710 results match your criteria Brain sciences[Journal]


The Temporal Effects of Acute Exercise on Episodic Memory Function: Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis.

Brain Sci 2019 Apr 18;9(4). Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Affective and Social Cognitive Science, College of Psychology and Sociology, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060, China.

Background: Accumulating research demonstrates that the timing of exercise plays an important role in influencing episodic memory. However, we have a limited understanding as to the factors that moderate this temporal effect. Thus, the purpose of this systematic review with meta-analysis was to evaluate the effects of study characteristics (e. Read More

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https://www.mdpi.com/2076-3425/9/4/87
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9040087DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Psychiatric Disorders and Alcohol Consumption Among Low-Income African Americans:Gender Differences.

Brain Sci 2019 Apr 18;9(4). Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Department of Family Medicine, Charles R. Drew University of Medicine and Science, Los Angeles, CA 90059, USA.

Background: Although cooccurrence of nonsubstance use disorders (non-SUDs) and substance use is well-established in the literature, most of what we know in this regard is derived from studies that have recruited predominantly White sample populations. As a result, there is a gap in knowledge on this link among low-income African Americans (AAs). There is also a need to understand how low-income AA men and women differ in these associations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9040086DOI Listing

Cognitive Function in Primary Sjögren's Syndrome: A Systematic Review.

Brain Sci 2019 Apr 15;9(4). Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Old Age Psychiatry, Central and North West London NHS Foundation Trust, London UB8 3NN, UK.

Background: Cognitive disorders are reported to be common in patients with primary Sjogren's syndrome (pSS). In some cases, they are the first clinical manifestation, preceding the diagnosis of pSS by two years on average.

Aim: A systematic review was conducted to explore cognitive impairment in pSS, with reference to diagnostic methods and their relationship with laboratory data and clinical manifestations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9040085DOI Listing
April 2019
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Olfactory Event-Related Potentials and Exhaled Organic Volatile Compounds: The Slow Link Between Olfactory Perception and Breath Metabolic Response. A Pilot Study on Phenylethyl Alcohol and Vaseline Oil.

Brain Sci 2019 Apr 15;9(4). Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Dipartimento di Neuroscienze, Imaging e Scienze Cliniche, Università "d'Annunzio" di Chieti-Pescara, 66100 Chieti, Italy.

Olfactory processing starts with the breath and elicits neuronal, metabolic and cortical responses. This process can be investigated centrally via the Olfactory Event-Related Potentials (OERPs) and peripherally via exhaled Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs). Despite this, the relationship between OERPs (i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9040084DOI Listing

High Cervical Spinal Cord Stimulation: A One Year Follow-Up Study on Motor and Non-Motor Functions in Parkinson's Disease.

Brain Sci 2019 Apr 3;9(4). Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Department of Biotechnological and Applied Clinical Sciences (DISCAB), University of L'Aquila, 67100 L'Aquila, Italy.

Background: The present study investigated the effectiveness of stimulation applied at cervical levels on pain and Parkinson's disease (PD) symptoms using either tonic or burst stimulation mode.

Methods: Tonic high cervical spinal cord stimulation (T-HCSCS) was applied on six PD patients suffering from low back pain and failed back surgery syndrome, while burst HCSCS (B-HCSCS) was applied in twelve PD patients to treat primarily motor deficits. Stimulation was applied percutaneously with quadripolar or octapolar electrodes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9040078DOI Listing
April 2019
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Sensorimotor Control in Dystonia.

Brain Sci 2019 Apr 11;9(4). Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Dept. of Kinesiology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA.

This is an overview of the sensorimotor impairments in dystonia, a syndrome characterized by sustained or intermittent aberrant movement patterns leading to abnormal movements and/or postures with or without a tremulous component. Dystonia can affect the entire body or specific body regions and results from a plethora of etiologies, including subtle changes in gray and white matter in several brain regions. Research over the last 25 years addressing topics of sensorimotor control has shown functional sensorimotor impairments related to sensorimotor integration, timing, oculomotor and head control, as well as upper and lower limb control. Read More

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https://www.mdpi.com/2076-3425/9/4/79
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9040079DOI Listing
April 2019
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The Modulating Role of Self-Referential Stimuli and Processes in the Effect of Stress and Negative Emotion on Inhibition Processes in Borderline Personality Disorder: Proposition of a Model to Integrate the Self-Concept and Inhibition Processes.

Brain Sci 2019 Mar 30;9(4). Epub 2019 Mar 30.

Department of Psychology, University of Montreal, Montreal, QC H3C 3J7, Canada.

Impulsivity is an important clinical and diagnostic feature of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Even though it has been reported that BPD individuals' inhibition performance is significantly reduced in the context of negative emotion or stress, this literature shows mixed results, raising questions about the possible role played by other factors. Winter (2016) proposed that negative emotion stimuli can be more disruptive for BPD individuals' attention control performance because they induce higher distractibility self-referential processes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9040077DOI Listing
March 2019
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Positive and Negative Emotion Regulation in Adolescence: Links to Anxiety and Depression.

Brain Sci 2019 Mar 29;9(4). Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Department of Psychology, University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.

Emotion regulation skills develop substantially across adolescence, a period characterized by emotional challenges and developing regulatory neural circuitry. Adolescence is also a risk period for the new onset of anxiety and depressive disorders, psychopathologies which have long been associated with disruptions in regulation of positive and negative emotions. This paper reviews the current understanding of the role of disrupted emotion regulation in adolescent anxiety and depression, describing findings from self-report, behavioral, peripheral psychophysiological, and neural measures. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9040076DOI Listing
March 2019
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A Review of Functional and Structural Neurobiology of the Action Observation Network in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Developmental Coordination Disorder.

Brain Sci 2019 Mar 28;9(4). Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Mrs. T.H. Chan Division of Occupational Science and Occupational Therapy, University Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089, USA.

Recent research has reported motor impairment similarities between children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and a subgroup of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, there is a debate as to whether DCD is a co-occurring diagnosis in individuals with ASD and motor impairments (ASDd), or if motor impairments in ASD are distinct from DCD. However, the etiology of motor impairments is not well understood in either disorder. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9040075DOI Listing
March 2019
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Localization of Free and Bound Metal Species through X-Ray Synchrotron Fluorescence Microscopy in the Rodent Brain and Their Relation to Behavior.

Brain Sci 2019 Mar 28;9(4). Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Department of Psychology, George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, VA 22030, USA.

Biometals in the brain, such as zinc, copper, and iron, are often discussed in cases of neurological disorders; however, these metals also have important regulatory functions and mediate cell signaling and plasticity. With the use of synchrotron X-ray fluorescence, our lab localized total, both bound and free, levels of zinc, copper, and iron in a cross section of one hemisphere of a rat brain, which also showed differing metal distributions in different regions within the hippocampus, the site in the brain known to be crucial for certain types of memory. This review discusses the several roles of these metals in brain regions with an emphasis on hippocampal cell signaling, based on spatial mapping obtained from X-ray fluorescence microscopy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9040074DOI Listing

Found in Translation: The Utility of Alpha-Synuclein Models of Parkinson's Disease.

Brain Sci 2019 Mar 28;9(4). Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Department of Biological Sciences, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487, USA.

Parkinson's Disease (PD) is the second-most common neurodegenerative disease in the world, yet the fundamental and underlying causes of the disease are largely unknown, and treatments remain sparse and impotent. Several biological systems have been employed to model the disease but the nematode roundworm shows unique promise among these to disinter the elusive factors that may prevent, halt, and/or reverse PD phenotypes. Some of the most salient of these models of PD are those that position the misfolding-prone protein alpha-synuclein (α-syn), a hallmark pathological component of PD, as the primary target for scientific interrogation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9040073DOI Listing
March 2019
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Editorial for Special Issue: "Diagnosis of Neurogenetic Disorders: Contribution of Next-Generation Sequencing and Deep Phenotyping".

Authors:
Alisdair McNeill

Brain Sci 2019 Mar 26;9(3). Epub 2019 Mar 26.

Department of Neuroscience, University of Sheffield, 385a Glossop Road, Sheffield S10 2HQ, UK.

In this Special Issue we bring together papers demonstrating the need for both detailed genomic and phenotypic studies to aid our scientific and clinical understanding of neurogenetic disorders [... Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9030072DOI Listing

Parkinsonism Risk Factors in Salt Lake City, Utah: A Community-Based Study.

Brain Sci 2019 Mar 23;9(3). Epub 2019 Mar 23.

Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA.

Background: The prevalence of dream enactment behavior and other risk factors for a parkinsonian disorder is not well documented.

Methods: A survey on prevalence of parkinsonism risk factors was designed using two validated instruments (REM behavior disorder single item question, bowel movement frequency for constipation) and three exploratory instruments (for hallucinations, cognitive and olfactory complaints.) It was sent by mail and email to patients aged 50 and over at two University of Utah community clinics in Salt Lake City. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9030071DOI Listing
March 2019
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Pushing the Envelope: Developments in Neural Entrainment to Speech and the Biological Underpinnings of Prosody Perception.

Brain Sci 2019 Mar 22;9(3). Epub 2019 Mar 22.

Department of Otolaryngology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 1215 21st Ave S, Nashville, TN 37232, USA.

Prosodic cues in speech are indispensable for comprehending a speaker's message, recognizing emphasis and emotion, parsing segmental units, and disambiguating syntactic structures. While it is commonly accepted that prosody provides a fundamental service to higher-level features of speech, the neural underpinnings of prosody processing are not clearly defined in the cognitive neuroscience literature. Many recent electrophysiological studies have examined speech comprehension by measuring neural entrainment to the speech amplitude envelope, using a variety of methods including phase-locking algorithms and stimulus reconstruction. Read More

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https://www.mdpi.com/2076-3425/9/3/70
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9030070DOI Listing
March 2019
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Electrode Placement in Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation-How Reliable Is the Determination of C3/C4?

Brain Sci 2019 Mar 22;9(3). Epub 2019 Mar 22.

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Division of Rehabilitation Science, University of Minnesota, 420 Delaware Street SE, MMC 388, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA.

The 10/20 electroencephalogram (EEG) measurements system often guides electrode placement for transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), a form of non-invasive brain stimulation. One targeted region of the brain is the primary motor cortex (M1) for motor recovery after stroke, among other clinical indications. M1 is identified by C3 and C4 of the 10/20 EEG system yet the reliability of 10/20 EEG measurements by novice research raters is unknown. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9030069DOI Listing
March 2019
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Ayres Theories of Autism and Sensory Integration Revisited: What Contemporary Neuroscience Has to Say.

Brain Sci 2019 Mar 21;9(3). Epub 2019 Mar 21.

Mrs. T.H. Chan Division of Occupational Science and Occupational Therapy, University Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089, USA.

Abnormal sensory-based behaviors are a defining feature of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Dr. A. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9030068DOI Listing
March 2019
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Sketching the Power of Machine Learning to Decrypt a Neural Systems Model of Behavior.

Brain Sci 2019 Mar 20;9(3). Epub 2019 Mar 20.

Section on Neurobiology of Fear and Anxiety (NFA), National Institute of Mental Health/NIMH, 15K North Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

Uncovering brain-behavior mechanisms is the ultimate goal of neuroscience. A formidable amount of discoveries has been made in the past 50 years, but the very essence of brain-behavior mechanisms still escapes us. The recent exploitation of machine learning (ML) tools in neuroscience opens new avenues for illuminating these mechanisms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9030067DOI Listing
March 2019
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Dual Mode Gait Sonification for Rehabilitation After Unilateral Hip Arthroplasty.

Brain Sci 2019 Mar 19;9(3). Epub 2019 Mar 19.

Institute of Sports Science, Leibniz University Hannover, Am Moritzwinkel 6, 30167 Hannover, Germany.

The pattern of gait after hip arthroplasty strongly affects regeneration and quality of life. Acoustic feedback could be a supportive method for patients to improve their walking ability and to regain a symmetric and steady gait. In this study, a new gait sonification method with two different modes-real-time feedback (RTF) and instructive model sequences (IMS)-is presented. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9030066DOI Listing

Local and Relayed Effects of Deep Brain Stimulation of the Pedunculopontine Nucleus.

Brain Sci 2019 Mar 18;9(3). Epub 2019 Mar 18.

IFIBYNE, CONICET, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires C1113, Argentina.

Our discovery of low-threshold stimulation-induced locomotion in the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) led to the clinical use of deep brain stimulation (DBS) for the treatment of disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD) that manifest gait and postural disorders. Three additional major discoveries on the properties of PPN neurons have opened new areas of research for the treatment of motor and arousal disorders. The description of (a) electrical coupling, (b) intrinsic gamma oscillations, and (c) gene regulation in the PPN has identified a number of novel therapeutic targets and methods for the treatment of a number of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9030064DOI Listing
March 2019
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Maturational Changes in Prefrontal and Amygdala Circuits in Adolescence: Implications for Understanding Fear Inhibition during a Vulnerable Period of Development.

Brain Sci 2019 Mar 18;9(3). Epub 2019 Mar 18.

School of Psychology, University of New South Wales (UNSW), Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia.

Anxiety disorders that develop in adolescence represent a significant burden and are particularly challenging to treat, due in no small part to the high occurrence of relapse in this age group following exposure therapy. This pattern of persistent fear is preserved across species; relative to those younger and older, adolescents consistently show poorer extinction, a key process underpinning exposure therapy. This suggests that the neural processes underlying fear extinction are temporarily but profoundly compromised during adolescence. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9030065DOI Listing
March 2019
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The Interactive Effect of Tonic Pain and Motor Learning on Corticospinal Excitability.

Brain Sci 2019 Mar 16;9(3). Epub 2019 Mar 16.

University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Oshawa, ON L1G 0C5, Canada.

Prior work showed differential alterations in early somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) and improved motor learning while in acute tonic pain. The aim of the current study was to determine the interactive effect of acute tonic pain and early motor learning on corticospinal excitability as measured by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Two groups of twelve participants ( = 24) were randomly assigned to a control (inert lotion) or capsaicin (capsaicin cream) group. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9030063DOI Listing

Effect of Paired Associative Stimulation on Corticomotor Excitability in Chronic Smokers.

Brain Sci 2019 Mar 15;9(3). Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Department of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Komaba, Tokyo 113-8654, Japan.

Chronic smoking has been shown to have deleterious effects on brain function and is an important risk factor for ischemic stroke. Reduced cortical excitability has been shown among chronic smokers compared with non-smokers to have a long-term effect and so far no study has assessed the effect of smoking on short-term motor learning. Paired associative stimulation (PAS) is a commonly used method for inducing changes in excitability of the motor cortex (M1) in a way that simulates short-term motor learning. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9030062DOI Listing

Reply to "Dyslexia: Still Not a Neurodevelopmental Disorder".

Brain Sci 2019 Mar 14;9(3). Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Department of Developmental Psychology, University of Amsterdam, 15916 1001 NK Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

In a recent opinion article, we explained why we think that defining developmental dyslexia as a neurodevelopmental disorder and neuroimaging studies on dyslexia are useful. A recent response has made some claims of generalized misinterpretation and misconception in the field. Since that was a direct reply to our article, we would like to clarify our opinion on some of those claims. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9030061DOI Listing

Endogenous Neurostimulation and Physiotherapy in Cluster Headache: A Clinical Case.

Brain Sci 2019 Mar 12;9(3). Epub 2019 Mar 12.

Departamento de Fisioterapia, Centro Superior de Estudios Universitarios La Salle, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid 28023, Spain.

Objective: The aim of this paper is to describe the progressive changes of chronic cluster headaches (CHs) in a patient who is being treated by a multimodal approach, using pharmacology, neurostimulation and physiotherapy.

Subject: A male patient, 42 years of age was diagnosed with left-sided refractory chronic CH by a neurologist in November 2009. In June 2014, the patient underwent a surgical intervention in which a bilateral occipital nerve neurostimulator was implanted as a treatment for headache. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9030060DOI Listing
March 2019
5 Reads

Empagliflozin Ameliorates Type 2 Diabetes-Induced Ultrastructural Remodeling of the Neurovascular Unit and Neuroglia in the Female / Mouse.

Brain Sci 2019 Mar 7;9(3). Epub 2019 Mar 7.

Diabetes and Cardiovascular Center, School of Medicine, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65212, USA.

Type 2 diabetes is associated with diabetic cognopathy. Anti-hyperglycemic sodium glucose transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors have shown promise in reducing cognitive impairment in mice with type 2 diabetes mellitus. We recently described marked ultrastructural (US) remodeling of the neurovascular unit (NVU) in type 2 diabetic / female mice. Read More

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https://www.mdpi.com/2076-3425/9/3/57
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9030057DOI Listing
March 2019
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Modelling Protein Synthesis as A Biomarker in Fragile X Syndrome Patient-Derived Cells.

Brain Sci 2019 Mar 11;9(3). Epub 2019 Mar 11.

Centre for Brain Development and Repair, Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, GKVK Post, Bellary Road, Bengaluru 560065, India.

The most conserved molecular phenotype of Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is aberrant protein synthesis. This has been validated in a variety of experimental model systems from zebrafish to rats, patient-derived lymphoblasts and fibroblasts. With the advent of personalized medicine paradigms, patient-derived cells and their derivatives are gaining more translational importance, not only to model disease in a dish, but also for biomarker discovery. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9030059DOI Listing

Reasoning on Figurative Language: A Preliminary Study on Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Klinefelter Syndrome.

Brain Sci 2019 Mar 11;9(3). Epub 2019 Mar 11.

Faculty of Psychology, University "Niccolò Cusano", Telematica, 00166 Rome, Italy.

In this study we explored metaphor and idiom competencies in two clinical populations, children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) and children with Klinefelter syndrome (KS), (age range: 9⁻12), compared to typically developing (TD) children of the same age. These three groups were tested with two multiple-choice tests assessing idiom comprehension through iconic and verbal alternatives and a metaphor comprehension test composed of novel, physical-psychological metaphors, requesting verbal explanations. To these instruments, another test was added, assessing basic sentence comprehension. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9030058DOI Listing

Paternal Preconception Every-Other-Day Ethanol Drinking Alters Behavior and Ethanol Consumption in Offspring.

Brain Sci 2019 Mar 6;9(3). Epub 2019 Mar 6.

Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, 6068 Biomedical Science Tower-3, 3501 Fifth Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA.

Alcohol use disorder is a devastating disease with a complex etiology. Recent preclinical studies have revealed that paternal preconception chronic intermittent ethanol (EtOH) exposure via vaporized EtOH altered drinking behaviors and sensitivity to EtOH selectively in male offspring. In the current study, we used a voluntary oral route of paternal preconception EtOH exposure, i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9030056DOI Listing
March 2019
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Stromal Vascular Fraction Cell Therapy for a Stroke Patient-Cure without Side Effects.

Brain Sci 2019 Mar 6;9(3). Epub 2019 Mar 6.

Internal Consortium for Cell Therapy and Immunotherapy, Videnska 119, 619 00 Brno, Czech Republic.

A 48-year-old male, who suffered from a stroke resulting in cerebellum damage and occlusion of the left vertebral artery, underwent stromal vascular fraction therapy. The clinical status of the patient was monitored by a modified Stroke Specific Quality of Life Scale before therapy and at 3, 9, 12, 18, 24, and 32 months after therapy. Three months after therapy, the patient felt a reduction in pain, vertigo, and fatigue. Read More

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https://www.mdpi.com/2076-3425/9/3/55
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9030055DOI Listing
March 2019
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Effect of Hand and Foot Massage Therapy on Psychological Factors and EEG Activity in Elderly People Requiring Long-Term Care: A Randomized Cross-Over Study.

Brain Sci 2019 Mar 4;9(3). Epub 2019 Mar 4.

Department of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Health Science, Kyoto Tachibana University, Kyoto 607-8175, Japan.

Massage therapy is widely used as a complementary therapy in the elderly. Here, we investigate the effect of hand and foot massage therapy on psychological factors and electroencephalographic (EEG) activity in elderly people requiring long-term care. We included 12 elderly people requiring long-term care, who were randomly divided into two groups (A and B). Read More

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https://www.mdpi.com/2076-3425/9/3/54
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9030054DOI Listing
March 2019
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Preconceptual Spectral and Temporal Cues as a Source of Meaning in Speech and Music.

Brain Sci 2019 Mar 1;9(3). Epub 2019 Mar 1.

Institute of Musicology, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, ul. Umultowska 89D, 61-614 Poznań, Poland.

This paper explores the importance of preconceptual meaning in speech and music, stressing the role of affective vocalizations as a common ancestral instrument in communicative interactions. Speech and music are sensory rich stimuli, both at the level of production and perception, which involve different body channels, mainly the face and the voice. However, this bimodal approach has been challenged as being too restrictive. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9030053DOI Listing
March 2019
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Repeat Instability in the Fragile X-Related Disorders: Lessons from a Mouse Model.

Brain Sci 2019 Mar 1;9(3). Epub 2019 Mar 1.

Section on Gene Structure and Disease, Laboratory of Cell and Molecular Biology, National Institute of Diabetes, Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

The fragile X-related disorders (FXDs) are a group of clinical conditions that result primarily from an unusual mutation, the expansion of a CGG-repeat tract in exon 1 of the gene. Mouse models are proving useful for understanding many aspects of disease pathology in these disorders. There is also reason to think that such models may be useful for understanding the molecular basis of the unusual mutation responsible for these disorders. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9030052DOI Listing
March 2019
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Electrode Location in a Microelectrode Recording-Based Model of the Subthalamic Nucleus Can Predict Motor Improvement After Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinson's Disease.

Brain Sci 2019 Mar 1;9(3). Epub 2019 Mar 1.

Department of Neurology and Clinical Neurophysiology, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam UMC, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Motor improvement after deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) may vary substantially between Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Research into the relation between improvement and active contact location requires a correction for anatomical variation. We studied the relation between active contact location relative to the neurophysiological STN, estimated by the intraoperative microelectrode recordings (MER-based STN), and contralateral motor improvement after one year. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9030051DOI Listing
March 2019
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Assessing Anxiety Disorders Using Wearable Devices: Challenges and Future Directions.

Brain Sci 2019 Mar 1;9(3). Epub 2019 Mar 1.

Menrva Research Group, Schools of Mechatronic Systems Engineering and Engineering Science, Simon Fraser University, Surrey, BC V3T 0A3, Canada.

Wearable devices (WD) are starting to increasingly be used for interventions to promote well-being by reducing anxiety disorders (AD). Electrocardiogram (ECG) signal is one of the most commonly used biosignals for assessing the cardiovascular system as it significantly reflects the activity of the autonomic nervous system during emotional changes. Little is known about the accuracy of using ECG features for detecting ADs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9030050DOI Listing
March 2019
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Haemodynamic Instability and Brain Injury in Neonates Exposed to Hypoxia⁻Ischaemia.

Brain Sci 2019 Feb 27;9(3). Epub 2019 Feb 27.

The Ritchie Centre, Hudson Institute of Medical Research, Monash University, Melbourne 3168, Australia.

Brain injury in the asphyxic newborn infant may be exacerbated by delayed restoration of cardiac output and oxygen delivery. With increasing severity of asphyxia, cerebral autoregulatory responses are compromised. Further brain injury may occur in association with high arterial pressures and cerebral blood flows following the restoration of cardiac output. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9030049DOI Listing
February 2019

Loss of Hierarchical Control by Occasion Setters Following Lesions of the Prelimbic and Infralimbic Medial Prefrontal Cortex in Rats.

Brain Sci 2019 Feb 26;9(3). Epub 2019 Feb 26.

School of Psychology, UNSW Sydney 2052, Australia.

Recent work suggests complementary roles of the prelimbic and infralimbic regions of the rat medial prefrontal cortex in cognitive control processes, with the prelimbic cortex implicated in top-down modulation of associations and the infralimbic cortex playing a role in the inhibition of inappropriate responses. Following selective lesions made to prelimbic or infralimbic regions (or control sham-surgery) rats received simultaneous training on Pavlovian feature negative (A+, XA-) and feature positive (B-, YB+) discriminations designed to lead to hierarchical occasion-setting control by the features (X, Y) over their respective targets (A, B). Evidence for hierarchical control was assessed in a transfer test in which features and targets were swapped (YA, XB). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9030048DOI Listing
February 2019

Active Navigation in Virtual Environments Benefits Spatial Memory in Older Adults.

Brain Sci 2019 Feb 26;9(3). Epub 2019 Feb 26.

Department of Psychology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1, Canada.

We investigated age differences in memory for spatial routes that were either actively or passively encoded. A series of virtual environments were created and presented to 20 younger (Mean age = 19.71) and 20 older (Mean age = 74. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9030047DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Driving After Drinking Alcohol Associated with Insufficient Sleep and Insomnia among Student Athletes and Non-Athletes.

Brain Sci 2019 Feb 20;9(2). Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Psychiatry, Psychology, and Medicine, University of Arizona College of Medicine, Tucson, AZ 85713, USA.

Introduction: The proportion of university/college students (UCS) consuming alcohol is similar to the number of those reporting poor sleep, at approximately 30%, the proportion being greater in student athletes (SA). What remains to be understood is if poor sleep potentiates risky behaviors.

Objective: Our aim was to examine the association among sleep difficulties, insomnia symptoms, and insufficient sleep on the risk of driving under the influence of alcohol in a sample of UCS and whether these associations were more pertinent in SA. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9020046DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6406652PMC
February 2019

Neuromodulation Strategies in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: From Preclinical Models to Clinical Applications.

Brain Sci 2019 Feb 19;9(2). Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, ON M4N3M5, Canada.

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an often debilitating disease with a lifetime prevalence rate between 5⁻8%. In war veterans, these numbers are even higher, reaching approximately 10% to 25%. Although most patients benefit from the use of medications and psychotherapy, approximately 20% to 30% do not have an adequate response to conventional treatments. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9020045DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6406551PMC
February 2019

Awake Testing during Deep Brain Stimulation Surgery Predicts Postoperative Stimulation Side Effect Thresholds.

Brain Sci 2019 Feb 18;9(2). Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Department of Neurosurgery, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA.

Despite substantial experience with deep brain stimulation for movement disorders and recent interest in electrode targeting under general anesthesia, little is known about whether awake macrostimulation during electrode targeting predicts postoperative side effects from stimulation. We hypothesized that intraoperative awake macrostimulation with the newly implanted DBS lead predicts dose-limiting side effects during device activation in clinic. We reviewed 384 electrode implants for movement disorders, characterized the presence or absence of stimulus amplitude thresholds for dose-limiting DBS side effects during surgery, and measured their predictive value for side effects during device activation in clinic with odds ratios ±95% confidence intervals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9020044DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6407022PMC
February 2019
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A Functional NIRS Study of Brain Functional Networks Induced by Social Time Coordination.

Brain Sci 2019 Feb 15;9(2). Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Faculty of Life and Medical Sciences, Doshisha University, 1-3 Tatara Miyakodani, Kyotanabe, Kyoto 610-0394, Japan.

The ability to coordinate one's behavior with the others' behavior is essential to achieve a joint action in daily life. In this paper, the brain activity during synchronized tapping task was measured using functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to investigate the relationship between time coordination and brain function. Furthermore, using brain functional network analysis based on graph theory, we examined important brain regions and network structures that serve as the hub when performing the synchronized tapping task. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9020043DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6406867PMC
February 2019

The Contribution of Pluripotent Stem Cell (PSC)-Based Models to the Study of Fragile X Syndrome (FXS).

Brain Sci 2019 Feb 15;9(2). Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Stem Cell Research Laboratory, Medical Genetics Institute, Shaare Zedek Medical Center, Jerusalem 91031, Israel.

Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common heritable form of cognitive impairment. It results from a deficiency in the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) due to a CGG repeat expansion in the 5'-UTR of the X-linked gene. When CGGs expand beyond 200 copies, they lead to epigenetic gene silencing of the gene. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9020042DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6406836PMC
February 2019
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Corticospinal Excitability to the Biceps Brachii is Not Different When Arm Cycling at a Self-Selected or Fixed Cadence.

Brain Sci 2019 Feb 14;9(2). Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Faculty of Medicine, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, NL A1C5S7, Canada.

Background: The present study compared corticospinal excitability to the biceps brachii muscle during arm cycling at a self-selected and a fixed cadence (SSC and FC, respectively). We hypothesized that corticospinal excitability would not be different between the two conditions.

Methods: The SSC was initially performed and the cycling cadence was recorded every 5 s for one minute. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9020041DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6406314PMC
February 2019

Impaired Recognition of Metrical and Syntactic Boundaries in Children with Developmental Language Disorders.

Brain Sci 2019 Feb 5;9(2). Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Centre for Neuroscience in Education, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EB, UK.

In oral language, syntactic structure is cued in part by phrasal metrical hierarchies of acoustic stress patterns. For example, many children's texts use prosodic phrasing comprising tightly integrated hierarchies of metre and syntax to highlight the phonological and syntactic structure of language. Children with developmental language disorders (DLDs) are relatively insensitive to acoustic stress. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9020033DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6407018PMC
February 2019

Bilingual and Monolingual First Language Acquisition Experience Differentially Shapes Children's Property Term Learning: Evidence from Behavioral and Neurophysiological Measures.

Brain Sci 2019 Feb 12;9(2). Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Stephanstraße 1a, 04103 Leipzig, Germany.

Studies of novel noun learning show bilingual children rely less on the Mutual Exclusivity Constraint (MEC) for word learning than monolinguals. Shifting the focus to learning novel property terms (adjectives), the present study compared 3.5- and five-year-old bilingual and monolingual preschoolers' adherence to the MEC. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9020040DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6406634PMC
February 2019

Pharmacological Reactivation of the Silenced Gene as a Targeted Therapeutic Approach for Fragile X Syndrome.

Brain Sci 2019 Feb 12;9(2). Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Section on Gene Structure and Disease, Laboratory of Cell and Molecular Biology, National Institute of Diabetes, Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

More than ~200 CGG repeats in the 5' untranslated region of the gene results in transcriptional silencing and the absence of the encoded protein, FMRP. FMRP is an RNA-binding protein that regulates the transport and translation of a variety of brain mRNAs in an activity-dependent manner. The loss of FMRP causes dysregulation of many neuronal pathways and results in an intellectual disability disorder, fragile X syndrome (FXS). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9020039DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6406686PMC
February 2019
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Working Memory, Cognitive Load andCardiorespiratory Fitness: Testing the CRUNCHModel with Near-Infrared Spectroscopy.

Brain Sci 2019 Feb 9;9(2). Epub 2019 Feb 9.

Laboratoire Sciences de la Cognition, Technologie, Ergonomie (SCoTE ⁻ EA 7420), Université de Toulouse, INU Champollion, 81012 Albi, France.

The present study aimed to examine the effects of chronological age and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) on cognitive performance and prefrontal cortex activity, and to test the compensation-related utilization of neural circuits hypothesis (CRUNCH). A total of 19 young adults (18⁻22 years) and 37 older ones (60⁻77 years) with a high or low CRF level were recruited to perform a working memory updating task under three different cognitive load conditions. Prefrontal cortex hemodynamic responses were continuously recorded using functional near-infrared spectroscopy, and behavioral performances and perceived difficulty were measured. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9020038DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6406418PMC
February 2019

Assessment and Management of HIV-Associated Cognitive Impairment: Experience from a Multidisciplinary Memory Service for People Living with HIV.

Brain Sci 2019 Feb 8;9(2). Epub 2019 Feb 8.

Department of Global Health and Infection, Brighton and Sussex Medical School, Brighton, BN1 9PX, UK.

As the HIV population ages, the prevalence of cognitive impairment (CI) is increasing, yet few services exist for the assessment and management of these individuals. Here we provide an initial description of a memory assessment service for people living with HIV and present data from a service evaluation undertaken in the clinic. We conducted an evaluation of the first 52 patients seen by the clinic. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9020037DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6406482PMC
February 2019
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Shared Neural Correlates Underlying Addictive Disorders and Negative Urgency.

Brain Sci 2019 Feb 8;9(2). Epub 2019 Feb 8.

Department of Psychology, Indiana University⁻Purdue University Indianapolis, Indianapolis, IN, 46202, USA.

Negative urgency is a personality trait reflecting the tendency to act rashly in response to extreme negative emotions and is considered a transdiagnostic endophenotype for problematic levels of addictive behaviors. Recent research has begun to identify the neural correlates of negative urgency, many of which appear to overlap with neural circuitry underlying addictive disorders associated with negative urgency. The goal of this qualitative review is to summarize the extant literature concerning the neural correlates of negative urgency, to compare these correlates with those implicated with addictive disorders, and to propose new ways to begin to leverage such findings in treatment and intervention approaches. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9020036DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6406305PMC
February 2019
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Dunn's Model of Sensory Processing: An Investigation of the Axes of the Four-Quadrant Model in Healthy Adults.

Brain Sci 2019 Feb 7;9(2). Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Occupational Therapy Doctoral Program, School of Exercise & Rehabilitation Sciences, College of Health & Human Services, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606, USA.

We examined the behavioral response (BR) and threshold (T) axes of Dunn's four-quadrant model of sensory processing (1997). We assessed whether they are ordinal ranges and if variation is associated with other similarly described characteristics: Introversion/Extraversion (I/E) of Eysenck's personality model (Sato, 2005), and somatosensory event related potentials (SERP) and their gating (Davies & Gavin, 2007). From healthy adults ( = 139), we obtained: Adult/Adolescent Profile (A/ASP, Brown & Dunn, 2002) and Eysenck's Personality Questionnaire, Brief Version (Sato, 2005) scores and peak amplitude and gating factor of SERP P50. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9020035DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6406387PMC
February 2019