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    [Relationship between Work Ⅱ type of congenital first branchial cleft anomaly and facial nerve and surgical strategies].
    Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi 2017 Oct;52(10):760-765
    Department of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Guangdong General Hospital & Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou 511080, China.
    Objective: To investigate the relationship between Work Ⅱ type of congenital first branchial cleft anomaly (CFBCA) and facial nerve and discuss surgical strategies. Methods: Retrospective analysis of 37 patients with CFBCA who were treated from May 2005 to September 2016. Among 37 cases with CFBCA, 12 males and 25 females; 24 in the left and 13 in the right; the age at diagnosis was from 1 to 76 ( years, with a median age of 20, 24 cases with age of 18 years or less and 13 with age more than 18 years; duration of disease ranged from 1 to 10 years (median of 6 years); 4 cases were recurren after fistula resection. Read More

    Cytokeratin7 expression in histologic and cytologic specimens of cystic neck metastasis from HPV positive squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil: A case report.
    Diagn Cytopathol 2017 Oct 19. Epub 2017 Oct 19.
    Department of Pathology, Nowon Eulji Medical Center, Eulji University, Seoul, Korea.
    The majority of cystic squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) of the neck have been shown to be metastatic tumors from tonsillar SCCs associated with high-risk human papillomavirus (HR HPV). Recent studies have demonstrated cytokeratin (CK)7 involvement in the development of HPV positive SCC, but no report has been issued on its simultaneous expression in primary tonsillar and metastatic tumor with cystic change. We present a case of HPV positive tonsillar SCC of a 42-year-old male that initially manifested as a cystic neck mass expressing CK7, CK19, and p16 in primary and metastatic tumors. Read More

    Efficacy and Safety of Ethanol Ablation for Branchial Cleft Cysts.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 Sep 28. Epub 2017 Sep 28.
    Otolaryngology (C.-H.K.), Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Korea.
    Background And Purpose: Branchial cleft cyst is a common congenital lesion of the neck. This study evaluated the efficacy and safety of ethanol ablation as an alternative treatment to surgery for branchial cleft cyst.

    Materials And Methods: Between September 2006 and October 2016, ethanol ablation was performed in 22 patients who refused an operation for a second branchial cleft cyst. Read More

    Ectopic Hamartomatous Thymoma: A Review Of The Literature With Report Of New Cases And Proposal Of A New Name: Biphenotypic Branchioma.
    Head Neck Pathol 2017 Sep 6. Epub 2017 Sep 6.
    Department of Basic Pathology, National Defense Medical College, 3-2 Namiki, Tokorozawa, Saitama, 359-8513, Japan.
    Ectopic hamartomatous thymoma (EHT) is a rare benign neoplasm of the lower neck suggesting branchial origin. Despite use of the term thymoma in the nomenclature, there is no evidence of thymic origin or differentiation. It affects middle-aged adults with a remarkable male predominance. Read More

    Congenital dermoid fistulas of the anterior chest region (CDFACR): usefulness of sonography for complete resection.
    Radiol Case Rep 2017 Sep 4;12(3):628-631. Epub 2017 Jul 4.
    Department of Radiology, Saitama Children's Medical Center, 2100 Magome, Iwatsuki, Saitama 339-8551, Japan.
    Congenital dermoid fistulas of the anterior chest regions (CDFACRs) consist of a skin orifice at the anterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle with fistulas extending caudally in the subcutaneous tissue near the sternoclavicular joint. We report 2 pediatric CDFACR cases with pathognomonic sonography findings. By using sonography, we could diagnose the fistulas as CDFACRs by focusing on their location and direction and could reveal the distal side for complete resection. Read More

    [Diagnostic value of multi-slice spiral computerized tomographic fistulography in congenital fistula of neck].
    Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi 2017 Aug;52(8):597-603
    Department of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Fujian Provincial Hospital, Provincial Clinical College of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou 350001, China.
    Objective: To investigate the usefulness and effectiveness of multi-slice spiral computerized tomographic fistulography (MSCTF) in the diagnosis and treatment of congenital fistula of neck. Methods: Thirty-four patients with thyroglossal fistulasor branchial cleft fistulas who were initial treated from July 2008 to August 2015 in Fujian Provincial Hospital were retrospectively analyses. Thirteen males and 21 females patients aging from 3 to 46 years old with a median age of 37 were included. Read More

    Primary parotid lymphoma presenting as a recurrent cystic mass: A case report.
    Laryngoscope 2017 Aug 3. Epub 2017 Aug 3.
    Department of Otolaryngology and Communication Enhancement, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts.
    A 15-year-old boy was diagnosed with a cystic parotid mass, which was initially thought to be a first branchial cleft cyst. The mass was treated with antibiotics and fully resolved on examination and imaging. The mass returned, and a superficial parotidectomy was performed to remove the suspected branchial cleft cyst. Read More

    Spectrum of lesions derived from branchial arches occurring in the thyroid: from solid cell nests to tumors.
    Virchows Arch 2017 Jul 20. Epub 2017 Jul 20.
    Sikl's Department of Pathology, University Hospital Plzen, Medical Faculty in Plzen, Charles University in Prague, Edvarda Benese 13, Plzen, 305 99, Czech Republic.
    There is a group of lesions in the head and neck region derived from branchial arches and related structures which, when inflamed, are characterized by the formation of cysts lined by squamous or glandular epithelium and surrounded by a heavy inflammatory infiltrate rich in germinal centers. In the thyroid, the main source of various structures which may cause diagnostic dilemma is the ultimobranchial body. To investigate the spectrum of such thyroid lesions, the consultation files were reviewed for thyroid samples containing pathological structures regarded to arise from the ultimobranchial body. Read More

    A Rare Case Report of a Child Coexistence Thyroglossal Cyst and Second Branchial Cleft Fistulae.
    Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2017 Jun 21;69(2):263-265. Epub 2016 May 21.
    ENT Department Face and Neck surgery, Hospital August 20, 1953, University Hospital Ibn Rochd, Casablanca, Morocco.
    Thyroglossal duct cysts followed by branchial cleft anomalies are the most common congenital neck masses encountered in practice, second branchial cleft cysts and sinuses are the most common type (LaRiviere and Waldhausen in Surg Clin North Am 92(3):583-597, 2012). Although both abnormalities are common individually, but rarely seen associated in same patient as described in our case. Congenitalcervical anomalies are important to consider in the differential of head and neck masses in children and adults. Read More

    Branchial cleft cyst: An unusual site for the cervical metastasis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
    Auris Nasus Larynx 2017 Apr 13. Epub 2017 Apr 13.
    Department of Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan; College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan. Electronic address:
    Objective: Cancers found in the resected branchial cleft cyst are rare clinically but usually impose substantive diagnostic and treatment challenges for clinicians.

    Methods: A 31-year-old man presented with a lateral neck mass that was suspected to be an inflammatory branchial cleft cyst. After excision, the pathologic specimen revealed a benign cystic appearance with a focus of undifferentiated carcinoma. Read More

    Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma with Cystic Cervical Metastasis Masquerading as Branchial Cleft Cyst: A Potential Pitfall in Diagnosis and Management.
    Iran J Otorhinolaryngol 2017 Mar;29(91):117-120
    Department of Otorhinolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, University Kebangsaan Malaysia Kebangsaan Medical Centre (UKMMC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia .
    Introduction: Most metastatic lymph nodes from head and neck malignancy are solid. Cystic nodes are found in 33% - 61% of carcinomas arise from Waldeyer's ring, of which only 1.8% - 8% originate are from the nasopharynx. Read More

    Update from the 4th Edition of the World Health Organization Classification of Head and Neck Tumours: What Is New in the 2017 WHO Blue Book for Tumors and Tumor-Like Lesions of the Neck and Lymph Nodes.
    Head Neck Pathol 2017 Mar 28;11(1):48-54. Epub 2017 Feb 28.
    Department of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA.
    The World Health Organization (WHO) 2017 Classification of Head and Neck Tumors ("Blue Book") will now include a new chapter on tumors and tumor-like lesions of the neck and lymph nodes, which was not included in the previous edition. Tumors and tumor-like lesions, including a variety of cysts and metastases, can arise in any component in the neck, including soft tissue, lymph nodes, and developmental remnants. The pathology and clinical features of metastatic carcinoma of unknown primary in the head and neck has changed dramatically in the last several years. Read More

    The Mandibular Angle Hydatid Cyst Mimicking Branchial Cleft Cyst: A Case Report.
    Iran J Parasitol 2016 Oct-Dec;11(4):591-594
    Department of Radiology, Imam Khomeini Hospital, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.
    We report an unusual case of primary hydatid cyst of the mandibular angle without glands involvement, in the left supraclavicular region of the neck with no involvement of any other regions of the body. In July 2012, a 25-yr old woman, from Golestan Province, Northeast Iran was admitted to our ENT Clinic, with one-year history of a progressively increasing swelling, pain and gradually growing mass located in the left side of neck region. The patient was diagnosed by Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FANC) and histopathology examination. Read More

    Comparison of the Retroauricular Approach and Transcervical Approach for Excision of a Second Brachial Cleft Cyst.
    J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2017 Jun 15;75(6):1209-1215. Epub 2016 Dec 15.
    Professor and Department Head, Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Kyungpook National University, Jung-Gu, Daegu, Korea. Electronic address:
    Purpose: Although a retroauricular (RA) approach has been proposed for excision of a second brachial cleft cyst (BCC), no studies have performed a direct comparison of the results of the RA approach and those of the conventional transcervical approach. We evaluated the surgical outcomes of the RA approach under direct vision and demonstrate its benefits compared with the conventional transcervical approach for excision of a second BCC.

    Patients And Methods: From January 2012 to May 2016, we enrolled 30 consecutive patients with a second BCC who underwent surgical excision as a primary treatment into the present prospective case-control study. Read More

    Complications in head and neck surgery.
    Semin Pediatr Surg 2016 Dec 31;25(6):338-346. Epub 2016 Oct 31.
    Department of Surgery, Yale School of Medicine, PO Box 208062, New Haven, Connecticut 06510. Electronic address:
    Head and neck anatomy is topographically complex and the region is densely populated by vital nerves and vascular and lymphatic structures. Injury to many of these structures is associated with significant morbidity and may even be fatal. A thorough knowledge of regional anatomy is imperative and complications need to be managed in a thoughtful directed manner. Read More

    Diagnostic imaging of benign and malignant neck masses in children-a pictorial review.
    Quant Imaging Med Surg 2016 Oct;6(5):591-604
    Department of Radiology, Alder Hey Children's Hospital, Liverpool, UK.
    Neck masses are frequently encountered in pediatric medicine, and can present a diagnostic dilemma for the clinicians involved. There are several means by which neck masses in children can be subdivided, for example by age at presentation, anatomical location including compartments and fascia of the neck, their classical appearance when imaged, or by etiology. When imaging children the clinicians must be mindful of radiation exposure and as such ultrasound (US) is often attempted first. Read More

    (18)F-FDG PET/CT to differentiate malignant necrotic lymph node from benign cystic lesions in the neck.
    Ann Nucl Med 2017 Feb 5;31(2):101-108. Epub 2016 Dec 5.
    Department of Nuclear Medicine, Odense University Hospital, Søndre Boulevard 29, 5000, Odense C, Denmark.
    Objective: Patients presenting with cystic lesions in the neck without obvious signs of malignancy constitute a diagnostic challenge since fine needle aspiration is often insufficient and a diagnosis may not be reached until surgical resection/biopsy is performed. The differential diagnosis of a cystic cervical mass comprises a variety of benign conditions, but malignancy must be ruled out. We examined the diagnostic performance of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) PET/CT to identify malignancy. Read More

    Branchial Cleft Cyst.
    Indian J Dermatol 2016 Nov-Dec;61(6):701
    Department of Consultant Dermatologist, Skin Care and Laser Clinic, Nasik, Maharashtra, India.
    Branchial cleft cyst, sinuses, and fistulae are among the most commonly encountered congenital anomalies in pediatric otolaryngic practice. They can present difficulty in diagnosis and surgical management. Here, I report a case of 14-year-old boy who presented with asymptomatic, congenital swelling located just below the jawline in the lateral part of the neck. Read More

    Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Cervical Lymph Node Metastasis with Cystic Change Differentiated from Congenital Cystic Lesions with the Assistance of Immunohistochemistry: A Case Study.
    Head Neck Pathol 2016 Oct 21. Epub 2016 Oct 21.
    Department of Pathology, Yale School of Medicine, 310 Cedar Street, New Haven, CT, 208023, USA.
    Diagnosis of cystic papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) lymph node metastasis at head neck region can be a challenge in the absence of known PTC history. The congenital cystic lesions of head neck, especially thyroglossal duct cyst (TGDC) and branchial cleft cyst (BCC), are major differential diagnoses in this clinicopathological scenario. The location of cyst and morphology of lining epithelium are critical clues for reaching correct diagnosis. Read More

    [Congenital cysts and fistulae in children].
    Ann Chir Plast Esthet 2016 Oct 18;61(5):371-388. Epub 2016 Aug 18.
    Service de chirurgie orthopédique et plastique pédiatrique, CHRU Lapeyronie, 371, avenue du Doyen-Gaston-Giraud, 34295 Montpellier cedex 5, France. Electronic address:
    Cysts and fistulae of the face and neck in children are formed before birth and correspond to the persistence of embryonic remnants that occur due to coalescence defects of embryonic buds or due to epidermal inclusion. They represent the most common pathological malformation of the face and neck. They may be separated according to their location into laterocervical cysts and fistulas or median cysts and fistulas. Read More

    Use of the GlideScope video laryngoscope for intubation during ex utero intrapartum treatment in a fetus with a giant cyst of the 4th branchial cleft: A case report.
    Medicine (Baltimore) 2016 Sep;95(39):e4931
    aDepartment of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine bDepartment of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, Catholic University of Daegu, Daegu, Republic of Korea.
    Introduction: In fetuses who are predicted to be at risk of catastrophic airway obstruction at delivery, the ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) procedure is useful for securing the fetal airway while maintaining fetal oxygenation via placental circulation. Factors, including poor posture of the fetus and physician, narrow visual field, and issues of contamination in the aseptic surgical field, make fetal intubation during the EXIT procedure difficult. Herein, we report our experience of the usefulness of the GlideScope video laryngoscope (GVL) for intubation during the EXIT procedure. Read More

    Selected Case From the Arkadi M. Rywlin International Pathology Slide Seminar: Benign Warthin Tumor of the Thyroid.
    Adv Anat Pathol 2016 Sep;23(5):339-42
    *Department of Pathology, Charles University, Medical Faculty and Charles University Hospital Plzen †Biomedical Center, Faculty of Medicine in Plzen and Charles University Hospital Plzen, Pilsen ‡Department of Pathology, Liberec Regional Hospital, Liberec, Czech Republic.
    We report on an exceedingly rare lesion of the thyroid probably of a branchial cleft origin, which was not published in the world literature before. A 58-year-old woman underwent a total thyroidectomy for bilateral goiter. Grossly, there was one yellowish nodule sized 15 mm in the largest dimension found in the right lobe. Read More

    Avoiding surgical pitfalls during resection of a "hybrid" first and second branchial cleft cyst - A case report.
    Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2016 08 6;87:91-3. Epub 2016 Jun 6.
    Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, 243 Charles Street, Boston, MA 02114-3096, United States; Department of Otology and Laryngology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States. Electronic address:

    [A Case of Cystic Cervical Lymph Node Metastasis of HPV-positive Tonsil Cancer, Being Discriminated as the Branchiogenic Carcinoma].
    Nihon Jibiinkoka Gakkai Kaiho 2016 Feb;119(2):118-24
    In recent years, human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive oropharyngeal carcinomas have been increasing. The first manifestation of these tumors is frequently as cystic metastasis to cervical lymph nodes that may precede recognition of the primary tumor, so, they often result in misdiagnosis as branchial cleft cysts. We report a case of cystic cervical lymph node metastasis of HPV-positive tonsil cancer. Read More

    Cytokeratin 5/6 and P63 immunophenotype of thyroid lymphoepithelial complexes.
    Ann Diagn Pathol 2016 Aug 14;23:58-61. Epub 2016 Mar 14.
    Virginia Commonwealth System, Richmond, VA, USA. Electronic address:
    Thyroid lymphoepithelial complexes (LECos) are rare, being reported in lymphoma, Graves-Basedow disease, Hashimoto thyroiditis, pericarcinomatous thyroid or in the context of branchial cleft-like cysts. Here we report immunohistochemical expression of cytokeratin 5/6, P63 and TTF1 in 6 cases of thyroid LECos. Two cases had carbimazole treatment for hyperthyroidia and Graves disease. Read More

    Branchial cleft-like cysts in Hashimoto's thyroiditis: A case report and literature review.
    Pathol Int 2016 May;66(5):297-301
    Department of Pathology, Nikko Memorial Hospital, Muroran, Hokkaido, Japan.
    We report an extremely rare case of branchial cleft-like cysts in Hashimoto's thyroiditis. The patient was a 77-year-old man with a growing mass in the anterior neck. Ultrasonography and computed tomography revealed a cystic lesion with septum in the left thyroid and multiple small cystic lesions in the right thyroid. Read More

    Challenges in establishing the diagnosis of human papillomavirus-related oropharyngeal carcinoma.
    Laryngoscope 2016 Oct 14;126(10):2270-5. Epub 2016 Apr 14.
    Department of Radiation Therapy, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
    Objectives/hypothesis: To describe initial presentations and idiosyncrasies in establishing the diagnosis for human papillomavirus-related (HPV(+) ) compared to HPV-unrelated (HPV(-) ) oropharyngeal carcinoma (OPC).

    Study Design: A single institution retrospective series derived from an institutional prospectively compiled database supplemented by chart review.

    Methods: We reviewed consecutive OPC patients referred to an academic tertiary cancer center from 2009 to 2011. Read More

    Surgical Approaches to First Branchial Cleft Anomaly Excision: A Case Series.
    Case Rep Otolaryngol 2016 29;2016:3902974. Epub 2016 Feb 29.
    Department of Pediatric Otolaryngology Head & Neck Surgery, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37232, USA.
    Objectives. First branchial cleft anomalies (BCAs) constitute a rare entity with variable clinical presentations and anatomic findings. Given the high rate of recurrence with incomplete excision, identification of the entire tract during surgical treatment is of paramount importance. Read More

    Rapidly enlarging neck mass in a neonate causing airway compromise.
    Proc (Bayl Univ Med Cent) 2016 Apr;29(2):183-4
    Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center School of Medicine (Schmidt); and the Departments of Surgery (Leal, McGill) and Radiology (Jacob), Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center School of Medicine, Lubbock, Texas.
    Up to 20% of all congenital pediatric head and neck masses are branchial cleft cysts. Second branchial cleft cysts account for 95% of branchial anomalies, and fourth branchial cleft cysts are the rarest type. Their typical presentations include non-life-threatening symptoms, such as drainage, skin irritations, minor swelling, and tenderness. Read More

    Cytologic separation of branchial cleft cyst from metastatic cystic squamous cell carcinoma: A multivariate analysis of nineteen cytomorphologic features.
    Diagn Cytopathol 2016 Jul 9;44(7):561-7. Epub 2016 Mar 9.
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine and ARUP Laboratories, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah.
    Background: The separation of branchial cleft cysts from metastatic cystic squamous cell carcinomas in adults can be clinically and cytologically challenging. Diagnostic accuracy for separation is reported to be as low as 75% prompting some authors to recommend frozen section evaluation of suspected branchial cleft cysts before resection. We evaluated 19 cytologic features to determine which were useful in this distinction. Read More

    Intraoperative use of fibrin glue dyed with methylene blue in surgery for branchial cleft anomalies.
    Laryngoscope 2016 Sep 1;126(9):2147-50. Epub 2016 Mar 1.
    Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy.
    Objectives/hypothesis: We present a new method of optimizing the results of surgery for branchial cleft anomalies based on the intraoperative injection of fibrin glue combined with methylene blue dye.

    Study Design: Retrospective single-center cohort study.

    Methods: The method was applied in 17 patients suffering from branchial anomalies. Read More

    Ectopic congenital bronchogenic cyst accompanied by infection appearing in the cervical region of an elderly female patient: A case report.
    Oncol Lett 2016 Feb 10;11(2):1065-1068. Epub 2015 Dec 10.
    Department of Oromaxillofacial Head and Neck Oncology, Ninth People's Hospital, College of Stomatology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200011, P.R. China.
    Bronchogenic cysts (BCs) are rare congenital cystic lesions arising as a development malformation in the trachea-bronchial system during the embryonic period. The cysts mostly occur in the mediastinum, with an extremely low morbidity rate in the oromaxillofacial-head and neck region. The age distribution of patients who present with BCs shows a significant predominance towards young individuals compared with the elderly. Read More

    [Branchiogen cyst at unusual age and in rare localization. A case report].
    Fogorv Sz 2015 Dec;108(4):127-30
    Branchiogen anomalies represent a heterogeneous group of developmental abnormalities, they arise from incomplete obliteration of branchial clefts and pouches during embriogenesis. Clinically they can present as a cyst, fistula or sinus. Second cleft lesions account for 95% of the branchial anomalies. Read More

    Congenital midline cervical cleft: A retrospective case series of 8 children.
    Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2016 Feb 29;81:60-4. Epub 2015 Dec 29.
    Department of Pediatric Otolaryngology-Head Neck Surgery, Jeanne de Flandre Children's Hospital, University Hospital, Lille, France.
    Objectives: Congenital midline cervical cleft is a rare developmental abnormality of the ventral neck of unclear etiology. It consists of a midline skin defect. This study reports a case series of 8 patients with congenital midline cervical cleft. Read More

    [The application of three-dimensional CT in diagnosis of the branchial cleft cyst and fistula].
    Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi 2015 Aug;29(15):1392-3
    The patient complained of finding on the right side of the neck fistula with discharge nine years. In recently, fistula spills significantly increased compared with the previous. Special physical examination: Right sternocleidomastoid middle 1/3 front border is seen here in a small fistula, translucence jelly secretion were spilling out when squeezeing the fistula, no smell. Read More

    Branchial cleft anomalies: a pictorial review of embryological development and spectrum of imaging findings.
    Insights Imaging 2016 Feb 10;7(1):69-76. Epub 2015 Dec 10.
    Department of Radiology, Royal London Hospital, Barts Health NHS Trust, London, UK.
    Unlabelled: The branchial arches are the embryological precursors of the face, neck and pharynx. Anomalies of the branchial arches are the second most common congenital lesions of the head and neck in children, with second branchial arch anomalies by far the most common. Clinically, these congenital anomalies may present as cysts, sinus tracts, fistulae or cartilaginous remnants with typical clinical and radiological findings. Read More

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