1,055 results match your criteria British Journal Of Sociology[Journal]


Agricultural capitalism, climatology and the "stabilization" of climate in the United States, 1850-1920.

Authors:
Zeke Baker

Br J Sociol 2020 Jun 1. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Department of Sociology, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA, USA.

Drawing from theory on the "co-production" of science and society, this paper provides an account of trajectories in US climatology, roughly from the 1850s to 1920, the period during which climatology emerged as an organized branch of meteorology and government administration. The historical narrative traces the development of climatology both as a professional/institutional project and as a component of a larger governmental logic. Historical analysis of climatologists' scientific texts, maps, and social organization within government provides a sociological explanation for the emergent "stabilization" of climate as a geographic-statistical category. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-4446.12762DOI Listing

The social stratification of time use patterns.

Authors:
Giacomo Vagni

Br J Sociol 2020 Apr 29. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

Nuffield College and Department of Sociology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Time use is both a cause of social inequality and a consequence of social inequality. However, how social class stratifies time use patterns is seldom studied. In this paper, I describe the time use patterns in the years 1983 and 2015 by social class, and gender in the British context. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-4446.12759DOI Listing

What the pregnancy test is testing.

Authors:
Joan H Robinson

Br J Sociol 2020 Jun 23;71(3):460-473. Epub 2020 Apr 23.

Department of Interdisciplinary Arts and Sciences, The City College, CUNY, New York, NY, USA.

Is the test result positive or negative? Tests that occur in labs and doctors' offices pose specific questions to try to obtain specific information. But what happens in the social world when these tests never see the inside of a lab or doctor's office, and instead they are used in a house, in a Walmart bathroom, or in a dormitory bathroom stall? Putting the diagnosis aside, what does the presence of these tests do to social life? This paper examines one such test, the home pregnancy test, and specifically, its use in contemporary intimate life of people who do not want to be pregnant. Pregnancy tests test for pregnancy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-4446.12758DOI Listing

What's on trial? The making of field experiments in international development.

Br J Sociol 2020 Jun 21;71(3):444-459. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Department of Sociology, College of Literature, Science and the Arts, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.

In the last 20 years, the drive for evidence-based policymaking has been coupled with a concurrent push for the use of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) as the "gold-standard" for generating rigorous evidence on whether or not development interventions work. Drawing on content analysis of 63 development RCTs and 4 years of participant observation, I provide a rich description of the diverse set of actors and the transnational organizational effort required to implement development RCTs and maintain their "scientific status." Particularly, I investigate the boundary work that proponents of RCTs-also known as randomistas-do to differentiate the purposes and merits of testing development projects from doing them, as a way to bypass the political and ethical problems presented by adopting the experimental method with foreign aid beneficiaries in poor countries. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-4446.12723DOI Listing

Testing planets: Institutions tested in an era of uncertainty.

Authors:
Janet Vertesi

Br J Sociol 2020 Jun 21;71(3):474-488. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Sociology Department, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, USA.

Prior accounts of the experimenter's regress in laboratory testing are set against the background of a relatively stable institutional context. Even if the tools are new or the object of investigation is unknown, participating entities are named, a certain degree of funding is presumed, and an organization exists to conduct the test. In this paper, I argue that this background assumption obscures the importance of institutional and organizational context to the sociology of testing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-4446.12725DOI Listing

The red and the black: China's social credit experiment as a total test environment.

Authors:
Jonathan Bach

Br J Sociol 2020 Jun 20;71(3):489-502. Epub 2020 Apr 20.

The New School, New York, NY, USA.

China's social credit system is an unusually explicit case where technology is used by multiple actors to turn human behavior into a test object on behalf of the state's goal of modifying the larger social environment, making it an intriguing setting for thinking about the new sociology of testing. This article considers how China's search for a usable "credit" score to both allocate financial resources and explicitly measure a citizen's trustworthiness creates an emergent experimental system of governance similar to, yet not quite captured by, the kinds of experimental processes observed in literature on the platform as a form of market-based governance. As a site where "seeing like a state" and "seeing like a market" converge, the social credit system is a vantage point for observing the changing relationship between moral and economic domains in an era of digital platforms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-4446.12748DOI Listing

Underground testing: Name-altering practices as probes in electronic music.

Br J Sociol 2020 Jun 21;71(3):572-589. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

University of Warwick, Coventry, UK.

Name-altering practices are common in many creative fields-pen names in literature, stage names in the performing arts, and aliases in music. More than just reflecting artistic habits or responding to the need for distinctive brands, these practices can also serve as test devices to probe, validate, and guide the artists' active participation in a cultural movement. At the same time, they constitute a powerful probe to negotiate the boundaries of a subculture, especially when its features are threatened by appropriation from the mass-oriented culture. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-4446.12726DOI Listing

State work and the testing concours of citizenship.

Authors:
Willem Schinkel

Br J Sociol 2020 Jun 21;71(3):556-571. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Department of Public Administration and Sociology, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam, Netherlands.

Anyone trying to be a citizen has to pass through a set of practices trying to be a state. This paper investigates some of the ways testing practices calibrate citizens, and in doing so, perform "the state." The paper focuses on three forms of citizenship testing, which it considers exemplary forms of "state work," and which all, in various ways, concern "migration. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-4446.12743DOI Listing

Put to the test: For a new sociology of testing.

Br J Sociol 2020 Jun 19;71(3):423-443. Epub 2020 Apr 19.

University of Warwick, Coventry, United Kingdom.

In an age defined by computational innovation, testing seems to have become ubiquitous, and tests are routinely deployed as a form of governance, a marketing device, an instrument for political intervention, and an everyday practice to evaluate the self. This essay argues that something more radical is happening here than simply attempts to move tests from the laboratory into social settings. The challenge that a new sociology of testing must address is that ubiquitous testing changes the relations between science, engineering, and sociology: Engineering is today in the very stuff of where society happens. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-4446.12746DOI Listing

Occupational inequalities in volunteering participation: Using detailed data on jobs to explore the influence of habits and circumstances.

Br J Sociol 2020 Apr 19. Epub 2020 Apr 19.

Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling, United Kingdom.

In this paper we present empirical results that show that detailed occupations have distinctive patterns of association with voluntary participation. We draw upon data from four secondary survey datasets from the UK (coverage 1972-2012). Occupations are shown to link to volunteering in a wide range of scenarios and in individual, household, and longitudinal contexts. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-4446.12756DOI Listing

Preface to a special issue on the sociology of testing.

Br J Sociol 2020 Jun 20;71(3):420-422. Epub 2020 Apr 20.

Centre for Interdisciplinary Methodologies, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-4446.12757DOI Listing

Foreign aid and the rule of law: Institutional diffusion versus legal reach.

Br J Sociol 2020 Apr 14. Epub 2020 Apr 14.

Department of Sociology, Memorial University, St. John's, Canada.

This paper examines the role of bilateral foreign aid in supporting the diffusion and enactment of common models and institutions of the rule of law among aid-recipient low- and middle-income countries. We ask whether aid targeted at security-sector reform and the rule of law influences the adoption of constitutional and legal reforms over time (institutional diffusion), and whether aid also supports more effective implementation of the rule of law, writ large (legal reach). We use event history and fixed-effects panel regression models to examine a sample of 154 countries between 1995 and 2013 to answer these questions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-4446.12752DOI Listing

British terrorism preemption: Subjectivity and disjuncture in Channel "de-radicalization" interventions.

Authors:
Tom Pettinger

Br J Sociol 2020 Apr 14. Epub 2020 Apr 14.

University of Warwick, Coventry, United Kingdom.

This article examines Channel "de-radicalization" interventions, which take place on individuals suspected of having the potential to commit terrorist crimes. Situated within critical security studies, the article explores the British Prevent programme by utilizing primary interviews with hard-to-reach Channel mentors and senior Prevent officials. Following the work of anticipatory risk-governance scholarship, this research illuminates the three processes of risk-visibilization (how an individual becomes sufficiently "seen" as harbouring risk that they are offered Channel mentorship), risk-calculation (how practitioners negotiate supposed riskiness), and risk-knowing (how practitioners "know" risks they observe). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-4446.12754DOI Listing

Shame and ("managed") resentment: Emotion and entitlement among Israeli mothers living in poverty.

Authors:
Orly Benjamin

Br J Sociol 2020 Apr 14. Epub 2020 Apr 14.

Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan, Israel.

Of the range of negative emotional states, shame is commonly found to characterize experiences of people living in poverty. However, relatively little attention has been directed toward exploring other emotions that accompany the shame. Not exploring other emotions, the possibility that working-class mothers go through a struggling emotional experience in relation to their experiences of how authorities validate their belonging, is left out of scope. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-4446.12753DOI Listing

"Who generates this city"? Socialist strategy in contemporary London.

Authors:
Jacob Mukherjee

Br J Sociol 2020 Mar 30. Epub 2020 Mar 30.

Department of Media, Communications and Cultural Studies, Goldsmiths, University of London, London, United Kingdom.

This essay, based on a "militant ethnography" of the attempts of the small radical grassroots activist group, Our London (a pseudonym), to mobilize a collective oppositional politics through activities around an election campaign, engages critically with E. Laclau and C. Mouffe's arguments on discourse and collectivity in Hegemony and Socialist Strategy (London: Verso, 1985). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-4446.12751DOI Listing

Anti-elite politics and emotional reactions to socio-economic problems: Experimental evidence on "pocketbook anger" from France, Germany, and the United States.

Authors:
Paul Marx

Br J Sociol 2020 Mar 27. Epub 2020 Mar 27.

Institute for Socio-Economics, University of Duisburg-Essen, Duisburg, Germany.

Many observers have noticed the importance of anger in contemporary politics, particularly with reference to populism. This article addresses the question under which conditions people become angry about a specific aspect of their lives: their personal financial situation. Specifically, it asks if populist anti-elite rhetoric has a causal influence on anger and if this influence differs across socio-economic groups. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-4446.12750DOI Listing

Life and labor on the internal colonial edge: Political economy of kolberi in Rojhelat.

Br J Sociol 2020 Mar 10. Epub 2020 Mar 10.

Department of Anthropology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, USA.

Through the investigation of kolberi (cross-border labor), this paper sheds light on the state's policy of de-development (or internal colonialization) of the Kurdish region (known as Rojhelat) in Iran. While the most dangerous form of labor, kolberi has become a dominant employment opportunity for Rojhelat Kurds in the last decade. There are no Iranian state laws criminalizing kolberi, and yet those laborers die on a regular basis-being shot or thrown off mountain cliffs by the state forces, stepping into minefields, and so forth. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-4446.12745DOI Listing

More than self-interest: Why different classes have different attitudes to income inequality.

Br J Sociol 2020 Mar 6. Epub 2020 Mar 6.

Nuffield College, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.

The connection between social class and political preferences is among the most well established in the social sciences. This association is typically taken as prima facie evidence of economic self-interest: Classes hold different attitudes, values, and party preferences because they have different economic interests. However, this assumption has rarely been tested empirically. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-4446.12747DOI Listing

"They love death as we love life": The "Muslim Question" and the biopolitics of replacement.

Br J Sociol 2020 Feb 26. Epub 2020 Feb 26.

Faculty of Social and Behavioural Sciences, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

This article approaches the analytic of the "Muslim Question" through the prism of the discursive and conspiratorial use of demographics as an alleged threat to Europe. It argues that concerns about "Muslim demographics" within Europe have been entertained, mobilized, and deployed to not only construct Muslims as problems and dangers to the present and future of Europe, but also as calls to revive eugenic policies within the frame of biopower. The article begins by sketching the contours of the contemporary "Muslim Question" and proceeds with a critical engagement with the literature positing a deliberate and combative strategy by "Muslims" centered on birth rates-seen by these authors as a tactical warfare-to allegedly replace European "native" populations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-4446.12742DOI Listing
February 2020

The dialectics of universality: The heterodox critical social theory of Robert Fine.

Authors:
Daniel Chernilo

Br J Sociol 2020 Mar 20;71(2):403-415. Epub 2020 Feb 20.

School of Government, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez, Santiago, Chile.

Robert Fine was among the most original social theorists in Britain of the past 30 years, and the aim of this paper is to offer a first systematic assessment of his intellectual contribution. There are sound intellectual reasons to explore Fine's scholarship. He maintained a problematic relation with mainstream sociology and, against the reduction of sociology to questions of method, culture, or class, he argued that sociologists must continue to ask difficult normative questions as part of the social world they ought to explain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-4446.12744DOI Listing

Ungrateful slaves? An examination of job quality and job satisfaction for male part-time workers in the UK.

Br J Sociol 2020 Mar 18;71(2):382-402. Epub 2020 Feb 18.

Institute for Employment Research, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK.

Research on part-time work has concentrated over many decades on the experiences of women but male part-time employment is growing in the UK. This article addresses two sizable gaps in knowledge concerning male part-timers: are men's part-time jobs of lower quality than men's full-time jobs? Are male part-timers more or less job-satisfied compared to their full-time peers? A fundamental part of both interrogations is whether men's part-time employment varies by occupational class. The article is motivated by the large body of work on female part-timers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-4446.12741DOI Listing

What do stress tests test? Experimentation, demonstration, and the sociotechnical performance of regulatory science.

Authors:
Nathan Coombs

Br J Sociol 2020 Jun 12;71(3):520-536. Epub 2020 Feb 12.

School of Social and Political Science, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom.

After their successful introduction during the 2007-2009 financial crisis, central bank stress tests were adopted as a fixture of international banking supervision. However, in recent years a new normal has emerged where banks are expected to pass the tests, raising questions about the tests' usefulness and legitimacy. Combining a dramaturgical interpretation of regulatory science with the idea of performativity in the sociology of finance, this article understands stress tests as a sociotechnical Goffmanian performance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-4446.12739DOI Listing

Bureaucratic encounters "after neoliberalism": Examining the supportive turn in social housing governance.

Br J Sociol 2020 Mar 5;71(2):253-268. Epub 2020 Feb 5.

School of Social Science, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.

It is well established that encounters between welfare bureaucracies and their clients have been reconfigured under neoliberalism to address the problem of "welfare dependency." Contemporary bureaucratic encounters therefore entail measures to activate clients' entrepreneurial/self-governing capacities, and conditionality/sanctioning practices to deal with clients who behave "irresponsibly." Despite the dominance of the neoliberal model, recent research has identified a counter-trend in the practices of housing services away from entrepreneurializing and punitive strategies and towards a more supportive approach. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-4446.12740DOI Listing

Techniques of disinformation: Constructing and communicating "soft facts" after terrorism.

Authors:
Martin Innes

Br J Sociol 2020 Mar 31;71(2):284-299. Epub 2020 Jan 31.

Crime and Security Research Institute, Cardiff University, Cardiff, United Kingdom.

Informed by social media data collected following four terror attacks in the UK in 2017, this article delineates a series of "techniques of disinformation" used by different actors to try and influence how the events were publicly defined and understood. By studying the causes and consequences of misleading information following terror attacks, the article contributes empirically to the neglected topic of social reactions to terrorism. It also advances scholarship on the workings of disinforming communications, by focusing on a domain other than political elections, which has been the empirical focus for most studies of disinformation to date. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-4446.12735DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7079108PMC

Suburban ethnicities: Home as the site of interethnic conviviality and racism.

Authors:
Katharine Tyler

Br J Sociol 2020 Mar 30;71(2):221-235. Epub 2020 Jan 30.

Department of Sociology, Philosophy and Anthropology, University of Exeter, Exeter, United Kingdom.

This article explores the ways in which the white working-class residents of a suburban English town reflect on their relationships with their British Asian Pakistani Muslim neighbors. Its focus is on how everyday constructions of home become sites for the intermingling of discourses of intercultural conviviality and racism. My contention is that the idea of home has not yet been given the detailed critical attention that it deserves in the sociological literature on everyday manifestations of multiculturalism, conviviality, and racism. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-4446.12738DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7079149PMC

Medical diagnosis of dyslexia in a Swedish elite school: A case of "consecrating medicalization".

Authors:
Mikael Holmqvist

Br J Sociol 2020 Mar 29;71(2):366-381. Epub 2020 Jan 29.

Stockholm Business School, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.

Based on qualitative data of an upper-secondary school in Sweden's primary elite community, Djursholm, I propose how medical diagnosis of students as dyslexics contributes to consecrating them by offering a short cut to successful performance, while at the same time reproducing differences between social classes. The study suggests how students that do not score top can be labeled dyslexic and the social and moral consequences of that. I introduce the concept of "consecrating medicalization" in order to discriminate between the effects of medical diagnosis of members of different social classes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-4446.12737DOI Listing

Understanding the mobility chances of children from working-class backgrounds in Britain: How important are cognitive ability and locus of control?

Br J Sociol 2020 Mar 19;71(2):349-365. Epub 2020 Jan 19.

Nuffield College, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Research in social stratification has shown that children from working-class backgrounds tend to obtain substantially lower levels of educational attainment and lower labor market positions than children from higher social class backgrounds. However, we still know relatively little about the micro-level processes that account for this empirical regularity. Our study examines the roles of two individual-level characteristics-cognitive ability and locus of control-in mediating the effect of individuals' parental class background on their educational attainment and social class position in Britain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-4446.12732DOI Listing

Re-assembling climate change policy: Materialism, posthumanism, and the policy assemblage.

Br J Sociol 2020 Mar 16;71(2):269-283. Epub 2020 Jan 16.

Brunel University London, Uxbridge, United Kingdom.

National and international policy-makers have addressed threats to environmental sustainability from climate change and other environmental degradation for over 30 years. However, it is questionable whether current policies are socially, politically, economically, and scientifically capable of adequately resolving these threats to the planet and living organisms. In this paper we theorize and develop the concept of a "policy assemblage" from within a new materialist ontology, to interrogate critically four policy perspectives on climate change: "liberal environmentalism"; the United Nations policy statements on sustainable development; "green capitalism" (also known as "climate capitalism") and finally "no-growth economics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-4446.12734DOI Listing

Co-existence or displacement: Do street trials of intelligent vehicles test society?

Authors:
Noortje Marres

Br J Sociol 2020 Jun 14;71(3):537-555. Epub 2020 Jan 14.

Centre for Interdisciplinary Methodologies, University of Warwick, Coventry, United Kingdom.

This paper examines recent street tests of autonomous vehicles (AVs) in the UK and makes the case for an experimental approach in the sociology of intelligent technology. In recent years intelligent vehicle testing has moved from the laboratory to the street, raising the question of whether technology trials equally constitute tests of society. To adequately address this question, I argue, we need to move beyond analytic frameworks developed in 1990s Science and Technology Studies, which stipulated "a social deficit" of both intelligent technology and technology testing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-4446.12730DOI Listing

Ethnic minorities' reactions to newcomers in East London: Symbolic boundaries and convivial labor.

Br J Sociol 2020 Mar 13;71(2):208-220. Epub 2020 Jan 13.

International Inequalities Institute (III), London School of Economics (LSE), London, United Kingdom.

In much public discourse on immigrants in Western Europe, perceptions towards newcomers are discussed in relation to what white national majorities think. However, today, new migrants often move into places which are already settled by previous migrants. This article investigates the local experiences, perceptions, and attitudes towards newcomers among long-established ethnic minorities in an area which they have made their home, and where they predominate not just in numbers but also by way of shops, religious sites, school population, and so on. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-4446.12729DOI Listing

Paradoxes of late-modern autonomy imperatives: Reconciling individual claims and institutional demands in everyday practice.

Br J Sociol 2020 Mar 13;71(2):236-252. Epub 2020 Jan 13.

Department of Sociology, Friedrich Schiller University, Jena, Germany.

Governmentality studies and social theories agree that in contemporary societies the idea of autonomy is no longer simply an ideal or an individual aspiration but a social obligation. In an attempt to clarify the meaning of autonomy in this day and age, this paper asks how individuals perceive and negotiate the various dimensions of autonomy and how this affects the functioning of late-modern institutions. The empirical insights derived from a qualitative study provide a differentiated picture of how individuals pursue their claims to autonomy and comply with institutional demands for autonomy in everyday practice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-4446.12731DOI Listing

Utilizing the moral nobility of older Chinese women in governance: The uses of humility, empathy, and an ethics of care in moral clinics in Huzhou city.

Br J Sociol 2020 Mar 13;71(2):300-313. Epub 2020 Jan 13.

Keele Institute for Social Inclusion, University of Keele, Newcastle-under-Lyme, UK.

This paper examines the emergence of the role of "moral doctors" who volunteer in what are called "moral clinics" in Huzhou city. In these moral clinics, the characteristics, experiences, and attributes of older women, in particular, are highly valued and viewed as being essential to the role of the moral doctor. These moral doctors act as moral exemplars and conflict mediators in their local communities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-4446.12736DOI Listing

Waiting like a girl? The temporal constitution of femininity as a factor in gender inequality.

Authors:
Susan Pickard

Br J Sociol 2020 Mar 7;71(2):314-327. Epub 2020 Jan 7.

Department of Sociology, Social Policy and Criminology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom.

This paper explores temporal constituents of the female self in terms of their role in underpinning ongoing gender inequality. Drawing on the work of Simone de Beauvoir and Iris Marion Young, together with sociological approaches to ambivalence, I suggest that these temporal subjectivities are embodied, arise from the split subjectivity associated with woman as simultaneously subject and object, and counterpose the neoliberal emphasis on "choice" and agency with a more traditional gendered "expectation," or "waiting" style. The dialectic between both temporalities, in which neither is hegemonic, results in a chronic state of ambivalence which impedes women's ability to fully project themselves into the future, a skill significant to planning and career ambition and the absence of which suspends women instead in an extended present. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-4446.12733DOI Listing

Sex counts: An examination of sexual service advertisements in a UK online directory.

Br J Sociol 2020 Mar 5;71(2):328-348. Epub 2020 Jan 5.

Department of Political Science and International Studies, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom.

Internationally, sex work research, public opinion, policy, laws, and practice are predicated on the assumption that commercial sex is a priori sold by women and bought by men. Scarce attention has been devoted to lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, or queer/questioning (LGBTQ) sex working as well as women who pay for sex. This is as much an empirical absence as it is a theoretical one, for the ideological claim that women comprise the "vast majority" of sex workers is rarely, if ever, exposed to empirical scrutiny. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-4446.12727DOI Listing

Deservingness put into practice: Constructing the (un)deservingness of migrants in four European countries.

Br J Sociol 2020 Jan;71(1):112-126

Centre for Comparative Welfare Studies, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.

The increased comparative research on perceptions of public welfare deservingness studies the extent to which different subgroups of citizens are deemed worthy or unworthy of receiving help from the welfare state. The concept of deservingness criteria plays a crucial role in this research, as it theorizes a universal heuristic that citizens apply to rank people in terms of their welfare deservingness. Due to the mainly quantitative nature of the research and despite the indisputable progress it has made, the subjective existence and actual application of these deservingness criteria remain a bit of a black box. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-4446.12721DOI Listing
January 2020

How does cultural capital affect educational performance: Signals or skills?

Br J Sociol 2020 Jan;71(1):28-46

Department of Sociology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

In this paper, we test two mechanisms through which cultural capital might affect educational performance: (a) teachers misinterpreting cultural capital as signals of academic brilliance and (b) cultural capital fostering skills in children that enhance educational performance. We analyse data from the ECLS-K and ECLS-K:2011 from the United States and focus on three aspects of children's cultural capital: participation in performing arts, reading interest and participation in athletics and clubs. We find that (1) none of the three aspects of cultural capital that we consider affects teachers' evaluations of children's academic skills; (2) reading interest has a direct positive effect on educational performance; and (3) the direct effect of reading interest on educational performance does not depend on schooling context. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-4446.12711DOI Listing
January 2020

Successful societies: Decision-making and the quality of attentiveness.

Br J Sociol 2020 Jan 27;71(1):183-199. Epub 2019 Dec 27.

Institute for Politics, Religion and Society, Australian Catholic University, North Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Combining moral philosophy with sociological theory to build on themes introduced in Hall and Lamont's Successful Societies (2009), the paper outlines a distinctive perspective. It holds that a necessary condition of successful societies is that decision-makers base their decisions on a high level of attentiveness (concern and comprehension) towards subjectively valued and morally legitimate forms of life. Late modern societies consist of a plurality of forms of life, each providing grounds for what Alasdair MacIntyre has called internal goods-valued and morally valuable practices. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-4446.12724DOI Listing
January 2020

Irrational rationalities and governmentality-effected neglect in immigration practice: Legal migrants' entitlements to services and benefits in the United Kingdom.

Authors:
Caroline Oliver

Br J Sociol 2020 Jan 26;71(1):96-111. Epub 2019 Dec 26.

Institute of Education, University College London, London, United Kingdom.

Governments' attempts to manage immigration increasingly restrict immigrants' eligibility to healthcare, education, and welfare benefits. This article examines the operation of these restrictions in the United Kingdom. It draws on qualitative research with civil servants and NGO expert advisors, and applies sociological theories on bureaucracy as a lens to interpret these data. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-4446.12720DOI Listing
January 2020

Public social science in Norway: Migration research in the public debate.

Authors:
Mette Andersson

Br J Sociol 2020 Jan 20;71(1):127-139. Epub 2019 Dec 20.

Department of Sociology and Human Geography, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

How do Norwegian migration and diversity researchers experience and maneuver participation in public debate? And do their experiences and strategies fit with Michael Burawoy's image of Norwegian social science and with his model of public sociology? In this article, the concept of public sociology is expanded to public social science, encompassing communication of research not just from sociology but social science in general. Semi-structured interviews with 31 Norwegian migration and diversity scholars from 10 academic institutions about their experiences of, and views on, public research communication constitute the empirical material. The article concludes that Burawoy is right about the relatively high participation in public debate among social scientists in Norway. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-4446.12728DOI Listing
January 2020

Materializing architecture for social care: Brick walls and compromises in design for later life.

Br J Sociol 2020 Jan 19;71(1):153-167. Epub 2019 Dec 19.

Department of Sociology, Queens University Belfast, Belfast, United Kingdom.

This article reports on an ethnography of architectural projects for later life social care in the UK. Informed by recent debates in material studies and "materialities of care" we offer an analysis of a care home project that is sensitive to architectural materials that are not normally associated with care and well-being. Although the care home design project we focus on in this article was never built, we found that design discussions relating to a curved brick wall and bricks more generally were significant to its architectural "making". Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-4446.12722DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6973086PMC
January 2020

Prototyping public friction: Exploring the political effects of design testing in urban space.

Authors:
Martín Tironi

Br J Sociol 2020 Jun 17;71(3):503-519. Epub 2019 Dec 17.

School of Design, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile.

The use of prototypes as testing instruments has become a common strategy in the innovation of services and products and increasingly in the implementation of "smart" urban policies through living labs or pilots. As a technique for validating hypotheses about the future performance of products or policies, prototyping is based on the idea of generating original knowledge through the failures produced during the testing process. Through the study of an experimentation and prototyping project developed in Santiago de Chile called "Shared Streets for a Low-Carbon District," I analyse the technique of prototyping as a political device that can make visible (or invisible) certain entities and issues, determining what the experimental entities can do and say. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-4446.12718DOI Listing

Foundational stigma: Place-based stigma in the age before advanced marginality.

Br J Sociol 2020 Jan 15;71(1):140-152. Epub 2019 Dec 15.

School of Applied Social Studies, Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen, UK.

This paper joins the debate on the formation of territorial stigma by uncovering the existence of a form of "foundational stigma" that preceded place-based stigma of the era of advanced marginality. I show that not only were the traces of stigma present prior to the era of advanced marginality but that these early traces facilitate later forms of stigma by providing the necessary foundations upon which adhesive and detrimental stigma was operationalized. Following a critical discourse analysis approach, this paper examines coverage in the British press of Toxteth, Liverpool between 1900 and 1981 as a paradigmatic case study to show that this primitive stigma existed in three key ways: relating to inter-community strife, to crime, and to substandard housing conditions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-4446.12719DOI Listing
January 2020

The Hiroshima memory complex.

Authors:
Thomas Olesen

Br J Sociol 2020 Jan 3;71(1):81-95. Epub 2019 Dec 3.

Department of Political Science, Aarhus Universitet, Aarhus, Denmark.

The atomic bomb attack on Hiroshima on August 6, 1945 is one of the most powerful global memories. While the literature on global memories has greatly expanded in recent decades, Hiroshima remains surprisingly understudied. In addressing this lacuna, this paper develops a new theoretical prism for the study of global memories. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-4446.12717DOI Listing
January 2020

Are universities left-wing bastions? The political orientation of professors, professionals, and managers in Europe.

Br J Sociol 2020 Jan 10;71(1):47-73. Epub 2019 Dec 10.

Department of Sociology, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Universities are accused of being left-wing bastions, unwelcoming to conservative and right-wing professors. However, we know little about the political orientation of professors in comparison to other professionals, which would be the right comparison group if we want to know whether universities are potentially hostile environments to conservatives. Examining culturally and economically oriented political orientations in Europe, it is demonstrated that professors are more liberal and left-leaning than other professionals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-4446.12716DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6973015PMC
January 2020

What makes for a successful sociology? A response to "Against a descriptive turn".

Authors:
Mike Savage

Br J Sociol 2020 Jan 6;71(1):19-27. Epub 2019 Dec 6.

Department of Sociology, London School of Economics and Political Science, London, UK.

This paper responds to Nick Gane's "Against a descriptive turn". I argue that descriptive research strategies are more open and inclusive than those which purport to be causal  where explanatory adequacy is assessed by expert insiders. I also show how open descriptive strategies can assist a wider explanatory purpose when these are conceived in non-positivist ways. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-4446.12713DOI Listing
January 2020

Against a descriptive turn.

Authors:
Nicholas Gane

Br J Sociol 2020 Jan 28;71(1):4-18. Epub 2019 Nov 28.

Department of Sociology, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK.

While description is a valuable aspect of meaningful sociological work, this paper takes issue with Mike Savage's argument that the social sciences, and sociology in particular, should seek to prioritize description over practices of explanation and analysis, and attention to questions of causality.  The aim of this paper is not to take issue with descriptive forms of sociology in themselves, but to argue that the answer to the problems identified by Savage and Burrows in their landmark paper "The Coming Crisis of Empirical Sociology" is not to follow commercial forms of research by prioritizing practices of description and classification at the cost of asking fundamental questions about the "why?" and the "how?" of social life and politics. Rather, this paper argues that it is imperative that sociology does not simply describe inequalities of different types, but questions, explains, and analyses the structures and mechanisms through which they are created, reproduced, and sustained. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-4446.12715DOI Listing
January 2020

Remainers are nostalgic too: An exploration of attitudes towards the past and Brexit preferences.

Br J Sociol 2020 Jan 17;71(1):74-80. Epub 2019 Nov 17.

Department of Sociology and Work Science, Goteborgs Universitet, Goteborg, Sweden.

Nostalgia had a prominent place in the Brexit Referendum campaign, epitomized by Nigel Farage carrying around with him an old-fashioned blue British passport on the campaign trail. In this paper, we seek to examine British attitudes towards the past through a new survey instrument administered online in July and August 2018 (N = 3,000). We empirically establish two dimensions of nostalgia that are differentially associated with political preferences. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-4446.12710DOI Listing
January 2020

Sibling violence: Understanding experiences, impacts, and the need for nuanced responses.

Br J Sociol 2020 Jan 14;71(1):168-182. Epub 2019 Nov 14.

Monash Centre for Gender and Family Violence Prevention, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Sibling violence is an under-researched field, and the impact of adolescent family violence (AFV) in particular on siblings is not yet well understood. The Australian study Investigating Adolescent Family Violence in Victoria elicited responses from siblings who had experienced AFV from their brothers or sisters, as well as reflections from parents and practitioners on the difficulties of addressing AFV directed towards siblings. This article explores characteristics of sibling violence identified in this study, impacts of the violence on siblings, parents, and families, and responses to sibling violence in Victoria, Australia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-4446.12712DOI Listing
January 2020

Cultures of care? Animals and science in Britain.

Br J Sociol 2019 Dec 4;70(5):2042-2069. Epub 2019 Nov 4.

Sociology Department, University of California San Diego.

It is becoming increasingly common to hear life scientists say that high quality life science research relies upon high quality laboratory animal care. However, the idea that animal care is a crucial part of scientific knowledge production is at odds with previous social science and historical scholarship regarding laboratory animals. How are we to understand this discrepancy? To begin to address this question, this paper seeks to disentangle the values of scientists in identifying animal care as important to the production of high quality scientific research. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-4446.12706DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6916317PMC
December 2019

Do the most successful migrants emulate natives in well-being? The compound effect of geographical and social mobility.

Authors:
Yizhang Zhao

Br J Sociol 2019 Dec 25;70(5):1874-1903. Epub 2019 Sep 25.

Nuffield College, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

A growing body of research has been focusing on the well-being consequences of migration, yet most of this has overlooked the fact that many migrants experience intragenerational social mobility alongside geographical mobility. Without accounting for the effect of social mobility in working life, the impact of geographical mobility on well-being cannot be clearly examined. This paper focuses on the most successful migrants, who have started from the bottom and have achieved upward social mobility in the course of their careers, and compares their well-being with that of native non-migrants who have experienced a similar intragenerational social mobility trajectory. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-4446.12704DOI Listing
December 2019