1,977,828 results match your criteria Brain structure & function[Journal]


Maternal Motivation: Exploring the Roles of Prolactin and Pup Stimuli.

Neuroendocrinology 2020 Jul 9. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Motherhood entails increased motivation for pups, which become strong reinforcers and guide maternal behaviours. This depends on steroids and lactogens acting on the brain of females during pregnancy and postpartum. Since virgin female mice exposed to pups are nearly spontaneously maternal, the specific roles of endocrine and pup-derived signals in the induction of maternal motivation remain unclear. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000510038DOI Listing

Evaluation of N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide and cardiac troponin-I levels in cats with systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve in the absence of left ventricular hypertrophy.

J Vet Cardiol 2020 May 18;30:23-31. Epub 2020 May 18.

Specialist Veterinary Cardiology Consultancy Ltd., Alton, Hampshire, United Kingdom.

Objectives: To identify the prevalence of systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve (SAM) in apparently healthy cats in the absence of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and examine the relationship between specific cardiac biomarker concentrations and echocardiographic parameters in these individuals.

Animals: eighty client-owned cats.

Materials And Methods: retrospective study; inclusion criteria were the presence of SAM on conscious echocardiography and concurrent measurement of plasma N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and serum cardiac troponin-I (cTnI). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvc.2020.05.001DOI Listing

Eye tracking of smoking-related stimuli in tobacco use disorder: A proof-of-concept study combining attention bias modification with alpha-transcranial alternating current stimulation.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2020 Jul 2;214:108152. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Psychiatry and Neurosciences, Medical School, Université Laval, CERVO Brain Research Center, Centre intégré universitaire en santé et services sociaux de la Capitale-Nationale, 2325 rue de l'Université, Quebec City, QC, G1V 0A6, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: Tobacco use disorder (TUD) is characterized by the presence of an attentional bias (AB) towards smoking-related stimuli. We investigated whether combining an AB modification paradigm (ABM) with transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) applied over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) reduces the AB towards smoking-related stimuli, as well as craving level and impulsive choices.

Methods: In a sham-controlled, crossover preliminary study, 19 subjects with TUD received two stimulation arms: 1) active tACS (10 Hz, 2 mA, 30 min) combined with ABM and 2) sham tACS combined with ABM, in a randomized order, separated by one week. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2020.108152DOI Listing

Differential brain responses for perception of pain during empathic response in binge drinkers compared to non-binge drinkers.

Neuroimage Clin 2020 Jun 25;27:102322. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Behavioural and Clinical Neuroscience, School of Psychology, University of Sussex, United Kingdom; Clinical Imaging Sciences Centre, Brighton and Sussex Medical School, University of Sussex, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Individuals who engage in binge drinking behaviors may show evidence of impaired cognitive function and emotional dysregulation. Impaired empathy, characterized by a reduced ability to understand and respond appropriately to feelings of others, is increasingly recognized for its role in Alcohol Use Disorders (AUD). The present study examined a population of young adult social drinkers to compare individuals who show binge drinking behavior to those who do not on measures of empathic processing and associated neural responses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nicl.2020.102322DOI Listing

DL0410 attenuates oxidative stress and neuroinflammation via BDNF/TrkB/ERK/CREB and Nrf2/HO-1 activation.

Int Immunopharmacol 2020 Jul 6;86:106729. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

State Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substances and Functions of Natural Medicines, Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100050, China; Beijing Key Laboratory of Drug Target Identification and Drug Screening, Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100050, China. Electronic address:

Oxidative stress and neuroinflammation have been deeply associated with Alzheimer's disease. DL0410 is a novel acetylcholinesterase inhibitor with potential anti-oxidative effects in AD-related animal models, while the specific mechanism has not been fully clarified. In this study, DL0410 was predicted to be related to the modification of cell apoptosis, oxidation-reduction process, inflammatory response and ERK1/ERK2 cascade by in silico target fishing and GO enrichment analysis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2020.106729DOI Listing

Serum vascular endothelial growth factor as a biomarker for prognosis of minor ischemic stroke.

Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2020 Jul 1;196:106060. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Department of Neurology, First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Hei Longjiang Province, PR China.

Objectives Although vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a well-known molecule involved with neuronal survival and angiogenesis. there are no prospective studies directed at evaluating a potential association between serum VEGF and minor ischemic stroke. The goal of this study was to investigate the utility of serum VEGF as an index for assessing the 90-day prognosis of minor ischemic stroke patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clineuro.2020.106060DOI Listing

Expectations and knowledge of cannabidiol therapy for childhood epilepsy - A German caregiver survey.

Epilepsy Behav 2020 Jul 6;111:107268. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Neuropediatrics and Muscle Disorders, Medical Center-University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine University of Freiburg, Mathildenstraße 1, 79106 Freiburg, Germany; Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, Germany; Hotchkiss Brain Institute and Alberta Children's Hospital Research Institute, University of Calgary, Canada.

Background: Cannabidiol (CBD) has gained popularity among parents of children with epilepsy, even before evidence of efficacy and safety was available. The aim of our survey was to gain information about parental attitude to CBD, as well as expectations and knowledge of CBD for treatment of their child's epilepsy.

Methods: A survey using an open-access online questionnaire for parents or caregivers of children with epilepsy within German-speaking countries from March to June 2019 was used. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yebeh.2020.107268DOI Listing

Bridging the healthcare gap: Building the case for epilepsy virtual clinics in the current healthcare environment.

Epilepsy Behav 2020 Jul 6;111:107262. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Epilepsy Unit, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland, UK.

Access to quality healthcare remains a challenge that is complicated by mounting pressures to control costs, and now, as we witness, the unprecedented strain placed on our healthcare delivery systems due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Challenges in healthcare access have driven a need for innovative approaches ensuring connectivity to health providers. Telehealth services and virtual clinics offer accessible disease management pathways for patients living in health resource limited areas or, as in the case of the COVID-19 pandemic, where there may be potential barriers to existing healthcare resources. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yebeh.2020.107262DOI Listing

Neurodevelopment of high and low-risk pregnancy babies at 6 months of age.

Midwifery 2020 Jul 5;89:102791. Epub 2020 Jul 5.

Personality, Assessment and Psychological Treatment Department, Faculty of Psychology, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.

Objective: to compare neurodevelopment differences between babies born from low-risk pregnancies and babies born from high-risk pregnancies.

Study Design: Longitudinal design SETTING: Spain PARTICIPANTS: A total of 91 women participated in the study, divided into two groups: 49 women in the low-risk pregnancy group and 42 women in the high-risk group.

Measurement And Findings: The average amount of cortisol in pregnant mothers' hair was determined in both groups. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.midw.2020.102791DOI Listing

Differences in hair cortisol concentrations and reported anxiety in women with preeclampsia versus uncomplicated pregnancies.

Pregnancy Hypertens 2020 Jun 27;21:200-202. Epub 2020 Jun 27.

Radboud University, Department of Developmental Psychology, Behavioural Science Institute, P.O. Box 9104, 6500 HE Nijmegen, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

This Dutch multicenter case-controlled study investigated whether cortisol concentrations and psychosocial stress during pregnancy differed between women with early-onset preeclampsia, late-onset preeclampsia, and uncomplicated pregnancies. Cortisol concentrations were analyzed in three hair segments representing the preconception period, first, and second trimester of pregnancy. Cortisol trajectories differed, with early-onset preeclampsia showing steeper increases in cortisol and higher cortisol concentrations during the second trimester. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.preghy.2020.06.006DOI Listing

Behavioral psychological symptoms of dementia and functional connectivity changes: a network-based study.

Neurobiol Aging 2020 Jun 16;94:196-206. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Department of Neuroscience, Brighton & Sussex Medical School, University of Sussex, Brithon, UK; Department of Neuroscience "Rita Levi Montalcini", University of Torino, Turin, Italy.

Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are commonly observed since the early stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD) associated with structural brain changes. It is conceivable that they may also relate to functional brain changes. This resting-state functional MRI (RS-fMRI) study investigated the alterations within functional brain networks of a cohort of AD patients at different clinical stages who presented with BPSD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2020.06.009DOI Listing

The role of cognitive reserve on prefrontal and premotor cortical activity in visuo-motor response tasks in healthy old adults.

Neurobiol Aging 2020 Jun 9;94:185-195. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

University of Rome "Foro Italico" - Department of Movement Human and Health Sciences, Rome Italy.

Cognitive reserve (CR) is a key factor to mitigate the cognitive decline during the aging process. Here, we used event-related potentials to target the preparatory brain activities associated with different levels of CR during visuo-motor simple response tasks (SRTs) and discriminative response tasks (DRTs). EEG was recorded from 28 healthy old (Age: 72. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2020.06.002DOI Listing

Presetting an inhibitory state modifies the neural processing of negated action sentences. An ERP study.

Brain Cogn 2020 Jul 6;143:105598. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Instituto Universitario de Neurociencia, Universidad de La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain; Departamento de Psicología Cognitiva, Universidad de La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain. Electronic address:

It has been proposed that understanding negated action sentences (You don't cut the bread) uses the neural networks of action inhibition. The evidence comes from studies in which affirmative or negative action language immediately preceded a Go/NoGo task. It was found that negation selectively modulates inhibition-related signatures of NoGo trials, supporting the Reusing Inhibition for Negation (RIN) hypothesis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bandc.2020.105598DOI Listing

Effect of estrogen and stress on estrogen receptor 1 in the HPG axis of immature male Gallus gallus domesticus: Involvement of anti-oxidant system.

Theriogenology 2020 Jun 23;155:98-113. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Department of Zoology, Dr. H. S. Gour Central University, Sagar, M.P, 470003, India. Electronic address:

Estrogen plays a key role in the regulation of reproductive behavior and control of the neuroendocrine system in both males and females. However, excessive quantity of exogenous estrogen produces a deleterious effect on the male reproductive system. To elucidate the mechanism by which estrogen modulates its receptor alpha (ESR1) in immature chicken during stress the study has been undertaken. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2020.05.048DOI Listing

Recognition of musical emotions and their perceived intensity after unilateral brain damage.

Cortex 2020 Jun 12;130:78-93. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Lyon Neuroscience Research Center; CNRS, UMR5292; INSERM, U1028; Lyon, France; University Lyon 1, Lyon, France.

For the hemispheric laterality of emotion processing in the brain, two competing hypotheses are currently still debated. The first hypothesis suggests a greater involvement of the right hemisphere in emotion perception whereas the second hypothesis suggests different involvements of each hemisphere as a function of the valence of the emotion. These hypotheses are based on findings for facial and prosodic emotion perception. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2020.05.015DOI Listing

Identification of the COMM-domain containing protein 1 as specific binding partner for the guanine-rich RNA sequence binding factor 1.

Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Subj 2020 Jul 6:129678. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

University of York, Department of Biology, York YO10 5DD, United Kingdom.

Background: The guanine-rich RNA sequence binding factor 1 (GRSF1) is an RNA-binding protein of the hnRNP H/F family, which has been implicated in erythropoiesis, regulation of the redox homeostasis, embryonic brain development, mitochondrial function and cellular senescence. The molecular basis for GRSF1-RNA interaction has extensively been studied in the past but for the time being GRSF1 binding proteins have not been identified.

Methods: To search for GRSF1 binding proteins we first employed the yeast two-hybrid system and screened a cDNA library of human fetal brain for potential GRSF1 binding proteins. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbagen.2020.129678DOI Listing

Unravelling fatigue in hemodialysis patients: comparing retrospective reports to real-time assessments with an mHealth Experienced Sampling Method.

J Pain Symptom Manage 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Neuropsychology and Psychopharmacology, Faculty of Psychology and Neuroscience, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands; School for Mental Health and Neuroscience, Faculty of Health, Medicine and Life Sciences, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands; Limburg Brain Injury Centre, The Netherlands.

Context: Fatigue is prevalent among hemodialysis (HD) patients and associated with depressive mood. To advance our understanding of its etiology and develop appropriate treatments, reliable measurement instruments are needed. However, conventional fatigue and mood questionnaires are prone to bias due to their retrospective nature and may misrepresent or overestimate actual symptom experience (i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2020.06.042DOI Listing

Neuroprotective effects of Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl. bark extract against Alzheimer's disease.

J Chem Neuroanat 2020 Jul 6:101848. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Laboratoire de Biochimie Appliquée, Faculté des Sciences de la Nature et de la Vie, Université de Bejaia, 06000, Bejaia, Algeria.

Alzheimer disease's (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease induced by amyloid-β aggregation and accumulation of neurotoxic metals in the brain. Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl. (Oleaceae) is a Mediterranean plant traditionally used to treat several human problems as nervous system problems. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jchemneu.2020.101848DOI Listing

Reducing bias in DREAM flip angle mapping in human brain at 7T by multiple preparation flip angles.

Magn Reson Imaging 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Dept. of Medical Radiation Physics, Clinical Sciences Lund, Lund University, Lund, SE, Sweden.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mri.2020.07.002DOI Listing

Roux-en-Y gastric bypass increases GABA-A receptor levels in regions of the rat brain involved in object recognition memory and perceptual acuity.

Physiol Behav 2020 Jul 6:113053. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Behavioral Neuropharmacology and Neuroimaging Laboratory on Addictions, Clinical Research Institute on Addictions, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Jacobs School of Medicine and Biosciences, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY; Department of Psychology, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY. Electronic address:

Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB), one of the most common and successful procedures for combatting obesity, is associated with post-surgery substance use disorder (SUD) and other addictive behaviors in a subset of patients. We investigated the effects of RYGB on GABA-A receptor levels in the rat brain to identify potential mechanisms of this behavior. The GABAergic system is affected in addiction and has been implicated in the pathology of obesity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2020.113053DOI Listing

Ensemble or pool: a comprehensive study on transfer learning for c-VEP BCI during interpersonal interaction.

J Neurosci Methods 2020 Jul 6:108855. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

School of Economics and Management, Institute of Psychological and Cognitive Sciences, Fuzhou University Fuzhou, 350108, China. Electronic address:

Background: To reduce calibration time of brain-computer interface (BCI) or even implement zero-training BCI, researchers have been studying how to effectively apply transfer learning in the field. In order to thoroughly investigate the performance of transfer learning in BCI and the key factors affecting transfer performance in the field, we carried out a comprehensive study.

New Method: In general, transferring knowledge in BCI is implemented in two ways: ensemble or pool. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jneumeth.2020.108855DOI Listing

The neonatal excitotoxic process modifies the protein expression levels of EAAT1 (GLAST) and EAAT2 (GLT-1) in various brain regions of the adult rat brain.

Neurosci Lett 2020 Jul 6:135237. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Departamento de Biología Celular y Molecular, Centro Universitario de Ciencias Biológicas y Agropecuarias (CUCBA), Universidad de Guadalajara, Zapopan, Jalisco, México. Electronic address:

Glutamate-mediated excitatory synaptic signalling is primarily controlled by excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs), such as EAAT1 and EAAT2, which are located mostly on astrocytes and, together, uptake more than 95% of extracellular glutamate. Alterations in the functional expression levels of EAATs can lead to excessive extracellular glutamate accumulation, potentially triggering excitotoxicity and seizures, both of which are involved in various neurological diseases. Excitotoxicity induced in early developmental stages can lead to lasting changes in several neurotransmission systems, including the glutamatergic system, which could make the brain more susceptible to a second insult. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2020.135237DOI Listing

Abnormal white matter microstructures in Parkinson's disease and comorbid depression: a whole-brain diffusion tensor imaging study.

Neurosci Lett 2020 Jul 6:135238. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Peking University, Beijing, 100871, China; Center for MRI Research, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing, 100871, China; McGovern Institute for Brain Research, Peking University, Beijing, 100871, China. Electronic address:

Objective: Depressive symptoms are the most common non-motor symptom accompanying Parkinson's disease (PD); however, the neural basis of depression in PD remains unclear. The aim of this study was to characterize possible depression-related white matter microstructural differences in patients with PD and comorbid depression compared with PD patients and healthy controls (HC) without depression.

Methods: We used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to analyze white matter integrity in depressed PD patients (n = 30), non-depressed PD patients (n = 43), and HC (n = 91). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2020.135238DOI Listing

FUNCTIONAL CONNECTIVITY OF THE LEFT INFERIOR FRONTAL GYRUS DURING SEMANTIC PRIMING.

Neurosci Lett 2020 Jul 6:135236. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

General and Biological Psychology, University of Wuppertal, Germany.

Recent applications of computationally calculated word co-occurrences allowed the prediction of left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) activation during semantic word processing. Hence, an interactive activation model, the associative read-out model (AROM), utilizes co-occurrences in its semantic processing layer and proposes connectivity from the LIFG along the ventral visual stream. Direct empirical evidence for its connectivity assumptions is so far missing, however. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2020.135236DOI Listing

Sustained inhibition of PARP-1 activity delays glioblastoma recurrence by enhancing radiation-induced senescence.

Cancer Lett 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Shilpee Dutt Laboratory, Advanced Centre for Treatment, Research and Education in Cancer (ACTREC), Tata Memorial Centre, Navi Mumbai, India; Homi Bhabha National Institute, Training School Complex, Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai, 400085, India. Electronic address:

Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary brain tumor and is highly aggressive with a median survival of 15 months. We have previously shown that residual cells of GBM form multinucleated giant cells (MNGCs) showing a senescent phenotype, but eventually escape from therapy induced senescence (TIS), resulting in GBM recurrence. Here we demonstrate the role of PARP-1 in TIS and its recovery. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.canlet.2020.06.023DOI Listing

Curcumin-loaded nanoemulsion improves haemorrhagic stroke recovery in wistar rats.

Brain Res 2020 Jul 6:147007. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande (FURG), Rio Grande, RS, 96210-900, Brazil; Laboratório de Histologia, FURG, Rio Grande, RS, 96210-900, Brazil; Laboratório de Neurociências, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, FURG, Rio Grande, RS, 96210-900, Brazil.

Cerebrovascular diseases are currently a major global health problem. Considering the limitations of current therapy, the search for new alternatives for the treatment of these diseases is necessary and, in this context, curcumin, a molecule that has neuroprotective properties already described in the literature. A limiting factor when considering therapies for the nervous tissue is the presence of the blood-brain barrier which stimulates the search for new drug delivery strategies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2020.147007DOI Listing
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