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    2021 results match your criteria Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases [Journal]

    1 OF 41

    Humoral immune response to measles and varicella vaccination in former very low birth weight preterm infants.
    Braz J Infect Dis 2018 Jan 4. Epub 2018 Jan 4.
    Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Departamento de Pediatria, São Paulo, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:
    Introduction: Immune response to vaccination in infants born prematurely may be lower than in infants born at full-term. Some clinical factors might be associated with humoral immune response.

    Objectives: The objectives of this study were to compare the immune response to measles and varicella vaccination in infants born prematurely with those born at full-term and to analyze factors associated with measles and varicella antibody levels. Read More

    Hybrid capture as a tool for cervical lesions screening in HIV-infected women: insights from a Brazilian cohort.
    Braz J Infect Dis 2017 Dec 2. Epub 2017 Dec 2.
    Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Instituto Nacional de Infectologia Evandro Chagas (INI) Evandro Chagas, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.
    Introduction: Cervical cancer remains an important burden for HIV-infected women in the era of combination antiretroviral therapy. Recommendations for cervical screening in these women diverge and may include high-risk HPV (HRHPV) testing. We aimed to evaluate the clinical usefulness of a single HRHPV testing for cervical screening of HIV-infected women. Read More

    Effect of polymyxin B-containing regimens on renal function for the treatment of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriacea mediastinitis.
    Braz J Infect Dis 2017 Nov 25. Epub 2017 Nov 25.
    Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP), Escola Paulista de Medicina, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.
    A retrospective cohort study, were evaluated: polymyxin B plus aminoglycosides or polymyxin B plus other antibiotics. Any degree of acute kidney injury occurred in 26 (86.6%) patients. Read More

    In vitro antifungal susceptibility of clinical and environmental isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus in Brazil.
    Braz J Infect Dis 2017 Nov 21. Epub 2017 Nov 21.
    Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Santa Maria, RS, Brazil; Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Departamento de Microbiologia e Parasitologia, Laboratório de Pesquisas Micológicas, Santa Maria, RS, Brazil.
    The in vitro susceptibility of 105 clinical and environmental strains of Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus to antifungal drugs, such as amphotericin B, azoles, and echinocandins was evaluated by the broth microdilution method proposed by the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST). Following the EUCAST-proposed breakpoints, 20% and 25% of the clinical and environmental isolates of A. fumigatus, respectively, were found to be resistant to itraconazole (Minimal Inhibitory Concentration, MIC>2. Read More

    Galactomannan use in clinical practice: providing free testing is not the answer.
    Braz J Infect Dis 2017 Nov 21. Epub 2017 Nov 21.
    Santa Casa de Misericórdia, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil; Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. Electronic address:
    Introduction: Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is a condition associated with a high mortality rate due to difficulties in performing an early diagnosis. In recent years, galactomannan (GM) detection has markedly improved the diagnosis of IA, but very little is known on how physicians deal with this test in clinical practice.

    Methods: This cross-sectional study aimed to analyze the indications for the use of serum GM in a large Brazilian hospital, between 2015 and 2016. Read More

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from an intensive care unit in Minas Gerais, Brazil, over a six-year period.
    Braz J Infect Dis 2017 Nov 20. Epub 2017 Nov 20.
    Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Microbiologia Paulo de Góes, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. Electronic address:
    To characterize methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates from an intensive care unit of a tertiary-care teaching hospital, between 2005 and 2010. A total of 45 MRSA isolates were recovered from patients admitted to the ICU in the study period. Resistance rates higher than 80% were found for clindamycin (100%), erythromycin (100%), levofloxacin (100%), azithromycin (97. Read More

    Isolation of blaNDM-producing Enterobacteriaceae in a public hospital in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.
    Braz J Infect Dis 2017 Nov 13. Epub 2017 Nov 13.
    Hospital São Rafael, Salvador, BA, Brazil. Electronic address:
    Carbapenemases have great importance in the global epidemiological scenario since infections with carbapenemase-producing bacteria are associated with high mortality, especially in hospitalized patients in intensive care units. This study describes two microorganisms producers of the New Delhi Metallo-b-lactamase, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Citrobacter freundii, from two patients admitted to a public hospital in Salvador, Bahia. These are the first clinical cases of New Delhi Metallo-b-lactamase described in microorganisms in the north and northeast Brazil. Read More

    Fluconazole levels in serum and cerebrospinal fluid according to daily dosage in patients with cryptococcosis and other fungal infections.
    Braz J Infect Dis 2017 Nov 13. Epub 2017 Nov 13.
    Universidade de São Paulo (USP), Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Departamento de Clínica Médica, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil.
    Fluconazole is extensively used for the treatment of candidiasis and cryptococcosis. Among other factors, successful treatment is related to appropriate fluconazole levels in blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). In the present study, fluconazole levels were determined in 15 patients, 14 of whom had AIDS and 13 had neurocryptococcosis. Read More

    Does SOFA predict outcomes better than SIRS in Brazilian ICU patients with suspected infection? A retrospective cohort study.
    Braz J Infect Dis 2017 Nov - Dec;21(6):665-669. Epub 2017 Oct 13.
    Hospital Moinhos de Vento, Departamento de Cuidados Intensivos, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.
    We compared the discriminatory capacity of the sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) versus the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) score for predicting ICU mortality, need for and length of mechanical ventilation, ICU stay, and hospitalization in patients with suspected infection admitted to a mixed Brazilian ICU. We performed a retrospective analysis of a longitudinal ICU database from a tertiary hospital in Southern Brazil. Patients were categorized according to whether they met the criteria for sepsis according to SOFA (variation ≥2 points over the baseline clinical condition) and SIRS (SIRS score ≥2 points). Read More

    Humoral and cellular immune response of mice challenged with Yersinia pestis antigenic preparations.
    Braz J Infect Dis 2017 Nov - Dec;21(6):620-626. Epub 2017 Oct 12.
    Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Faculdade de Farmácia, Departamento de Análises Clínicas e Toxicológicas, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil.
    Objectives: The plague, which is an infectious disease caused by Yersinia pestis, still threatens many populations in several countries. The worldwide increase in human plague cases and the potential use of the bacteria as a biological weapon reinforce the need to study the immunity that is induced by potential vaccine candidates. To determine the immunogenicity of antigenic preparations based on the F1 protein and the total extract from Y. Read More

    Molecular diagnosis of symptomatic toxoplasmosis: a 9-year retrospective and prospective study in a referral laboratory in São Paulo, Brazil.
    Braz J Infect Dis 2017 Nov - Dec;21(6):638-647. Epub 2017 Sep 29.
    Faculdade de Medicina de São José do Rio Preto, São José do Rio Preto, SP, Brazil; Hospital da Criança e Maternidade, São José do Rio Preto, SP, Brazil.
    Symptomatic forms of toxoplasmosis are a serious public health problem and occur in around 10-20% of the infected people. Aiming to improve the molecular diagnosis of symptomatic toxoplasmosis in Brazilian patients, this study evaluated the performance of real time PCR testing two primer sets (B1 and REP-529) in detecting Toxoplasma gondii DNA. The methodology was assayed in 807 clinical samples with known clinical diagnosis, ELISA, and conventional PCR results in a 9-year period. Read More


    Comparison between the gold standard DXA with calcaneal quantitative ultrasound based-strategy (QUS) to detect osteoporosis in an HIV infected cohort.
    Braz J Infect Dis 2017 Nov - Dec;21(6):581-586. Epub 2017 Sep 23.
    University Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, University of Brescia and Spedali Civili General Hospital, Brescia, Italy.
    Introduction: Osteoporosis represents one of the most frequent comorbidity among HIV patients. The current standard method for osteoporosis diagnosis is dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Calcaneal quantitative ultrasound can provide information about bone quality. Read More

    Ceftolozane-tazobactam activity against drug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa causing healthcare-associated infections in Latin America: report from an antimicrobial surveillance program (2013-2015).
    Braz J Infect Dis 2017 Nov - Dec;21(6):627-637. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    JMI Laboratories, North Liberty, IA, United States.
    This study evaluated the in vitro activity of ceftolozane-tazobactam and comparator agents tested against Latin American isolates of Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa from patients with health care-associated infections. Ceftolozane-tazobactam is an antipseudomonal cephalosporin combined with a well-established β-lactamase inhibitor. A total of 2415 Gram-negative organisms (537 P. Read More

    Mobile health application to assist doctors in antibiotic prescription - an approach for antibiotic stewardship.
    Braz J Infect Dis 2017 Nov - Dec;21(6):660-664. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Paraná, Escola de Saúde e Biociências, Departamento de Medicina, Curitiba, PR, Brazil.
    Background: Technologies applied to mobile devices can be an important strategy in antibiotic stewardship programs.

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the impact of a decision-making application on antibiotic prescription.

    Methods: This was an observational, analytical and longitudinal study on the implementation of an antimicrobial guide for mobile application. Read More

    Subcutaneous infection by Graphium basitruncatum in a heart transplant patient.
    Braz J Infect Dis 2017 Nov - Dec;21(6):670-674. Epub 2017 Sep 18.
    Universidad de Buenos Aires, Facultad de Medicina, Departamento de Microbiología y Parasitología Médica, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Electronic address:
    Graphium basitruncatum, a synanamorph of Pseudoallescheria has been rarely reported in human infections. We report a case of subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by this fungus in a heart transplant recipient. We also describe the phenotypic, molecular methods and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) used to achieve isolate identification. Read More

    Clonal dissemination of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium ST412 in a Brazilian region.
    Braz J Infect Dis 2017 Nov - Dec;21(6):656-659. Epub 2017 Jul 29.
    Universidade Federal de Espírito Santo, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Departamento de Patologia, Vitória, ES, Brazil. Electronic address:
    Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREfm) has emerged as an important global nosocomial pathogen, and this trend is associated with the spread of high-risk clones. Here, we determined the genetic and phenotypic features of 93 VREfm isolates that were obtained from patients in 13 hospitals in Vitória, Espírito Santo, Brazil, during 2012-2013. All the isolates were vancomycin-resistant and harbored the vanA gene. Read More

    Serum markers as an aid in the diagnosis of pulmonary fungal infections in AIDS patients.
    Braz J Infect Dis 2017 Nov - Dec;21(6):606-612. Epub 2017 Jul 29.
    Universidade de Campinas, Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, Departamento de Medicina Interna, Campinas, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:
    Introduction: The etiology of pulmonary infections in HIV patients is determined by several variables including geographic region and availability of antiretroviral therapy.

    Materials And Methods: A cross-sectional prospective study was conducted from 2012 to 2016 to evaluate the occurrence of pulmonary fungal infection in HIV-patients hospitalized due to pulmonary infections. Patients' serums were tested for (1-3)-β-D-Glugan, galactomannan, and lactate dehydrogenase. Read More

    Comparison of the ACC/AHA and Framingham algorithms to assess cardiovascular risk in HIV-infected patients.
    Braz J Infect Dis 2017 Nov - Dec;21(6):577-580. Epub 2017 Jul 19.
    Escola de Ciências da Santa Casa de Vitória, Unidade de Doenças Infecciosas, Vitória, ES, Brazil.
    The aim of this study was to compare the predictions of Framingham cardiovascular (CV) risk score (FRS) and the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) risk score in an HIV outpatient clinic in the city of Vitoria, Espirito Santo, Brazil. In a cross-sectional study 341 HIV infected patients over 40 years old consecutively recruited were interviewed. Cohen's kappa coefficient was used to assess agreement between the two algorithms. Read More

    A cross-sectional study assessing the pharyngeal carriage of Neisseria meningitidis in subjects aged 1-24 years in the city of Embu das Artes, São Paulo, Brazil.
    Braz J Infect Dis 2017 Nov - Dec;21(6):587-595. Epub 2017 Jul 14.
    GSK Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.
    Meningococcal carriage is a prerequisite for invasive infection. This cross-sectional study assessed the pharyngeal carriage prevalence in healthy subjects aged 1-24 years in Embu das Artes city, São Paulo, Brazil. Pharyngeal swabs were examined for the presence of Neisseria meningitidis. Read More

    Recommendations for outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy in Brazil.
    Braz J Infect Dis 2017 Nov - Dec;21(6):648-655. Epub 2017 Jul 14.
    Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.
    A panel of national experts was convened by the Brazilian Infectious Diseases Society in order to determine the recommendations for outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT) in Brazil. The following aspects are covered in the document: organization of OPAT programs; patient evaluation and eligibility criteria, including clinical and sociocultural factors; diagnosis of eligibility; venous access and antimicrobial infusion devices; protocols for antimicrobial use and monitoring and cost-effectiveness. Read More

    Infections after shoulder arthroplasty are correlated with higher anesthetic risk score: a case-control study in Brazil.
    Braz J Infect Dis 2017 Nov - Dec;21(6):613-619. Epub 2017 Jul 10.
    Faculdade de Ciências Médicas da Santa Casa de São Paulo, Departamento de Ortopedia e Traumatologia, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.
    Purposes: Shoulder arthroplasty (SA) has been performed by many years for the treatment of several conditions, including osteoarthritis and proximal humeral fractures following trauma. Surgical site infection (SSI) following Shoulder arthroplasty remains a challenge, contributing to increased morbidity and costs. Identification of risk factors may help implementing adequate strategies to prevent infection. Read More

    High HIV infection prevalence in a group of men who have sex with men.
    Braz J Infect Dis 2017 Nov - Dec;21(6):596-605. Epub 2017 Jul 8.
    Secretaria de Estado da Saúde do Rio de Janeiro (SES-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.
    Brazil is characterized by a concentrated AIDS epidemic, it has a prevalence of less than 1% in the general population. However, there are higher rates in specific populations, especially in men who have sex with men. The study's aim was to analyze the association between sociodemographic characteristics, sexual practices, sexual behaviors and the HIV infection in a group of men who have sex with men. Read More

    Will Mayaro virus be responsible for the next outbreak of an arthropod-borne virus in Brazil?
    Braz J Infect Dis 2017 Sep - Oct;21(5):540-544. Epub 2017 Jul 7.
    Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Departmento de Clínica Médica, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:
    Mayaro virus is an alphavirus from the Togaviridae family and is transmitted mainly by Hemagogus mosquitoes. This virus circulates in high-density tropical forests or rural areas of Central and South America causing a disease characterized by high-grade fever, maculopapular skin rash and marked arthralgia that, in some patients, can persist for long periods after infection and may be misinterpreted as chikungunya. Although only a few outbreaks involving this virus have been reported, in the last years the number of Mayaro virus infections has increased in the central and northern regions of Brazil. Read More

    Human parechovirus: sepsis-like illness with pulmonary infection.
    Braz J Infect Dis 2017 Nov - Dec;21(6):675-677. Epub 2017 Jul 7.
    Universidade Federal do Paraná, Hospital de Clínicas, Laboratório de Virologia, Curitiba, PR, Brazil; Universidade Federal do Paraná, Programa de Pós-graduação em Tocoginecologia, Curitiba, PR, Brazil; Universidade Federal do Paraná, Departamento de Análises Clínicas, Curitiba, PR, Brazil.

    Rapid spread of an ongoing outbreak of Zika virus disease in pregnant women in a Mexican hospital.
    Braz J Infect Dis 2017 Sep - Oct;21(5):554-556. Epub 2017 Jun 22.
    Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Hospital Universitario Dr. José Eleuterio González, Monterrey, Mexico.
    In the first nine weeks of implementation of a Zika Virus Preparedness Plan in a Mexican Public Hospital, we cared for 221 pregnant women with any signal or symptom suggesting Zika virus infection and 99 (44.8%) patients were found to be positive for Zika virus. The median age of patients was 25. Read More

    Increasing rates of Clostridium difficile infection in Mexican hospitals.
    Braz J Infect Dis 2017 Sep - Oct;21(5):530-534. Epub 2017 Jun 20.
    Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Hospital Universitario Dr. José Eleuterio González, Hospital de Epidemología, Monterrey, Mexico. Electronic address:
    Introduction: The epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has changed in the last two decades. There is a lack of information regarding incidence and severity of CDI, especially in the developing world.

    Methods: This was a retrospective and observational study from four hospitals of three Mexican cities. Read More

    Tuberculosis incidence among people living with HIV/AIDS with virological failure of antiretroviral therapy in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.
    Braz J Infect Dis 2017 Sep - Oct;21(5):562-566. Epub 2017 Jun 16.
    Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Programa de Pós-graduação em Medicina e Saúde (PPGMS), Salvador, BA, Brazil.
    Antiretroviral therapy for HIV has led to increased survival of HIV-infected patients. However, tuberculosis remains the leading opportunistic infection and cause of death among people living with HIV/AIDS. Tuberculosis has been shown to be a good predictor of virological failure in this group. Read More

    Unrecognized pediatric and adult family members of children with acute brucellosis.
    Braz J Infect Dis 2017 Sep - Oct;21(5):520-524. Epub 2017 Jun 15.
    Gaziantep Children State Hospital, Department of Infectious Diseases, Gaziantep, Turkey.
    Background And Aim: Brucellosis is an infectious, contagious and zoonotic disease that occurs worldwide. The family members of an index case of brucellosis may be especially susceptible, due to sharing the same source of infection and similar risk factors for brucellosis. In this study, we propose to screen pediatric and adult family members of brucellosis index cases for detecting additional unrecognized infected family members. Read More

    Development of a prototype immunochromatographic test for rapid diagnosis of respiratory adenovirus infection.
    Braz J Infect Dis 2017 Sep - Oct;21(5):500-506. Epub 2017 Jun 15.
    Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Departamento de Medicina, Laboratório de Virologia, Disciplina de Infectologia, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.
    Human adenoviruses comprise an important group of etiologic agents that are responsible for various diseases in adults and children, such as respiratory, ocular, gastroenteric, and urinary infections. In immunocompromised and organ-transplanted individuals, these agents can cause generalized infections. Rapid diagnostic methods for detecting these infectious agents are not widely available. Read More

    Identification of hepatitis B virus A1762T/G1764A double mutant strain in patients in Southern Brazil.
    Braz J Infect Dis 2017 Sep - Oct;21(5):525-529. Epub 2017 Jun 9.
    Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre (UFCSPA), Programa de Pos-Graduação em Medicina: Hepatologia, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. Electronic address:
    Infection by hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a worldwide public health problem. Chronic HBV infection with high viral replication may lead to cirrhosis and/or hepatocellular carcinoma. Mutant HBV strains, such as the HBV A1762T/G1764A double mutant, have been associated with poor prognosis and higher risk of the patient for developing cirrhosis and/or hepatocellular carcinoma. Read More

    High prevalence of hepatitis E virus antibodies in Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil: analysis of a group of blood donors representative of the general population.
    Braz J Infect Dis 2017 Sep - Oct;21(5):535-539. Epub 2017 Jun 9.
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Federal University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil; Fleury SA Group, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil.
    Brazil is a non-endemic country for hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection with seroprevalence from 1% to 4% in blood donors and the general population. However, data on seroprevalence of HEV in the country are still limited. This study evaluated the prevalence of past or present HEV infection in a group of blood donors representative of the general population of the city of Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil. Read More

    Leishmania donovani infection activates Toll-like receptor 2, 4 expressions and Transforming growth factor-beta mediated apoptosis in renal tissues.
    Braz J Infect Dis 2017 Sep - Oct;21(5):545-549. Epub 2017 Jun 9.
    Banaras Hindu University Institute of Science, Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Immunology Laboratory, Varanasi, India. Electronic address:
    The present study was aimed to identify the underlying mechanisms of improper renal function in Leishmania donovani infection that causes VL. Mice (BALB/c) were infected with L. donovani and different parameters for proteinuria were assessed. Read More

    Salivary anti-PGL-1 IgM may indicate active transmission of Mycobacterium leprae among young people under 16 years of age.
    Braz J Infect Dis 2017 Sep - Oct;21(5):557-561. Epub 2017 Jun 9.
    Universidade Federal do Ceará (UFC), Faculdade de Farmácia, Departamento de Análises Clínicas e Toxicológicas, Fortaleza, CE, Brazil. Electronic address:
    Considering that the main route of Mycobacterium leprae transmission is the upper respiratory tract, detection of salivary antibodies can be a useful tool for diagnosing early infection. The study aimed to analyze salivary anti-PGL-1 IgA and IgM antibodies in 169 children aged 4-16 years old, who lived nearby or inside the house of multibacillary or paucibacillary leprosy patients in two endemic cities in Alagoas State - Brazil. Salivary anti-PGL-1 antibodies were quantified by modified ELISA method. Read More

    Vaccination coverage in a cohort of HIV-infected patients receiving care at an AIDS outpatient clinic in Espírito Santo, Brazil.
    Braz J Infect Dis 2017 Sep - Oct;21(5):515-519. Epub 2017 Jun 2.
    Santa Casa de Vitória, Vitória, ES, Brazil.
    This cross-sectional study assessed the immunization status of human immune deficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients receiving care at an outpatient clinic in Brazil. The sociodemographic characteristics, CD4 count and HIV viral load of 281 out of 612 adult outpatients were analyzed. A total of 331 patients were excluded because of no availability of vaccination cards. Read More

    Viruses vector control proposal: genus Aedes emphasis.
    Braz J Infect Dis 2017 Jul - Aug;21(4):457-463. Epub 2017 May 31.
    Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. Electronic address:
    The dengue fever is a major public health problem in the world. In Brazil, in 2015, there were 1,534,932 cases, being 20,320 cases of severe form, and 811 deaths related to this disease. The distribution of Aedes aegypti, the vector, is extensive. Read More

    Next-generation sequencing virulome analysis of a Yersinia enterocolitica subsp. palearctica bioserotype 4/O:3 ST18 isolated from human blood in Brazil.
    Braz J Infect Dis 2017 Sep - Oct;21(5):550-553. Epub 2017 May 30.
    Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Laboratório de Pesquisa em Infecção Hospitalar, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.
    Yersinia enterocolitica is a widespread Gram-negative bacterium that causes gastrointestinal disease and other clinical manifestations in humans. Potentially pathogenic Y. enterocolitica has been isolated in Brazil, from human, environmental, food, and animal sources. Read More

    Antimicrobial resistance and plasmid replicons in Yersinia enterocolitica strains isolated in Brazil in 30 years.
    Braz J Infect Dis 2017 Jul - Aug;21(4):477-480. Epub 2017 May 27.
    Universidade de São Paulo (USP), Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto (FCFRP), Departamento de Análises Clínicas, Toxicológicas e Bromatológicas (DACTB), Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:
    Some studies evaluated the resistance profile of the Y. enterocolitica strains isolated in diverse countries. However, in Brazil the isolation and the study of Y. Read More

    Retrospective analysis of hepatitis B virus chronic infection in 247 patients: clinical stages, response to treatment and poor prognostic factors.
    Braz J Infect Dis 2017 Jul - Aug;21(4):441-447. Epub 2017 May 26.
    Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, Departamento de Gastroenterologia, Campinas, SP, Brazil.
    Background: Chronic hepatitis B is a major cause of cirrhosis, and the natural history of the disease has several clinical stages that should be thoroughly understood for the implementation of proper treatment. Nonetheless, curing the disease with antiviral treatment remains a challenge.

    Aims: To describe the clinical course, response to treatment, and poor prognostic factors in 247 hepatitis B virus chronic infection patients treated in a tertiary hospital in Brazil. Read More

    A prospective observational cohort study to assess the incidence of acute otitis media among children 0-5 years of age in Southern Brazil.
    Braz J Infect Dis 2017 Jul - Aug;21(4):468-471. Epub 2017 May 23.
    GSK, Panama City, Panama.
    Objectives: To estimate acute otitis media incidence among young children and impact on quality of life of parents/caregivers in a southern Brazilian city.

    Methods: Prospective cohort study including children 0-5 years of age registered at a private pediatric practice. Acute otitis media episodes diagnosed by a pediatrician and impact on quality of life of parents/caregivers were assessed during a 12-month follow-up. Read More

    Low seroprevalence of Zika virus in Cameroonian blood donors.
    Braz J Infect Dis 2017 Jul - Aug;21(4):481-483. Epub 2017 May 23.
    UMR "émergence des Pathologies Virales", Aix-Marseille Univ, IRD 190, INSERM 1207, EHESP, Marseille, France. Electronic address:
    A Zika virus seroepidemiology study was performed in 1084 blood donors collected from August to October 2015 in six sites of Cameroon representing a large panel of eco-environments. Samples were tested using an anti-NS1 IgG ELISA detection kit and positives were further confirmed by seroneutralization. The observed global seroprevalence was low (around 5%, peaking at 10% and 7. Read More

    Relationship between climatic factors and air quality with tuberculosis in the Federal District, Brazil, 2003-2012.
    Braz J Infect Dis 2017 Jul - Aug;21(4):369-375. Epub 2017 May 23.
    Universidade de Brasília (UNB), Programa de Pós-graduação em Enfermagem, Brasília, DF, Brazil.
    Introduction: Despite the high rate of tuberculosis indicators in Brazil, the Federal District shows a low prevalence of the disease.

    Objective: To analyze the relationship between climatic factors and air quality with tuberculosis in the Brazilian Federal District.

    Methodology: This was an ecological and descriptive study comparing 3927 new cases of Tuberculosis registered at the Federal District Tuberculosis Control Program with data from the National Institute of Meteorology, Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, Brazilian Agricultural Research Institute, Brasilia Environmental Institute, and the Federal District Planning Company. Read More

    Transmitted drug resistance in patients with acute/recent HIV infection in Brazil.
    Braz J Infect Dis 2017 Jul - Aug;21(4):396-401. Epub 2017 May 21.
    Instituto Nacional de Infectologia Evandro Chagas, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. Electronic address:
    Introduction: The widespread use of antiretroviral therapy increased the transmission of antiretroviral resistant HIV strains. Antiretroviral therapy initiation during acute/recent HIV infection limits HIV reservoirs and improves immune response in HIV infected individuals. Transmitted drug resistance may jeopardize the early goals of early antiretroviral treatment among acute/recent HIV infected patients. Read More

    Quality of life, anxiety and depression in patients with HIV/AIDS who present poor adherence to antiretroviral therapy: a cross-sectional study in Salvador, Brazil.
    Braz J Infect Dis 2017 Sep - Oct;21(5):507-514. Epub 2017 May 21.
    Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA) Programa de Pós-Graduação em Medicina e Saúde, Salvador, BA, Brazil; Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Faculdade de Medicina, Departamento de Medicina, Salvador, BA, Brazil. Electronic address:
    The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy marked a major gain in efficacy of HIV/AIDS treatment and a reduction in morbidity and mortality of the infected patients. However, high levels of adherence are required to obtain virologic suppression. In Brazil, the policy of free and universal access to antiretroviral therapy has been in place since 1996, although there are reports of poor adherence. Read More

    Molecular identification of viral agents associated with acute conjunctivitis: a prospective controlled study.
    Braz J Infect Dis 2017 Jul - Aug;21(4):391-395. Epub 2017 May 20.
    Yıldırım Beyazıt, University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Ophthalmology, Ankara, Turkey.
    Background: Viral conjunctivitis are the most frequent infections in ophthalmology clinics. The diagnosis is usually relying on clinical findings and medical history. However, topical antibiotics are often used unnecessarily addition to symptomatic treatment because of unsure agents. Read More

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