290 results match your criteria British Journal For The History Of Science[Journal]


Editing entomology: natural-history periodicals and the shaping of scientific communities in nineteenth-century Britain.

Authors:
Matthew Wale

Br J Hist Sci 2019 Apr 5:1-19. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

*University of Leicester.

This article addresses the issue of professionalization in the life sciences during the second half of the nineteenth century through a survey of British entomological periodicals. It is generally accepted that this period saw the rise of professional practitioners and the emergence of biology (as opposed to the older mode of natural history). However, recent scholarship has increasingly shown that this narrative elides the more complex processes at work in shaping scientific communities from the 1850s to the turn of the century. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007087419000050DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Mathematicians on board: introducing lunar distances to life at sea.

Authors:
Jim Bennett

Br J Hist Sci 2019 Mar 13;52(1):65-83. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

*Science Museum,Exhibition Road,London SW7 2DD,UK.

Nevil Maskelyne, the Cambridge-trained mathematician and later Astronomer Royal, was appointed by the Royal Society to observe the 1761 transit of Venus from the Atlantic island of St Helena, assisted by the mathematical practitioner Robert Waddington. Both had experience of measurement and computation within astronomy and they decided to put their outward and return voyages to a further use by trying out the method of finding longitude at sea by lunar distances. The manuscript and printed records they generated in this activity are complemented by the traditional logs and journals kept by the ships' officers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007087419000013DOI Listing

Francis Bacon's doctrine of idols: a diagnosis of 'universal madness'.

Authors:
S V Weeks

Br J Hist Sci 2019 Mar 30;52(1):1-39. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

*Department of History,University of York,York,YO10 5DD,UK.

The doctrine of idols is one of the most famous aspects of Bacon's thought. Yet his claim that the idols lead to madness has gone almost entirely unnoticed. This paper argues that Bacon's theory of idols underlies his diagnosis of the contemporary condition as one of 'universal madness'. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007087418000961DOI Listing

The mechanical life of plants: Descartes on botany.

Br J Hist Sci 2019 Mar 30;52(1):41-63. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

*Institute for Research in the Humanities, University of Bucharest,1 Dimitrie Brandza Str. 060102,Bucharest,Romania.

In this article, I argue that the French philosopher René Descartes was far more involved in the study of plants than has been generally recognized. We know that he did not include a botanical section in his natural philosophy, and sometimes he differentiated between plants and living bodies. His position was, moreover, characterized by a methodological rejection of the catalogues of plants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S000708741800095XDOI Listing

Charles Darwin and the scientific mind.

Authors:
David Stack

Br J Hist Sci 2019 Mar 29;52(1):85-115. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

*Department of History,University of Reading,Reading,RG6 6AA,UK.

Although often presented as an essential, ahistorical or innate psychological entity, the notion of a 'scientific mind' is ripe for historical analysis. The growing historical interest in the self-fashioning of masculine identities, and more particularly the self-fashioning of the nineteenth-century scientist, has opened up a space in which to probe what was understood by someone being said to possess a 'scientific mind'. This task is made all the more urgent by the recently revived interest of some psychologists in the concept and the highly gendered and culturally conditioned understanding of the scientific mind displayed in some contemporary debates. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007087418000973DOI Listing

Translation and transmutation: the Origin of Species in China.

Authors:
Xiaoxing Jin

Br J Hist Sci 2018 Dec 27:1-25. Epub 2018 Dec 27.

*Program in History and Philosophy of Science,453 Geddes Hall,University of Notre Dame,Notre Dame,Indiana, 46556,USA.

Darwinian ideas were developed and radically transformed when they were transmitted to the alien intellectual background of late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century China. The earliest references to Darwin in China appeared in the 1870s through the writings of Western missionaries who provided the Chinese with the earliest information on evolutionary doctrines. Meanwhile, Chinese ambassadors, literati and overseas students contributed to the dissemination of evolutionary ideas, with modest effect. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007087418000808DOI Listing
December 2018

Stock and bulk in the latest Newton scholarship.

Authors:
H Floris Cohen

Br J Hist Sci 2018 Dec;51(4):687-701

Utrecht University.

In his biography of Isaac Newton, which forms the most recent production in this flourishing genre, Niccolò Guicciardini states as his first point of departure that Newton's work arose not from 'attempts to answer questions that came to him spontaneously, but [from addressing] those posed by his contemporaries' (p. 20). Right he is to communicate to the larger audience for which he is writing this principal fruit of by now almost a century of professional history-of-science writing - a deep-seated awareness that every scientific view or finding, even if looking timeless in retrospect, has emerged from some given historical context that shows us where the scientist in question started, and that helps explain how, and in what direction, they managed to venture beyond the original context. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007087418000924DOI Listing
December 2018

Pepys Island as a Pacific stepping stone: the struggle to capture islands on early modern maps.

Authors:
Katherine Parker

Br J Hist Sci 2018 Dec;51(4):659-677

*The Hakluyt Society.

This paper will investigate how geographic features were recorded on maps in the eighteenth century in order to outline the construction of geographic knowledge by British mapmakers. Due to practical and economic factors, early modern cartography was a conservative practice based on source compilation and comparison. For the Pacific region especially, the paucity of first-hand observations and the conflicting nature of those observations rendered the world's largest ocean difficult to chart and prone to the retention of mythical continents, passages and islands. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S000708741800078XDOI Listing
December 2018

Imperial vernacular: phytonymy, philology and disciplinarity in the Indo-Pacific, 1800-1900.

Authors:
Geoff Bil

Br J Hist Sci 2018 Dec;51(4):635-658

*University of British Columbia.

This essay examines how Indo-Pacific indigenous plant names went from being viewed as instruments of botanical fieldwork, to being seen primarily as currency in anthropological studies. I trace this attitude to Alexander von Humboldt, who differentiated between indigenous phytonyms with merely local relevance to be used as philological data, and universally applicable Latin plant names. This way of using indigenous plant names underwrote a chauvinistic reading of cultural difference, and was therefore especially attractive to commentators lacking acquaintance with any indigenous language or culture. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007087418000778DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

The 'genie of the storm': cyclonic reasoning and the spaces of weather observation in the southern Indian Ocean, 1851-1925.

Authors:
Martin Mahony

Br J Hist Sci 2018 Dec;51(4):607-633

*School of Environmental Sciences,University of East Anglia.

This article engages with debates about the status and geographies of colonial science by arguing for the significance of meteorological knowledge making in late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century Mauritius. The article focuses on how tropical storms were imagined, theorized and anticipated by an isolated - but by no means peripheral - cast of meteorologists who positioned Mauritius as an important centre of calculation in an expanding infrastructure of maritime meteorology. Charles Meldrum in particular earned renown in the mid-nineteenth century for theoretical insights into cyclone behaviour and for achieving an unprecedented spatial reach in synoptic meteorology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007087418000766DOI Listing
December 2018

A hard nut to crack: nutmeg cultivation and the application of natural history between the Maluku islands and Isle de France (1750s-1780s).

Authors:
Dorit Brixius

Br J Hist Sci 2018 Dec;51(4):585-606

*Institut historique allemand Paris.

One of France's colonial enterprises in the eighteenth century was to acclimatize nutmeg, native to the Maluku islands, in the French colony of Isle de France (today's Mauritius). Exploring the acclimatization of nutmeg as a practice, this paper reveals the practical challenges of transferring knowledge between Indo-Pacific islands in the second half of the eighteenth century. This essay will look at the process through which knowledge was created - including ruptures and fractures - as opposed to looking at the mere circulation of knowledge. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007087418000754DOI Listing
December 2018
12 Reads

Wars and wonders: the inter-island information networks of Georg Everhard Rumphius.

Authors:
Genie Yoo

Br J Hist Sci 2018 Dec;51(4):559-584

*History Department,Princeton University.

How did one man living on an island come to acquire information about the rest of the vast archipelago? This article traces the inter-island information networks of Georg Everhard Rumphius (1627-1702), an employee of the Dutch East India Company, who was able to explore the natural world of the wider archipelago without ever leaving the Moluccan island of Ambon. This article demonstrates the complexities of Rumphius's inter-island networks, as he collected information about plants and objects from islands near and far. Using his administrative, commercial and household networks, Rumphius was able to interact with local actors from across the social spectrum, whose own active collection, mediation and circulation of objects and information overlapped with imperial activities in the archipelago. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007087418000742DOI Listing
December 2018
9 Reads

Science and islands in Indo-Pacific worlds.

Br J Hist Sci 2018 Dec;51(4):541-558

***Institut historique allemand Paris.

This Introduction offers a conceptualization of the Indo-Pacific, its islands and their place within the history of science. We argue that Indo-Pacific islands present a remarkable combination of social, political and spatial circumstances, which speak to themes that are central to the history of science. Having driven movements of people and represented staging grounds for explorations, expansions and cross-cultural exchanges, these spaces have been at the forefront of historical change. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007087418000730DOI Listing
December 2018

From corps to discipline, part one: Charles d'Almeida, Pierre Bertin and French experimental physics, 1840-1880.

Br J Hist Sci 2018 Sep;51(3):333-368

*Institüt for theoretische Teilchenphysik und Kosmologie,Sommerfeldstr. 16, 52074 Aachen,Germany.

Academic careers in French science during the mid-nineteenth century were made within the Université de France, an integrated state system of secondary and higher education controlled by a centralized Parisian educational administration. Among the most respected members of the corps universitaire were Charles d'Almeida and Pierre Bertin, two historically obscure physiciens whose significance derives from their substantial contributions to the social organization, teaching and communication of French experimental physics. This two-part comparative biography uses their entwined careers to make a case for the emergence of a discipline of French experimental physics from the corps during the tumultuous politico-cultural transition from the Second Empire to the Third Republic. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007087418000535DOI Listing
September 2018
1 Read

Health by design: teaching cleanliness and assembling hygiene at the nineteenth-century sanitation museum.

Authors:
Hilary Buxton

Br J Hist Sci 2018 Sep;51(3):457-485

*Institute for Historical Research,School of Advanced Study,University of London,Senate House,Malet Street,London WC1E 7HU,UK.

In 1878, amid a rapidly proliferating social interest in public health and cleanliness, a group of sanitary scientists and reformers founded the Parkes Museum of Hygiene in central London. Dirt and contagion knew no social boundaries, and the Parkes's founders conceived of the museum as a dynamic space for all classes to better themselves and their environments. They promoted sanitary science through a variety of initiatives: exhibits of scientific, medical and architectural paraphernalia; product endorsements; and lectures and certificated courses in practical sanitation, food inspection and tropical hygiene. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007087418000493DOI Listing
September 2018
1 Read

Rothschild reversed: explaining the exceptionalism of biomedical research, 1971-1981.

Authors:
Stephen M Davies

Br J Hist Sci 2019 Mar 28;52(1):143-163. Epub 2018 Aug 28.

*Centre for History in Public Health,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine,15-17 Tavistock Place,London WC1H 9SH,UK.

The 'Rothschild reforms' of the early 1970s established a new framework for the management of government-funded science. The subsequent dismantling of the Rothschild system for biomedical research and the return of funds to the Medical Research Council (MRC) in 1981 were a notable departure from this framework and ran contrary to the direction of national science policy. The exceptionalism of these measures was justified at the time with reference to the 'particular circumstances' of biomedical research. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007087418000523DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Illustrating natural history: images, periodicals, and the making of nineteenth-century scientific communities.

Authors:
Geoffrey Belknap

Br J Hist Sci 2018 Sep 15;51(3):395-422. Epub 2018 Aug 15.

*National Science and Media Museum,Little Horton Lane,Bradford,BD1 1NQ,UK.

This paper examines how communities of naturalists in mid-nineteenth-century Britain were formed and solidified around the shared practices of public meetings, the publication and reading of periodicals, and the making and printing of images. By focusing on communities of naturalists and the sites of their communication, this article undermines the distinction between amateur and professional scientific practice. Building on the notion of imagined communities, this paper also shows that in some cases the editors and illustrators utilized imagery to construct a specifically British naturalist community. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007087418000511DOI Listing
September 2018
23 Reads

Reading and writing the scientific voyage: FitzRoy, Darwin and John Clunies Ross.

Br J Hist Sci 2018 Sep 13;51(3):369-394. Epub 2018 Aug 13.

*Department of Humanities,York University,Toronto,M3J 1P3,Canada.

An unpublished satirical work, written c.1848-1854, provides fresh insight into the most famous scientific voyage of the nineteenth century. John Clunies Ross, settler of Cocos-Keeling - which HMS Beagle visited in April 1836 - felt that Robert FitzRoy and Charles Darwin had 'depreciated' the atoll on which he and his family had settled a decade earlier. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S000708741800050XDOI Listing
September 2018

Sex in the laboratory: the Family Planning Association and contraceptive science in Britain, 1929-1959.

Authors:
Natasha Szuhan

Br J Hist Sci 2018 Sep 28;51(3):487-510. Epub 2018 Jun 28.

*School of History,Australian National University,Canberra 0200,ACT,Australia.

Scientific and medical contraceptive standards are commonly believed to have begun with the advent of the oral contraceptive pill in the late 1950s. This article explains that in Britain contraceptive standards were imagined and implemented at least two decades earlier by the Family Planning Association, which sought to legitimize contraceptive methods, practice and provision through the foundation of the field of contraceptive science. This article charts the origins of the field, investigating the three methods the association devised and employed to achieve its goal of effecting contraceptive regulation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007087418000481DOI Listing
September 2018

A visit to Biotopia: genre, genetics and gardening in the early twentieth century.

Authors:
Jim Endersby

Br J Hist Sci 2018 Sep 20;51(3):423-455. Epub 2018 Jun 20.

*Reader in the History of Science,School of History,Art History and Philosophy,University of Sussex,Arts Road,University of Sussex,Brighton,BN1 9RH,UK.

The early decades of the twentieth century were marked by widespread optimism about biology and its ability to improve the world. A major catalyst for this enthusiasm was new theories about inheritance and evolution (particularly Hugo de Vries's mutation theory and Mendel's newly rediscovered ideas). In Britain and the USA particularly, an astonishingly diverse variety of writers (from elite scientists to journalists and writers of fiction) took up the task of interpreting these new biological ideas, using a wide range of genres to help their fellow citizens make sense of biology's promise. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S000708741800047XDOI Listing
September 2018

Relocating anti-racist science: the 1950 UNESCO Statement on Race and economic development in the global South.

Br J Hist Sci 2018 Jun 7;51(2):281-303. Epub 2018 May 7.

*History and Sociology of Science Department,University of Pennsylvania,303 Claudia Cohen Hall,249 S.36th Street,Philadelphia,PA,19104,USA.

This essay revisits the drafting of the first UNESCO Statement on Race (1950) in order to reorient historical understandings of mid-twentieth-century anti-racism and science. Historians of science have primarily interpreted the UNESCO statements as an oppositional project led by anti-racist scientists from the North Atlantic and concerned with dismantling racial typologies, replacing them with population-based conceptions of human variation. Instead of focusing on what anti-racist scientists opposed, this article highlights the futures they imagined and the applied social-science projects that anti-racist science drew from and facilitated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007087418000286DOI Listing

A cabinet of the ordinary: domesticating veterinary education, 1766-1799.

Authors:
Kit Heintzman

Br J Hist Sci 2018 Jun 18;51(2):239-260. Epub 2018 Apr 18.

*Harvard University,Department of the History of Science,Science Center Room 371,1 Oxford St,Cambridge,MA 02138,USA.

In the late eighteenth century, the Ecole vétérinaire d'Alfort was renowned for its innovative veterinary education and for having one of the largest natural history and anatomy collections in France. Yet aside from a recent interest in the works of one particular anatomist, the school's history has been mostly ignored. I examine here the fame of the school in eighteenth-century travel literature, the historic connection between veterinary science and natural history, and the relationship between the school's hospital and its esteemed cabinet. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007087418000274DOI Listing

Specimens, slips and systems: Daniel Solander and the classification of nature at the world's first public museum, 1753-1768.

Authors:
Edwin D Rose

Br J Hist Sci 2018 Jun 15;51(2):205-237. Epub 2018 Apr 15.

*Department of History and Philosophy of Science,University of Cambridge,Free School Lane,Cambridge,CB2 3RH,UK.

The British Museum, based in Montague House, Bloomsbury, opened its doors on 15 January 1759, as the world's first state-owned public museum. The Museum's collection mostly originated from Sir Hans Sloane (1660-1753), whose vast holdings were purchased by Parliament shortly after his death. The largest component of this collection was objects of natural history, including a herbarium made up of 265 bound volumes, many of which were classified according to the late seventeenth-century system of John Ray (1627-1705). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007087418000249DOI Listing

Blood money: Harvey's De motu cordis (1628) as an exercise in accounting.

Authors:
Michael J Neuss

Br J Hist Sci 2018 Apr 13:1-23. Epub 2018 Apr 13.

*Department of Internal Medicine,Vanderbilt University Medical Center,1161 21st Avenue South,D-3100 Medical Center North,Nashville,TN, 37272,USA.

William Harvey's famous quantitative argument from De motu cordis (1628) about the circulation of blood explained how a small amount of blood could recirculate and nourish the entire body, upending the Galenic conception of the blood's motion. This paper argues that the quantitative argument drew on the calculative and rhetorical skills of merchants, including Harvey's own brothers. Modern translations of De motu cordis obscure the language of accountancy that Harvey himself used. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007087418000250DOI Listing
April 2018
1 Read

Science and self-assessment: phrenological charts 1840-1940.

Authors:
Fenneke Sysling

Br J Hist Sci 2018 Jun 26;51(2):261-280. Epub 2018 Mar 26.

*Department of History and Art History,University of Utrecht,Drift 6, 3512 BS, Utrecht,the Netherlands.

This paper looks at phrenological charts as mediators of (pseudo-)scientific knowledge to individual clients who used them as a means of self-assessment. Phrenologists propagated the idea that the human mind could be categorized into different mental faculties, with each particular faculty represented in a different area of the brain and by bumps on the head. In the US and the UK popular phrenologists examined individual clients for a fee. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007087418000055DOI Listing

Utopian biologies.

Authors:
Jim Endersby

Br J Hist Sci 2018 Mar;51(1):147-152

University of Sussex.

In 1924, the British biologist J.B.S. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007087418000067DOI Listing
March 2018
1 Read

Apes, skulls and drums: using images to make ethnographic knowledge in imperial Germany.

Authors:
Marissa H Petrou

Br J Hist Sci 2018 Mar;51(1):69-98

*Faculty Fellow at the Program in Museum Studies,New York University,New York,USA.

In this paper, I discuss the development and use of images employed by the Dresden Royal Museum for Zoology, Anthropology and Ethnography to resolve debates about how to use visual representation as a means of making ethnographic knowledge. Through experimentation with techniques of visual representation, the founding director, A.B. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007087418000018DOI Listing

Ethnic cartography and politics in Vienna, 1918-1945.

Authors:
Petra Svatek

Br J Hist Sci 2018 Mar 13;51(1):99-121. Epub 2018 Feb 13.

*Department of History,University of Vienna, Universitaetsring 1,A-1010 Vienna,Austria.

In Vienna, the close of the First World War and the period of the peace negotiations in Paris saw an enormous boom of ethnic-geographic research approaches and ethnic map-making. This process continued with the appointment of the Viennese geographer Hugo Hassinger (1877-1952) to the chair of human geography at the University of Vienna in 1931 and intensified with the establishment of the South East German Research Association and the National Socialist takeover in March 1938. But did the initiatives to create ethnic maps originate with politicians and authorities, or did they come from the scientists themselves? This article argues that scientists embarked upon ethnic geographies on their own initiative. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S000708741800002XDOI Listing

The history of transdisciplinary race classification: methods, politics and institutions, 1840s-1940s.

Authors:
Richard McMahon

Br J Hist Sci 2018 Mar 8;51(1):41-67. Epub 2018 Feb 8.

*School of Social,Historical and Literary Studies,University of Portsmouth,UK.

A recently blossoming historiographical literature recognizes that physical anthropologists allied with scholars of diverse aspects of society and history to racially classify European peoples over a period of about a hundred years. They created three successive race classification coalitions - ethnology, from around 1840; anthropology, from the 1850s; and interwar raciology - each of which successively disintegrated. The present genealogical study argues that representing these coalitions as 'transdisciplinary' can enrich our understanding of challenges to disciplinary specialization. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007087417001054DOI Listing

The past as a work in progress.

Authors:
Patricia Fara

Br J Hist Sci 2018 Mar 20;51(1):1-15. Epub 2017 Dec 20.

*Clare College,Cambridge,CB2 1TL,UK.

Originating as a presidential address during the seventieth birthday celebrations of the British Society for the History of Science, this essay reiterates the society's long-standing commitment to academic autonomy and international cooperation. Drawing examples from my own research into female scientists and doctors during the First World War, I explore how narratives written by historians are related to their own lives, both past and present. In particular, I consider the influences on me of my childhood reading, my experiences as a physics graduate who deliberately left the world of science, and my involvement in programmes to improve the position of women in science. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007087417001042DOI Listing

Phyllis M. Tookey Kerridge and the science of audiometric standardization in Britain.

Br J Hist Sci 2018 Mar 13;51(1):123-146. Epub 2017 Dec 13.

**Department of Philosophy,University of Bristol,Cotham House,Bristol,BS6 6JL,UK.

The provision of standardized hearing aids is now considered to be a crucial part of the UK National Health Service. Yet this is only explicable through reference to the career of a woman who has, until now, been entirely forgotten. Dr Phyllis Margaret Tookey Kerridge (1901-1940) was an authoritative figure in a variety of fields: medicine, physiology, otology and the construction of scientific apparatus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007087417000929DOI Listing
March 2018
4 Reads

Cuts and the cutting edge: British science funding and the making of animal biotechnology in 1980s Edinburgh.

Br J Hist Sci 2017 Dec;50(4):701-728

*Centre for the History of Science,Technology and Medicine,University of Manchester,Simon Building,Manchester M13 9PL,UK.

The Animal Breeding Research Organisation in Edinburgh (ABRO, founded in 1945) was a direct ancestor of the Roslin Institute, celebrated for the cloning of Dolly the sheep. After a period of sustained growth as an institute of the Agricultural Research Council (ARC), ABRO was to lose most of its funding in 1981. This decision has been absorbed into the narrative of the Thatcherite attack on science, but in this article I show that the choice to restructure ABRO pre-dated major government cuts to agricultural research, and stemmed from the ARC's wish to prioritize biotechnology in its portfolio. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007087417000826DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6141990PMC
December 2017

Robert Boyle and the representation of imperceptible entities.

Br J Hist Sci 2018 Mar 6;51(1):17-40. Epub 2017 Nov 6.

*Leverhulme Early Career Research Fellow,Department of History,University College London,UK.

In this essay, I examine Robert Boyle's strategies for making imperceptible entities accessible to the senses. It is well known that, in his natural philosophy, Boyle confronted the challenge of making imperceptible particles of matter into objects of sensory experience. It has never been noted, however, that Boyle confronted a strikingly similar challenge in his natural theology - he needed to make an equally imperceptible God accessible to the senses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007087417000899DOI Listing

John Dalton and the origin of the atomic theory: reassessing the influence of Bryan Higgins.

Authors:
Mark I Grossman

Br J Hist Sci 2017 Dec 25;50(4):657-676. Epub 2017 Oct 25.

*28 Cypress Lane,Briarcliff Manor,NY 10510,USA.

During the years 1814-1819, William Higgins, an Irish chemist who worked at the Dublin Society, claimed he had anticipated John Dalton in developing the atomic theory and insinuated that Dalton was a plagiarist. This essay focuses not on William Higgins, but on his uncle Bryan Higgins, a well-known chemist of his day, who had developed his own theories of caloric and chemical combination, similar in many respects to that of Dalton. New evidence is first introduced addressing Bryan's disappearance from the scientific community after 1803. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007087417000851DOI Listing
December 2017

Pieter van Musschenbroek on laws of nature.

Br J Hist Sci 2017 Dec 13;50(4):637-656. Epub 2017 Oct 13.

*Centre for Logic and Philosophy of Science,Vrije Universiteit Brussel,Pleinlaan 2,Room 5B425,Belgium.

In this article, we discuss the development of the concept of a 'law' (of nature) in the work of the Dutch natural philosopher and experimenter Petrus van Musschenbroek (1692-1761). Since Van Musschenbroek is commonly described as one of the first 'Newtonians' on the Continent in the secondary literature, we focus more specifically on its relation to Newton's views on this issue. Although he was certainly indebted to Newton for his thinking on laws (of nature), Van Musschenbroek's views can be seen to diverge from Newton's on crucial points. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007087417000887DOI Listing
December 2017

The politics of cognition: liberalism and the evolutionary origins of Victorian education.

Br J Hist Sci 2017 Dec 11;50(4):677-699. Epub 2017 Oct 11.

*Department of Philosophy,50/51 Old Elvet,Durham University.

In recent years the historical relationship between scientific experts and the state has received increasing scrutiny. Such experts played important roles in the creation and regulation of environmental organizations and functioned as agents dispatched by politicians or bureaucrats to assess health-related problems and concerns raised by the public or the judiciary. But when it came to making public policy, scientists played another role that has received less attention. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007087417000863DOI Listing
December 2017
3 Reads

A learned artisan debates the system of the world: Le Clerc versus Mallemant de Messange.

Authors:
Oded Rabinovitch

Br J Hist Sci 2017 Dec 11;50(4):603-636. Epub 2017 Oct 11.

*Department of History,Tel Aviv University,Israel.

Sébastien Le Clerc (1637-1714) was the most renowned engraver of Louis XIV's France. For the history of scientific publishing, however, Le Clerc represents a telling paradox. Even though he followed a traditional route based on classic artisanal training, he also published extensively on scientific topics such as cosmology and mathematics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007087417000875DOI Listing
December 2017

Taking Newton on tour: the scientific travels of Martin Folkes, 1733-1735.

Authors:
Anna Marie Roos

Br J Hist Sci 2017 Dec 5;50(4):569-601. Epub 2017 Oct 5.

*University of Lincoln,Brayford Pool,Lincoln,Lincolnshire,LN6 7TS,UK.

Martin Folkes (1690-1754) was Newton's protégé, an English antiquary, mathematician, numismatist and astronomer who would in the latter part of his career become simultaneously president of the Royal Society and of the Society of Antiquaries. Folkes took a Grand Tour from March 1733 to September 1735, recording the Italian leg of his journey from Padua to Rome in his journal. This paper examines Folkes's travel diary to analyse his Freemasonry, his intellectual development as a Newtonian and his scientific peregrination. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007087417000802DOI Listing
December 2017
2 Reads

Regulating cinematic stories about reproduction: pregnancy, childbirth, abortion and movie censorship in the US, 1930-1958.

Authors:
David A Kirby

Br J Hist Sci 2017 Sep;50(3):451-472

*Centre for the History of Science,Technology and Medicine,University of Manchester,Simon Building,Manchester,UK,M13 9PL.

In the mid-twentieth century film studios sent their screenplays to Hollywood's official censorship body, the Production Code Administration (PCA), and to the Catholic Church's Legion of Decency for approval and recommendations for revision. This article examines the negotiations between filmmakers and censorship groups in order to show the stories that censors did, and did not, want told about pregnancy, childbirth and abortion, as well as how studios fought to tell their own stories about human reproduction. I find that censors considered pregnancy to be a state of grace and a holy obligation that was restricted to married women. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007087417000814DOI Listing
September 2017
1 Read

A cinema for the unborn: moving pictures, mental pictures and Electra Sparks's New Thought film theory.

Authors:
Patrick Ellis

Br J Hist Sci 2017 Sep;50(3):411-428

*School of Literature,Media, and Communication,Georgia Institute of Technology,215 Bobby Dodd Way NW,Atlanta,GA 30332,US.

In the 1910s, New York suffragette Electra Sparks wrote a series of essays in the Moving Picture News that advocated for cine-therapy treatments for pregnant women. Film was, in her view, the great democratizer of beautiful images, providing high-cultural access to the city's poor. These positive 'mental pictures' were important for her because, she claimed, in order to produce an attractive, healthy child, the mother must be exposed to quality cultural material. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007087417000644DOI Listing
September 2017

'Items for criticism (not in sequence)': Joseph DeLee, Pare Lorentz and The Fight for Life (1940).

Authors:
Caitjan Gainty

Br J Hist Sci 2017 Sep;50(3):429-449

*Centre for the History of Science, Technology and Medicine,Department of History,King's College London,Strand,London,WC2R 2LS,UK.

In the late 1920s, the American obstetrician Joseph DeLee brought the motion-picture camera into the birth room. Following that era's trend of adapting industrial efficiency practices for medical environments, DeLee's films give spectacular and unexpected expression to the engineering concept of 'streamlining'. Accomplishing what more tangible obstetric streamlining practices had failed to, DeLee's cameras, and his post-production manipulation, shifted birth from messy and dangerous to rationalized, efficient, death-defying. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007087417000620DOI Listing
September 2017

Thin blue lines: product placement and the drama of pregnancy testing in British cinema and television.

Br J Hist Sci 2017 Sep;50(3):495-520

*Department of History and Philosophy of Science,University of Cambridge,Free School Lane,Cambridge,CB2 3RH,UK.

This article uses the case of pregnancy testing in Britain to investigate the process whereby new and often controversial reproductive technologies are made visible and normalized in mainstream entertainment media. It shows how in the 1980s and 1990s the then nascent product placement industry was instrumental in embedding pregnancy testing in British cinema and television's dramatic productions. In this period, the pregnancy-test close-up became a conventional trope and the thin blue lines associated with Unilever's Clearblue rose to prominence in mainstream consumer culture. Read More

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https://www.cambridge.org/core/product/identifier/S000708741
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007087417000619DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5963436PMC
September 2017
3 Reads

'Drawing aside the curtain': natural childbirth on screen in 1950s Britain.

Authors:
Salim Al-Gailani

Br J Hist Sci 2017 Sep;50(3):473-493

*Department of History and Philosophy of Science,University of Cambridge,Free School Lane,Cambridge,CB2 3RH,UK.

This article recovers the importance of film, and its relations to other media, in communicating the philosophies and methods of 'natural childbirth' in the post-war period. It focuses on an educational film made in South Africa around 1950 by controversial British physician Grantly Dick-Read, who had achieved international fame with bestselling books arguing that relaxation and education, not drugs, were the keys to freeing women from pain in childbirth. But he soon came to regard the 'vivid' medium of film as a more effective means of disseminating the 'truth of [his] mission' to audiences who might never have read his books. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007087417000607DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5963435PMC
September 2017
1 Read

Why we write (nuclear) history.

Authors:
David K Hecht

Br J Hist Sci 2017 Sep;50(3):537-543

Bowdoin College.

Nuclear history always compels. Scholars (and readers) can immerse themselves in the existential threat posed by the atomic bomb and its successor weapons, the tantalizing prospect of carbon-free energy, or the study of a natural phenomenon deeply at odds with our everyday experience of the world. There is thus always something profound at stake when we write nuclear history - be it physical, economic or intellectual. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007087417000668DOI Listing
September 2017
1 Read

Animating embryos: the in toto representation of life.

Authors:
Janina Wellmann

Br J Hist Sci 2017 Sep;50(3):521-535

*Institute for Advanced Study on Media Cultures of Computer Simulation,Leuphana University Lüneburg,Wallstr.3,21335 Lüneburg,Germany.

With the recent advent of systems biology, developmental biology is taking a new turn. Attempts to create a 'digital embryo' are prominent among systems approaches. At the heart of these systems-based endeavours, variously described as 'in vivo imaging', 'live imaging' or 'in toto representation', are visualization techniques that allow researchers to image whole, live embryos at cellular resolution over time. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007087417000656DOI Listing
September 2017

'A machine for recreating life': an introduction to reproduction on film.

Br J Hist Sci 2017 Sep;50(3):383-409

**School of Literature, Media, and Communication,Georgia Institute of Technology,215 Bobby Dodd Way NW,Atlanta, GA 30332,USA.

Reproduction is one of the most persistently generative themes in the history of science and cinema. Cabbage fairies, clones and monstrous creations have fascinated filmmakers and audiences for more than a century. Today we have grown accustomed not only to the once controversial portrayals of sperm, eggs and embryos in biology and medicine, but also to the artificial wombs and dystopian futures of science fiction and fantasy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007087417000632DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5963437PMC
September 2017

Lorenz Oken (1779-1851): Naturphilosophie and the reform of natural history.

Br J Hist Sci 2017 Jun 18;50(2):329-340. Epub 2017 May 18.

*Fonds national de la recherche scientifique,Université Catholique de Louvain,Institut Supérieur de Philosophie,14 Place du Cardinal Mercier,B-1348,Louvain-la-Neuve,Belgium.

The paper focuses on the work of Lorenz Oken (1779-1851) in an attempt to make sense of the role played by Romantic Naturphilosophie in the development of natural history in Germany at the turn of the nineteenth century. It first focuses on the role played by Schelling and his Würzburg circle in the development of Oken's early views on natural history, then reconstructs Oken's mature programme for a reform of animal classification. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007087417000310DOI Listing

Physics moves to the provinces: the Siberian physics community and Soviet power, 1917-1940.

Br J Hist Sci 2017 Jun 15;50(2):297-327. Epub 2017 May 15.

**Dotsent,Department of History,Tomsk State University,Tomsk,Russia.

The rich tradition of Siberian science and higher education is little known outside Russian academic circles. Using institutional history, this article focuses on the founding and pre-war period of the Siberian Physical Technical Institute, the establishment of its research focus and its first difficult steps to become a leading centre of R & D in Siberia. Based on archival materials, the article describes how local and national physicists justified the institute's creation by demonstrating ties with industry and building on the presence of a cohort of locally trained physicists, whose numbers were augmented by Leningrad specialists. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007087417000309DOI Listing