235,711 results match your criteria Brainstem Gliomas


Long-term functional outcome after decompressive suboccipital craniectomy for space-occupying cerebellar infarction.

Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2018 Dec 1;176:47-52. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

Department of Neurosurgery, Rigshospitalet, Blegdamsvej 9, 2100, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Objectives: Suboccipital decompressive craniectomy (SDC) is considered the best treatment option in patients with space-occupying cerebellar infarction and clinical signs of deterioration. The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate long-term functional outcome in patients one year after SDC for space-occupying cerebellar infarction, and secondly, to determine factors associated with outcome.

Patients And Methods: All patients treated with SDC due to space-occupying cerebellar infarction between January 2009 and October 2015 were included in the study. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Locomotor central pattern generator excitability states and serotonin sensitivity after spontaneous recovery from a neonatal lumbar spinal cord injury.

Brain Res 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Norwegian Center for Stem Cell Research, Oslo University Hospital, Norway. Electronic address:

The spinal locomotor central pattern generator (CPG) in neonatal mice exhibits diverse output patterns, ranging from sub-rhythmic to multi-rhythmic to fictive locomotion, depending on its general level of excitation and neuromodulatory status (Sharples and Whelan, 2017). We have recently reported that the locomotor CPG in neonatal mice rapidly recovers the ability to produce neurochemically induced fictive locomotion following an upper lumbar spinal cord compression injury (Züchner et al., 2018). Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Physiological Models of Human Neuronal Development and Disease.

Neuron 2018 Dec;100(5):1025-1027

Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA; The Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regeneration Medicine and Stem Cell Research, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA. Electronic address:

Human neural network development occurs at stages inaccessible to longitudinal monitoring. By transplanting human neurons to the adult mouse brain, recent studies explore human neural circuit formation in realistic cellular and physiological environments, establishing new models for human neurodevelopmental disorders. Read More

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December 2018

Function and energy consumption constrain neuronal biophysics in a canonical computation: Coincidence detection.

PLoS Comput Biol 2018 Dec 6;14(12):e1006612. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Institute for Theoretical Biology, Department of Biology, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

Neural morphology and membrane properties vary greatly between cell types in the nervous system. The computations and local circuit connectivity that neurons support are thought to be the key factors constraining the cells' biophysical properties. Nevertheless, additional constraints can be expected to further shape neuronal design. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Hindbrain induction and patterning during early vertebrate development.

Cell Mol Life Sci 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Koret School of Veterinary Medicine, The Robert H Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 76100, Rehovot, Israel.

The hindbrain is a key relay hub of the central nervous system (CNS), linking the bilaterally symmetric half-sides of lower and upper CNS centers via an extensive network of neural pathways. Dedicated neural assemblies within the hindbrain control many physiological processes, including respiration, blood pressure, motor coordination and different sensations. During early development, the hindbrain forms metameric segmented units known as rhombomeres along the antero-posterior (AP) axis of the nervous system. Read More

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December 2018

Bilateral trigeminal root entry zone enhancement in MOG-IgG-associated brainstem encephalitis.

Neurol Sci 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Neurology, The Fifth Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, 450052, Henan Province, People's Republic of China.

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December 2018
1 Read

Allogeneic stem cell transplantation with reduced intensity conditioning for patients with adrenoleukodystrophy.

Mol Genet Metab Rep 2019 Mar 20;18:1-6. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Department of Hematology and Oncology, Children' Medical Center, Japanese Red Cross Nagoya First Hospital, Nagoya, Japan.

Objective: The prognosis of adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD)with neurological involvement is generally dismal; however, allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) is recognized as effective to stabilize or improve the clinical symptoms of ALD. Herein, we report the clinical outcomes of patients with ALD who consecutively underwent allogeneic stem cell transplantation with reduced intensity conditioning at our institution.

Patients: Sixteen patients with ALD, who were symptomatic (n = 14) or presymptomatic (n = 2), received SCT from 2010 to 2016. Read More

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March 2019
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Identification of Grade-associated MicroRNAs in Brainstem Gliomas Based on Microarray Data.

J Cancer 2018 31;9(23):4463-4476. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

Department of Neurosurgery, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Tiantanxili 6, Dongcheng District, Beijing, 100050, China.

Gliomas arising in the brainstem are rare tumours that are difficult to surgically resect, and the microRNAs (miRNAs) and signalling pathways associated with brainstem gliomas (BSGs) are largely unknown. To identify grade-associated miRNAs in BSGs, a microarray analysis of 10 low-grade and 15 high-grade BSGs was performed in this study. Differentially expressed miRNAs (DE-miRNAs) were identified, and the functional DE-miRNAs were selected. Read More

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October 2018
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Radiotherapy in Patients with Mycosis Fungoides and Central Nervous System Involvement.

Case Rep Oncol 2018 Sep-Dec;11(3):721-728. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, USA.

Background: Involvement of the central nervous system (CNS) by mycosis fungoides (MF) is rare; however, it portends a poor prognosis. While aggressive multimodality therapy may improve outcomes, the role of radiation therapy (RT) is not well defined.

Objectives: We sought to explore the efficacy of RT in the management of CNS involvement by MF. Read More

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November 2018

White Matter Plasticity Keeps the Brain in Tune: Axons Conduct While Glia Wrap.

Front Cell Neurosci 2018 16;12:428. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada.

Precise timing of neuronal inputs is crucial for brain circuit function and development, where it contributes critically to experience-dependent plasticity. Myelination therefore provides an important adaptation mechanism for vertebrate circuits. Despite its importance to circuit activity, the interplay between neuronal activity and myelination has yet to be fully elucidated. Read More

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November 2018
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High unbound bilirubin for age: a neurotoxin with major effects on the developing brain.

Pediatr Res 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Keck School of Medicine of University of Southern California, Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, LAC+USC Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia is one of the most frequent diagnoses made in neonates. A high level of unconjugated bilirubin that is unbound to albumin is neurotoxic when the level exceeds age-specific thresholds or at lower levels in neonates with neurotoxic risk factors. Lower range of unbound bilirubin results in apoptosis, while moderate-to-high levels result in neuronal necrosis. Read More

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December 2018
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Inner ear development in cyclostomes and evolution of the vertebrate semicircular canals.

Nature 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Laboratory for Evolutionary Morphology, RIKEN Center for Biosystems Dynamics Research (BDR), Kobe, Japan.

Jawed vertebrates have inner ears with three semicircular canals, the presence of which has been used as a key to understanding evolutionary relationships. Ostracoderms, the jawless stem gnathostomes, had only two canals and lacked the lateral canal. Lampreys, which are modern cyclostomes, are generally thought to possess two semicircular canals whereas the hagfishes-which are also cyclostomes-have only a single canal, which used to be regarded as a more primitive trait. Read More

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December 2018

Maternal prepregnancy body mass index and offspring white matter microstructure: results from three birth cohorts.

Int J Obes (Lond) 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

The Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Erasmus MC, Sophia Children's Hospital, Rotterdam, 3000 CB, The Netherlands.

Background And Aims: Prepregnancy maternal obesity is a global health problem and has been associated with offspring metabolic and mental ill-health. However, there is a knowledge gap in understanding potential neurobiological factors related to these associations. This study explored the relation between maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and offspring brain white matter microstructure at the age of 6, 10, and 26 years in three independent cohorts. Read More

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December 2018
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Eradication of central nervous system leukemia of T-cell origin with a brain-permeable LSD1 inhibitor.

Clin Cancer Res 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Stem Cell Regulation, Jichi Medical University

Purpose: Lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) regulates several biological processes via the bifunctional modulation of enhancer functions. Recently, we reported that LSD1 overexpression is a founder abnormality of T-cell leukemogenesis and is maintained in fully transformed T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) cells. On the basis of this finding, we attempted to develop novel LSD1 inhibitors effective for T-ALL with central nervous system (CNS) involvement. Read More

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December 2018

Review of Ocular Manifestations of Joubert Syndrome.

Genes (Basel) 2018 Dec 4;9(12). Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Department of Ophthalmology, Stanford University School of Medicine, 1651 Page Mill Road, Palo Alto, CA 94305, USA.

Joubert syndrome is a group of rare disorders that stem from defects in a sensory organelle, the primary cilia. Affected patients often present with disorders involving multiple organ systems, including the brain, eyes, and kidneys. Common symptoms include breathing abnormalities, mental developmental delays, loss of voluntary muscle coordination, and abnormal eye movements, with a diagnostic "molar tooth" sign observed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the midbrain. Read More

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December 2018
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Sex differences in network controllability as a predictor of executive function in youth.

Neuroimage 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Bioengineering, School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA; Department of Physics & Astronomy, College of Arts and Sciences, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA; Department of Neurology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA; Department of Electrical and Systems Engineering, School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA. Electronic address:

Executive function is a quintessential human capacity that emerges late in development and displays different developmental trends in males and females. Sex differences in executive function in youth have been linked to vulnerability to psychopathology as well as to behaviors that impinge on health, wellbeing, and longevity. Yet, the neurobiological basis of these differences is not well understood, in part due to the spatiotemporal complexity inherent in patterns of brain network maturation supporting executive function. Read More

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November 2018

Age-related alteration in the distribution of methylglyoxal and its metabolic enzymes in the mouse brain.

Brain Res Bull 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Analytical Biochemistry, Meiji Pharmaceutical University, 2-522-1 Noshio, Kiyose, Tokyo, 204-8588, Japan. Electronic address:

Methylglyoxal (MG) is an α-dicarbonyl compound that is naturally produced in vivo through glucose metabolism. In general, MG is metabolized by the glyoxalase 1(GLO1)/GLO2 system and aldose reductase (AR); however, excessive MG can react with proteins and nucleic acids to induce the accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Recently, the accumulation of AGEs in the brain has been presumed to be related to neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease, respectively. Read More

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November 2018

Isolation and characterization of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells from Ctenomys minutus.

Genet Mol Biol 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Laboratory of Stem Cells and Tissue Engineering, Universidade Luterana do Brasil, Canoas, RS, Brazil.

Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells distributed in all tissues and characterized by adherence, morphology, immunophenotype and trilineage differentiation potential. The present study aimed to isolate and characterize adherent MSC-like populations from different tissues of Ctenomys minutus, a threatened wildlife rodent popularly known as tuco-tuco. Adherent cells were isolated from bone marrow, brain, liver, pancreas and adipose tissue of three adult animals collect in southern Brazil. Read More

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November 2018

Sustained protein synthesis and reduced eEF2K levels in TAp73 mice brain: a possible compensatory mechanism.

Cell Cycle 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

a MRC Toxicology Unit , University of Cambridge , United Kingdom.

The transcription factor p73 is a member of the p53 family, of which the transactivation domain containing isoform (TAp73) plays key roles in brain development and neuronal stem cells. TAp73 also facilitates homoeostasis and prevents oxidative damage in vivo by inducing the expression of its target genes. Recently, we found that in addition to its role in regulation of transcription, TAp73 also affects mRNA translation. Read More

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December 2018
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17 β-Estradiol Oxidative Stress Attenuation and Autophagy-Induced Dopaminergic Neuroprotection.

Cell J 2019 Apr 18;21(1):1-6. Epub 2018 Nov 18.

Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, Iran.

Objective: Degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra of the brain stem is the main pathological aspect of Parkinson's disease (PD). 17 β-estradiol (E2) has neuroprotective effects on substantia nigra, however, the underlined mechanism is not well-known. In this study, we evaluated the neuroprotective effects of E2 in the ovariectomized 6-hydroxydopamine- (6-OHDA) rat model of PD. Read More

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Stem cell-based cell therapy for neuroprotection in stroke: A review.

J Cell Biochem 2018 Dec 2. Epub 2018 Dec 2.

Aging Research Institute, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Neurological disorders, such as stroke, are triggered by a loss of neurons and glial cells. Ischemic stroke remains a substantial problem for industrialized countries. Over the previous few decades our understanding about the pathophysiology of stroke has enhanced, nevertheless, more awareness is required to advance the field of stroke recovery. Read More

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December 2018

Challenges in HSV encephalitis: normocellular CSF, unremarkable CCT, and atypical MRI findings.

Infection 2018 Dec 1. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

Department of Neurology, Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-University (LMU) Munich, Marchioninistr. 15, 81377, Munich, Germany.

Purpose: Herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis continues to be the most common form of sporadic lethal encephalitis worldwide. The wide spectrum of clinical presentations and laboratory findings often poses a diagnostic challenge for physicians which might delay administration of life-saving therapy with acyclovir. Atypical presentations of HSV encephalitis have become increasingly prevalent with better diagnostic techniques and have not been well studied. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Impaired Hypothalamic Regulation of Sympathetic Outflow in Primary Hypertension.

Neurosci Bull 2018 Dec 1. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

Department of Medicine, Center for Precision Medicine, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, 65212, USA.

The hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) is a crucial region involved in maintaining homeostasis through the regulation of cardiovascular, neuroendocrine, and other functions. The PVN provides a dominant source of excitatory drive to the sympathetic outflow through innervation of the brainstem and spinal cord in hypertension. We discuss current findings on the role of the PVN in the regulation of sympathetic output in both normotensive and hypertensive conditions. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

The concept of rapid rescue radiosurgery in the acute management of critically located brain metastases: A retrospective short-term outcome analysis.

Surg Neurol Int 2018 30;9:218. Epub 2018 Oct 30.

Department of Neurosurgery, Karolinska Institute, Centre for Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.

Background: Adaptive hypofractionated gamma knife radiosurgery has been used to treat brain metastases in the eloquent regions while limiting the risk of adverse radiation effect (ARE). Ablative responses might be achieved within days to weeks with the goal to preserve the neurological function. The application of this treatment modality in selected acute/subacute settings has been termed Rapid Rescue Radiosurgery (RRR) in our department. Read More

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October 2018

Full neurological recovery following tricyclic overdose associated with absent brainstem reflexes.

J Intensive Care Soc 2018 Nov 22;19(4):365-367. Epub 2018 Mar 22.

Department of Intensive Care, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth, UK.

We report the case of an 18-year-old gentleman who presented to the emergency department following a large overdose of amitriptyline. He was comatose on admission but his neurology further deteriorated to global loss of brainstem reflexes. He made a full but slow neurological recovery. Read More

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November 2018

Auditory Brainstem Representation of the Voice Pitch Contours in the Resolved and Unresolved Components of Mandarin Tones.

Front Neurosci 2018 16;12:820. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

The Bionics Institute of Australia, East Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

Accurate perception of voice pitch plays a vital role in speech understanding, especially for tonal languages such as Mandarin. Lexical tones are primarily distinguished by the fundamental frequency (F0) contour of the acoustic waveform. It has been shown that the auditory system could extract the F0 from the resolved and unresolved harmonics, and the tone identification performance of resolved harmonics was better than unresolved harmonics. Read More

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November 2018

Multiple Combination of Angelica gigas Extract and Mesenchymal Stem Cells Enhances Therapeutic Effect.

Biol Pharm Bull 2018 ;41(12):1748-1756

Department of Biology Education, College of Education, Pusan National University.

Alternative medicines attract attention because stroke is rarely expected to make a full recovery with the most advanced medical technology. Angelica gigas (AG) is a well-known herbal medicine as a neuroprotective agent. The present study introduced mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to identify for the advanced treatment of the cerebrovascular disease. Read More

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January 2018

Investigating peripheral sources of speech-in-noise variability in listeners with normal audiograms.

Hear Res 2018 Nov 22;371:66-74. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Northwestern University, Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, Evanston, IL, USA. Electronic address: http://www.brainvolts.northwestern.edu.

A current initiative in auditory neuroscience research is to better understand why some listeners struggle to perceive speech-in-noise (SIN) despite having normal hearing sensitivity. Various hypotheses regarding the physiologic bases of this disorder have been proposed. Notably, recent work has suggested that the site of lesion underlying SIN deficits in normal hearing listeners may be either in "sub-clinical" outer hair cell damage or synaptopathic degeneration at the inner hair cell-auditory nerve fiber synapse. Read More

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November 2018

High-throughput single-cell transcriptomics on organoids.

Curr Opin Biotechnol 2018 Nov 29;55:167-171. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, 04103 Leipzig, Germany. Electronic address:

Three-dimensional (3D) tissues grown in culture from human stem cells offer the incredible opportunity to analyze and manipulate human development, and to generate patient-specific models of disease. Methods to sequence DNA and RNA in single cells are being used to analyze these so-called 'organoid' systems in high-resolution. Single-cell transcriptomics has been used to quantitate the similarity of organoid cells to primary tissue counterparts in the brain, intestine, liver, and kidney, as well as identify cell-specific responses to environmental variables and disease conditions. Read More

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November 2018

Antioxidant and Prooxidant Effects of Piptadeniastrum Africanum As The Possible Rationale Behind Its Broad Scale Application In African Ethnomedicine.

J Ethnopharmacol 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Johannesburg, PO Box 17011, Doornfontein 2028, Johannesburg, South Africa. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Piptadeniastrum africanum is widely used in treating oxidative stress related diseases. Oxidative stress, defined as the disturbance in the balance between the production of free radicals and antioxidant defenses, is the root cause of many pathophysiological conditions. Based on the dual properties of prooxidants as toxic and beneficial compounds, both prooxidants and antioxidants may be effective in the treatment of these conditions when the right dose is given to the right subject at the right time for the right duration. Read More

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November 2018

Increased Calcium Influx through L-type Calcium Channels in Human and Mouse Neural Progenitors Lacking Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein.

Stem Cell Reports 2018 Nov 20. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Faculty of Medicine, Physiology, University of Helsinki, PO Box 63, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland. Electronic address:

The absence of FMR1 protein (FMRP) causes fragile X syndrome (FXS) and disturbed FMRP function is implicated in several forms of human psychopathology. We show that intracellular calcium responses to depolarization are augmented in neural progenitors derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells and mouse brain with FXS. Increased calcium influx via nifedipine-sensitive voltage-gated calcium (Ca) channels contributes to the exaggerated responses to depolarization and type 1 metabotropic glutamate receptor activation. Read More

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November 2018

Tongue fasciculations in a brainstem tumour.

Med Clin (Barc) 2018 Nov 27. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Servicio de Medicina Interna, Hospital Universitario A Coruña, La Coruña, España.

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November 2018

Bickerstaff Brainstem Encephalitis and overlapping Guillain-Barré syndrome in children: Report of two cases and review of the literature.

Eur J Paediatr Neurol 2018 Nov 20. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Pediatric Clinic, Foundation IRCCS Policlinico "San Matteo", University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.

Bickerstaff Brainstem Encephalitis (BBE) is a rare autoimmune encephalitis, characterized by acute ophthalmoplegia, ataxia and altered state of consciousness. Together with Guillan-Barrè Syndrome (GBS) and Miller-Fisher Syndrome, it forms a spectrum of post-infectious demyelinating diseases. Overlapping forms between BBE and GBS (BBE/GBS) are described in patients with lower limbs weakness and typical signs of BBE, suggesting a combined involvement of Central and Peripheral Nervous System (PNS), but only few reported cases are focused on pediatric population. Read More

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November 2018

Counteracting neuroinflammation in experimental Parkinson's disease favors recovery of function: effects of Er-NPCs administration.

J Neuroinflammation 2018 Nov 30;15(1):333. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Laboratory of Pharmacology, Department of Health Sciences, University of Milan, Polo H. San Paolo, via A di Rudinì 8, 20142, Milan, Italy.

Background: Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease, presenting with midbrain dopaminergic neurons degeneration. A number of studies suggest that microglial activation may have a role in PD. It has emerged that inflammation-derived oxidative stress and cytokine-dependent toxicity may contribute to nigrostriatal pathway degeneration and exacerbate the progression of the disease in patients with idiopathic PD. Read More

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November 2018

Involvement of the cAMP-Dependent Pathway in Dextromethorphan-Induced Inhibition of Spontaneous Glutamate Transmission in the Nucleus Tractus Solitarius Neurons of Guinea Pigs.

Pharmacology 2018 Dec 5;103(1-2):76-81. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Dextromethorphan (DEX) presynaptically decreases glutamatergic transmission in second-order neurons of the nucleus tractus solitarius (TS). To clarify the inhibitory mechanism of DEX, the present study examined the interaction of DEX with cAMP. The effects of DEX on miniature and TS-evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs and eEPSCs) were recorded under activation of the cAMP-dependent pathway using the brainstem slices. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

A Primate-Specific Isoform of PLEKHG6 Regulates Neurogenesis and Neuronal Migration.

Cell Rep 2018 Dec;25(10):2729-2741.e6

Department of Women's and Children's Health, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand. Electronic address:

The mammalian neocortex has undergone remarkable changes through evolution. A consequence of such rapid evolutionary events could be a trade-off that has rendered the brain susceptible to certain neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric conditions. We analyzed the exomes of 65 patients with the structural brain malformation periventricular nodular heterotopia (PH). Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

SOX2 in Cancer Stemness: Tumor Malignancy and Therapeutic Potentials.

J Mol Cell Biol 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, School of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, China.

Cancer stem cells (CSCs), a minor subpopulation of tumor bulks with self-renewal and seeding capacity to generate new tumors, posit a significant challenge to develop effective and long-lasting anti-cancer therapies. The emergence of drug resistance appears upon failure of chemo-/radiation therapy to eradicate the CSCs, thereby leading to CSC-mediated clinical relapse. Accumulating evidence suggests that transcription factor SOX2, a master regulator of embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells, drives cancer stemness, fuels tumor initiation, and contributes to tumor aggressiveness through major drug resistance mechanisms like epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), ATP-binding cassette (ABC) drug transporters, anti-apoptotic and/or pro-survival signaling, lineage plasticity, and evasion of immune surveillance. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Changes in brain white matter structure are associated with urine proteins in urologic chronic pelvic pain syndrome (UCPPS): A MAPP Network study.

PLoS One 2018 5;13(12):e0206807. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Radiological Science, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California-Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, United States of America.

The Multidisciplinary Approach to the Study of Chronic Pelvic Pain (MAPP) Research Network has yielded neuroimaging and urinary biomarker findings that highlight unique alterations in brain structure and in urinary proteins related to tissue remodeling and vascular structure in patients with Urological Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome (UCPPS). We hypothesized that localized changes in diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measurements might be associated with corresponding changes in urinary protein levels in UCPPS. To test this hypothesis, we created statistical parameter maps depicting the linear correlation between DTI measurements (fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC)) and urinary protein quantification (MMP2, MMP9, NGAL, MMP9/NGAL complex, and VEGF) in 30 UCPPS patients from the MAPP Research Network, after accounting for clinical covariates. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Dissociation of muscle and cortical response scaling to balance perturbation acceleration.

J Neurophysiol 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

W.H. Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering, Emory University and Georgia Institute of Technology, United States.

The role of cortical activity in standing balance is unclear. Here we tested whether perturbation-evoked cortical responses share sensory input with simultaneous balance-correcting muscle responses. We hypothesized that the acceleration-dependent somatosensory signals that drive the initial burst of the muscle automatic postural response also drive the simultaneous perturbation-evoked cortical N1 response. Read More

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December 2018

Coma and Brain Death.

Continuum (Minneap Minn) 2018 Dec;24(6):1708-1731

Purpose Of Review: This article discusses the diagnostic and therapeutic approach to patients who are comatose and reviews the current knowledge on prognosis from various causes of coma. This article also provides an overview of the principles for determination of brain death as well as advice on how to avoid common pitfalls.

Recent Findings: Technologic advances have refined our understanding of the physiology of consciousness and the spectrum of disorders of consciousness; they also promise to improve our prognostic accuracy. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Superficial Siderosis of the Central Nervous System: Neurotological Findings Related to Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

Otol Neurotol 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, University of Bern, Switzerland.

Objective: To compare the neurotological results of five patients suffering from progressive hearing loss and ataxia due to superficial siderosis (SS) with the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings.

Study Design: Retrospective case review.

Setting: Primary and hospital care center. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Corollary discharge in precerebellar nuclei of sleeping infant rats.

Elife 2018 Dec 5;7. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, University of Iowa, Iowa, United States.

In week-old rats, somatosensory input arises predominantly from external stimuli or from sensory feedback (reafference) associated with myoclonic twitches during active sleep. A previous study suggested that the brainstem motor structures that produce twitches also send motor copies (or corollary discharge, CD) to the cerebellum. We tested this possibility by recording from two precerebellar nuclei-the inferior olive (IO) and lateral reticular nucleus (LRN). Read More

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December 2018

The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors regulate hippocampal adult-neurogenesis in a sexually dimorphic fashion.

Brain Struct Funct 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Neurobiology Laboratory, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, P.O. box 12233, Mail Drop F2-08, Research Triangle Park, NC, 27709, USA.

Disruption in cholinergic signaling has been linked to many environmental and/or pathological conditions known to modify adult neurogenesis. The α7 nAChRs are in the family of cys-loop receptor channels which have been shown to be neuroprotective in adult neurons and are thought to be critical for survival and integration of immature neurons. However, in developing neurons, poor calcium buffering may cause α7 nAChR activation to be neurotoxic. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Cannabidiol's Upregulation of -acyl Ethanolamines in the Central Nervous System Requires -acyl Phosphatidyl Ethanolamine-Specific Phospholipase D.

Cannabis Cannabinoid Res 2018 30;3(1):228-241. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Program in Neuroscience, Indiana University Bloomington, Bloomington, Indiana.

Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) are bioactive cannabinoids. We recently showed that acute THC administration drives region-dependent changes in the mouse brain lipidome. This study tested the hypothesis that cell lines representing cell types present in the central nervous system (CNS), neurons (N18 cells), astrocytes (C6 glioma cells), and microglia (BV2 cells) would respond differently to THC, CBD, or their combination. Read More

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November 2018

Contactin-1/F3 Regulates Neuronal Migration and Morphogenesis Through Modulating RhoA Activity.

Front Mol Neurosci 2018 20;11:422. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Institute of Brain Science, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan.

During neocortical development, newborn neurons migrate along radial fibers from the germinal ventricular zone (VZ) toward the cortical plate (CP) to populate the cerebral cortex. This radial migration requires adhesion activities between neurons and radial fibers; however, past research has identified only a limited number of adhesion molecules involved in this process. Contactin-1/F3 (Cntn1), a cell adhesion molecule expressed in the developing nervous system is essential for many key developmental events including neural cell adhesion, neurite outgrowth, axon guidance and myelination. Read More

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November 2018

Sex separation induces differences in the olfactory sensory receptor repertoires of male and female mice.

Nat Commun 2018 Dec 4;9(1):5081. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Neuroscience Program, Department of Zoology & Physiology, University of Wyoming, 1000 E. University Avenue, Laramie, WY, 82071, USA.

Within the mammalian olfactory sensory epithelium, experience-dependent changes in the rate of neuronal turnover can alter the relative abundance of neurons expressing specific chemoreceptors. Here we investigate how the mouse olfactory sensory receptor repertoire changes as a function of exposure to odors emitted from members of the opposite sex, which are highly complex and sexually dimorphic. Upon housing mice either sex-separated or sex-combined until six months of age, we find that sex-separated mice exhibit significantly more numerous differentially expressed genes within their olfactory epithelia. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

A novel mA reader Prrc2a controls oligodendroglial specification and myelination.

Cell Res 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

The Brain Science Center, Beijing Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, 100850, Beijing, China.

While N-methyladenosine (mA), the most abundant internal modification in eukaryotic mRNA, is linked to cell differentiation and tissue development, the biological significance of mA modification in mammalian glial development remains unknown. Here, we identify a novel mA reader, Prrc2a (Proline rich coiled-coil 2 A), which controls oligodendrocyte specification and myelination. Nestin-Cre-mediated knockout of Prrc2a induces significant hypomyelination, decreased lifespan, as well as locomotive and cognitive defects in a mouse model. Read More

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December 2018
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PECAM/eGFP transgenic mice for monitoring of angiogenesis in health and disease.

Sci Rep 2018 Dec 4;8(1):17582. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Institute of Physiology I, Life&Brain Center, Medical Faculty, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany.

For the monitoring of vascular growth as well as adaptive or therapeutic (re)vascularization endothelial-specific reporter mouse models are valuable tools. However, currently available mouse models have limitations, because not all endothelial cells express the reporter in all developmental stages. We have generated PECAM/eGFP embryonic stem (ES) cell and mouse lines where the reporter gene labels PECAM endothelial cells and vessels with high specificity. Read More

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December 2018
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Human stem cells transplanted into the rat stroke brain migrate to spleen via lymphatic and inflammation pathways.

Haematologica 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Department of Neurosurgery and Brain Repair, University of South Florida

Despite mounting evidence of a massive peripheral inflammatory response accompanying stroke, the ability of intracerebrally transplanted cells to migrate to the periphery and sequester systemic inflammation remains unexamined. Here, we tested the hypothesis that human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells intracerebrally transplanted in the brain of adult rats subjected to experimental stroke can migrate to the spleen, a vital organ that confers peripheral inflammation after stroke. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats received sham or experimental stroke via the one-hour middle cerebral artery occlusion model. Read More

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December 2018