736 results match your criteria Brain research. Brain research reviews[Journal]


Critical role of actin in modulating BBB permeability.

Brain Res Brain Res Rev 2005 Dec;50(1):7-13

Advanced Peptide Medicine & Drug Delivery Research Laboratory, 72 Jennifer Drive, Chester Springs, PA 19425, USA.

A major obstacle in the treatment of degenerative manifestations and debilitating diseases in the central nervous system (CNS) lies in the impediment of drug delivery into these tissues. The impediment is due to a membrane barrier referred to as the blood-brain barrier (BBB). It is known that the BBB is a unique membranous structure in brain capillaries that tightly segregates the brain from systemic blood circulation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresrev.2005.03.007DOI Listing
December 2005
3 Reads

Dual role of nitric oxide in adult neurogenesis.

Brain Res Brain Res Rev 2005 Dec 20;50(1):1-6. Epub 2005 Apr 20.

Instituto de Farmacología y Toxicología del CSIC, Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Av. Complutense s/n, 28040 Madrid, Spain.

In the last decade, it has been demonstrated that neurogenesis persists in the adult mammalian brain and that it is induced after insults, where newborn neurons migrate to damaged areas, differentiate and contribute to the recovery. The understanding of the cellular and molecular events involved in this phenomenon could provide effective therapies not only to promote brain repair in stroke or seizures, but also to facilitate functional improvement in depression or Alzheimer. In this context, many advances have been made, such as the implication of different growth factors, membrane receptors, and most importantly diffusible messengers like nitric oxide (NO). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresrev.2005.03.006DOI Listing
December 2005
2 Reads

Dopamine-glutamate reciprocal modulation of release and motor responses in the rat caudate-putamen and nucleus accumbens of "intact" animals.

Brain Res Brain Res Rev 2005 Dec 8;50(2):336-60. Epub 2005 Nov 8.

Unité de Psychologie Médicale, CHU Sart-Tilman, B 4000 Liège, Belgium.

Functional interactions between dopaminergic neurotransmission and glutamatergic neurotransmission are well known to play a crucial integrative role in the striatum, the major input structure of the basal ganglia now widely recognized to contribute to the control of motor activity and movements but also to the processing of cognitive and limbic functions. However, the nature of these interactions is still a matter of debate and controversy. This review (1) summarizes anatomical data on the distribution of dopaminergic and glutamatergic receptors in the striatum-accumbens complex, (2) focuses on the dopamine-glutamate interactions in the modulation of each other's release in the striatum-accumbens complex, and (3) examines the dopamine-glutamate interactions in the entire striatum involved in the control of locomotor activity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresrev.2005.09.002DOI Listing
December 2005
2 Reads

CNS injury research; reviewing the last decade: methodological errors and a proposal for a new strategy.

Authors:
Ilias Kazanis

Brain Res Brain Res Rev 2005 Dec 7;50(2):377-86. Epub 2005 Nov 7.

Division of Cellular and Molecular Pathology, Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1QP, UK.

During the last decades the field of Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) has been characterized by a paucity of new treatments. This is in contrast to the amount of pre-clinical experimental work and the number of clinical trials done. This paper aims to contribute to the ongoing debate on the reasons that have led to this phenomenon. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresrev.2005.09.003DOI Listing
December 2005

Contribution from neurophysiological and psychological methods to the study of motor imagery.

Brain Res Brain Res Rev 2005 Dec 3;50(2):387-97. Epub 2005 Nov 3.

Centre de Recherche et d'Innovation sur le Sport, Université Claude Bernard Lyon I-UFR STAPS, 27-29 Boulevard du 11 Novembre 1918, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex, France.

This paper reviews studies on neurophysiological and behavioral methods used to evaluate motor imagery accuracy. These methods can be used when performed in the field and are based on recordings of peripheral indices such as autonomic nervous system or electromyographic activities, mental chronometry and psychological tests. Providing physiological signs that correlate to these types of mental processes may be considered an objective approach for motor imagery analysis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresrev.2005.09.004DOI Listing
December 2005
1 Read

Ceruloplasmin in neurodegenerative diseases.

Brain Res Brain Res Rev 2005 Nov;49(3):633-40

Institute for Experimental Medicine, St. Petersburg, Russia.

For decades, abnormalities in ceruloplasmin (Cp) synthesis have been associated with neurodegenerative disease. From the early observation that low circulating serum ceruloplasmin levels served as a marker for Wilson's disease to the recent characterization of a neurodegenerative disorder associated with a complete lack of serum ceruloplasmin, the link between Cp and neuropathology has strengthened. The mechanisms associated with these different central nervous system abnormalities are very distinct. Read More

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http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S016501730500046
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresrev.2005.03.003DOI Listing
November 2005
4 Reads

Are mitochondria critical in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease?

Brain Res Brain Res Rev 2005 Nov 19;49(3):618-32. Epub 2005 Apr 19.

Neurogenetics Laboratory, Neurological Sciences Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, 505 NW 185th Avenue, Beaverton, OR 97006, USA.

This review summarizes recent findings that suggest a causal connection between mitochondrial abnormalities and sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD). Genetic causes of AD are known only for a small proportion of familial AD patients, but for a majority of sporadic AD patients, genetic causal factors are still unknown. Currently, there are no early detectable biomarkers for sporadic AD, and there is a lack of understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresrev.2005.03.004DOI Listing
November 2005
4 Reads

Glucose transport to the brain: a systems model.

Brain Res Brain Res Rev 2005 Nov 20;49(3):595-617. Epub 2005 Apr 20.

Joint Graduate Group in Bioengineering, University of California, Berkeley and San Francisco, USA.

Glucose transport to the brain involves sophisticated interactions of solutes, transporters, enzymes, and cell signaling processes, within an intricate spatial architecture. The dynamics of the transport are influenced by the adaptive nature of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), the semi-impermeable membranes of brain capillaries. As both the gate and the gatekeeper between blood-borne nutrients and brain tissue, the BBB helps govern brain homeostasis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresrev.2005.03.002DOI Listing
November 2005
7 Reads

Protection from neuronal damage evoked by a motivational excitation is a driving force of intentional actions.

Brain Res Brain Res Rev 2005 Nov 26;49(3):566-94. Epub 2005 Apr 26.

Department of Life Science, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900, Israel.

Motivation may be understood as an organism's subjective attitude to its current physiological state, which somehow modulates generation of actions until the organism attains an optimal state. How does this subjective attitude arise and how does it modulate generation of actions? Diverse lines of evidence suggest that elemental motivational states (hunger, thirst, fear, drug-dependence, etc.) arise as the result of metabolic disturbances and are related to transient injury, while rewards (food, water, avoidance, drugs, etc. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresrev.2005.02.006DOI Listing
November 2005

The yin and yang of cardiac autonomic control: vago-sympathetic interactions revisited.

Brain Res Brain Res Rev 2005 Nov 1;49(3):555-65. Epub 2005 Apr 1.

Department of Physiology, School of Medical Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TD, UK.

We review the pattern of activity in the parasympathetic and sympathetic nerves innervating the heart. Unlike the conventional textbook picture of reciprocal control of cardiac vagal and sympathetic nervous activity, as seen during a baroreceptor reflex, many other reflexes involve simultaneous co-activation of both autonomic limbs. Indeed, even at 'rest', the heart receives tonic drives from both sympathetic and parasympathetic cardiac nerves. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresrev.2005.02.005DOI Listing
November 2005

Lead neurotoxicity: from exposure to molecular effects.

Brain Res Brain Res Rev 2005 Nov 31;49(3):529-54. Epub 2005 Mar 31.

Department of Environmental Health Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.

The effects of lead (Pb(2+)) on human health have been recognized since antiquity. However, it was not until the 1970s that seminal epidemiological studies provided evidence on the effects of Pb(2+) intoxication on cognitive function in children. During the last two decades, advances in behavioral, cellular and molecular neuroscience have provided the necessary experimental tools to begin deciphering the many and complex effects of Pb(2+) on neuronal processes and cell types that are essential for synaptic plasticity and learning and memory in the mammalian brain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresrev.2005.02.004DOI Listing
November 2005
8 Reads

The role of corticotropin-releasing factor-like peptides in cannabis, nicotine, and alcohol dependence.

Brain Res Brain Res Rev 2005 Nov 25;49(3):505-28. Epub 2005 Feb 25.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Florida, McKnight Brain Institute, 100 S. Newell Dr. PO Box 100256, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA.

The corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)-like peptides, which include the mammalian peptides CRF, urocortin 1, urocortin 2, and urocortin 3, play an important role in orchestrating behavioral and physiological responses that may increase an organism's chance of survival when confronted with internal or external stressors. There is, however, evidence that a chronic overactivity of brain CRF systems under basal conditions may play a role in the etiology and maintenance of psychiatric disorders such as depression and anxiety disorders. In addition, there is evidence of a role for CRF-like peptides in acute and protracted drug abstinence syndromes and relapse to drug-taking behavior. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresrev.2005.01.007DOI Listing
November 2005

Interactions of alcohol and nitric-oxide synthase in the brain.

Brain Res Brain Res Rev 2005 Nov 5;49(3):494-504. Epub 2005 Mar 5.

Department of Pharmacology/Physiology, Neuroinflammation Research Laboratory, Oklahoma State University Center for Health Sciences, Tulsa, OK 74107, USA.

Nitric oxide (NO) is an important molecule associated with both physiological and pathological brain events. Three separate genes encode for nitric-oxide synthase (NOS), the rate-limiting enzyme in NO production, all of which are expressed within brain tissue. Effects of ethanol on NO production may be important to ethanol modification of brain function. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresrev.2005.01.008DOI Listing
November 2005
2 Reads

Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) for the brain: current status and remaining challenges for developing NeuroSERMs.

Brain Res Brain Res Rev 2005 Nov 23;49(3):472-93. Epub 2005 Mar 23.

Department of Molecular Pharmacology and Toxicology and the Program in Neuroscience, School of Pharmacy, University of Southern California, Pharmaceutical Sciences Center, Los Angeles, CA 90089, USA.

Multiple issues regarding the efficacy of estrogen action in the brain remain unresolved. These include the timing, formulation and duration of the therapy intervention. Moreover, issues of thrombotic and neoplastic risks must be factored into the design of estrogen alternatives developed to prevent age-associated neurodegenerative disorders, as well as other climacteric symptoms such as hot flush and sleep dysfunction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresrev.2005.01.009DOI Listing
November 2005
9 Reads

The importance of 'awareness' for understanding fetal pain.

Brain Res Brain Res Rev 2005 Nov;49(3):455-71

Riddet Centre and Institute of Food, Nutrition and Human Health, College of Sciences, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand.

Our understanding of when the fetus can experience pain has been largely shaped by neuroanatomy. However, completion of the cortical nociceptive connections just after mid-gestation is only one part of the story. In addition to critically reviewing evidence for whether the fetus is ever awake or aware, and thus able to truly experience pain, we examine the role of endogenous neuro-inhibitors, such as adenosine and pregnanolone, produced within the feto-placental unit that contribute to fetal sleep states, and thus mediate suppression of fetal awareness. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresrev.2005.01.006DOI Listing
November 2005
2 Reads

Circadian regulation of sleep in mammals: role of the suprachiasmatic nucleus.

Brain Res Brain Res Rev 2005 Nov;49(3):429-54

Department of Psychology, Simon Fraser University, 8888 University Drive, Burnaby, Canada BC V5A 1S6.

Despite significant progress in elucidating the molecular basis for circadian oscillations, the neural mechanisms by which the circadian clock organizes daily rhythms of behavioral state in mammals remain poorly understood. The objective of this review is to critically evaluate a conceptual model that views sleep expression as the outcome of opponent processes-a circadian clock-dependent alerting process that opposes sleep during the daily wake period, and a homeostatic process by which sleep drive builds during waking and is dissipated during sleep after circadian alerting declines. This model is based primarily on the evidence that in a diurnal primate, the squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus), ablation of the master circadian clock (the suprachiasmatic nucleus; SCN) induces a significant expansion of total daily sleep duration and a reduction in sleep latency in the dark. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S01650173050002
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresrev.2005.01.005DOI Listing
November 2005
4 Reads

Can herbs provide a new generation of drugs for treating Alzheimer's disease?

Brain Res Brain Res Rev 2005 Dec 2;50(2):361-76. Epub 2005 Nov 2.

Neurogenetics Laboratory, Neurological Sciences Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, 505 NW 185th Avenue, Beaverton, OR 97006, USA.

The overall aim of this review is to discuss cellular mechanisms at work in the progression of AD and current therapeutic strategies for treating AD, with a focus on the potential efficacy of herbal treatments. Recent advances in molecular, cellular, and animal model studies have revealed that formation of the 4-kDa amyloid beta peptide is a key factor in the development and progression of AD. Several cellular changes have been identified that are related to amyloid beta plaques and neurofibrillary tangles found in the autopsied brains of AD patients and in AD animal models. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresrev.2005.09.001DOI Listing
December 2005
1 Read

A field guide to the anterior olfactory nucleus (cortex).

Brain Res Brain Res Rev 2005 Dec 17;50(2):305-35. Epub 2005 Oct 17.

Department of Psychology, University of Virginia, 102 Gilmer Hall PO Box 400400, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4400, USA.

While portions of the mammalian olfactory system have been studied extensively, the anterior olfactory nucleus (AON) has been relatively ignored. Furthermore, the existing research is dispersed and obscured by many different nomenclatures and approaches. The present review collects and assembles the relatively sparse literature regarding the portion of the brain situated between the olfactory bulb and primary olfactory (piriform) cortex. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresrev.2005.08.005DOI Listing
December 2005
13 Reads

A model of phototransduction by the human circadian system.

Brain Res Brain Res Rev 2005 Dec 7;50(2):213-28. Epub 2005 Oct 7.

Lighting Research Center, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 21 Union Street, Troy, NY 12180, USA.

The absolute and spectral sensitivities to light by the human circadian system, measured through melatonin suppression or phase shifting response, are beginning to emerge after a quarter century of active research. The present paper outlines a hypothesized model of human circadian phototransduction that is consistent with the known neuroanatomy and physiology of the human visual and circadian systems. Spectral opponency is fundamental to the model, providing a parsimonious explanation of some recently published data. Read More

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http://www.lrc.rpi.edu/resources/newsroom/pdf/2005/Circadian
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresrev.2005.07.002DOI Listing
December 2005
4 Reads

Apoptosis in perinatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury: how important is it and should it be inhibited?

Brain Res Brain Res Rev 2005 Dec 10;50(2):244-57. Epub 2005 Oct 10.

Department of Pediatrics, Eudowood Neonatal Pulmonary Division, Dept. of Pediatrics, CMSC 6-104, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 600 N. Wolfe St., Baltimore, MD 21287, USA.

The discovery of safe and effective therapies for perinatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI) and stroke remains an unmet goal of perinatal medicine. Hypothermia and antioxidants such as allopurinol are currently under investigation as treatments for neonatal HI. Drugs targeting apoptotic mechanisms are currently being studied in adult diseases such as cancer, stroke, and trauma and have been proposed as potential therapies for perinatal HI and stroke. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresrev.2005.07.003DOI Listing
December 2005

On the scent of human olfactory orbitofrontal cortex: meta-analysis and comparison to non-human primates.

Brain Res Brain Res Rev 2005 Dec 6;50(2):287-304. Epub 2005 Oct 6.

Department of Neurology and the Cognitive Neurology and Alzheimer's Disease Center, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, 320 E. Superior St., Searle 11-453, Chicago, IL 60611, USA.

It is widely accepted that the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) represents the main neocortical target of primary olfactory cortex. In non-human primates, the olfactory neocortex is situated along the basal surface of the caudal frontal lobes, encompassing agranular and dysgranular OFC medially and agranular insula laterally, where this latter structure wraps onto the posterior orbital surface. Direct afferent inputs arrive from most primary olfactory areas, including piriform cortex, amygdala, and entorhinal cortex, in the absence of an obligatory thalamic relay. Read More

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http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S016501730500118
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresrev.2005.08.004DOI Listing
December 2005
4 Reads

About being BOLD.

Authors:
Dinesh G Nair

Brain Res Brain Res Rev 2005 Dec 5;50(2):229-43. Epub 2005 Oct 5.

Palmer 127, Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center/Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA.

The last decade has seen an unprecedented increase in the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to understand the neural basis of cognition and behavior. Being non-invasive and relatively easy to use, most studies relied on changes in the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) contrast as an indirect marker of variations in brain activity. However, the fact that BOLD fMRI is dependent on the blood flow response that follows neural activity and does not measure neural activity per se is seen as an inherent cause for concern while interpreting data from these studies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresrev.2005.07.001DOI Listing
December 2005
3 Reads

The critical component to establish in vitro BBB model: Pericyte.

Brain Res Brain Res Rev 2005 Dec 30;50(2):258-65. Epub 2005 Sep 30.

Advanced Peptide Medicine and Drug Delivery Research Laboratory, 72 Jennifer Drive, Chester Springs, PA 19425, USA.

The blood-brain barrier (BBB), a highly regulated membranous barrier of brain capillaries, consists of an intricate network of tight junctions (TJs) that segregate the central nervous system (CNS) from systemic blood circulation and maintain a delicate homeostasis of the CNS environment. While endothelial cells (ECs) of brain capillaries are clearly the principal cellular element of BBB, the formation and regulation of intact BBB structure appear to require the interactions of endothelial cells with other cellular components. Astrocytes, one of the major non-neural cells in the brain, associate closely and interact with capillary endothelial cells during the angiogenesis and BBB development. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresrev.2005.07.004DOI Listing
December 2005
9 Reads

Neural correlates of cognitive dysfunction after cardiac surgery.

Brain Res Brain Res Rev 2005 Dec 29;50(2):266-74. Epub 2005 Sep 29.

A. N. Bakulev Scientific Center of Cardiovascular Surgery, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Moscow, Russia.

Patients who underwent cardiac surgery and their relatives often complain on postoperative memory impairment. Most prospective neuropsychological studies also found postoperative cognitive decline early after surgery. Nevertheless, recently several reports questioned the existence of long-term brain alterations in these patient cohorts. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresrev.2005.08.001DOI Listing
December 2005
1 Read

Cerebral ischemia and brain histamine.

Authors:
Naoto Adachi

Brain Res Brain Res Rev 2005 Dec 21;50(2):275-86. Epub 2005 Sep 21.

Department of Anesthesiology and Resuscitology, Ehime University School of Medicine, Shitsukawa, Touon-shi, Ehime 791-0295, Japan.

Cerebral ischemia induces excess release of glutamate and an increase in the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration in neurons, which provokes enzymatic process leading to irreversible neuronal injury. Histamine plays a role as a neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain, and histamine release from nerve endings is enhanced in ischemia by facilitation of histaminergic activity. Dissimilar to ischemia-induced release of glutamate, histamine release is gradual and long lasting. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresrev.2005.08.002DOI Listing
December 2005
9 Reads

Fusion pore regulation of transmitter release.

Brain Res Brain Res Rev 2005 Sep;49(2):406-15

Departamento de Fisiología Médica y Biofísica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Sevilla, Avda. Sánchez Pizjuán 4, 41009 Sevilla, Spain.

During the last decade a wealth of new information about the properties of the exocytotic fusion pore is changing our current view of exocytosis. The exocytotic fusion pore, a necessary stage before the full merging of the vesicle membrane with the plasma membrane, is becoming a key cellular structure that might critically control the amount of neurotransmitter released into the synaptic cleft and that can be subjected to control by second messengers and phosphorylated proteins. Fusion pores form, expand to fully merge membranes, or can close leaving an intact and identical synaptic vesicle in place for a new round of exocytosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresrev.2004.12.037DOI Listing
September 2005
1 Read

Calcium pumps in the central nervous system.

Brain Res Brain Res Rev 2005 Sep 6;49(2):398-405. Epub 2005 Jan 6.

Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular y Genética, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda de Elvas 06071 Badajoz, Spain.

Two families of Ca2+ transport ATPases are involved in the maintenance of Ca2+ homeostasis in the nervous system, the plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase that pumps Ca2+ to the extracellular medium and the intracellular sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase that transports Ca2+ from the cytosol to the endoplasmic reticulum. Both types of calcium pumps show precise regulatory properties and they are localized in specific subcellular regions. In this review, we describe the functional and regulatory properties of both families of calcium pumps, their distribution in nerve cells, and their involvement in neurological disorders. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresrev.2004.11.004DOI Listing
September 2005
1 Read

Involvement of the optic tectum and mesencephalic reticular formation in the generation of saccadic eye movements in goldfish.

Brain Res Brain Res Rev 2005 Sep 10;49(2):388-97. Epub 2004 Nov 10.

Lab. Neurobiología de Vertebrados, Dept. Fisiología y Zoología, Fac. Biologia, Avda. Reina Mercedes, 6, 41012, Univ Sevilla, Spain.

The circuitry and physiological properties underlying saccadic eye movement generation have been studied mainly in monkeys and cats. By contrast, current knowledge in nonmammalian species is rather scarce. We review here some of our recent findings about the involvement of the optic tectum and mesencephalic reticular formation in the generation of saccades in goldfish. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresrev.2004.10.002DOI Listing
September 2005

Changes during the postnatal development in physiological and anatomical characteristics of rat motoneurons studied in vitro.

Brain Res Brain Res Rev 2005 Sep 24;49(2):377-87. Epub 2005 Mar 24.

Departamento de Fisiología y Zoología, Universidad de Sevilla, Calle Prof. García González, Sevilla, Spain.

The postnatal maturation of rat brainstem (oculomotor and hypoglossal nuclei) and spinal motoneurons, based on data collected from in vitro studies, is reviewed here. Membrane input resistance diminishes with age, but to a greater extent for hypoglossal than for oculomotor motoneurons. The time constant of the membrane diminishes with age in a similar fashion for both oculomotor and hypoglossal motoneurons. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresrev.2005.02.003DOI Listing
September 2005
2 Reads

Firing activities of identified posterior interpositus nucleus neurons during associative learning in behaving cats.

Brain Res Brain Res Rev 2005 Sep;49(2):367-76

División de Neurociencias, Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Ctra. de Utrera, Km. 1, 41013-Sevilla, Spain.

On the basis of stimulation and permanent or transient lesions of putatively involved structures, and using transgenic mice with defective functional circuits, it has been proposed that cerebellar cortex and/or nuclei could be the sites where classically conditioned nictitating membrane/eyelid responses are acquired and stored. Here, we review recent information regarding the electrical activities of deep cerebellar nuclei neurons recorded during the performance of reflex and acquired eyeblinks. In particular, the rostral pole of the dorsolateral region of the posterior interpositus nucleus contains neurons significantly related to reflexively evoked and classically conditioned eyelid responses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresrev.2004.10.006DOI Listing
September 2005

Role of nitric oxide in subventricular zone neurogenesis.

Brain Res Brain Res Rev 2005 Sep;49(2):355-66

Area de Fisiología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Cádiz, Plaza Falla 9, 11003, Cádiz, Spain.

A possible role of nitric oxide (NO) in adult neurogenesis has been suggested based on anatomical findings showing that subventricular zone (SVZ) neuroblasts are located close to NO-producing cells, and on the known antiproliferative actions of NO in many cell types. Experiments have been performed in rodents with systemic and intracerebroventricular administrations of the NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor L-NAME. NOS inhibition leads to significant increases in the number of proliferating cells in the SVZ and olfactory bulb (OB). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresrev.2005.01.001DOI Listing
September 2005
1 Read

Cells of the sympathoadrenal lineage: biological properties as donor tissue for cell-replacement therapies for Parkinson's disease.

Brain Res Brain Res Rev 2005 Sep 2;49(2):343-54. Epub 2005 Mar 2.

Department of Medical Physiology and Biophysics, University of Seville, Av. Sanchez Pizjuan 4, E-41009 Seville, Spain.

Sympathoadrenal (SA) cell lineage encompasses neural crest derivatives such as sympathetic neurons, small intensely fluorescent (SIF) cells of sympathetic ganglia and adrenal medulla, and chromaffin cells of adrenal medulla and extra-adrenal paraganglia. SA autografts have been used for transplantation in Parkinson's disease (PD) for three reasons: (i) as autologous donor tissue avoids graft rejection and the need for immunosuppressant therapy, (ii) SA cells express dopaminotrophic factors such as GNDF and TGFbetas, and (iii) although most of SA cells release noradrenaline, some of them are able to produce and release dopamine. Adrenal chromaffin cells were the first SA transplanted cells in both animal models of PD and PD patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresrev.2005.01.004DOI Listing
September 2005
1 Read

Neuronal replacement and integration in the rewiring of cerebellar circuits.

Brain Res Brain Res Rev 2005 Sep;49(2):330-42

Department of Neuroscience and Rita Levi Montalcini Centre for Brain Repair, University of Turin, Corso Raffaello 30, I-10125 Turin, Italy.

Repair of CNS injury or degeneration by cell replacement may lead to significant functional recovery only through faithful reconstruction of the original anatomical architecture. This is particularly relevant for point-to-point systems, where precisely patterned connections have to be re-established to regain adaptive function. Despite the major interest recently drawn on cell therapies, little is known about the mechanisms and the potentialities for specific integration of new neurons in the mature CNS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresrev.2004.07.022DOI Listing
September 2005

Cerebellar grafting in the oculomotor system as a model to study target influence on adult neurons.

Brain Res Brain Res Rev 2005 Sep 28;49(2):317-29. Epub 2004 Oct 28.

Dept. Fisiología y Zoología, Facultad de Biología, Universidad de Sevilla, Av. Reina Mercedes, 6 41012 Sevilla, E-41012, Spain.

In the last decades, there have been many efforts directed to gain a better understanding on adult neuron-target cell relationships. Embryonic grafts have been used for the study of neural circuit rewiring. Thus, using several donor neuronal tissues, such as cerebellum or striatum, developing grafted cells have been shown to have the capability of substituting neural cell populations and establishing reciprocal connections with the host. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresrev.2004.09.006DOI Listing
September 2005
2 Reads

Cell death and axon regeneration of Purkinje cells after axotomy: challenges of classical hypotheses of axon regeneration.

Brain Res Brain Res Rev 2005 Sep 2;49(2):300-16. Epub 2005 Mar 2.

UMR-7102, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 9 Quai Saint Bernard, 75005 Paris, France.

Although adult mammalian neurons are able to regenerate their axons in the peripheral nervous system under certain conditions, they are not able to do it in the central nervous system. The environment surrounding the severed axons appears to be a key factor for axon regeneration. Many studies aiming to enhance axon regeneration in the CNS of adult mammals have successfully manipulated this environment by adding growth permissive molecules and/or neutralizing growth inhibitory molecules. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresrev.2004.11.007DOI Listing
September 2005
1 Read

Injury reactive myelin/oligodendrocyte-derived axon growth inhibition in the adult mammalian central nervous system.

Brain Res Brain Res Rev 2005 Sep;49(2):295-9

CNRS UMR 7102, Equipe Développement Neuronal, Université Pierre et Marie Curie (Paris 6), Batiment B, Case 12, 9 Quai Saint Bernard, 75005 Paris, France.

Myelin inhibition is considered a constitutive, static, repulsive barrier not reactive to a central nervous system (CNS) lesion. However, recent evidence underlines the existence of considerable add-on axon growth inhibition upon CNS injury. This postlesional, reactive myelin/oligodendrocyte-derived inhibition will require the development of novel screening approaches and therapeutic reagents to promote axonal regeneration. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresrev.2004.10.007DOI Listing
September 2005
8 Reads

Different pontine projections to the two sides of the cerebellum.

Brain Res Brain Res Rev 2005 Sep 23;49(2):280-94. Epub 2005 Mar 23.

Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiologiche, Viale A. Doria 6, 95125 Catania, Italy.

This study analyzed the projections of the basilar pontine nuclei (BPN) and of the nucleus reticularis tegmenti pontis (NRTP) to the two sides of the cerebellum in the rat. It showed that the two sides of the cerebellar cortex were innervated by different percentages of BPN (about 82% of the cells project to the contralateral cortex and 18% to the ipsilateral) and NRTP cells (some 60% project to the contralateral cortex and 40% to the ipsilateral). In comparison to projections traced to the cortex, only a few fibers were traced to the nuclei of the same animals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresrev.2005.02.002DOI Listing
September 2005
9 Citations

Naturally occurring neuronal death during the postnatal development of Purkinje cells and their precerebellar afferent projections.

Brain Res Brain Res Rev 2005 Sep 5;49(2):267-79. Epub 2004 Nov 5.

Laboratory of Neuroscience, Human Anatomy and Embryology Unit, School of Sports, University Pablo de Olavide, Ctra. Utrera km 1 E-41013 Seville, Spain.

Naturally occurring neuronal death plays a substantial developmental role in the building of the neural circuitries. The neuronal death caused by different cerebellar mutations is mostly of an apoptotic nature. Apart from the identity of the intrinsic mechanisms of the mutations, adult cerebellar mutants are a powerful tool to causally study the development of the cerebellar connectivity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresrev.2004.10.001DOI Listing
September 2005
2 Reads

Development of precerebellar nuclei: instructive factors and intracellular mediators in neuronal migration, survival and axon pathfinding.

Brain Res Brain Res Rev 2005 Sep;49(2):253-66

Institut Cochin, GDPM, INSERM U567, CNRS 8104, Université Paris V, CHU Cochin, 24 rue du Faubourg Saint Jacques, 75014 Paris, France.

The precerebellar system provides an interesting model to study tangential migrations. All precerebellar neurons (PCN) are generated in the most alar part of the hindbrain in a region called rhombic lip. PCN first emit a leading process and then translocate their nuclei inside it, a mechanism called nucleokinesis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresrev.2005.01.003DOI Listing
September 2005
2 Reads

Morphogens as growth cone signalling molecules.

Brain Res Brain Res Rev 2005 Sep 24;49(2):242-52. Epub 2004 Dec 24.

Instituto Cajal, CSIC, Dr. Arce 37, Madrid 28002, Spain.

Morphogen signalling among cells is one of the most important mechanisms underlying the progressive patterning of embryos. Members of the hedgehog (Hh), wingless (Wnt), transforming growth factor-beta (TGFbeta), and fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) families of extracellular signalling molecules act as morphogens. Recent studies have demonstrated that members of these four families of proteins, secreted by well-characterised organiser centres in the central nervous system (CNS) as floor plate or midbrain-hindbrain boundary, are reused at later developmental stages to control axon growth. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresrev.2004.10.004DOI Listing
September 2005
48 Reads

The molecular orchestra of the migration of oligodendrocyte precursors during development.

Brain Res Brain Res Rev 2005 Sep;49(2):227-41

Instituto de Neurociencias de Castilla y León-INCyL, Universidad de Salamanca, Avda. de Alfonso X el Sabio, s/n, E-37007-Salamanca, Spain.

During development of the central nervous system (CNS), postmitotic cells (including neurons and myelin-generating cells, the oligodendrocytes) migrate from the germinal areas of the neural tube where they originate to their final destination sites. The migration of neurons during development has been extensively studied and has been the topic of detailed reviews. The migration of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) is also an extremely complex and precise event, with a widespread migration of OPCs across many regions to colonize the entire CNS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresrev.2004.12.034DOI Listing
September 2005
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Functions of ephrin/Eph interactions in the development of the nervous system: emphasis on the hippocampal system.

Brain Res Brain Res Rev 2005 Sep 29;49(2):211-26. Epub 2005 Mar 29.

Neuronal Development and Regeneration Group (S1-A1), Department of Cell Biology, University of Barcelona/Barcelona Science Park, Josep Samitier 1-5, Barcelona E-08028, Spain.

Ephrins and their Eph receptors are membrane-anchored proteins that have key roles in the development of the Central Nervous System. The main characteristics of ephrin/Eph interactions are that their effect is mediated by cell-to-cell contacts and that they can propagate bidirectional signals downstream of the ligand-receptor complex. These characteristics make ephrins and Eph receptors critical cues in the regulation of migrating cells or axons, and in the establishment of tissue patterns and topographic maps in distinct regions of the developing brain. Read More

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http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S016501730500027
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresrev.2005.02.001DOI Listing
September 2005
4 Reads

The rostral and caudal boundaries of the diencephalon.

Brain Res Brain Res Rev 2005 Sep;49(2):202-10

Microbiology and Cellular Biology, University of La Laguna (Tenerife, Spain), Avda. Astrofisico Fco. Sanchez sn, La Laguna Tenerife 38.206, Spain.

Knowledge of nature and features of the boundaries between the main neural regions seems to be essential to understand the rules of brain regionalization. On the light of several current and classical criteria used to define cerebral boundaries, we examine the features of the places recognized as rostral and caudal boundaries in the developing diencephalon and provide new images about the glial features of these boundaries. One demonstrated property of some embryonic boundaries is the prevention of the crossing cells in the early ventricular zone (clonal restriction), while the intermediate zone seems to lack it. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresrev.2005.01.002DOI Listing
September 2005
3 Reads

Agreement and disagreement among fate maps of the chick neural plate.

Brain Res Brain Res Rev 2005 Sep;49(2):191-201

Departamento de Ciencias Morfológicas y Biología Celular y Animal, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad de Extremadura, Avenida de Elvas s/n, E 06071 Badajoz, Spain.

Fate maps are essential to understand embryonic development; they provide a background for deducing maps of differential cellular specification in the context of other experimental data and molecular expression patterns. Due to its accessibility, the chick neural plate has been fate-mapped many times, albeit without complete agreement with respect to its shape, extent and fated subdivisions. In this review, we first comment about avian neural plate fate maps reported since the early period of experimental embryology, referring to the different methods followed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresrev.2004.12.032DOI Listing
September 2005
3 Reads

Postulated boundaries and differential fate in the developing rostral hindbrain.

Brain Res Brain Res Rev 2005 Sep;49(2):179-90

Department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Murcia, 30100 Murcia, Spain.

The vertebrate brain is progressively regionalized during development in a process whereby a precise spatio-temporal arrangement of gene expression patterns and resulting intercellular and intracellular signals drive patterning, growth, morphogenesis, and final fates, thus producing ordered species-specific differentiation of each territory within a shared morphotype. Before genetic and molecular biology tools started to be used to uncover the underlying mechanisms that control morphogenesis, knowledge on brain development largely depended on descriptive analysis and experimental embryology. The first approach allowed us to know how the brain develops but not why. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresrev.2004.12.031DOI Listing
September 2005
2 Reads

Correlation of a chicken stage 4 neural plate fate map with early gene expression patterns.

Brain Res Brain Res Rev 2005 Sep;49(2):167-78

Department of Human Anatomy and Psychobiology, School of Medicine, University of Murcia (Campus Espinardo), Murcia E30100, Spain.

A number of gene markers are currently claimed to allow positive or negative visualization of the early chick neural plate at stages 3d/4, when its fate becomes determined. Some markers labeled by various authors as either "neural" or "non-neural" indeed show ectodermal expression patterns roughly correlative with widespread yet vague ideas on the shape and size of the early neural plate, based on previous fate maps. However, for technical reasons, it is not clear how precisely these expression patterns correlate with any experimentally determined fate boundaries. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresrev.2004.12.036DOI Listing
September 2005
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Experimental study of MAP kinase phosphatase-3 (Mkp3) expression in the chick neural tube in relation to Fgf8 activity.

Brain Res Brain Res Rev 2005 Sep 7;49(2):158-66. Epub 2005 Apr 7.

Neuroscience Institute UMH-CSIC, University Miguel Hernandez, N-332, Km 87, E-03550 San Juan de Alicante, Spain.

Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways are well known to be involved in signal transduction from extracellular to intracellular compartments in all eukaryotes. The activation of this cascade will have an effect on cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. In this study, we describe the cloning of the chick Mkp3 gene that is highly homologous to the mammalian gene and are both expressed in several embryo regions with demonstrated morphogenetic activity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresrev.2004.12.038DOI Listing
September 2005

Modulation of Fgf8 activity during vertebrate brain development.

Brain Res Brain Res Rev 2005 Sep;49(2):150-7

Institute of Neuroscience, University Miguel Hernandez (UMH-CSIC), Carretera de Valencia (N332), San Juan, Alicante 03550, Spain.

In recent years much emphasis has been placed on investigation of the precise control of FGF signaling during brain development. Such control is achieved in part by regulatory elements that determine the domains and levels of expression of genes coding for the diverse FGF ligands via specific molecular signaling pathways. There is new knowledge on the operation of such mechanisms in regions of the neural tube involved in the correct patterning of adjacent territories (known as secondary organizers of neural tube pattern). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresrev.2004.12.035DOI Listing
September 2005
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Specification of the meso-isthmo-cerebellar region: the Otx2/Gbx2 boundary.

Brain Res Brain Res Rev 2005 Sep 16;49(2):134-49. Epub 2005 Mar 16.

INSERM U106,Hôpital de la Salpétrière, Pavillon Enfants et Adolescents, 75651 Paris CEDEX 13, France.

The midbrain/hindbrain (MH) territory containing the mesencephalic and isthmocerebellar primordial is characterized by the expression of several families of regulatory genes including transcription factors (Otx, Gbx, En, and Pax) and signaling molecules (Fgf and Wnt). At earlier stages of avian neural tube, those genes present a dynamic expression pattern and only at HH18-20 onwards, when the mesencephalic/metencephalic constriction is coincident with the Otx2/Gbx2 boundary, their expression domains become more defined. This review summarizes experimental data concerning the genetic mechanisms involved in the specification of the midbrain/hindbrain territory emphasizing the chick/quail chimeric experiments leading to the discovery of a secondary isthmic organizer. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresrev.2005.01.010DOI Listing
September 2005

Isthmus organizer for midbrain and hindbrain development.

Brain Res Brain Res Rev 2005 Sep 21;49(2):120-6. Epub 2005 Jan 21.

Department of Molecular Neurobiology, Graduate School of Life Sciences and Institute of Development, Aging and Cancer, Tohoku University, Seiryo-machi 4-1, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8575, Japan.

Classical transplantation studies showed that the isthmus has an organizing activity upon the tectum and cerebellum. Since Fgf8 is expressed in the isthmus and mimics functionally isthmic grafts, it is accepted that Fgf8 plays pivotal role in the isthmic organizing activity. The fate of brain vesicles is determined by the combinations of transcription factors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresrev.2004.10.005DOI Listing
September 2005
6 Reads