1,414 results match your criteria Brain sciences[Journal]


Optimized Protocol to Generate Spinal Motor Neuron Cells from Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from Charcot Marie Tooth Patients.

Brain Sci 2020 Jun 27;10(7). Epub 2020 Jun 27.

CHU de Limoges, Service de Biochimie et Génétique Moléculaire, F-87000 Limoges, France.

Modelling rare neurogenetic diseases to develop new therapeutic strategies is highly challenging. The use of human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) is a powerful approach to obtain specialized cells from patients. For hereditary peripheral neuropathies, such as Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) Type II, spinal motor neurons (MNs) are impaired but are very difficult to study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10070407DOI Listing

Evaluating the Impact of Age, Acoustic Exposure, and Electrical Stimulation on Binaural Sensitivity in Adult Bilateral Cochlear Implant Patients.

Brain Sci 2020 Jun 26;10(6). Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Waisman Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53705, USA.

Deafness in both ears is highly disruptive to communication in everyday listening situations. Many individuals with profound deafness receive bilateral cochlear implants (CIs) to gain access to spatial cues used in localization and speech understanding in noise. However, the benefit of bilateral CIs, in particular sensitivity to interaural time and level differences (ITD and ILDs), varies among patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10060406DOI Listing

Incubation of Negative Affect during Protracted Alcohol Withdrawal Is Age-, but Not Sex-Selective.

Brain Sci 2020 Jun 26;10(6). Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, University of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA 93196-9660, USA.

A prior history of excessive drinking induces a negative affective state in both humans and laboratory rodents, the manifestation of which varies with the age of drinking-onset. In adolescent male mice, negative affect incubates over the course of a 30-day alcohol withdrawal period. In contrast, the negative affect exhibited by adult male mice is robust at 1 day withdrawal, but dissipates with the passage of time. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10060405DOI Listing

Increased Neural Reward Responsivity in Adolescents with ASD after Social Skills Intervention.

Brain Sci 2020 Jun 24;10(6). Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Graduate School of Education, UC Riverside, Riverside, CA 92521, USA.

The reward system has been implicated as a potential neural mechanism underlying social-communication deficits in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, it remains unclear whether the neural reward system in ASD is sensitive to behavioral interventions. The current study measured the reward positivity (RewP) in response to social and nonsocial stimuli in seven adolescents with ASD before and after participation in the Program for the Education and Enrichment of Relational Skills (PEERS) intervention. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10060402DOI Listing

Alexithymia Is Associated with Reduced Quality of Life and Increased Caregiver Burden in Parkinson's Disease.

Brain Sci 2020 Jun 24;10(6). Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Department of Neurology, Hannover Medical School, Carl-Neuberg-Straße 1, 30625 Hannover, Germany.

Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most frequent neurodegenerative disease of people who are beyond 50 years of age. People with PD (PwP) suffer from a large variety of motor and non-motor symptoms resulting in reduced health-related quality of life (HR-QoL). In the last two decades, alexithymia was identified as an additional non-motor symptom in PD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10060401DOI Listing

Contribution of Dopamine Transporter Gene Methylation Status to Cannabis Dependency.

Brain Sci 2020 Jun 23;10(6). Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Department of Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, 49 Przybyszewskiego St., 60-355 Poznan, Poland.

The susceptibility to cannabis dependency results from the influence of numerous factors such as social, genetic, as well as epigenetic factors. Many studies have attempted to discover a molecular basis for this disease. However, our study aimed at evaluating the connection between altered methylation of the dopamine transporter gene () promoter CpG sites and cannabis dependency. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10060400DOI Listing

Parkinsonian Syndrome with Frontal Lobe Involvement and Anti-Glycine Receptor Antibodies.

Brain Sci 2020 Jun 23;10(6). Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Section for Experimental Neuropsychiatry, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Medical Center-University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, 79104 Freiburg, Germany.

Atypical Parkinsonian syndromes with prominent frontal lobe involvement can occur in the 4R-taupathies progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and corticobasal degeneration (CBD). Secondary forms of movement disorders may occur in the context of autoimmune encephalitis with antineuronal antibodies, such as anti-glycine receptor (anti-GlyR) antibodies, which are typically associated with Stiff-Person spectrum syndrome, or progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity and myoclonus. Overlaps between neurodegenerative and immunological mechanisms have been recently suggested in anti-IgLON5 disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10060399DOI Listing

Human Figure Drawings in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Possible Window on the Inner or the Outer World.

Brain Sci 2020 Jun 23;10(6). Epub 2020 Jun 23.

IRCCS Stella Maris Foundation, 56126 Pisa, Italy.

Background: Tests based on human figure drawings (HFD) have captured the attention of clinicians and psychologists for a long time. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the performance of HFD of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) relative to typically developing (TD) controls.

Methods: All children were asked to draw three human figures (man, woman, self-portrait) and were evaluated with a neuropsychological battery. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10060398DOI Listing

Amplified Concern for Social Risk in Adolescence: Development and Validation of a New Measure.

Brain Sci 2020 Jun 23;10(6). Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, University College London, London WC1N 3AZ, UK.

In adolescence, there is a heightened propensity to take health risks such as smoking, drinking or driving too fast. Another facet of risk taking, social risk, has largely been neglected. A social risk can be defined as any decision or action that could lead to an individual being excluded by their peers, such as appearing different to one's friends. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10060397DOI Listing

Multiscale Computation and Dynamic Attention in Biological and Artificial Intelligence.

Brain Sci 2020 Jun 20;10(6). Epub 2020 Jun 20.

Center for Brain Science, RIKEN, Saitama 351-0198, Japan.

Biological and artificial intelligence (AI) are often defined by their capacity to achieve a hierarchy of short-term and long-term goals that require incorporating information over time and space at both local and global scales. More advanced forms of this capacity involve the adaptive modulation of integration across scales, which resolve computational inefficiency and explore-exploit dilemmas at the same time. Research in neuroscience and AI have both made progress towards understanding architectures that achieve this. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10060396DOI Listing

Neurochemical Correlates of Brain Atrophy in Fibromyalgia Syndrome: A Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and Cortical Thickness Study.

Brain Sci 2020 Jun 20;10(6). Epub 2020 Jun 20.

Neuroradiology Unit, IRCSS Istituto Delle Scienze Neurologiche di Bologna, Via Altura 3, 40100 Bologna, Italy.

(1) Background: Recently, a series of clinical neuroimaging studies on fibromyalgia (FM) have shown a reduction in cortical volume and abnormally high glutamate (Glu) and glutamate + glutamine (Glx) levels in regions associated with pain modulation. However, it remains unclear whether the volumetric decreases and increased Glu levels in FM are related each other. We hypothesized that higher Glu levels are related to decreases in cortical thickness (CT) and volume in FM patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10060395DOI Listing

Cholinergic System and NGF Receptors: Insights from the Brain of the Short-Lived Fish .

Brain Sci 2020 Jun 20;10(6). Epub 2020 Jun 20.

Department Veterinary Medicine and Animal Production, University of Naples Federico II, Naples I-80137, Italy.

Nerve growth factor (NGF) receptors are evolutionary conserved molecules, and in mammals are considered necessary for ensuring the survival of cholinergic neurons. The age-dependent regulation of NTRK1/NTRKA and p75/NGFR in mammalian brain results in a reduced response of the cholinergic neurons to neurotrophic factors and is thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we study the age-dependent expression of NGF receptors ( and p75/) in the brain of the short-lived teleost fish . Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10060394DOI Listing

Theory of Mind Deficits and Neurophysiological Operations in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Review.

Brain Sci 2020 Jun 20;10(6). Epub 2020 Jun 20.

Department of English, School of Arts and Humanities, University of Cologne, 50923 Cologne, Germany.

Theory of Mind (ToM) is a multifaceted skill set which encompasses a variety of cognitive and neurobiological aspects. ToM deficits have long been regarded as one of the most disabling features in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder. One of the theories that attempts to account for these impairments is that of "broken mirror neurons". Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10060393DOI Listing

A Novel Connectome-Based Electrophysiological Study of Subjective Cognitive Decline Related to Alzheimer's Disease by Using Resting-State High-Density EEG EGI GES 300.

Brain Sci 2020 Jun 19;10(6). Epub 2020 Jun 19.

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki; 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece.

: To investigate for the first time the brain network in the Alzheimer's disease (AD) spectrum by implementing a high-density electroencephalography (HD-EEG - EGI GES 300) study with 256 channels in order to seek if the brain connectome can be effectively used to distinguish cognitive impairment in preclinical stages. : Twenty participants with AD, 30 with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), 20 with subjective cognitive decline (SCD) and 22 healthy controls (HC) were examined with a detailed neuropsychological battery and 10 min resting state HD-EEG. We extracted correlation matrices by using Pearson correlation coefficients for each subject and constructed weighted undirected networks for calculating clustering coefficient (CC), strength (S) and betweenness centrality (BC) at global (256 electrodes) and local levels (29 parietal electrodes). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10060392DOI Listing

Reward Responsiveness in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study: African Americans' Diminished Returns of Parental Education.

Brain Sci 2020 Jun 19;10(6). Epub 2020 Jun 19.

Center for Research on Ethnicity, Culture, and Health (CRECH), School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48104, USA.

(1) Background: Reward responsiveness (RR) is a risk factor for high-risk behaviors such as aggressive behaviors and early sexual initiation, which are all reported to be higher in African American and low socioeconomic status adolescents. At the same time, parental education is one of the main drivers of reward responsiveness among adolescents. It is still unknown if some of this racial and economic gap is attributed to weaker effects of parental education for African Americans, a pattern also called minorities' diminished returns (MDRs). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10060391DOI Listing

Lacking Pace but Not Precision: Age-Related Information Processing Changes in Response to a Dynamic Attentional Control Task.

Brain Sci 2020 Jun 19;10(6). Epub 2020 Jun 19.

Centre for Innovative Ageing, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP, UK.

Age-related decline in information processing can have a substantial impact on activities such as driving. However, the assessment of these changes is often carried out using cognitive tasks that do not adequately represent the dynamic process of updating environmental stimuli. Equally, traditional tests are often static in their approach to task complexity, and do not assess difficulty within the bounds of an individual's capability. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10060390DOI Listing

Functional Aspects of Hypothalamic Asymmetry.

Brain Sci 2020 Jun 19;10(6). Epub 2020 Jun 19.

Department of Animal Physiology and Animal Health, Szent Istvan University, Faculty of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, 2100 Gödöllő, Hungary.

Anatomically, the brain is a symmetric structure. However, growing evidence suggests that certain higher brain functions are regulated by only one of the otherwise duplicated (and symmetric) brain halves. Hemispheric specialization correlates with phylogeny supporting intellectual evolution by providing an ergonomic way of brain processing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10060389DOI Listing

Effect of Mental Fatigue on Postural Sway in Healthy Older Adults and Stroke Populations.

Brain Sci 2020 Jun 19;10(6). Epub 2020 Jun 19.

Department of Physical Therapy, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612, USA.

The aim of this study was to examine the effect of mental fatigue on postural sway under different sensory conditions in healthy older adults and in persons with chronic stroke (PwCS). Thirty healthy older adults (> 60 years old), randomly separated into experimental and control groups, as well as 15 PwCS participated in this study. Experimental groups were asked to stand on a force platform wearing seven inertial sensors while performing the Sensory Organization Test (SOT) under two cognitive conditions (single- and dual-task) before and after a mental fatigue task (stop-signal task for 60 min). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10060388DOI Listing

Behavioral and Cognitive Electrophysiological Differences in the Executive Functions of Taiwanese Basketball Players as a Function of Playing Position.

Brain Sci 2020 Jun 19;10(6). Epub 2020 Jun 19.

Institute of Physical Education, Health and Leisure Studies, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan.

The effect of the predominant playing position of elite basketball players on executive functions using both behavioral and electrophysiological measurements was investigated in the present study. Forty-six elite basketball players, including 27 guards and 19 forwards, were recruited. Event-related potential (ERP) signals were simultaneously recorded when the athletes performed the visual Go/NoGo task. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10060387DOI Listing

Cholesterol and Alzheimer's Disease Risk: A Meta-Meta-Analysis.

Brain Sci 2020 Jun 18;10(6). Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Department of Microbiology, Pediatrics, Radiology and Public Health, University of Zaragoza, C/Domingo Miral s/n, 50009 Zaragoza, Spain.

Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common subtype of dementia. In the last ten years, the relationship between cholesterol and AD has been investigated. Evidence suggests that cholesterol is associated with AD and represents promising targets for intervention. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10060386DOI Listing

Microstructural Changes in Motor Functional Conversion Disorder: Multimodal Imaging Approach on a Case.

Brain Sci 2020 Jun 18;10(6). Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Department of Psychology, Università degli Studi della Campania Luigi Vanvitelli, 81100 Caserta, Italy.

Background: Functional motor conversion disorders are characterized by neurological symptoms unrelated to brain structural lesions. The present study was conducted on a woman presenting motor symptoms causing motor dysfunction, using advanced multimodal neuroimaging techniques, electrophysiological and neuropsychological assessment.

Methods: The patient underwent fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography-computed tomography (FDG-PET-CT) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with both task and resting-state paradigms and was compared with 11 healthy matched controls. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10060385DOI Listing

Mini-Review on the Possible Interconnections between the Gut-Brain Axis and the Infertility-Related Neuropsychiatric Comorbidities.

Brain Sci 2020 Jun 17;10(6). Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Department of Mother and Child Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Medicine and Pharmacy "Grigore T. Popa", University Street, No 16, 700115 Iasi, Romania.

Both the gut-brain axis (GBA) and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis remain an intriguing yet obscure network with a strong influence over other systems of organs. Recent reports have sought to describe the multitude of harmful stressors that may impact the HPA axis along with the interconnections between these. This has improved our knowledge of how the underlying mechanisms working to establish homeostasis are affected. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10060384DOI Listing

Pathological Findings in Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyradiculoneuropathy: A Single-Center Experience.

Brain Sci 2020 Jun 17;10(6). Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Dipartimento di Neuroscienze, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, 00168 Rome, Italy.

Objective: Segmental demyelination is the pathological hallmark of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP), but other elementary lesions are frequently observed, configuring a series of different pathological pictures. In this article, we review the pathological findings of a large series of sural nerve biopsies from our cohort of CIDP patients.

Patients And Methods: Patients with CIDP who underwent nerve biopsy were retrospectively selected from those referred to the Institute of Neurology of the "Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore" in Rome, Italy, from 1982 to February 2020. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10060383DOI Listing

Behavioral and Autonomic Responses in Treating Children with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder: Clinical and Phenomenological Insights from Two Case Reports.

Brain Sci 2020 Jun 17;10(6). Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Associazione Nazionale Famiglie di Persone con Disabilità Intellettiva e/o Relazionale (ANFFAS), 18100 Imperia, Italy.

In this study, we aimed to evaluate the process applied in subjects with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) to elaborate and communicate their experiences of daily life activities, as well as to assess the autonomic nervous system response that subtend such a process. This procedure was evaluated for the first time in two eight-year-old girls with high-functioning ASDs. The subjects performed six months of training, based on the cognitive-motivational-individualized (c. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10060382DOI Listing

Importance of the Role of ω-3 and ω-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in the Progression of Brain Cancer.

Brain Sci 2020 Jun 17;10(6). Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Hospital Infantil de Mexico, Federico Gomez, Unidad de Investigacion en Enfermedades Oncologicas, Mexico City 06720, Mexico.

Brain cancer is one of the most malignant types of cancer in both children and adults. Brain cancer patients tend to have a poor prognosis and a high rate of mortality. Additionally, 20-40% of all other types of cancer can develop brain metastasis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10060381DOI Listing

The Clinical Application of EEG-Signals Recurrence Analysis as a Measure of Functional Connectivity: Comparative Case Study of Patients with Various Neuropsychiatric Disorders.

Brain Sci 2020 Jun 16;10(6). Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Department of Clinical Neuropsychiatry, Medical University of Lublin, ul. Gluska 1, 20-439 Lublin, Poland.

Background: An electroencephalogram (EEG) is a simple and widely used assessment tool that allows one to analyze the bioelectric activity of the brain. As a result, one can observe brain waves with different frequencies and amplitudes that correspond to the temporary synchronization of different parts of the brain. Synchronization patterns may be changed by almost any type of pathological conditions, such as psychiatric diseases and structural abnormalities of the brain tissue. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10060380DOI Listing

Early Motor Development Predicts Clinical Outcomes of Siblings at High-Risk for Autism: Insight from an Innovative Motion-Tracking Technology.

Brain Sci 2020 Jun 16;10(6). Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Research Coordination and Support Service, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Roma, Italy.

Atypical motor patterns are potential early markers and predictors of later diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). This study aimed to investigate the early motor trajectories of infants at high-risk (HR) of ASD through MOVIDEA, a semi-automatic software developed to analyze 2D and 3D videos and provide objective kinematic features of their movements. MOVIDEA was developed within the Italian Network for early detection of Autism Spectrum Disorder (NIDA Network), which is currently coordinating the most extensive surveillance program for infants at risk for neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10060379DOI Listing

Dreaming and Insomnia: Link between Physiological REM Parameters and Mentation Characteristics.

Brain Sci 2020 Jun 16;10(6). Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Medical Center-University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, Hauptstraße 5, 79104 Freiburg, Germany.

(1) Background: An unresolved phenomenon of insomnia disorder is a discrepancy between objectively measured sleep and subjective complaints. It has been shown that rapid eye movement (REM) sleep might be especially vulnerable to an altered perception. The present work aimed to investigate the link between physiological REM parameters and mentation characteristics in REM sleep. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10060378DOI Listing

The Impact of Physical Activities on Cognitive Performance among Healthy Older Individuals.

Brain Sci 2020 Jun 16;10(6). Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Department of Physical Education and Sports, Faculty of Education, University of Hradec Kralove, Rokitanskeho 62, 50003 Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic.

The population is aging in developed countries. This aging process results in many changes, both physical and mental. Over the years, there has been a gradual decline in the level of cognitive functions closely related to the ageing process, which is most often connected with ageing diseases such as dementia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10060377DOI Listing

Psychiatric Manifestation of Anti-LGI1 Encephalitis.

Brain Sci 2020 Jun 16;10(6). Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Section for Experimental Neuropsychiatry, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Medical Center, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, 79104 Freiburg, Germany.

Background: Anti-leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1) encephalitis is typically characterized by limbic encephalitis, faciobrachial dystonic seizures and hyponatremia. The frequency with which milder forms of anti-LGI1 encephalitis mimic isolated psychiatric syndromes, such as psychoses, or may lead to dementia if untreated, is largely unknown.

Case Presentation: Here, the authors present a 50-year-old patient who had suffered from neurocognitive deficits and predominant delusions for over one and a half years. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10060375DOI Listing

Does the Therapist's Sex Affect the Psychological Effects of Sports Massage?-A Quasi-Experimental Study.

Brain Sci 2020 Jun 16;10(6). Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Institute for Circulatory Research and Sports Medicine, German Sports University Cologne, Am Sportpark Müngersdorf 6, 50933 Köln, Germany.

: The aim of this study was to determine the influence of the sex of the therapist and of the athlete on the athlete's current emotional state after a sports massage. The assumption was that the effect of a massage on the current mood was independent of the sex of the therapists or athletes. : Sports massages are an integral part of the support given to athletes during training or competition and are a commonly used method for promoting athletes' physical and mental recovery. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10060376DOI Listing

as Risk Allele and as Protective Allele for Both Early- and Adult-Onset Multiple Sclerosis in a Hellenic Cohort.

Brain Sci 2020 Jun 16;10(6). Epub 2020 Jun 16.

1st Department of Neurology, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, NKUA, Aeginition Hospital, 115 28 Athens, Greece.

: Human Leucocyte Antigens (HLA) represent the genetic loci most strongly linked to Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Apart from and , alleles have been previously studied regarding their role in MS pathogenesis, but to a much lesser extent. Our objective was to investigate the risk/resistance influence of alleles in Hellenic patients with early- and adult-onset MS (EOMS/AOMS), and possible associations with the risk allele. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10060374DOI Listing

Uniportal Full Endoscopic Posterolateral Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion with Endoscopic Disc Drilling Preparation Technique for Symptomatic Foraminal Stenosis Secondary to Severe Collapsed Disc Space: A Clinical and Computer Tomographic Study with Technical Note.

Brain Sci 2020 Jun 15;10(6). Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Spine Surgery, Nanoori Gangnam Hospital, Seoul 06048, Korea.

Background: Severe collapsed disc secondary to degenerative spinal conditions leads to significant foraminal stenosis. We hypothesized that uniportal posterolateral transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion with endoscopic disc drilling technique could be safely applied to the collapsed disc space to improve patients' pain score, restore disc height, and correct the segmental angular parameters.

Methods: We included patients who met the indication criteria for lumbar fusion and underwent uniportal full endoscopic posterolateral transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion with pre-operative Computer Tomography mid disc height of less than or equal to 5 mm and MRI of Grade 3 Foraminal Stenosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10060373DOI Listing

Familial Hemiplegic Migraine with an ATP1A4 Mutation: Clinical Spectrum and Carbamazepine Efficacy.

Brain Sci 2020 Jun 15;10(6). Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Clinic of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, Department of Medicine, Surgery and Dentistry, Medical School University of Salerno, 84100 Salerno, Italy.

An Italian family with familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM) with the absence of mutations in the known genes associated with this disorder, namely , , , and , has recently been reported. Soon afterward, whole exome sequencing allowed the identification of the carrier status of a heterozygous mutation c.1798 C >T, in four affected members of this family. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10060372DOI Listing

Experimental and Clinical Treatment of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage after the Rupture of Saccular Intracranial Aneurysms.

Brain Sci 2020 Jun 15;10(6). Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Departments of Neurosurgery, Physiology, and Anesthesiology, Loma Linda University School of Medicine, Loma Linda, CA 92354, USA.

The Special Issue "Experimental and Clinical Treatment of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage after the Rupture of Saccular Intracranial Aneurysms" provides an excellent insight into the many facets of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage [... Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10060371DOI Listing

Relationship between Auditory Evoked Potentials and Circadian Preference in Patients with Major Depressive Episodes.

Authors:
Young-Min Park

Brain Sci 2020 Jun 12;10(6). Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Department of Psychiatry, Ilsan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Goyang 10380, Korea.

Mood disorders often accompany circadian rhythm abnormalities. The serotonergic system (STS) is related to mood and circadian rhythm. This study aimed to test whether serotonergic neurotransmission, using the loudness dependence of auditory evoked potential (LDAEP), is associated with circadian preference in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10060370DOI Listing

Pathophysiological Mechanisms of Cognitive Impairment and Neurodegeneration by Infection.

Brain Sci 2020 Jun 12;10(6). Epub 2020 Jun 12.

GI en Neurociencias-NeURos, Escuela de Medicina y Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad del Rosario, Bogotá 111221, Colombia.

is an obligate intracellular parasite considered one of the most successful pathogens in the world, owing to its ability to produce long-lasting infections and to persist in the central nervous system (CNS) in most warm-blooded animals, including humans. This parasite has a preference to invade neurons and affect the functioning of glial cells. This could lead to neurological and behavioral changes associated with cognitive impairment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10060369DOI Listing

The Effects of the Early Start Denver Model for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Meta-Analysis.

Brain Sci 2020 Jun 12;10(6). Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of California, Davis MIND Institute, Sacramento, CA 95817, USA.

This meta-analysis examined the effects of the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM) for young children with autism on developmental outcome measures. The 12 included studies reported results from 640 children with autism across 44 unique effect sizes. The aggregated effect size, calculated using a robust variance estimation meta-analysis, was 0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10060368DOI Listing

Silence, Solitude, and Serotonin: Neural Mechanisms Linking Hearing Loss and Social Isolation.

Brain Sci 2020 Jun 12;10(6). Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Center for the Integrative Study of Animal Behavior, Department of Biology, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA.

For social animals that communicate acoustically, hearing loss and social isolation are factors that independently influence social behavior. In human subjects, hearing loss may also contribute to objective and subjective measures of social isolation. Although the behavioral relationship between hearing loss and social isolation is evident, there is little understanding of their interdependence at the level of neural systems. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10060367DOI Listing

Variations in Values of State, Response Entropy and Haemodynamic Parameters Associated with Development of Different Epileptiform Patterns during Volatile Induction of General Anaesthesia with Two Different Anaesthetic Regimens Using Sevoflurane in Comparison with Intravenous Induct: A Comparative Study.

Brain Sci 2020 Jun 12;10(6). Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Therapy, Faculty of Medical Sciences in Zabrze, Medical University of Silesia, 40-055 Katowice, Poland.

Background And Objectives: Raw electroencephalographic (EEG) signals are rarely used to monitor the depth of volatile induction of general anaesthesia (VIGA) with sevoflurane, even though EEG-based indices may show aberrant values. We aimed to identify whether response (RE) and state entropy (SE) variations reliably reflect the actual depth of general anaesthesia in the presence of different types of epileptiform patterns (EPs) in EEGs during induction of general anaesthesia.

Materials And Methods: A randomized, prospective clinical study was performed with 60 patients receiving VIGA using sevoflurane with the increasing concentrations (group VIMA) or the vital capacity (group VCRII) technique or an intravenous single dose of propofol (group PROP). Read More

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Postnatal Guinea Pig Brain Development, as Revealed by Magnetic Resonance and Diffusion Kurtosis Imaging.

Brain Sci 2020 Jun 12;10(6). Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Department of Diagnostic Radiology & Nuclear Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA.

This study used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to identify age dependent brain structural characteristics in Dunkin Hartley guinea pigs. Anatomical T-weighted images, diffusion kurtosis (DKI) imaging, and T relaxometry measures were acquired from a cohort of male guinea pigs from postnatal day (PND) 18-25 (juvenile) to PND 46-51 (adolescent) and PND 118-123 (young adult). Whole-brain diffusion measures revealed the distinct effects of maturation on the microstructural complexity of the male guinea pig brain. Read More

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Extensive Evaluation of Morphological Statistical Harmonization for Brain Age Prediction.

Brain Sci 2020 Jun 11;10(6). Epub 2020 Jun 11.

Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, 70125 Bari, Italy.

Characterizing both neurodevelopmental and aging brain structural trajectories is important for understanding normal biological processes and atypical patterns that are related to pathological phenomena. Initiatives to share open access morphological data contributed significantly to the advance in brain structure characterization. Indeed, such initiatives allow large brain morphology multi-site datasets to be shared, which increases the statistical sensitivity of the outcomes. Read More

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Fully Endoscopic Transforaminal Lumbar Discectomy for Upward Migration of Upper Lumbar Disc Herniation: Clinical and Radiological Outcomes and Technical Considerations.

Brain Sci 2020 Jun 10;10(6). Epub 2020 Jun 10.

Department of Neurosurgery, Spine Center, The Leon Wiltse Memorial Hospital, Suwon 16444, Korea.

Microdiscectomy for the upward migration of upper lumbar herniated discs has a high risk of isthmus and facet injury. Fully endoscopic transforaminal discectomy can preserve normal bony structures during discectomy. The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical and radiological outcomes of fully endoscopic transforaminal discectomy for upward migrated upper lumbar herniated discs. Read More

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Characterizing Olfactory Function in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Children with Sensory Processing Dysfunction.

Brain Sci 2020 Jun 10;10(6). Epub 2020 Jun 10.

Department of Radiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98115, USA.

Abnormalities in olfactory function have been identified in a number of neurological and psychiatric disorders, including Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia. However, little is known about olfactory function in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The present study aims to assess the olfactory profiles of children with ASD, compared to an age- and sex-matched comparison group of typically developing children and a second clinical control group consisting of non-ASD children with sensory processing dysfunction (SPD). Read More

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Blood-Based Biomarkers Predictive of Metformin Target Engagement in Fragile X Syndrome.

Brain Sci 2020 Jun 10;10(6). Epub 2020 Jun 10.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, University of California, Davis, Sacramento, CA 95817, USA.

Recent advances in neurobiology have provided several molecular entrees for targeted treatments for Fragile X syndrome (FXS). However, the efficacy of these treatments has been demonstrated mainly in animal models and has not been consistently predictive of targeted drugs' response in the preponderance of human clinical trials. Because of the heterogeneity of FXS at various levels, including the molecular level, phenotypic manifestation, and drug response, it is critically important to identify biomarkers that can help in patient stratification and prediction of therapeutic efficacy. Read More

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Neuroanatomical Changes in Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy: Clinical Application of 7T MRI Submillimeter Morphometry.

Brain Sci 2020 Jun 9;10(6). Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Laboratory of Virtual Man, Medical University of Lublin, 20-400 Lublin, Poland.

Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is one of the mitochondrial diseases that causes loss of central vision, progressive impairment and subsequent degeneration of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). In recent years, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies have revealed structural abnormalities in visual white matter tracts, such as the optic tract, and optic radiation. However, it is still unclear if the disease alters only some parts of the white matter architecture or whether the changes also affect other subcortical areas of the brain. Read More

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Migraine Frequency Decrease Following Prolonged Medical Cannabis Treatment: A Cross-Sectional Study.

Brain Sci 2020 Jun 9;10(6). Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Faculty of Biology, Haifa 3200003, Israel.

Background: Medical cannabis (MC) treatment for migraine is practically emerging, although sufficient clinical data are not available for this indication. This cross-sectional questionnaire-based study aimed to investigate the associations between phytocannabinoid treatment and migraine frequency.

Methods: Participants were migraine patients licensed for MC treatment. Read More

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Stress-Induced Increase in Cortisol Negatively Affects the Consolidation of Contextual Elements of Episodic Memories.

Brain Sci 2020 Jun 9;10(6). Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Department of Psychology, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA 18015, USA.

Stress can modulate episodic memory in various ways. The present study asks how post-encoding stress affects visual context memory. Participants encoded object images centrally positioned on background scenes. Read More

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The Iatrogenic Development of an Anterior Cerebral Artery Pseudoaneurysm during Lamina Terminalis Fenestration-Genesis, Diagnosis and Therapy: Lessons Learned.

Brain Sci 2020 Jun 9;10(6). Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Department of Radiology, J. E. Purkyne University, Masaryk Hospital, 401 13 Ústí nad Labem, Czech Republic.

Intracranial pseudoaneurysms (PSA) are scarcely presented in the literature. We describe the case of an intracranial PSA on the right anterior cerebral artery, which developed during the complicated surgical treatment of a ruptured right middle cerebral aneurysm. The pseudoaneurysm grew over time and was co-incidentally diagnosed 3 months after the original surgery. Read More

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A Journey to the Conformational Analysis of T-Cell Epitope Peptides Involved in Multiple Sclerosis.

Brain Sci 2020 Jun 8;10(6). Epub 2020 Jun 8.

Department of Chemistry, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 15784 Zographou, Athens, Greece.

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a serious central nervous system (CNS) disease responsible for disability problems and deterioration of the quality of life. Several approaches have been applied to medications entering the market to treat this disease. However, no effective therapy currently exists, and the available drugs simply ameliorate the destructive disability effects of the disease. Read More

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