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    2647 results match your criteria Breast Cancer Research[Journal]

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    Hyperprolactinemia-inducing antipsychotics increase breast cancer risk by activating JAK-STAT5 in precancerous lesions.
    Breast Cancer Res 2018 May 19;20(1):42. Epub 2018 May 19.
    Translational Biology and Molecular Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, 77030, USA.
    Background: Psychiatric medications are widely prescribed in the USA. Many antipsychotics cause serum hyperprolactinemia as an adverse side effect; prolactin-Janus kinase 2 (JAK2)-signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) signaling both induces cell differentiation and suppresses apoptosis. It is controversial whether these antipsychotics increase breast cancer risk. Read More

    Contributions of the RhoA guanine nucleotide exchange factor Net1 to polyoma middle T antigen-mediated mammary gland tumorigenesis and metastasis.
    Breast Cancer Res 2018 May 16;20(1):41. Epub 2018 May 16.
    Department of Integrative Biology and Pharmacology, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, 6431 Fannin St, Houston, TX, 77030, USA.
    Background: The RhoA activating protein Net1 contributes to breast cancer cell proliferation, motility, and invasion in vitro, yet little is known about its roles in mammary gland tumorigenesis and metastasis.

    Methods: Net1 knockout (KO) mice were bred to mice with mammary gland specific expression of the polyoma middle T antigen (PyMT) oncogene. Mammary gland tumorigenesis and lung metastasis were monitored. Read More

    Circulating ESR1 mutations at the end of aromatase inhibitor adjuvant treatment and after relapse in breast cancer patients.
    Breast Cancer Res 2018 May 16;20(1):40. Epub 2018 May 16.
    Department of Medical Oncology, Centre Henri Becquerel, 1 rue d'Amiens, 76038, Rouen cedex 1, France.
    Background: Detection of circulating ESR1 mutations is associated with acquired resistance to aromatase inhibitor (AI) in metastatic breast cancer. Until now, the presence of circulating ESR1 mutations at the end of adjuvant treatment by AI in early breast cancer had never been clearly established. In this context, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the circulating ESR1 mutation frequency at the end of adjuvant treatment and after relapse. Read More

    Real-world evidence analysis of palbociclib prescribing patterns for patients with advanced/metastatic breast cancer treated in community oncology practice in the USA one year post approval.
    Breast Cancer Res 2018 May 2;20(1):37. Epub 2018 May 2.
    Cardinal Health Specialty Solutions, 2515 McKinney Ave, Suite 1600, Dallas, TX, 75201, USA.
    Background: Rapidly evolving understanding of cancer biology has presented novel opportunities to translate that understanding into clinically relevant therapy. Palbociclib, a novel, first-in-class cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4/6 inhibitor was approved in the USA in February 2015 for the treatment of advanced/metastatic breast cancer. We examined real-world evidence in the first year post approval to understand the clinical and demographic characteristics of patients treated with palbociclib in community oncology practices and the dosing, treatment, and complete blood count (CBC) monitoring patterns. Read More

    Assessing brain volume changes in older women with breast cancer receiving adjuvant chemotherapy: a brain magnetic resonance imaging pilot study.
    Breast Cancer Res 2018 May 2;20(1):38. Epub 2018 May 2.
    Center for Cancer and Aging, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, CA, 91010, USA.
    Background: Cognitive decline is among the most feared treatment-related outcomes of older adults with cancer. The majority of older patients with breast cancer self-report cognitive problems during and after chemotherapy. Prior neuroimaging research has been performed mostly in younger patients with cancer. Read More

    The combined effect of mammographic texture and density on breast cancer risk: a cohort study.
    Breast Cancer Res 2018 May 2;20(1):36. Epub 2018 May 2.
    Department of Computer Science, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 5, DK-2100, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Background: Texture patterns have been shown to improve breast cancer risk segregation in addition to area-based mammographic density. The additional value of texture pattern scores on top of volumetric mammographic density measures in a large screening cohort has never been studied.

    Methods: Volumetric mammographic density and texture pattern scores were assessed automatically for the first available digital mammography (DM) screening examination of 51,400 women (50-75 years of age) participating in the Dutch biennial breast cancer screening program between 2003 and 2011. Read More

    Dependence receptor UNC5A restricts luminal to basal breast cancer plasticity and metastasis.
    Breast Cancer Res 2018 May 2;20(1):35. Epub 2018 May 2.
    Department of Surgery, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, 46202, USA.
    Background: The majority of estrogen receptor-positive (ERα) breast cancers respond to endocrine therapies. However, resistance to endocrine therapies is common in 30% of cases, which may be due to altered ERα signaling and/or enhanced plasticity of cancer cells leading to breast cancer subtype conversion. The mechanisms leading to enhanced plasticity of ERα-positive cancer cells are unknown. Read More

    Atypical ductal hyperplasia: update on diagnosis, management, and molecular landscape.
    Breast Cancer Res 2018 May 2;20(1):39. Epub 2018 May 2.
    The Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.
    Background: Atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) is a common diagnosis in the mammographic era and a significant clinical problem with wide variation in diagnosis and treatment. After a diagnosis of ADH on biopsy a proportion are upgraded to carcinoma upon excision; however, the remainder of patients are overtreated. While ADH is considered a non-obligate precursor of invasive carcinoma, the molecular taxonomy remains unknown. Read More

    IMP1 regulates UCA1-mediated cell invasion through facilitating UCA1 decay and decreasing the sponge effect of UCA1 for miR-122-5p.
    Breast Cancer Res 2018 Apr 18;20(1):32. Epub 2018 Apr 18.
    Department of Pathophysiology, The Key Immunopathology Laboratory of Guangdong Province, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, 515031, Guangdong Province, China.
    Background: Long noncoding RNAs (LncRNAs) represent a class of widespread and diverse endogenous RNAs that can posttranscriptionally regulate gene expression through the interaction with RNA-binding proteins and micro RNAs (miRNAs). Here, we report that in breast carcinoma cells, the insulin-like growth factor 2 messenger RNA binding protein (IMP1) binds to lncRNA urethral carcinoma-associated 1 (UCA1) and suppresses the UCA1-induced invasive phenotype.

    Methods: RT-qPCR and RNA sequence assays were used to investigate the expression of UCA1 and miRNAs in breast cancer cells in response to IMP1 expression. Read More

    Comparison of methods to assess onset of breast development in the LEGACY Girls Study: methodological considerations for studies of breast cancer.
    Breast Cancer Res 2018 Apr 18;20(1):33. Epub 2018 Apr 18.
    Department of Epidemiology, Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health, 722 West 168th Street, New York, NY, 10032, USA.
    Background: Younger age at onset of breast development, which has been declining in recent decades, is associated with increased breast cancer risk independent of age at menarche. Given the need to study the drivers of these trends, it is essential to validate methods to assess breast onset that can be used in large-scale studies when direct clinical assessment of breast onset is not feasible.

    Methods: Breast development is usually measured by Tanner stages (TSs), assessed either by physical examination or by mother's report using a picture-based Sexual Maturation Scale (SMS). Read More

    MRI-based response patterns during neoadjuvant chemotherapy can predict pathological (complete) response in patients with breast cancer.
    Breast Cancer Res 2018 Apr 18;20(1):34. Epub 2018 Apr 18.
    GROW - School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, the Netherlands.
    Background: The main purpose was to investigate the correlation between magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based response patterns halfway through neoadjuvant chemotherapy and immunotherapy (NAC) and pathological tumor response in patients with breast cancer. Secondary purposes were to compare the predictive value of MRI-based response patterns measured halfway through NAC and after NAC and to measure interobserver variability.

    Methods: All consecutive patients treated with NAC for primary invasive breast cancer from 2012 to 2015 and who underwent breast MRI before, halfway through (and after) NAC were included. Read More

    Long-term prognostic implications of risk factors associated with tumor size: a case study of women regularly attending screening.
    Breast Cancer Res 2018 Apr 18;20(1):31. Epub 2018 Apr 18.
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Nobels Väg 12A, 171 77, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Background: Breast cancer prognosis is strongly associated with tumor size at diagnosis. We aimed to identify factors associated with diagnosis of large (> 2 cm) compared to small tumors, and to examine implications for long-term prognosis.

    Methods: We examined 2012 women with invasive breast cancer, of whom 1466 had screen-detected and 546 interval cancers that were incident between 2001 and 2008 in a population-based screening cohort, and followed them to 31 December 2015. Read More

    Mitochondrial DNA copy number variation, leukocyte telomere length, and breast cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study.
    Breast Cancer Res 2018 Apr 17;20(1):29. Epub 2018 Apr 17.
    Division of Cancer Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Center/Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Background: Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) copy number and deletions have been proposed as risk markers for various cancer types, including breast cancer (BC).

    Methods: To gain a more comprehensive picture on how these markers can modulate BC risk, alone or in conjunction, we performed simultaneous measurements of LTL and mtDNA copy number in up to 570 BC cases and 538 controls from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. As a first step, we measured LTL and mtDNA copy number in 96 individuals for which a blood sample had been collected twice with an interval of 15 years. Read More

    Morphology and genomic hallmarks of breast tumours developed by ATM deleterious variant carriers.
    Breast Cancer Res 2018 Apr 17;20(1):28. Epub 2018 Apr 17.
    INSERM, U900, Paris, France.
    Background: The ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene is a moderate-risk breast cancer susceptibility gene; germline loss-of-function variants are found in up to 3% of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) families who undergo genetic testing. So far, no clear histopathological and molecular features of breast tumours occurring in ATM deleterious variant carriers have been described, but identification of an ATM-associated tumour signature may help in patient management.

    Methods: To characterise hallmarks of ATM-associated tumours, we performed systematic pathology review of tumours from 21 participants from ataxia-telangiectasia families and 18 participants from HBOC families, as well as copy number profiling on a subset of 23 tumours. Read More

    Common genetic variation and novel loci associated with volumetric mammographic density.
    Breast Cancer Res 2018 Apr 17;20(1):30. Epub 2018 Apr 17.
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Nobels Väg 12A, 171 77, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Background: Mammographic density (MD) is a strong and heritable intermediate phenotype of breast cancer, but much of its genetic variation remains unexplained.

    Methods: We conducted a genetic association study of volumetric MD in a Swedish mammography screening cohort (n = 9498) to identify novel MD loci. Associations with volumetric MD phenotypes (percent dense volume, absolute dense volume, and absolute nondense volume) were estimated using linear regression adjusting for age, body mass index, menopausal status, and six principal components. Read More

    Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1-snail axis dysfunction significantly correlates with breast cancer prognosis and regulates cell invasion ability.
    Breast Cancer Res 2018 Apr 16;20(1):25. Epub 2018 Apr 16.
    Department of Medical Education and Research, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Kaohsiung, 813, Taiwan, Republic of China.
    Background: The isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) gene family expresses key functional metabolic enzymes in the Krebs cycle and mediates the epigenetic reprogramming, which serves as an important biomarker of breast cancer. However, the expression levels of the IDH protein and their biological function in human breast cancer remain largely unknown.

    Methods: In this study, the clinical impact of IDH1 expression on the progression and prognosis of breast cancer was evaluated using immunohistochemistry assay (IHC) of the corresponding tumor-adjacent normal, ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), and invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) tissues from 309 patients with breast ductal carcinoma. Read More

    Effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy regimen on relapse-free survival among patients with breast cancer achieving a pathologic complete response: an early step in the de-escalation of neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
    Breast Cancer Res 2018 Apr 16;20(1):27. Epub 2018 Apr 16.
    Department of Breast Medical Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1155 Pressler Street CPB5.3540, Houston, TX, 77030, USA.
    Background: Patients with breast cancer who have a pathologic complete response (pCR) to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) have improved survival. We hypothesize that once pCR has been achieved, there is no difference in subsequent postsurgical recurrence-free survival (RFS), whichever NACT regimen is used.

    Methods: Data from patients with breast cancer who achieved pCR after NACT between 1996 and 2011 were reviewed. Read More

    Practice patterns and outcomes for patients with node-negative hormone receptor-positive breast cancer and intermediate 21-gene Recurrence Scores.
    Breast Cancer Res 2018 Apr 16;20(1):26. Epub 2018 Apr 16.
    Department of Radiation Oncology, NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital-Weill Cornell Medicine, 525 East 68th Street, New York, NY, USA.
    Background: The recommendation for chemotherapy in early-stage breast cancer patients has been refined by the 21-gene Recurrence Score. However, uncertainty remains whether patients in the Intermediate Risk category benefit from chemotherapy.

    Methods: We analyzed female patients from the National Cancer Database from 2006 to 2012 who had pT1c-T2N0M0 breast cancer, were ER/PR-positive and HER2-negative, received endocrine therapy, and had a 21-gene Recurrence Score from 11 to 25. Read More

    A novel neuregulin - jagged1 paracrine loop in breast cancer transendothelial migration.
    Breast Cancer Res 2018 Apr 10;20(1):24. Epub 2018 Apr 10.
    Department of Anatomy and Structural Biology, Price 201, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1301 Morris Park Avenue, Bronx, NY, 10461, USA.
    Background: The interaction of breast cancer cells with other cells in the tumor microenvironment plays an important role in metastasis. Invasion and intravasation, two critical steps in the metastatic process, are influenced by these interactions. Macrophages are of particular interest when it comes to studying tumor cell invasiveness. Read More

    Functional genomics identifies specific vulnerabilities in PTEN-deficient breast cancer.
    Breast Cancer Res 2018 Mar 22;20(1):22. Epub 2018 Mar 22.
    Programme in Cancer and Stem Cell Biology, Duke-NUS Medical School, 8 College Road, Singapore, 169857, Singapore.
    Background: Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) is one of the most frequently inactivated tumor suppressors in breast cancer. While PTEN itself is not considered a druggable target, PTEN synthetic-sick or synthetic-lethal (PTEN-SSL) genes are potential drug targets in PTEN-deficient breast cancers. Therefore, with the aim of identifying potential targets for precision breast cancer therapy, we sought to discover PTEN-SSL genes present in a broad spectrum of breast cancers. Read More

    The amino acid transporter SLC7A5 confers a poor prognosis in the highly proliferative breast cancer subtypes and is a key therapeutic target in luminal B tumours.
    Breast Cancer Res 2018 Mar 22;20(1):21. Epub 2018 Mar 22.
    Academic Pathology, Division of Cancer and Stem Cells, School of Medicine, University of Nottingham, Nottingham City Hospital, Hucknall Road, Nottingham, NG5 1PB, UK.
    Background: Breast cancer (BC) is a heterogeneous disease characterised by variant biology and patient outcome. The amino acid transporter, SLC7A5, plays a role in BC although its impact on patient outcome in different BC subtypes remains to be validated. This study aimed to determine whether the clinicopathological and prognostic value of SLC7A5 is different within the molecular classes of BC. Read More

    Murine breast cancer feed arteries are thin-walled with reduced α-adrenoceptor expression and attenuated sympathetic vasocontraction.
    Breast Cancer Res 2018 Mar 22;20(1):20. Epub 2018 Mar 22.
    Department of Biomedicine, Aarhus University, Ole Worms Allé 3, building 1170, DK-8000, Aarhus C, Denmark.
    Background: Perfusion of breast cancer tissue limits oxygen availability and metabolism but angiogenesis inhibitors have hitherto been unsuccessful for breast cancer therapy. In order to identify abnormalities and possible therapeutic targets in mature cancer arteries, we here characterize the structure and function of cancer feed arteries and corresponding control arteries from female FVB/N mice with ErbB2-induced breast cancer.

    Methods: We investigated the contractile function of breast cancer feed arteries and matched control arteries by isometric myography and evaluated membrane potentials and intracellular [Ca] using sharp electrodes and fluorescence microscopy, respectively. Read More

    The association of mammographic density with risk of contralateral breast cancer and change in density with treatment in the WECARE study.
    Breast Cancer Res 2018 Mar 22;20(1):23. Epub 2018 Mar 22.
    Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA.
    Background: Mammographic density (MD) is an established predictor of risk of a first breast cancer, but the relationship of MD to contralateral breast cancer (CBC) risk is not clear, including the roles of age, mammogram timing, and change with treatment. Multivariable prediction models for CBC risk are needed and MD could contribute to these.

    Methods: We conducted a case-control study of MD and CBC risk in phase II of the WECARE study where cases had a CBC diagnosed ≥ 2 years after first diagnosis at age <55 years and controls had unilateral breast cancer (UBC) with similar follow-up time. Read More

    Increased circulating resistin levels in early-onset breast cancer patients of normal body mass index correlate with lymph node negative involvement and longer disease free survival: a multi-center POSH cohort serum proteomics study.
    Breast Cancer Res 2018 Mar 22;20(1):19. Epub 2018 Mar 22.
    Cancer Sciences Unit, Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK.
    Background: Early-onset breast cancer (EOBC) affects about one in 300 women aged 40 years or younger and is associated with worse outcomes than later onset breast cancer. This study explored novel serum proteins as surrogate markers of prognosis in patients with EOBC.

    Methods: Serum samples from EOBC patients (stages 1-3) were analysed using agnostic high-precision quantitative proteomics. Read More

    Assessment of performance of the Gail model for predicting breast cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis with trial sequential analysis.
    Breast Cancer Res 2018 Mar 13;20(1):18. Epub 2018 Mar 13.
    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Therapy, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Breast Cancer Prevention and Therapy, Ministry of Education, National Clinical Research Center for Cancer, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Huanhu Xi Road, Tiyuan Bei, Hexi District, Tianjin, 300060, People's Republic of China.
    Background: The Gail model has been widely used and validated with conflicting results. The current study aims to evaluate the performance of different versions of the Gail model by means of systematic review and meta-analysis with trial sequential analysis (TSA).

    Methods: Three systematic review and meta-analyses were conducted. Read More

    The origins of breast cancer associated with mammographic density: a testable biological hypothesis.
    Breast Cancer Res 2018 Mar 7;20(1):17. Epub 2018 Mar 7.
    Genetics and Genome Biology, Hospital for Sick Children Research Institute, Toronto, ON, Canada.
    Background: Our purpose is to develop a testable biological hypothesis to explain the known increased risk of breast cancer associated with extensive percent mammographic density (PMD), and to reconcile the apparent paradox that although PMD decreases with increasing age, breast cancer incidence increases.

    Methods: We used the Moolgavkar model of carcinogenesis as a framework to examine the known biological properties of the breast tissue components associated with PMD that includes epithelium and stroma, in relation to the development of breast cancer. In this model, normal epithelial cells undergo a mutation to become intermediate cells, which, after further mutation, become malignant cells. Read More

    The hypoxic tumor microenvironment in vivo selects the cancer stem cell fate of breast cancer cells.
    Breast Cancer Res 2018 Mar 6;20(1):16. Epub 2018 Mar 6.
    Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, P. O. Box 208040, New Haven, CT, 06520-8040, USA.
    Background: Tumor hypoxia is an independent prognostic factor associated with poor patient survival. Emerging evidence suggests that hypoxia can potentially maintain or enhance the stem cell phenotype of both normal stem cells and cancer cells. However, it remains to be determined whether cell fate is regulated in vivo by the hypoxic tumor microenvironment (TME). Read More

    Prognostic impact of CD4-positive T cell subsets in early breast cancer: a study based on the FinHer trial patient population.
    Breast Cancer Res 2018 Feb 26;20(1):15. Epub 2018 Feb 26.
    Department of Oncology, Helsinki University Hospital and University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Background: The clinical importance of tumor-infiltrating cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) T cells is incompletely understood in early breast cancer. We investigated the clinical significance of CD4, forkhead box P3 (FOXP3), and B cell attracting chemokine leukocyte chemoattractant-ligand (C-X-C motif) 13 (CXCL13) in early breast cancer.

    Methods: The study is based on the patient population of the randomized FinHer trial, where 1010 patients with early breast cancer were randomly allocated to adjuvant chemotherapy containing either docetaxel or vinorelbine, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive patients were also allocated to trastuzumab or no trastuzumab. Read More

    Affinity proteomic profiling of plasma for proteins associated to area-based mammographic breast density.
    Breast Cancer Res 2018 Feb 14;20(1):14. Epub 2018 Feb 14.
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Nobels väg 12A, -171 77, Stockholm, SE, Sweden.
    Background: Mammographic breast density is one of the strongest risk factors for breast cancer, but molecular understanding of how breast density relates to cancer risk is less complete. Studies of proteins in blood plasma, possibly associated with mammographic density, are well-suited as these allow large-scale analyses and might shed light on the association between breast cancer and breast density.

    Methods: Plasma samples from 1329 women in the Swedish KARMA project, without prior history of breast cancer, were profiled with antibody suspension bead array (SBA) assays. Read More

    Not all false positive diagnoses are equal: On the prognostic implications of false-positive diagnoses made in breast MRI versus in mammography / digital tomosynthesis screening.
    Breast Cancer Res 2018 Feb 9;20(1):13. Epub 2018 Feb 9.
    Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hospital of the University of Aachen, RWTH, Pauwelsstrasse 30, 52074, Aachen, Germany.
    Background: Breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been reported to frequently result in false-positive diagnoses, limiting its positive predictive value (PPV). However, for PPV calculation, all nonmalignant tissue changes are equally considered false-positive, although the respective prognostic importance, and thus patient management implications, of different pathologies may well differ. We investigated the pathology of false-positive diagnoses made by MRI compared with radiographic (digital mammography/tomosynthesis [DM/DBT]) screening. Read More

    Frequency of breast cancer subtypes among African American women in the AMBER consortium.
    Breast Cancer Res 2018 Feb 6;20(1):12. Epub 2018 Feb 6.
    Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.
    Background: Breast cancer subtype can be classified using standard clinical markers (estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)), supplemented with additional markers. However, automated biomarker scoring and classification schemes have not been standardized. The aim of this study was to optimize tumor classification using automated methods in order to describe subtype frequency in the African American Breast Cancer Epidemiology and Risk (AMBER) consortium. Read More

    The significance of tumour microarchitectural features in breast cancer prognosis: a digital image analysis.
    Breast Cancer Res 2018 Feb 5;20(1):11. Epub 2018 Feb 5.
    Department of Cellular Pathology, University of Nottingham and Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, City Hospital Campus, Nottingham, NG5 1PB, UK.
    Background: As only a minor portion of the information present in histological sections is accessible by eye, recognition and quantification of complex patterns and relationships among constituents relies on digital image analysis. In this study, our working hypothesis was that, with the application of digital image analysis technology, visually unquantifiable breast cancer microarchitectural features can be rigorously assessed and tested as prognostic parameters for invasive breast carcinoma of no special type.

    Methods: Digital image analysis was performed using public domain software (ImageJ) on tissue microarrays from a cohort of 696 patients, and validated with a commercial platform (Visiopharm). Read More

    A comparison of five methods of measuring mammographic density: a case-control study.
    Breast Cancer Res 2018 Feb 5;20(1):10. Epub 2018 Feb 5.
    Prevent Breast Cancer and Nightingale Breast Screening Centre, Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Southmoor Road, Wythenshawe, Manchester, M23 9LT, UK.
    Background: High mammographic density is associated with both risk of cancers being missed at mammography, and increased risk of developing breast cancer. Stratification of breast cancer prevention and screening requires mammographic density measures predictive of cancer. This study compares five mammographic density measures to determine the association with subsequent diagnosis of breast cancer and the presence of breast cancer at screening. Read More

    HER2 is not a cancer subtype but rather a pan-cancer event and is highly enriched in AR-driven breast tumors.
    Breast Cancer Res 2018 Jan 30;20(1). Epub 2018 Jan 30.
    Bioinformatics & Computational Biology, Genentech, Inc, 1 DNA Way, MS444a, South San Francisco, CA, 94080, USA.
    Background: Approximately one in five breast cancers are driven by amplification and overexpression of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) receptor kinase, and HER2-enriched (HER2E) is one of four major transcriptional subtypes of breast cancer. We set out to understand the genomics of HER2 amplification independent of subtype, and the underlying drivers and biology of HER2E tumors.

    Methods: We investigated published genomic data from 3155 breast tumors and 5391 non-breast tumors. Read More

    Integrin-uPAR signaling leads to FRA-1 phosphorylation and enhanced breast cancer invasion.
    Breast Cancer Res 2018 Jan 30;20(1). Epub 2018 Jan 30.
    Goodman Cancer Research Centre, McGill University, Montréal, Québec, Canada.
    Background: The Fos-related antigen 1 (FRA-1) transcription factor promotes tumor cell growth, invasion and metastasis. Phosphorylation of FRA-1 increases protein stability and function. We identify a novel signaling axis that leads to increased phosphorylation of FRA-1, increased extracellular matrix (ECM)-induced breast cancer cell invasion and is prognostic of poor outcome in patients with breast cancer. Read More

    BRIP1 loss-of-function mutations confer high risk for familial ovarian cancer, but not familial breast cancer.
    Breast Cancer Res 2018 Jan 24;20(1). Epub 2018 Jan 24.
    Center for Familial Breast and Ovarian Cancer, Center for Integrated Oncology (CIO), Medical Faculty, University Hospital Cologne, Kerpener Straße 34, 50931, Cologne, Germany.
    Background: Germline mutations in the BRIP1 gene have been described as conferring a moderate risk for ovarian cancer (OC), while the role of BRIP1 in breast cancer (BC) pathogenesis remains controversial.

    Methods: To assess the role of deleterious BRIP1 germline mutations in BC/OC predisposition, 6341 well-characterized index patients with BC, 706 index patients with OC, and 2189 geographically matched female controls were screened for loss-of-function (LoF) mutations and potentially damaging missense variants. All index patients met the inclusion criteria of the German Consortium for Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer for germline testing and tested negative for pathogenic BRCA1/2 variants. Read More

    Inherited factors contribute to an inverse association between preeclampsia and breast cancer.
    Breast Cancer Res 2018 Jan 23;20(1). Epub 2018 Jan 23.
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, SE-17177, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Background: Preeclampsia is frequently linked to reduced breast cancer risk. However, little is known regarding the underlying genetic association and the association between preeclampsia and mammographic density.

    Methods: This study estimates the incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of breast cancer in patients with preeclampsia, when compared to women without preeclampsia, using Poisson regression models in two cohorts of pregnant women: a Swedish nationwide cohort (n = 1,337,934, 1973-2011) and the Karolinska Mammography Project for Risk Prediction of Breast Cancer (KARMA, n = 55,044, 1958-2015). Read More

    Body mass index at age 18 years and recent body mass index in relation to risk of breast cancer overall and ER/PR/HER2-defined subtypes in white women and African-American women: a pooled analysis.
    Breast Cancer Res 2018 Jan 22;20(1). Epub 2018 Jan 22.
    Department of Population Sciences, Beckman Research Institute, City of Hope, 1500 East Duarte Rd., Duarte, CA, 91010, USA.
    Background: Although it has been well-documented that obesity is associated with decreased risk of premenopausal breast cancer and increased risk of postmenopausal breast cancer, it is unclear whether these associations differ among breast cancer subtypes defined by the tumor protein expression status of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2).

    Methods: We evaluated the associations of body mass index (BMI) at age 18 years and recent BMI in relation to risk of breast cancer overall and ER/PR/HER2-defined subtypes, in 6320 women (3934 case-patient participants, 2386 control participants) aged 35-64 years, who participated in one of three population-based case-control studies. We estimated multivariable-adjusted odd ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using polychotomous unconditional logistic regression methods for case-control comparisons in premenopausal women and postmenopausal women. Read More

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor use and breast cancer survival: a population-based cohort study.
    Breast Cancer Res 2018 Jan 19;20(1). Epub 2018 Jan 19.
    Centre for Public Health, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, UK.
    Background: Nearly 50% of breast cancer patients suffer from depression or anxiety. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), the first-line pharmacological treatment for depression, have been implicated in breast cancer development through increased prolactin levels and tamoxifen metabolism inhibition. Previous studies of breast cancer progression have focused on tamoxifen users, or have been limited by their small sample size and methodology. Read More

    Evaluating the breast cancer predisposition role of rare variants in genes associated with low-penetrance breast cancer risk SNPs.
    Breast Cancer Res 2018 Jan 9;20(1). Epub 2018 Jan 9.
    Cancer Genetics Laboratory, Research Division, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, 305 Grattan Street, Melbourne, VIC, 3000, Australia.
    Background: Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified numerous single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with small increases in breast cancer risk. Studies to date suggest that some SNPs alter the expression of the associated genes, which potentially mediates risk modification. On this basis, we hypothesised that some of these genes may be enriched for rare coding variants associated with a higher breast cancer risk. Read More

    SNPs related to vitamin D and breast cancer risk: a case-control study.
    Breast Cancer Res 2018 Jan 2;20(1). Epub 2018 Jan 2.
    Department of Surgery, Lund University, Skåne University Hospital, SE-205 02, Malmö, Sweden.
    Background: It has been suggested that vitamin D might protect from breast cancer, although studies on levels of vitamin D in association with breast cancer have been inconsistent. Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified several single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to be associated with vitamin D. The aim of this study was to investigate such vitamin D-SNP associations in relation to subsequent breast cancer risk. Read More

    Identifying biomarkers of breast cancer micrometastatic disease in bone marrow using a patient-derived xenograft mouse model.
    Breast Cancer Res 2018 Jan 2;20(1). Epub 2018 Jan 2.
    Department of Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 South Euclid Avenue, St. Louis, MO, 63110, USA.
    Background: Disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) found in the bone marrow (BM) of patients with breast cancer portend a poor prognosis and are thought to be intermediaries in the metastatic process. To assess the clinical relevance of a mouse model for identifying possible prognostic and predictive biomarkers of these cells, we have employed patient-derived xenografts (PDX) for propagating and molecularly profiling human DTCs.

    Methods: Previously developed mouse xenografts from five breast cancer patients were further passaged by implantation into NOD/SCID mouse mammary fat pads. Read More

    Use of prescription drugs and risk of postoperative red blood cell transfusion in breast cancer patients: a Danish population-based cohort study.
    Breast Cancer Res 2017 Dec 22;19(1):135. Epub 2017 Dec 22.
    Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Olof Palmes Allé 43-45, 8200, Aarhus N, Denmark.
    Background: Several frequently used prescription drugs may affect bleeding risk. We investigated use of aspirin, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), and statins and risk of postoperative red blood cell transfusion in breast cancer patients.

    Methods: Using Danish population-based registries, we identified a cohort of women who underwent surgery for primary breast cancer (n = 22,238) during 2005-2012 and ascertained their use of aspirin, NSAIDs, SSRIs, and statins. Read More

    miR-105/93-3p promotes chemoresistance and circulating miR-105/93-3p acts as a diagnostic biomarker for triple negative breast cancer.
    Breast Cancer Res 2017 Dec 19;19(1):133. Epub 2017 Dec 19.
    Institute of Clinical Medicine, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan.
    Background: Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) lacks both early detection biomarkers and viable targeted therapeutics. Moreover, chemotherapy only produces 20-30% pathologic complete response. Because miRNAs are frequently dysregulated in breast cancer and have broad tissue effects, individual or combinations of circulating miRNAs may serve as ideal diagnostic, predictive or prognostic biomarkers, as well as therapeutic targets. Read More

    Association between mammographic breast density and histologic features of benign breast disease.
    Breast Cancer Res 2017 Dec 19;19(1):134. Epub 2017 Dec 19.
    Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN, USA.
    Background: Over 40% of women undergoing breast screening have mammographically dense breasts. Elevated mammographic breast density (MBD) is an established breast cancer risk factor and is known to mask tumors within the dense tissue. However, the association of MBD with high risk benign breast disease (BBD) is unknown. Read More

    Phosphoproteomics reveals network rewiring to a pro-adhesion state in annexin-1-deficient mammary epithelial cells.
    Breast Cancer Res 2017 Dec 12;19(1):132. Epub 2017 Dec 12.
    Translational Biomedical Proteomics, Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, Agency for Science, Technology and Research, 61 Biopolis Drive, Singapore, 138673, Singapore.
    Background: Annexin-1 (ANXA1) plays pivotal roles in regulating various physiological processes including inflammation, proliferation and apoptosis, and deregulation of ANXA1 functions has been associated with tumorigenesis and metastasis events in several types of cancer. Though ANXA1 levels correlate with breast cancer disease status and outcome, its distinct functional involvement in breast cancer initiation and progression remains unclear. We hypothesized that ANXA1-responsive kinase signaling alteration and associated phosphorylation signaling underlie early events in breast cancer initiation events and hence profiled ANXA1-dependent phosphorylation changes in mammary gland epithelial cells. Read More

    Race-associated biological differences among luminal A and basal-like breast cancers in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study.
    Breast Cancer Res 2017 Dec 11;19(1):131. Epub 2017 Dec 11.
    Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Campus Box 7435, Chapel Hill, NC, 27599, USA.
    Background: We examined racial differences in the expression of eight genes and their associations with risk of recurrence among 478 white and 495 black women who participated in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study Phase 3.

    Methods: Breast tumor samples were analyzed for PAM50 subtype and for eight genes previously found to be differentially expressed by race and associated with breast cancer survival: ACOX2, MUC1, FAM177A1, GSTT2, PSPH, PSPHL, SQLE, and TYMS. The expression of these genes according to race was assessed using linear regression and each gene was evaluated in association with recurrence using Cox regression. Read More

    Establishing and characterizing patient-derived xenografts using pre-chemotherapy percutaneous biopsy and post-chemotherapy surgical samples from a prospective neoadjuvant breast cancer study.
    Breast Cancer Res 2017 Dec 6;19(1):130. Epub 2017 Dec 6.
    Department of Molecular Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN, 55905, USA.
    Background: Patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) are increasingly used in cancer research as a tool to inform cancer biology and drug response. Most available breast cancer PDXs have been generated in the metastatic setting. However, in the setting of operable breast cancer, PDX models both sensitive and resistant to chemotherapy are needed for drug development and prospective data are lacking regarding the clinical and molecular characteristics associated with PDX take rate in this setting. Read More

    GPER mediates the angiocrine actions induced by IGF1 through the HIF-1α/VEGF pathway in the breast tumor microenvironment.
    Breast Cancer Res 2017 Dec 6;19(1):129. Epub 2017 Dec 6.
    Breast Cancer Now Research Unit, Division of Cancer Sciences, Manchester Cancer Research Centre, University of Manchester, Wilmslow Road, Manchester, M204GJ, UK.
    Background: The G protein estrogen receptor GPER/GPR30 mediates estrogen action in breast cancer cells as well as in breast cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), which are key components of microenvironment driving tumor progression. GPER is a transcriptional target of hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α) and activates VEGF expression and angiogenesis in hypoxic breast tumor microenvironment. Furthermore, IGF1/IGF1R signaling, which has angiogenic effects, has been shown to activate GPER in breast cancer cells. Read More

    Obesity reversibly depletes the basal cell population and enhances mammary epithelial cell estrogen receptor alpha expression and progenitor activity.
    Breast Cancer Res 2017 Nov 29;19(1):128. Epub 2017 Nov 29.
    Program in Cellular and Molecular Biology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1525 Linden Drive, Madison, WI, 53706, USA.
    Background: Obesity is correlated with an increased risk for developing postmenopausal breast cancer. Since obesity rates continue to rise worldwide, it is important to understand how the obese microenvironment influences normal mammary tissue to increase breast cancer risk. We hypothesized that obesity increases the proportion of luminal progenitor cells, which are thought to be the cells of origin for the most common types of breast cancer, potentially leading to an increased risk for breast cancer. Read More

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