2,187 results match your criteria British Journal Of Psychology[Journal]


Overestimation and contraction biases of depth information stored in working memory depend on spatial configuration.

Br J Psychol 2020 Jul 4:e12456. Epub 2020 Jul 4.

Department of Psychology, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Depth perception is essential for effective interaction with the environment. Although the accuracy of depth perception has been studied extensively, it is unclear how accurate the depth information is stored in working memory. In this study, we investigated the accuracy and systematic biases of depth representation by a delayed estimation task. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjop.12456DOI Listing

Does private education make nicer people? The influence of school type on social-emotional development.

Br J Psychol 2020 Jun 24. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Department of Education, University of York, Heslington, York, UK.

In a longitudinal sample from Britain, we tested if attending private, fee-charging schools rather than non-selective state schools benefitted children's social-emotional development. State (N = 2,413) and private school children (N = 269) showed no differences in well-being across adolescence, but private school children reported fewer behaviour problems and greater peer victimisation over time than state schoolers. These results were independent of schools' selection criteria, including family background, and prior academic and cognitive performance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjop.12462DOI Listing

Moody and thin-skinned? The interplay of neuroticism and momentary affect in older romantic couples.

Br J Psychol 2020 Jun 15. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Humboldt University of Berlin, Germany.

Neuroticism is associated with heightened reactivity to social stressors. However, little is known about the micro-processes through which neuroticism shapes - and is shaped by - affective experiences in close relationships. We examine the extent to which momentary affect is coupled with one's relationship partner, whether the strength of this coupling differs depending on levels of neuroticism, and whether this coupling and partner's overall level of positive or negative affect prospectively contribute to differential (rank-order) changes in neuroticism. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjop.12452DOI Listing

Of unbiased beans and slanted stocks: Neutral stimuli reveal the fundamental relation between political ideology and exploratory behaviour.

Br J Psychol 2020 Jun 8. Epub 2020 Jun 8.

Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA.

Fiagbenu et al. (2019, British Journal of Psychology) questioned the nature and extent of ideological differences in learning and behaviour documented by Shook and Fazio (2009, Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 45, 995). We correct a mischaracterization in their depiction of Shook & Fazio's research, and in doing so, we outline why the original findings represent domain-general ideological differences in attitude-formation processes, rather than simple differences in responses to physical threat. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjop.12455DOI Listing

Stronger reactivity to social gaze in virtual reality compared to a classical laboratory environment.

Br J Psychol 2020 Jun 2. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Department of Psychology, Julius Maximilians University of Würzburg, Germany.

People show a robust tendency to gaze at other human beings when viewing images or videos, but were also found to relatively avoid gaze at others in several real-world situations. This discrepancy, along with theoretical considerations, spawned doubts about the appropriateness of classical laboratory-based experimental paradigms in social attention research. Several researchers instead suggested the use of immersive virtual scenarios in eliciting and measuring naturalistic attentional patterns, but the field, struggling with methodological challenges, still needs to establish the advantages of this approach. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjop.12453DOI Listing

Schema and deviation effects in remembering repeated unfamiliar stories.

Br J Psychol 2020 Jun 1. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Department of Psychology, University of Portsmouth, Hampshire, UK.

In today's globalized world, we frequently encounter unfamiliar events that we may have difficulty comprehending - and in turn remembering - due to a lack of appropriate schemata. This research investigated schema effects in a situation where participants established a complex new schema for an unfamiliar type of story through exposure to four variations. We found that immediate recall increased across subsequent stories and that distortions occurred less frequently - participants built on the emerging schema and gradually established representations of parts of the story that were initially transformed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjop.12449DOI Listing

Misperceptions of opposite-sex preferences for thinness and muscularity.

Br J Psychol 2020 May 25. Epub 2020 May 25.

School of Psychology & Neuroscience, University of St Andrews, UK.

Thin and muscular have been characterized as ideals for women and men, respectively. Little research has investigated whether men and women have accurate perceptions of opposite-sex preferences of thinness and muscularity. Further, no study has explored whether opposite-sex perceptions of thinness and muscularity preferences differ for short-term and long-term relationships. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjop.12451DOI Listing

How does familiarity with a voice affect trait judgements?

Br J Psychol 2020 May 23. Epub 2020 May 23.

Department of Speech, Hearing and Phonetic Sciences, University College London, UK.

From only a single spoken word, listeners can form a wealth of first impressions of a person's character traits and personality based on their voice. However, due to the substantial within-person variability in voices, these trait judgements are likely to be highly stimulus-dependent for unfamiliar voices: The same person may sound very trustworthy in one recording but less trustworthy in another. How trait judgements differ when listeners are familiar with a voice is unclear: Are listeners who are familiar with the voices as susceptible to the effects of within-person variability? Does the semantic knowledge listeners have about a familiar person influence their judgements? In the current study, we tested the effect of familiarity on listeners' trait judgements from variable voices across 3 experiments. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjop.12454DOI Listing

Ecological social capital does not predict geographical variance in increases in depression following the 2008 financial crisis.

Br J Psychol 2020 May 3. Epub 2020 May 3.

North Wales Clinical Psychology Programme, School of Psychology, Bangor University, UK.

Research suggests that the financial crisis of 2008 and its aftermath were associated with an increase in mental health problems, but there has been little research into potential protective factors. Ecological social capital is a plausible candidate given evidence of its protective status following natural disasters. Pre-crisis area-level estimates of generalized trust and sense of belonging were computed from the 2004 to 2006 waves of the Living in Wales survey (N = 43,473) for 413 neighbourhoods in Wales, using multilevel regression with post-stratification, a technique for disaggregating survey data into small area estimates. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjop.12448DOI Listing

Interactive effects of social network centrality and social identification on stress.

Br J Psychol 2020 Apr 21. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Justus Liebig University Giessen, Germany.

The present study aimed to integrate the social identity approach to health and well-being with social network analysis. Previous research on the effects of social network centrality on stress has yielded mixed results. Building on the social identity approach, we argued that these mixed results can be explained, in part, by taking into account the degree to which individuals identify with the social network. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjop.12447DOI Listing

How physical interaction with insight problems affects solution rates, hint use, and cognitive load.

Br J Psychol 2020 Mar 3. Epub 2020 Mar 3.

Institute of Psychology, Jagiellonian University, Krakow, Poland.

So-called insight problems are widely studied because they tap into the creative thinking that is crucial for solving real problems. However, insight problems are typically presented in static formats (on paper, computer) that allow no physical interaction with the problem elements, whereas such an interaction might in fact reduce the load on limited cognitive resources, such as working memory (WM) capacity, thereby facilitating solutions. To test this proposition, 124 young adults were allowed to interact physically with nine established insight problems, while another 124 people attempted to solve these problems using paper and pencil. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjop.12442DOI Listing

Reply to Myszkowski et al. (2020): Some matters of fact concerning aesthetic sensitivity.

Br J Psychol 2020 Feb 27. Epub 2020 Feb 27.

Human Evolution and Cognition Research Group (EvoCog), IFISC, Associated Unit to CSIC, University of the Balearic Islands, Palma, Spain.

We respond to some of Myszkowski and colleagues' (2020, Br. J. Psychology) critical comments on our recent work on aesthetic sensitivity (Corradi, Chuquichambi, Barrada, Clemente, & Nadal, 2020, Br. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjop.12443DOI Listing
February 2020

Causal illusion as a cognitive basis of pseudoscientific beliefs.

Br J Psychol 2020 Feb 10. Epub 2020 Feb 10.

Departament de Cognició, Desenvolupament i Psicologia de l'Educació, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

Causal illusion has been proposed as a cognitive mediator of pseudoscientific beliefs. However, previous studies have only tested the association between this cognitive bias and a closely related but different type of unwarranted beliefs, those related to superstition and paranormal phenomena. Participants (n = 225) responded to a novel questionnaire of pseudoscientific beliefs designed for this study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjop.12441DOI Listing
February 2020

Commentary on Corradi et al.'s (2019) new conception of aesthetic sensitivity: Is the ability conception dead?

Br J Psychol 2020 Jan 30. Epub 2020 Jan 30.

Department of People, Organizations and Negotiation, IESEG School of Management, Lille, France.

Corradi et al. (British Journal of Psychology, 2019) argue that their new conception of visual aesthetic sensitivity (as responsiveness to aesthetic features in one's preferences) presents several advantages in comparison with the current ability view of aesthetic sensitivity, usually defined as the ability to judge aesthetic stimuli in accordance with standards (The Journal of Psychology, 1964, 57 and 49). Although the measure they propose is interesting and presents advances to the field, we point to important issues. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjop.12440DOI Listing
January 2020

When smiles (and frowns) speak words: Does power impact the correspondence between self-reported affect and facial expressions?

Br J Psychol 2020 Jan 3. Epub 2020 Jan 3.

Department of Psychology, Durham University, UK.

Self-reported experiences are often poor indicators of outward expressions. Here we examine social power as a variable that may impact the relationship between self-reported affect and facial expressions. Earlier studies addressing this issue were limited by focusing on a single facial expression (smiling) and by using different, less sensitive methods that yielded mostly null results. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjop.12433DOI Listing
January 2020

Muscle and fat aftereffects and the role of gender: Implications for body image disturbance.

Br J Psychol 2019 Dec 27. Epub 2019 Dec 27.

Department of Psychology, Macquarie University, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Body image disturbance - a cause of distress amongst the general population and those diagnosed with various disorders - is often attributed to the media's unrealistic depiction of ideal bodies. These ideals are strongly gendered, leading to pronounced fat concern amongst females, and a male preoccupation with muscularity. Recent research suggests that visual aftereffects may be fundamental to the misperception of body fat and muscle mass - the perceptual component of body image disturbance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjop.12439DOI Listing
December 2019

Personal Belief in a Just World and Conscientiousness: A meta-analysis, facet-level examination, and mediation model.

Br J Psychol 2019 Dec 24. Epub 2019 Dec 24.

Faculty of Psychology, Philipps University of Marburg, Germany.

Extensive research efforts have been devoted to understanding the nature of Conscientiousness, the only Big Five personality trait that has been robustly linked to professional achievement and longevity. We proposed that Conscientiousness is associated with Personal Belief in a Just World (PBJW), that is, the extent to which an individual believes that her or his efforts will be rewarded. To investigate this proposition, we undertook a meta-analysis synthesizing past findings regarding the relationship between PBJW and Conscientiousness; we confirmed a positive relationship between the two constructs (r = . Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjop.12438DOI Listing
December 2019

Does he sound cooperative? Acoustic correlates of cooperativeness.

Br J Psychol 2019 Dec 9. Epub 2019 Dec 9.

Toulouse School of Economics, Université Toulouse 1 Capitole, France.

The sound of the voice has several acoustic features that influence the perception of how cooperative the speaker is. It remains unknown, however, whether these acoustic features are associated with actual cooperative behaviour. This issue is crucial to disentangle whether inferences of traits from voices are based on stereotypes, or facilitate the detection of cooperative partners. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjop.12437DOI Listing
December 2019

Sex-specific variation in facial masculinity/femininity associated with autistic traits in the general population.

Br J Psychol 2019 Dec 5. Epub 2019 Dec 5.

Telethon Kids Institute, University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.

Reports linking prenatal testosterone exposure to autistic traits and to a masculinized face structure have motivated research investigating whether autism is associated with facial masculinization. This association has been reported with greater consistency for females than for males, in studies comparing groups with high and low levels of autistic traits. In the present study, we conducted two experiments to examine facial masculinity/femininity in 151 neurotypical adults selected for either low, mid-range, or high levels of autistic traits. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjop.12436DOI Listing
December 2019

An own-age bias in mixed- and pure-list presentations: No evidence for the social-cognitive account.

Br J Psychol 2019 Nov 28. Epub 2019 Nov 28.

School of Psychology, Curtin University, Bentley, Washington, Australia.

The own-age bias (OAB) is suggested to be caused by perceptual-expertise and/or social-cognitive mechanisms. Bryce and Dodson (2013, Psychology and Aging, 28, 87, Exp 2) provided support for the social-cognitive account, demonstrating an OAB for participants who encountered a mixed-list of own- and other-age faces, but not for participants who encountered a pure-list of only own- or other-age faces. They proposed that own-age/other-age categorization, and the resulting OAB, only emerge when age is made salient in the mixed-list condition. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjop.12435DOI Listing
November 2019

The orientation of young and older adults' mental representations of their home town with familiar and new landmarks.

Br J Psychol 2019 Nov 18. Epub 2019 Nov 18.

Department of General Psychology, University of Padova, Italy.

Familiarity with an environment produces refined mental representations in adults of all ages, but it is not clear whether these representations tend to have a north-up orientation and whether familiarity facilitates the learning of new spatial information, especially in ageing. Thirty-two young and 32 older adults studied a map of their home town that included familiar and new fictitious landmarks, then performed pointing tasks, some aligned with the cardinal points south-north (SN), and others counter-aligned, north-south (NS). A measure of visuo-spatial working memory (VSWM) and a questionnaire on pleasure in exploring were also administered. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjop.12432DOI Listing
November 2019

Of deadly beans and risky stocks: Political ideology and attitude formation via exploration depend on the nature of the attitude stimuli.

Br J Psychol 2019 Nov 14. Epub 2019 Nov 14.

International Max Planck Research School on Adapting Behavior in a Fundamentally Uncertain World, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Jena, Germany.

An attitude formation task examined how conservatives and liberals explore information about novel stimuli and form attitudes towards them. When framed as the BeanFest game, conservatives sampled fewer beans and exhibited a stronger learning asymmetry (i.e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjop.12430DOI Listing
November 2019

Disentangling the facilitating and hindering effects of threat-related stimuli - A visual search study.

Br J Psychol 2019 Oct 21. Epub 2019 Oct 21.

Department of Behavioural Sciences, Medical School, University of Pécs, Hungary.

Although large body of research has demonstrated the attention-grabbing nature of threat-related stimuli, threat could also facilitate attentional processes. Previous studies suggest a linear relationship between the facilitating effect of the arousal level conveyed by threat and performance on visual search tasks. Due to the temporal competition bias favouring stimuli with higher arousal level, this could be more pronounced for shorter onset times. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjop.12429DOI Listing
October 2019
2 Reads

'Three is better than two': Increasing donations with the attraction effect.

Br J Psychol 2019 Oct 16. Epub 2019 Oct 16.

University of Padova, Italy.

Five experiments (N  = 2,503) tested the attraction effect and its boundary conditions in the context of helping behaviour. Participants could choose one donation appeal in a set of either two or three alternatives. The three alternatives set included a decoy - an alternative that resembled but was clearly inferior to a target (i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjop.12428DOI Listing
October 2019

A new conception of visual aesthetic sensitivity.

Br J Psychol 2019 Oct 6. Epub 2019 Oct 6.

Human Evolution and Cognition Research Group (EvoCog), Institute for Cross-Disciplinary Physics and Complex Systems (IFISC), Associated Unit to CSIC, University of the Balearic Islands, Palma, Spain.

Aesthetic sensitivity has been defined as the ability to recognize and appreciate beauty and compositional excellence, and to judge artistic merit according to standards of aesthetic value. The Visual Aesthetic Sensitivity Test (VAST) has often been used to assess this ability, but recent research has revealed it has several psychometric problems. Such problems are not easily remedied, because they reflect flawed assumptions inherent to the concept of aesthetic sensitivity as traditionally understood, and to the VAST itself. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjop.12427DOI Listing
October 2019

How do we process prices? Electrophysiological evidence of componential analysis.

Br J Psychol 2019 Sep 25. Epub 2019 Sep 25.

Departamento de Psicología Experimental, Facultad de Psicología, Universidad de Granada, Spain.

The aim of this study was to evaluate if the processing of prices (e.g., 8 euro) involves separate analysis of the digit (8) and the monetary category (euro). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjop.12425DOI Listing
September 2019

Evaluating the interplay between subclinical levels of mental health symptoms and coordination dynamics.

Br J Psychol 2019 Sep 25. Epub 2019 Sep 25.

School of Psychological Science, University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.

Viewed under the broad theoretical umbrella of an embodied-embedded approach to psychological activity, body movements can be seen to play an essential role in shaping social interaction. Of note, research concerning the embodiment of social cognition has documented key differences in non-verbal behaviour during social interaction for individuals diagnosed with a range of disorders, including social anxiety disorder and autism spectrum disorder. The present work sets out to extend these findings by better understanding the interplay between subclinical variation in psychopathology and social-motor coordination, a key component of effective interaction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjop.12426DOI Listing
September 2019
7 Reads

Influence of perceived emotion and gender on social motor coordination.

Br J Psychol 2019 Aug 21. Epub 2019 Aug 21.

EuroMov, University of Montpellier, France.

Theorists have long postulated that facial properties such as emotion and sex are potent social stimuli that influence how individuals act. Yet extant scientific findings were mainly derived from investigations on the prompt motor response upon the presentation of affective stimuli, which were mostly delivered by means of pictures, videos, or text. A theoretical question remains unaddressed concerning how the perception of emotion and sex would modulate the dynamics of a continuous coordinated behaviour. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjop.12419DOI Listing
August 2019
2 Reads

Hungry people prefer larger bodies and objects: The importance of testing boundary effects.

Br J Psychol 2019 Aug 2. Epub 2019 Aug 2.

Department of Psychology, Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.

Several lab-based studies have indicated that when people are hungry, they judge larger women's bodies as more attractive, compared to when they are satiated. These satiety-dependent judgements are assumed to provide explanatory power when it comes to the noted cross-cultural differences in attitudes towards women's adiposity, whereby people who live in regions that are under greater nutritional stress tend to have more favourable attitudes towards bigger bodies. However, it is premature to assume that women's bodies are the proper or actual domain of the satiety-dependent judgement shifts found within research study testing contexts until stimuli other than female bodies have also been tested: The research programme falls into the trap of confirmation bias unless we also seek out disconfirmatory evidence and test the boundaries of the effects of hunger. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjop.12417DOI Listing

The impact of monetary stimuli on object-based attention.

Br J Psychol 2019 Jul 30. Epub 2019 Jul 30.

School of Psychology, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an, China.

Previous research has implied that monetary reward to target location (a reward for spatial properties) can affect object-based attention, but no study has directly investigated the influence of monetary objects (a reward for object properties) on object-based attention. Thus, it is unclear whether and how monetary objects can affect object-based attention. To experimentally investigate this problem, this study adapted the well-established two-rectangle paradigm. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjop.12418DOI Listing

'Please sort these voice recordings into 2 identities': Effects of task instructions on performance in voice sorting studies.

Br J Psychol 2019 Jul 22. Epub 2019 Jul 22.

Department of Speech, Hearing and Phonetic Sciences, University College London, UK.

We investigated the effects of two types of task instructions on performance on a voice sorting task by listeners who were either familiar or unfamiliar with the voices. Listeners were asked to sort 15 naturally varying stimuli from two voice identities into perceived identities. Half of the listeners sorted the recordings freely into as many identities as they perceived; the other half were forced to sort stimuli into two identities only. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjop.12416DOI Listing
July 2019
2 Reads

'You Are What You Read:' Is selective exposure a way people tell us who they are?

Br J Psychol 2019 Jul 18. Epub 2019 Jul 18.

Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA.

Selective exposure is the tendency to gather viewpoint-congenial versus viewpoint-uncongenial information. Extant models of selective exposure suggest this tendency occurs because people anticipate reading congenial (vs. uncongenial) information will cause more favourable intrapersonal consequences. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjop.12414DOI Listing
July 2019
1 Read

The medium can influence the message: Print-based versus digital reading influences how people process different types of written information.

Br J Psychol 2019 Jul 12. Epub 2019 Jul 12.

The McPin Foundation, London, UK.

While electronic reading devices are extremely popular, research is equivocal regarding their benefits for outcomes such as reader comprehension. Integrating literatures on reading medium comparisons and matching effects in persuasion, this research tested whether comprehension is maximized when the content of the material (e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjop.12415DOI Listing

Evidence for altered configural body processing in women at risk of disorders characterized by body image disturbance.

Br J Psychol 2019 Jul 2. Epub 2019 Jul 2.

University of Essex, UK.

Two studies were conducted to assess appearance-related visual processing mechanisms in populations at risk of disorders characterized by body image disturbance. Using inverted stimuli, Experiment 1 assessed visual processing mechanisms associated with body, face, and house viewing in adolescents. Experiment 2 applied the same protocol to assess appearance-related configural processing in high- and low-risk adolescent women, and women recovering from disorders characterized by body image disturbance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjop.12412DOI Listing
July 2019
2 Reads

Intentionally remembering or forgetting own- and other-race faces: Evidence from directed forgetting.

Br J Psychol 2019 Jul 2. Epub 2019 Jul 2.

Department of Psychology, Durham University, UK.

People are better at remembering faces of their own relative to another ethnic group. This so-called own-race bias (ORB) has been explained in terms of differential perceptual expertise for own- and other-race faces or, alternatively, as resulting from socio-cognitive factors. To test predictions derived from the latter account, we examined item-method directed forgetting (DF), a paradigm sensitive to an intentional modulation of memory, for faces belonging to different ethnic and social groups. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjop.12413DOI Listing
July 2019
1 Read

Towards a 'manifesto' for super-recognizer research.

Br J Psychol 2019 08 23;110(3):495-498. Epub 2019 Jun 23.

School of Psychology, UNSW Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

This article provides a response to five excellent commentaries on our article 'Super-recognizers: From the lab to the world and back again'. Specifically, the response summarizes commonalities between these commentaries. Based on this consensus, we propose a flexible framework for the assessment of superior face recognition and outline guiding principles to advance future work in the field. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjop.12411DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6771599PMC
August 2019
12 Reads

Is it dangerous? The role of an emotional visual search strategy and threat-relevant training in the detection of guns and knives.

Br J Psychol 2020 May 12;111(2):275-296. Epub 2019 Jun 12.

Department of Psychology, Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières, Québec, Canada.

Counter-terrorism strategies rely on the assumption that it is possible to increase threat detection by providing explicit verbal instructions to orient people's attention to dangerous objects and hostile behaviours in their environment. Nevertheless, whether verbal cues can be used to enhance threat detection performance under laboratory conditions is currently unclear. In Experiment 1, student participants were required to detect a picture of a dangerous or neutral object embedded within a visual search display on the basis of an emotional strategy 'is it dangerous?' or a semantic strategy 'is it an object?'. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjop.12404DOI Listing
May 2020
1 Read

Young infants are pro-victims, but it depends on the context.

Br J Psychol 2020 May 12;111(2):322-334. Epub 2019 Jun 12.

School of Social Work and Social Welfare, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel.

The current study examined whether and when young infants are sensitive to distressed others, using two experiments with a forced-choice paradigm. Experiment 1 showed that 5- to 9-month-old infants demonstrate a clear pro-victim preference: Infants preferred a distressed character that had been physically harmed over a matched neutral character. Experiment 2 showed that infants' preference for a distressed other is not invariable, but rather depends on the context: Infants no longer preferred the distressed character when it expressed the exact same distress but for no apparent reason. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjop.12402DOI Listing
May 2020
1 Read

Scary and nasty beasts: Self-reported fear and disgust of common phobic animals.

Br J Psychol 2020 May 11;111(2):297-321. Epub 2019 Jun 11.

National Institute of Mental Health, Klecany, Czech Republic.

Animal phobias are one of the most prevalent mental disorders. We analysed how fear and disgust, two emotions involved in their onset and maintenance, are elicited by common phobic animals. In an online survey, the subjects rated 25 animal images according to elicited fear and disgust. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjop.12409DOI Listing
May 2020
35 Reads

The moderating role of interviewer's regulatory focus in the effectiveness of impression management tactics: Regulatory fit as a source of subjective value.

Br J Psychol 2020 May 4;111(2):369-394. Epub 2019 Jun 4.

School of Sociology, China University of Political Science and Law, Beijing, China.

Based on the recently explored regulatory fit effect in social contexts, the present research is the first to investigate the interaction between interviewer's regulatory focus and interviewee's impression management (IM) tactics. We hypothesized that assertive and defensive IM tactics would fit with interviewer's promotion and prevention focus, respectively, and that interviewer's experience of this regulatory fit would lead to enhanced interview evaluation. We conducted four studies in which the participants were asked to rate an interviewee after reading a list of the interviewee's IM-related behaviours or watching a videotaped interview. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjop.12403DOI Listing
May 2020
1 Read

Misunderstandings and omissions in textbook accounts of effect sizes.

Authors:
Paul H Morris

Br J Psychol 2020 May 4;111(2):395-410. Epub 2019 Jun 4.

Department of Psychology, University of Portsmouth, UK.

There have been frequent attempts in psychology to reduce the reliance on null hypothesis significance testing (NHST) as the criterion for establishing the importance of results. Many authorities now recommend the reporting of effect sizes (ESs) as a supplement or alternative to NHST. However, there is extensive specialist literature highlighting problems associated with the use and interpretation of ESs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjop.12401DOI Listing
May 2020
1 Read

A developmental study of the bat/ball problem of CRT: How to override the bias and its relation to executive functioning.

Br J Psychol 2020 May 16;111(2):335-356. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Camilo José Cela University, Madrid, Spain.

In two experiments, we explored the nature of the bias observed in the bat/ball problem of the cognitive reflection test (Frederick, 2005, J. Econ. Perspect. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjop.12400DOI Listing
May 2020
1 Read

Random word generation reveals spatial encoding of syllabic word length.

Br J Psychol 2020 May 9;111(2):357-368. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Institute of Neuroscience and Psychology & School of Psychology, University of Glasgow, UK.

Existing random number generation studies demonstrate the presence of an embodied attentional bias in spontaneous number production corresponding to the horizontal Mental Number Line: Larger numbers are produced on right-hand turns and smaller numbers on left-hand turns (Loetscher et al.,2008, Curr. Biol. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjop.12399DOI Listing
May 2020
6 Reads

Social anxiety modulates visual exploration in real life - but not in the laboratory.

Br J Psychol 2020 May 3;111(2):233-245. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Department of Psychology, Julius Maximilian University of Würzburg, Germany.

In clinical reports, individuals high on social anxiety are often described to avoid gaze at other people, whereas several experimental studies employing images of persons yielded conflicting results. Here, we show that gaze avoidance crucially depends on the possibility of social interactions. We examined gaze behaviour in individuals with varying degrees of social anxiety in real-life and in a second group of participants using a closely matched laboratory condition. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjop.12396DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7187184PMC
May 2020
6 Reads

Face averages and multiple images in a live matching task.

Br J Psychol 2020 Feb 3;111(1):92-102. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

School of Psychology, University of Lincoln, UK.

We know from previous research that unfamiliar face matching (determining whether two simultaneously presented images show the same person or not) is very error-prone. A small number of studies in laboratory settings have shown that the use of multiple images or a face average, rather than a single image, can improve face matching performance. Here, we tested 1,999 participants using four-image arrays and face averages in two separate live matching tasks. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjop.12388DOI Listing
February 2020
14 Reads

Opium of the people? National identification predicts well-being over time.

Br J Psychol 2020 May 3;111(2):200-214. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Media Innovation Lab, Department of Communication, University of Vienna, Austria.

Social group membership and its social-relational corollaries, for example, social contact, trust, and support, are prophylactic for health. Research has tended to focus on how direct social interactions between members of small-scale groups (i.e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjop.12398DOI Listing
May 2020
4 Reads

Profiles of adversity and resilience resources: A latent class analysis of two samples.

Br J Psychol 2020 May 1;111(2):174-199. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

School of Physiotherapy and Exercise Science, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.

Adversities refer to events that are characterized by perceived or actual threat to human functioning. Often considered deleterious for health and well-being, recent work supports an alternative picture of the effects of adversity on human functioning, such that a moderate amount of adversity - when compared with none or high levels - can be beneficial. We extend this body of work in the current study by considering the breadth or type of adversities experienced simultaneously (referred to as polyadversity), with a focus on individual profiles of lifetime adversities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjop.12397DOI Listing
May 2020
17 Reads

The role of visuo-spatial abilities in environment learning from maps and navigation over the adult lifespan.

Br J Psychol 2020 Feb 29;111(1):70-91. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Department of General Psychology, University of Padova, Italy.

Visuo-spatial abilities have an important role in environment learning. The aim of the present study was to explore whether these abilities relate to spatial recall after learning an environment from a map or a video, and irrespective of the learner's age (from youth to old age). The study involved 431 participants from 25 to 84 years old, who were assessed for their visuo-spatial working memory, object-based mental rotation, and perspective-taking abilities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjop.12384DOI Listing
February 2020
1 Read

Do facial first impressions reflect a shared social reality?

Br J Psychol 2020 May 29;111(2):215-232. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Department of Psychology, University of York, UK.

Influential facial impression models have repeatedly shown that trustworthiness, youthful-attractiveness, and dominance dimensions subserve a wide variety of first impressions formed from strangers' faces, suggestive of a shared social reality. However, these models are built from impressions aggregated across observers. Critically, recent work has now shown substantial inter-observer differences in facial impressions, raising the important question of whether these dimensional models based on aggregated group data are meaningful at the individual observer level. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjop.12390DOI Listing
May 2020
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A task- and role-based perspective on super-recognizers: Commentary on 'Super-recognizers: From the lab to the world and back again'.

Br J Psychol 2019 08 25;110(3):486-488. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

School of Psychology, Open University, Milton Keynes, UK.

This article provides a commentary on recent work by Ramon et al. (2019, British Journal of Psychology) on super-recognizers. The commentary advocates a task- and role-based approach to SR research and greater collaboration between researchers and the applied community. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjop.12394DOI Listing