16 results match your criteria British Journal For The Philosophy Of Science[Journal]

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Asymmetry, Abstraction, and Autonomy: Justifying Coarse-Graining in Statistical Mechanics.

Authors:
Katie Robertson

Br J Philos Sci 2020 Jun 26;71(2):547-579. Epub 2018 Jun 26.

While the fundamental laws of physics are time-reversal invariant, most macroscopic processes are irreversible. Given that the fundamental laws are taken to underpin all other processes, how can the fundamental time-symmetry be reconciled with the asymmetry manifest elsewhere? In statistical mechanics (SM), progress can be made with this question. What I dub the 'Zwanzig-Zeh-Wallace framework' can be used to construct the irreversible equations of SM from the underlying microdynamics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bjps/axy020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7202781PMC

Getting Serious about Shared Features.

Authors:
Donal Khosrowi

Br J Philos Sci 2020 Jun 28;71(2):523-546. Epub 2018 Jun 28.

In , Michael Weisberg offers a similarity-based account of the model-world relation, which is the relation in virtue of which successful models are successful. Weisberg's main idea is that models are similar to targets in virtue of sharing features. An important concern about Weisberg's account is that it remains silent on what it means for models and targets to share features, and consequently on how feature-sharing contributes to models' epistemic success. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bjps/axy029DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7202780PMC

Epistemic Justification and Methodological Luck in Inflationary Cosmology.

Authors:
C D McCoy

Br J Philos Sci 2019 Dec 6;70(4):1003-1028. Epub 2018 Sep 6.

School of Philosophy, Psychology, and Language Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.

I present a recent historical case from cosmology-the story of inflationary cosmology-and on its basis argue that solving explanatory problems is a reliable method for making progress in science. In particular, I claim that the success of inflationary theory at solving its predecessor's explanatory problems justified the theory epistemically, even in advance of the development of novel predictions from the theory and the later confirmation of those predictions. 1Introduction2A Portrait of the Argument as a Short Précis3A Brief History of Inflationary Theory4Empiricist Interpretations of Inflationary Case5A Confutation of Empiricist Interpretations6Explanationist Interpretation of Inflationary Case7Concluding Remarks. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bjps/axy014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6844846PMC
December 2019

The Confounding Question of Confounding Causes in Randomized Trials.

Authors:
Jonathan Fuller

Br J Philos Sci 2019 Sep 22;70(3):901-926. Epub 2018 Jan 22.

Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

It is sometimes thought that randomized study group allocation is uniquely proficient at producing comparison groups that are evenly balanced for all confounding causes. Philosophers have argued that in real randomized controlled trials this balance assumption typically fails. But is the balance assumption an important ideal? I run a thought experiment, the CONFOUND study, to answer this question. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bjps/axx015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6686148PMC
September 2019

Health as a Secondary Property.

Authors:
Alex Broadbent

Br J Philos Sci 2019 Jun 1;70(2):609-627. Epub 2017 Sep 1.

African Centre for Epistemology and Philosophy of Science, Department of Philosophy, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa.

In the literature on health, naturalism and normativism are typically characterized as espousing and rejecting, respectively, the view that health is objective and value-free. This article points out that there are two distinct dimensions of disagreement, regarding objectivity and value-ladenness, and thus arranges naturalism and normativism as diagonal opposites on a two-by-two matrix of possible positions. One of the remaining quadrants is occupied by value-dependent realism, holding that health facts are value-laden and objective. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bjps/axx014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6505580PMC
June 2019
2 Reads

Decoding the Brain: Neural Representation and the Limits of Multivariate Pattern Analysis in Cognitive Neuroscience.

Br J Philos Sci 2019 Jun 6;70(2):581-607. Epub 2017 Sep 6.

Department of Philosophy, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia.

Since its introduction, multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA), or 'neural decoding', has transformed the field of cognitive neuroscience. Underlying its influence is a crucial inference, which we call the decoder's dictum: if information can be decoded from patterns of neural activity, then this provides strong evidence about what information those patterns represent. Although the dictum is a widely held and well-motivated principle in decoding research, it has received scant philosophical attention. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bjps/axx023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6505581PMC
June 2019
1 Read

Content in Simple Signalling Systems.

Br J Philos Sci 2018 Dec 22;69(4):1009-1035. Epub 2017 Jun 22.

Philosophy Department Stanford University Standford, USA.

Our understanding of communication and its evolution has advanced significantly through the study of simple models involving interacting senders and receivers of signals. Many theorists have thought that the resources of mathematical information theory are all that are needed to capture the meaning or content that is being communicated in these systems. However, the way theorists routinely talk about the models implicitly draws on a conception of content that is richer than bare informational content, especially in contexts where false content is important. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bjps/axw036DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6231423PMC
December 2018
1 Read

Infinitesimal Probabilities.

Br J Philos Sci 2018 Jun 11;69(2):509-552. Epub 2016 Aug 11.

Institute of Philosophy KU Leuven Leuven, Belgium.

Non-Archimedean probability functions allow us to combine regularity with perfect additivity. We discuss the philosophical motivation for a particular choice of axioms for a non-Archimedean probability theory and answer some philosophical objections that have been raised against infinitesimal probabilities in general.                                                                    . Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bjps/axw013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6012604PMC
June 2018
3 Reads

Model-Selection Theory: The Need for a More Nuanced Picture of Use-Novelty and Double-Counting.

Br J Philos Sci 2018 Jun 30;69(2):351-375. Epub 2016 Aug 30.

Department of Philosophy (KGW) University of Salzburg Salzburg, Austria Department of Philosophy, Logic, and Scientific Method London School of Economics London, UK.

This article argues that common intuitions regarding (a) the specialness of 'use-novel' data for confirmation and (b) that this specialness implies the 'no-double-counting rule', which says that data used in 'constructing' (calibrating) a model cannot also play a role in confirming the model's predictions, are too crude. The intuitions in question are pertinent in all the sciences, but we appeal to a climate science case study to illustrate what is at stake. Our strategy is to analyse the intuitive claims in light of prominent accounts of confirmation of model predictions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bjps/axw024DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5952951PMC
June 2018
2 Reads

A Proposed Probabilistic Extension of the Halpern and Pearl Definition of 'Actual Cause'.

Br J Philos Sci 2017 Dec 29;68(4):1061-1124. Epub 2016 Mar 29.

Department of Philosophy University College London London, UK.

Joseph Halpern and Judea Pearl ([2005]) draw upon structural equation models to develop an attractive analysis of 'actual cause'. Their analysis is designed for the case of deterministic causation. I show that their account can be naturally extended to provide an elegant treatment of probabilistic causation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bjps/axv056DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5865829PMC
December 2017
1 Read

Counterfactual Desirability.

Br J Philos Sci 2017 Jun 4;68(2):485-533. Epub 2015 Aug 4.

Fondation Maison des Sciences de l'Homme Collége d'études mondiales 190 avenue de France Paris 75013 France France

The desirability of what actually occurs is often influenced by what could have been. Preferences based on such value dependencies between actual and counterfactual outcomes generate a class of problems for orthodox decision theory, the best-known perhaps being the so-called Allais paradox. In this article we solve these problems by extending Richard Jeffrey's decision theory to counterfactual prospects, using a multidimensional possible-world semantics for conditionals, and showing that preferences that are sensitive to counterfactual considerations can still be desirability-maximizing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bjps/axv023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6192549PMC
June 2017
1 Read

Epistemic Benefits of Elaborated and Systematized Delusions in Schizophrenia.

Authors:
Lisa Bortolotti

Br J Philos Sci 2016 09 15;67(3):879-900. Epub 2015 Jul 15.

University of Birmingham Birmingham B15 2TT, UK,

In this article I ask whether elaborated and systematized delusions emerging in the context of schizophrenia have the potential for epistemic innocence. Cognitions are epistemically innocent if they have significant epistemic benefits that could not be attained otherwise. In particular, I propose that a cognition is epistemically innocent if it delivers some significant epistemic benefit to a given agent at a given time, and if alternative cognitions delivering the same epistemic benefit are unavailable to that agent at that time. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bjps/axv024DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4990704PMC
September 2016

'Genetic Coding' Reconsidered: An Analysis of Actual Usage.

Br J Philos Sci 2016 09 15;67(3):707-730. Epub 2015 Mar 15.

School of Divinity History and Philosophy University of Aberdeen Aberdeen, UK.

This article reconsiders the theoretical role of the genetic code. By drawing on published and unpublished sources from the 1950s, I analyse how the code metaphor was actually employed by the scientists who first promoted its use. The analysis shows that the term 'code' picked out mechanism sketches, consisting of more or less detailed descriptions of ordinary molecular components, processes, and structural properties of the mechanism of protein synthesis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bjps/axv007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4990703PMC
September 2016
1 Read

Inherited Representations are Read in Development.

Authors:
Nicholas Shea

Br J Philos Sci 2013 Mar;64(1):1-31

Faculty of Philosophy and Somerville College, University of Oxford, 10 Merton Street, Oxford OX1 4JJ, UK.

Recent theoretical work has identified a tightly constrained sense in which genes carry representational content. Representational properties of the genome are founded in the transmission of DNA over phylogenetic time and its role in natural selection. However, genetic representation is not just relevant to questions of selection and evolution. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/bjps/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/bjp
Publisher Site
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3605696PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bjps/axr050DOI Listing
March 2013
8 Reads

The Vegetative State and the Science of Consciousness.

Br J Philos Sci 2010 Sep;61(3):459-484

Faculty of Philosophy and Somerville College University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 4JJ, UK

Consciousness in experimental subjects is typically inferred from reports and other forms of voluntary behaviour. A wealth of everyday experience confirms that healthy subjects do not ordinarily behave in these ways unless they are conscious. Investigation of consciousness in vegetative state patients has been based on the search for neural evidence that such broad functional capacities are preserved in some vegetative state patients. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/bjps/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/bjp
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bjps/axp046DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3361721PMC
September 2010
13 Reads

Sameness of age cohorts in the mathematics of population growth.

Authors:
A Akkerman

Br J Philos Sci 1994 ;45:679-91

"Considering age groups as part of cohorts, implicit in LLM [a Leslie-Lotka finitist model], causes difficulty, manifested by the extensionality paradox. The proposition made here was that cohorts are empirical temporal entities, while age groups are theoretical entities, references only. Cohort is a multitude of persons born at the same time interval, throughout the totality of their lives. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bjps/45.2.679DOI Listing
July 1995
1 Read
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