment is to achieve reliable discrimination between students differing in the knowledge, skills and abilities assessed. However, questions of the purity with which these tests index students' genuine abilities have arisen. Specifically, literacy and numeracy assessments may also engage unintentionally assessed capacities. Read More
Background: Dynamic testing has been proposed as a testing approach that is less disadvantageous for children who may be potentially subject to bias when undertaking conventional assessments. For example, those who encounter high levels of test anxiety, or who are unfamiliar with standardized test procedures, may fail to demonstrate their true potential or capabilities. While dynamic testing has proven particularly useful for special groups of children, it has rarely been used with gifted children. Read More
Background: In spite of considerable advancements in our understanding of the different factors involved in achieving vocabulary-learning success, the overall pattern and interrelationships of critical factors involved in L2 vocabulary learning - particularly, the mechanisms through which learners regulate their motivation and learning strategies - remain unclear.
Aims: This study examined L2 vocabulary learning, focusing on the joint influence of different motivational factors and learning strategies on the vocabulary breadth of adolescent learners of English as a foreign language (EFL) in China.
Sample: The participants were 107 tenth graders (68 females, 39 males) in China. Read More
Background: Prior research has shown teachers' goal orientations to influence classroom goal structures (Retelsdorf et al., 2010, Learning and Instruction, 20, 30) and to also impact their emotions (Schutz et al., 2007, Emotion in education, Academic Press, Amsterdam, the Netherlands). Read More
Background: Rational numbers are of critical importance both in mathematics and in other fields of science. However, they form a stumbling block for learners. One widely known source of the difficulty learners have with rational numbers is the natural number bias, that is the tendency to (inappropriately) apply natural number properties in rational number tasks. Read More