488 results match your criteria Brain research. Brain research protocols[Journal]


Learned helplessness: validity and reliability of depressive-like states in mice.

Brain Res Brain Res Protoc 2005 Dec 23;16(1-3):70-8. Epub 2005 Nov 23.

Central Institute of Mental Health Mannheim (ZI), University of Heidelberg, Germany, J 5, D-68159 Mannheim, Germany.

The learned helplessness paradigm is a depression model in which animals are exposed to unpredictable and uncontrollable stress, e.g. electroshocks, and subsequently develop coping deficits for aversive but escapable situations (J. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresprot.2005.09.002DOI Listing
December 2005

The assays of activities and function of TH, AADC, and GCH1 and their potential use in ex vivo gene therapy of PD.

Brain Res Brain Res Protoc 2005 Dec;16(1-3):37-43

Beijing Institute for Neurosciences, Beijing Center for Neural Regeneration and Repairing, Capital University of Medical Science, Beijing 100069, China.

In the past decades, there have been numerous studies in the gene therapy for Parkinson's disease (PD), especially in delivering genes of enzymes for dopamine (DA) synthesis. Gene therapy in PD appears to be at the brink of the clinical study phase. However, there are many questions that need to be solved before this approach can be contemplated clinically, especially the question about the control of DA production because too much DA could cause toxicity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresprot.2005.10.005DOI Listing
December 2005
5 Reads

A simple and fast densitometric method for the analysis of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity in the substantia nigra pars compacta and in the ventral tegmental area.

Brain Res Brain Res Protoc 2005 Dec 28;16(1-3):58-64. Epub 2005 Nov 28.

Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Faculdade de Biociências, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Rua Ipiranga 6681, CEP 90619-900, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.

Parkinson's disease is a progressive dyskinetic disorder caused by degeneration of mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and, to a lesser extent, in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is a rate-limiting enzyme for dopamine synthesis, therefore immunohistochemistry for TH can be used as an important marker of dopaminergic cell loss in these regions. Traditionally, immunohistochemical experiments are analyzed qualitatively by optical microscopic observation or more rarely semi-quantitatively evaluated by densitometry. Read More

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December 2005
3 Reads

A procedure for selecting and culturing subpopulations of neurons from rat dorsal root ganglia using magnetic beads.

Brain Res Brain Res Protoc 2005 Dec 23;16(1-3):50-7. Epub 2005 Nov 23.

Division of Basic Medical Sciences-M5352, Faculty of Medicine, Memorial University of Newfoundland, 300 Prince Philip Dr, St. John's, NL, Canada A1B 3V6.

Current protocols for preparing primary sensory neuron cultures are inadequate when studying individual subpopulations of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. The DRG is made up of a heterogeneous population of cells, making it difficult to study treatment effects on any given population in mass cultures. Thus, we describe a procedure using magnetic beads from Dynal to select and plate viable populations of neurons based on expression of specific cell surface markers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresprot.2005.10.004DOI Listing
December 2005
4 Reads

Eye-wiping test: a sensitive animal model for acute trigeminal pain studies.

Brain Res Brain Res Protoc 2005 Dec 22;16(1-3):44-9. Epub 2005 Nov 22.

Neuroscience Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Jomhori Islami Blvd, Kerman, PO Box 76175-113, Iran.

The possibility of introducing eye-wiping test as a model of acute pain was examined in rat, and it was compared with the well-known hot plate test. One drop of NaCl 5 M was placed into the animal eye, and the number of eye wipes with the ipsilateral forelimb was counted during 30 s. The withdrawal latency in hot plate test was also examined. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresprot.2005.10.003DOI Listing
December 2005
3 Reads

Electron spin resonance assay of ascorbyl radical generation in mouse hippocampal slices during and after kainate-induced seizures.

Brain Res Brain Res Protoc 2005 Dec 16;16(1-3):65-9. Epub 2005 Nov 16.

JEOL, Ltd., Tokyo 196-8558 and Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sojo University, 4-22-1 Ikeda, Kumamoto 860-0082, Japan.

As an index of oxidative status, we analyzed ascorbyl radical generation during and after kainate-induced seizures in mouse hippocampus, using an ESR spectrometer equipped with a special tissue-type quartz cell. A specific doublet ESR spectrum was observed after seizures, and the g value and the hyperfine coupling constant (hfcc) of the spectrum were identical with those of ascorbyl radical itself. Antiepileptic zonisamide inhibited the generation of ascorbyl radical accompanying the seizures. Read More

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December 2005

The isolated perfused bovine retina--a sensitive tool for pharmacological research on retinal function.

Brain Res Brain Res Protoc 2005 Dec 7;16(1-3):27-36. Epub 2005 Nov 7.

Institute of Neurophysiology, University of Cologne, Robert-Koch-Str. 39, D-50931 Köln, Germany.

The electroretinogram (ERG) of the isolated bovine retina serves as a proven criterion of retinal activity. It is used as a sensitive pharmacological tool for testing effects of applied drugs and toxins on photoreceptors, and higher order neurons that contribute to the generation of the b-wave. Following isolation and detachment from the underlying pigment epithelium, part of the retina was mounted into a closed chamber and perfused by a nutrient solution. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresprot.2005.09.001DOI Listing
December 2005

Episodic-like memory in mice: simultaneous assessment of object, place and temporal order memory.

Brain Res Brain Res Protoc 2005 Dec 26;16(1-3):10-9. Epub 2005 Sep 26.

Institute of Physiological Psychology, Center for Biological and Medical Research, Heinrich-Heine-University of Düsseldorf, D-40225 Düsseldorf, Germany.

Episodic memory refers to the conscious recollection of a unique past experience in terms of "what" happened and "where" and "when" it happened. Since deficits in episodic memory are found in a number of neuropsychiatric diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, for which several pharmacological, lesion and genetic animal models are available, there is a need for animal models of episodic-like memory, which can be used to devise appropriate treatments. However, even when the problem of conscious recollection in animals is factored out, episodic memory has been difficult to demonstrate in nonhuman mammals because it has not yet been possible to demonstrate an integrated memory for "what",-"where"-and-"when". Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresprot.2005.08.001DOI Listing
December 2005
2 Reads

Real-time visualization and characterization of liposomal delivery into the monkey brain by magnetic resonance imaging.

Brain Res Brain Res Protoc 2005 Dec 21;16(1-3):20-6. Epub 2005 Sep 21.

Department of Neurological Surgery, Brain Tumor Research Center, University of California San Francisco, 1855 Folsom Street, Room 226, San Francisco, CA 94103, USA.

Liposomes loaded with Gadoteridol, in combination with convection-enhanced delivery (CED), offer an excellent option to monitor CNS delivery of therapeutic compounds with MRI. In previous studies, we investigated possible clinical applications of liposomes to the treatment of brain tumors. In this study, up to 700 microl of Gadoteridol/rhodamine-loaded liposomes were distributed in putamen, corona radiata and brainstem of non-human primates. Read More

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December 2005
39 Reads

Selective capture of endothelial and perivascular cells from brain microvessels using laser capture microdissection.

Brain Res Brain Res Protoc 2005 Dec 15;16(1-3):1-9. Epub 2005 Sep 15.

Blood-Brain Barrier Laboratory, Dept. of Pharmacology, University of Connecticut Health Center, 263 Farmington Avenue, Farmington, CT 06030, USA.

Laser capture microdissection (LCM) of the major cell types comprising brain microvessels offers a powerful technology to explore the molecular basis of the blood-brain barrier in health and disease. However, the ability to selectively retrieve endothelial or perivascular cells, without cross-contamination from the other, has proven difficult. Additionally, histochemical methods previously described for use with LCM have not allowed for identification of all the different size branches of the microvascular tree. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresprot.2005.08.002DOI Listing
December 2005

Oxidation of 14C-labeled substrates by hippocampal slice cultures.

Brain Res Brain Res Protoc 2005 Sep;15(3):135-41

Program in Neural and Behavioral Science, State University New York-Downstate Medical Center, 450 Clarkson Avenue, Brooklyn, New York 11203, USA.

In vitro studies of glucose and lactate utilization have been performed in acute hippocampal slices or dissociated neurons and glia. While some studies concluded that lactate and glucose are equivalent substrates to support evoked synaptic activity, others showed decreased synaptic activity in the presence of lactate as compared to glucose. We found diminished neural activity in the presence of lactate in hippocampal slice cultures. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresprot.2005.06.002DOI Listing
September 2005
1 Read

Regression analysis utilizing subjective evaluation of emotional experience in PET studies on emotions.

Brain Res Brain Res Protoc 2005 Sep;15(3):142-54

Department of Psychology, Abo Akademi University, FIN-20500 Turku, Finland.

A methodological study on subject-specific regression analysis (SSRA) exploring the correlation between the neural response and the subjective evaluation of emotional experience in eleven healthy females is presented. The target emotions, i.e. Read More

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September 2005
8 Reads

High-pressure freezing followed by cryosubstitution as a tool for preserving high-quality ultrastructure and immunoreactivity in the Xenopus laevis pituitary gland.

Brain Res Brain Res Protoc 2005 Sep;15(3):155-63

Department of Cellular Animal Physiology, Institute for Neuroscience, Radboud University Nijmegen, Toernooiveld 1, 6525 ED Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Subcellular localisation of proteins and peptides yields fundamental information about cell functioning. Immunoelectron microscopy is a powerful tool to achieve this goal, but combining good tissue preservation with strong immunoreactivity is a great challenge in electron microscopy. We have applied a novel approach, using high-pressure freezing (HPF) followed by cryosubstitution, to prepare the pituitary gland of the amphibian Xenopus laevis for immunogold-electron microscopy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresprot.2005.07.001DOI Listing
September 2005
3 Reads

Proliferation markers in the adult rodent brain: bromodeoxyuridine and proliferating cell nuclear antigen.

Brain Res Brain Res Protoc 2005 Sep;15(3):127-34

Departamento de Biología Celular y Patología, Instituto de Neurociencias de Castilla y León, Universidad de Salamanca, Avenida Alfonso X el Sabio s/n, E-37007 Salamanca, Spain.

The rostral migratory stream is one of the few regions of the adult mammalian central nervous system in which cellular migration and proliferation have been described. Most rostral migratory stream cells divide rapidly and hence different proliferation markers have been employed to identify them. Nitrogen base substitutes, such as tritiated thymidine or 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU), together with endogenous molecules, such as Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA), are the cell cycle markers most widely employed. Read More

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September 2005
1 Read

Peripheral targeting of the trigeminal ganglion via the infraorbital foramen as a therapeutic strategy.

Brain Res Brain Res Protoc 2005 Sep;15(3):119-26

Department of Orthodontics, College of Dentistry, University of Florida, 1600 S.W. Archer Road, P.O. Box 100444, Gainesville, FL 32610-0444, USA.

A unique interventional approach for modulating sensory signaling involves targeting neurons in the sensory ganglia through use of pharmacological or gene therapies. This has previously been accomplished in the trigeminal system via stereotactic ganglionic microinjections. However, this procedure can be time consuming and requires expensive stereotactic equipment. Read More

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September 2005
1 Read

Reanalysis of the protocol for in vitro synchronization of mammalian astrocytic cultures by serum deprivation.

Authors:
Stephen Cooper

Brain Res Brain Res Protoc 2005 Sep;15(3):115-8

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-0620, USA.

Serum starvation of astrocytes for a period of time followed by refeeding has been proposed as a method to produce synchronized astrocytes. Here, it is proposed that the method neither synchronizes cells nor satisfies rigorous criteria for cell synchronization. The proposed non-selective, whole-culture synchronization protocol cannot, in theory, synchronize cells. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1385299X050004
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresprot.2005.05.002DOI Listing
September 2005
1 Read

In vivo preparation and identification of mitral cells in the main olfactory bulb of the mouse.

Brain Res Brain Res Protoc 2005 Jul;15(2):105-13

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Cincinnati, OH, 45221-0006, USA.

The mouse main olfactory bulb (MOB) is commonly used as a mammalian model to study olfactory processing. The genetic techniques available with the mouse make its MOB a powerful model for analysis of neuronal circuitry. The mouse has been used as a mammalian model for all types of MOB neurons, but especially to study the activity of mitral cells. Read More

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A procedure for culturing astrocytes from white matter and the application of the siRNA technique for silencing the expression of their specific marker, S100A4.

Brain Res Brain Res Protoc 2005 Jul;15(2):59-65

Department of Neuroscience, Neuroanatomy, Biomedical Center, PO Box 587, SE-751 23 Uppsala, Sweden.

White matter astrocytes have physiological functions which are distinct from those of astrocytes in gray matter. White matter becomes highly non-permissive to neurite growth after injury, but the role of white matter astrocytes in this process is incompletely understood. Current protocols for making primary astroglial cultures are inadequate for exploring the specific properties of white matter astrocytes in vitro. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresprot.2005.03.005DOI Listing
July 2005
3 Reads

Gene profiling of laser-microdissected brain regions and sub-regions.

Brain Res Brain Res Protoc 2005 Jul;15(2):66-74

Department of Neuropharmacology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.

The application of transcriptomics and proteomics approaches to accurately dissected anatomically-defined brain regions and sub-regions remains a central focus of current neurobiological investigations as well as a necessary step towards single-neuron neurogenomics and neuroproteomics. A protocol is described for the simple, rapid, and reproducible laser microdissection of brain regions and sub-regions for microarray-based gene expression analyses from individual rats or mice using two rounds of in vitro transcription (IVT). The results presented also demonstrate that the current Affymetrix GeneChip arrays are well suited for this experimental design with high reproducibility and limited effects of the shortening of target RNA caused by the double IVT approach. Read More

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Quantification of neurons expressing androgen receptor and volume estimation of the basolateral nuclear group of the canine amygdaloid body.

Brain Res Brain Res Protoc 2005 Jul;15(2):92-104

Department of Morphology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Salisburylaan 133, 9820 Merelbeke, Belgium.

A protocol was developed for the stereological quantification of neurons expressing androgen receptor (AR) in the basolateral nuclear group (BNG) of the canine amygdaloid body. The Cavalieri method was used to estimate the BNG volume and the physical disector technique was applied for assessing the numerical densities and total numbers of both ordinary and AR-positive BNG neurons. The overall number of BNG neurons and the BNG volume were assessed on Nissl-stained sections, while AR was visualised using indirect immunohistochemistry. Read More

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An examination of MS candidate genes identified as differentially regulated in multiple sclerosis plaque tissue, using absolute and comparative real-time Q-PCR analysis.

Brain Res Brain Res Protoc 2005 Jul;15(2):79-91

Genomics Research Centre, School of Health Science, Griffith University Gold Coast, Southport, Queensland 4215, Australia.

In our laboratory, we have developed methods in real-time detection and quantitative-polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) to analyse the relative levels of gene expression in post mortem brain tissues. We have then applied this method to examine differences in gene activity between normal white matter (NWM) and plaque tissue from multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Genes were selected based on their association with pathology and through identification by previously conducted global gene expression analysis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresprot.2005.04.003DOI Listing

Withdrawal syndrome from gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BD) in Sardinian alcohol-preferring rats.

Brain Res Brain Res Protoc 2005 Jul;15(2):75-8

Department of Neuroscience, University of Cagliari, Viale Diaz 182, I-09126 Cagliari, Italy.

Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and its precursors, 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BD) and gamma-butyrolactone (GBL), are recreational drugs widely abused in the US, Europe and Australasia. A severe withdrawal syndrome from GHB, 1,4-BD and GBL has been increasingly documented over the last years, necessitating the development of a reliable animal model for investigations of potential therapeutic approaches. The present study describes the induction and occurrence of audiogenic seizures as a sign of withdrawal from GHB and 1,4-BD in selectively bred Sardinian alcohol-preferring (sP) rats, treated with escalating doses of GHB (1. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresprot.2005.04.001DOI Listing
July 2005
13 Reads

A modified method for generation of neural precursor cells from cultured mouse embryonic stem cells.

Brain Res Brain Res Protoc 2005 May 25;15(1):52-8. Epub 2005 Apr 25.

Department of Physiology, The Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038, P.R. China.

The pluripotency and high proliferative capacity of embryonic stem (ES) cells make them an attractive source of different cell types for biomedical research and cell replacement therapies. It has been demonstrated that ES cells can be induced into neural precursor cells (NPCs) under conditions. NPCs can be expanded in large numbers for significant periods of time to provide a reliable source of cells for transplantation in neurodegenerative disorders and injury of the central nervous system. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresprot.2005.03.004DOI Listing
May 2005
2 Reads

Therapeutic benefit of TH-engineered mesenchymal stem cells for Parkinson's disease.

Brain Res Brain Res Protoc 2005 May 22;15(1):46-51. Epub 2005 Apr 22.

Beijing Institute for Neuroscience, The Beijing Center of Neural Regeneration and Repairing, Capital University of Medical Sciences, 10# You'anMen Wai Xitoutiao, Beijing 100054, P.R. China.

The present study was designed to assess the potential of marrow stromal cells (MSCs) to deliver therapeutic genes to the brain and result in biologically significant functional recovery. The tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene was transfected to MSCs with an adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector. MSCs expressing TH gene were transplanted into the striatum of Parkinson's disease (PD) rat. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresprot.2005.03.002DOI Listing
May 2005
33 Reads

Real time computation of in vivo drug levels during drug self-administration experiments.

Brain Res Brain Res Protoc 2005 May 25;15(1):38-45. Epub 2005 Apr 25.

Division of Neuroscience, Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine, University of Cincinnati, PO Box 670559, Cincinnati, OH 45267-0559, USA.

A growing body of evidence suggests that the drug concentration in the effect compartment of the body is the major factor regulating self-administration behavior. A novel computer-based protocol was developed to facilitate studies on mechanisms of drug addiction by determining correlations between drug levels and behavior during multiple drug injections and infusions. The core of the system is a user's program written in Medstate Notation language (Med-Associates, Inc. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3017400PMC
May 2005
3 Reads

A sequential fluorescence method for neurotransmitter-specific retrograde tracing in the central nervous system of the rat; utilizing True Blue and immunohistochemistry in combination with computer-assisted photography.

Brain Res Brain Res Protoc 2005 May 19;15(1):30-7. Epub 2005 Apr 19.

Department of Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology, Institute of Laboratory Medicine, Lund University Hospital, Lund University, S-221 85 Lund, Sweden.

Aiming to map the distribution of spinally projecting, hypothalamic neurons containing neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), True Blue (TB) is injected into the rat spinal cord. After survival times of 7-14 days the animals are anaesthetized and perfused transcardially with a solution containing paraformaldehyde and sucrose. After dissection, the injection site is further fixed for 4-8 h, cut in a cryostat, and documented by computer-assisted digital photography. Read More

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May 2005
1 Read

A brightness-area-product-based protocol for the quantitative assessment of antigen abundance in fluorescent immunohistochemistry.

Brain Res Brain Res Protoc 2005 May 15;15(1):21-9. Epub 2005 Apr 15.

Centre for Clinical Neurosciences and Neurological Research, St. Vincent's Hospital Melbourne, 5th Floor Daly Wing, VIC 3065, Australia.

A problem frequently facing researchers examining abundance of expression of a given antigen is measurement. When the antigen is confined to the nucleus, absolute numbers of nuclei or a percentage of nuclei expressing the antigen in a given region can be estimated. When the antigen is localized to cytoplasm, cytoplasmic organelles or processes or membranes, the assessment becomes more difficult. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresprot.2005.02.004DOI Listing
May 2005
8 Reads

Development of a rat model to assess the efficacy of the somatosensory-evoked potential as indicator of analgesia.

Brain Res Brain Res Protoc 2005 May;15(1):14-20

Department of Clinical Sciences of Companion Animals, Section Anaesthesiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80.154 Yalelaan 8, NL-3508 TD Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Drug-induced changes in somatosensory-evoked potentials (SEPs) are considered to reflect an altered nociceptive state. Therefore, the SEP is proposed to be a parameter of analgesic efficacy. However, at present, SEPs have not been studied in relation to animal pain. Read More

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Differences in the magnitude of long-term potentiation produced by theta burst and high frequency stimulation protocols matched in stimulus number.

Brain Res Brain Res Protoc 2005 May 21;15(1):6-13. Epub 2005 Mar 21.

Department of Biology and the Cajal Neuroscience Institute, The University of Texas at San Antonio, 6900 North Loop 1604 West, San Antonio, TX 78249, USA.

Theta-burst stimulation (TBS: four pulses at 100 Hz repeated with 200 ms inter-burst-intervals) and another commonly used high-frequency stimulation protocol (HFS: 1 s burst of equally spaced pulses at 100 Hz) were compared for the magnitude of LTP produced in rat hippocampal slices. The total number of pulses applied during tetanus (TET) was either 40, 100, 200, or 300. In a conventional analysis of the last 10 min of the post-TET period, a two-way ANOVA revealed no difference either in LTP of the field excitatory post-synaptic potential (fEPSP) between TBS and HFS or differences across pulse number at 40, 100, or 200 pulses. Read More

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May 2005
1 Read

GHB-C rats: the control line of GHB-sensitive (GHB-S) and GHB-resistant (GHB-R) rats.

Brain Res Brain Res Protoc 2005 May;15(1):1-5

Brodie Department of Neuroscience, University of Cagliari, Viale Diaz 182, I-09126 Cagliari, Italy.

Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB)-sensitive (GHB-S) and GHB-resistant (GHB-R) rats have been selectively bred for their opposite sensitivity to the sedative/hypnotic effect of GHB. This opposite sensitivity has been found to generalize to the GABA(B) receptor agonist, baclofen. A control line [named GHB-control (GHB-C)] has been derived from the foundation stock of GHB-S and GHB-R rats. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresprot.2005.02.002DOI Listing
May 2005
7 Reads

Modern anesthesia and peroperative monitoring methods reduce per- and postoperative mortality during transient occlusion of the middle cerebral artery in rats.

Brain Res Brain Res Protoc 2005 Apr;14(3):181-90

Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Division of Clinical Chemistry, University Hospital, SE-581 85 Linkoping, Sweden.

Mortality and morbidity during and after occlusion of the middle cerebral artery in rats are important confounding factors which may be minimized by improved anesthesia and peroperative monitoring techniques. We describe state of the art techniques for inducing anesthesia, endotracheal intubation, ventilation and monitoring peroperatively in this context. Introducing the subtemporal approach of Tamura et al. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresprot.2005.01.002DOI Listing

New canine spinal cord injury model free from laminectomy.

Brain Res Brain Res Protoc 2005 Apr;14(3):171-80

Department of Bioartificial Organs, Institute for Frontier Medical Sciences, Kyoto University, East Building 309, 53 Kawahara-cho Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507, Japan.

The present report details the successful development of a model for spinal cord injury (SCI). This model is simple, reproducible, and requires no laminectomy. Development of the model was carried out using fourteen dogs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresprot.2005.01.001DOI Listing
April 2005
6 Reads

A novel method of detecting rCBF with laser-Doppler flowmetry without cranial window through the skull for a MCAO rat model.

Brain Res Brain Res Protoc 2005 Apr;14(3):165-70

Department of Anesthesiology, Kurume University School of Medicine, Asahimachi 67, Kurume, Fukuoka 830-0011, Japan.

Background And Purpose: In a rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) with intraluminal technique, lesion volume and its reproducibility vary among laboratories. Although laser-Doppler flowmetry (LDF) is useful to optimize the reliability, conventional methods require a craniotomy and special apparatus. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a novel approach for LDF monitoring of rCBF through lateral aspect of the skull without a craniotomy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresprot.2004.12.007DOI Listing
April 2005
1 Read

Electrocorticographic and deep intracerebral EEG recording in mice using a telemetry system.

Brain Res Brain Res Protoc 2005 Apr;14(3):154-64

Institute of Neurophysiology, University of Cologne, Robert-Koch-Street 39, 50931 Cologne, Germany.

Telemetric EEG recording plays a crucial role in the neurological characterization of various transgenic mouse models giving valuable information about epilepsies and sleep disorders in humans. In the past different experimental approaches have been described using tethered systems and jacket systems containing recorders. A main disadvantage of these is their sometimes unphysiological, restraining character. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresprot.2004.12.006DOI Listing
April 2005
8 Reads

Adult CNS explants as a source of neural progenitors.

Brain Res Brain Res Protoc 2005 Apr;14(3):146-53

Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University, 7 Divinity Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA.

Adult neural progenitors have been isolated from diverse regions of the CNS using methods which primarily involve the enzymatic digestion of tissue pieces; however, interpretation of these experiments can be complicated by the loss of anatomical resolution during the isolation procedures. We have developed a novel, explant-based technique for the isolation of neural progenitors. Living CNS regions were sectioned using a vibratome and small, well-defined discs of tissue punched out. Read More

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http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1385299X0400096
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresprot.2004.12.003DOI Listing
April 2005
2 Reads

Reliable manual segmentation of the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes on magnetic resonance images of healthy subjects.

Brain Res Brain Res Protoc 2005 Apr;14(3):135-45

Dementia and Neuro-imaging Research Section, Alzheimer's Memorial Center and Geriatric Psychiatry Branch, Department of Psychiatry, Ludwig-Maximilian University, Nussbaumstr. 7, Station D2, 80336 Munich, Germany.

Background: It is a challenge to reliably measure the lobar volumes from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data.

Objective: Description of a landmark-based method for volumetric segmentation of the brain into the four cerebral lobes from MR images.

Method: The segmentation method relies on a combination of anatomical landmarks and geometrical definitions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresprot.2004.10.001DOI Listing
April 2005
6 Reads

Assays for measuring extracellular GABA levels and cell migration rate in acute slices.

Brain Res Brain Res Protoc 2005 Feb;14(2):126-34

Department of Neurosurgery, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520-8082, USA.

The postnatal subventricular zone (SVZ) contains the largest pool of dividing and migrating neural precursors in the adult rodent brain. Neuronal precursors migrate throughout the SVZ and along the rostral migratory stream (RMS) towards the olfactory bulb where they differentiate into interneurons. To facilitate the investigation of cell migration in the SVZ and RMS, an inexpensive migration assay was developed for use in acute brain slices. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresprot.2004.12.005DOI Listing
February 2005
1 Read

Detection of degeneration in rat sciatic nerve by in vivo near infrared spectroscopy.

Brain Res Brain Res Protoc 2005 Feb;14(2):119-25

Department of Psychology, University of Texas at Arlington, 501 S. Nedderman Drive, PO Box 19528, Arlington, TX 76019-0528, USA.

We have recently developed an optical spectroscopy technique to monitor light scattering changes of the nervous system in vivo. Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy emphasizes the detection of light scattering properties, which are prominent within the wavelength range of 700 to 850 nm wavelength. The purpose of this study is to test the hypothesis that demyelination and degeneration of the sciatic nerves after nerve injury will lead to a change in light scattering properties and be detected by the NIR technique. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresprot.2004.12.001DOI Listing
February 2005
4 Reads

HistoGreen: a new alternative to 3,3'-diaminobenzidine-tetrahydrochloride-dihydrate (DAB) as a peroxidase substrate in immunohistochemistry?

Brain Res Brain Res Protoc 2005 Feb;14(2):107-18

Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ruprecht-Karls University of Heidelberg, Maybachstr. 14, 68169 Mannheim, Germany.

Abide its toxicity, 3,3'-diaminobenzidine-tetrahydrochloride-dihydrate (DAB) was the most potent marker for immunochemistry at the light and electron microscopic level in the last decades. Recently, a sensitive substrate for immunohistochemical staining methods and in-situ hybridization, HistoGreen, was developed for the use with peroxidase. In peroxidase reactions, HistoGreen delivers a green staining product which is suitable for permanent embedding without water. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresprot.2004.12.002DOI Listing
February 2005
53 Reads

Cryo-SEM and subsequent TEM examinations of identical neural tissue specimen.

Brain Res Brain Res Protoc 2005 Feb;14(2):100-6

Laboratory for Neural Architecture, Brain Science Institute, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198, Japan.

Low temperature scanning electron microscopy of frozen-fractured specimens under cryo-protecting, non-dehydrating, and non-etching "wet" conditions, that is, direct cryo-SEM, was followed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with the same neural tissue specimens. In comparison to replica TEM, direct cryo-SEM can obtain images with a smooth gradation of contrast. The major advantage of direct cryo-SEM combined with TEM was that time was saved in SEM preparation. Read More

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http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1385299X0400095
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresprot.2004.12.004DOI Listing
February 2005
5 Reads

The Suok ("ropewalking") murine test of anxiety.

Brain Res Brain Res Protoc 2005 Feb;14(2):87-99

Department of Anatomy, Medical School, University of Tampere, Tampere, 33014 Finland.

In the present study, we suggest that long elevated horizontal rod (Suok test, ST) and its light-dark modification (LDST) may be used for behavioral characterization in mice, including simultaneous assessment of their anxiety, activity, and neurological phenotypes. To establish the ST and the LDST as murine models of anxiety, we used several different mouse strains which differ markedly in their anxiety and activity (C57BL/6, 129S1/SvImJ, NMRI, and BALB/c). Here we show that our tests are able to ethologically discriminate between high and low anxiety mouse strains, as assessed by horizontal and directed exploration, stops, and defecation boli. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresprot.2004.11.002DOI Listing
February 2005
1 Read

Disruption of immediate memory and brain processes: an auditory ERP protocol.

Brain Res Brain Res Protoc 2005 Feb;14(2):77-86

Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies, University of Helsinki, Finland.

An event-related potential (ERP) protocol is described that can be used to investigate those sound-evoked neural processes that may be implicated in disrupting immediate memory. Conventional electroencephalogram (EEG) is recorded during the performance of a task that involves ignoring irrelevant sounds while trying to hold in memory lists of numbers. Specific bioelectric measures are made to prevent the contamination of recordings by the movements of articulators. Read More

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February 2005
3 Reads

Random or selective neuroanatomical connectivity. Study of the distribution of fibers over two populations of identified interneurons in cerebral cortex.

Brain Res Brain Res Protoc 2005 Feb;14(2):67-76

Graduate School Neurosciences Amsterdam, Research Institute for Neurosciences Vrije Universiteit Medical Center, Department of Anatomy, MF-G-136, P.O. Box 7057, 1007 MB Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

We present a neuroanatomical tracing method in a stereological approach to study the proportional distribution of fibers of a particular projection over two chemically different populations of neurons. The fiber projection from the presubiculum to the medial division of the entorhinal cortex of the rat serves as a model projection. Potential target interneurons express calcium binding proteins, either parvalbumin or calretinin. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresprot.2004.09.005DOI Listing
February 2005
5 Reads

Measurement of GABA and glutamate in vivo levels with high sensitivity and frequency.

Brain Res Brain Res Protoc 2005 Feb;14(2):61-6

Department of Anesthesiology and Resuscitology, Okayama University Medical School, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Okayama City, Okayama 700-8558, Japan.

In the present protocol, we demonstrate a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system that enables detection of very low amounts of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) (0.03 pmol) and glutamate (0.8 pmol). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresprot.2004.03.005DOI Listing
February 2005
4 Reads

Meditation in health: an operational definition.

Brain Res Brain Res Protoc 2004 Nov;14(1):58-60

Department of Obstetrics of Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP)-Escola Paulista de Medicina, Rua Pedro de Toledo, 541/72-Vila Clementino, 04039-031 São Paulo SP, Brazil.

Despite its evergrowing use in health-related areas, procedures characterized as meditation have been little or not at all defined operationally, which hinders its use in a standardized manner. In the present study, the authors present a possible operational definition of meditation, which has been used in social and academic projects, developed in Universidade Federal de São Paulo. In this proposal, it is emphasized that, in order to be characterized as meditation, the procedure should encompass the following requirements: (1) the use of a specific technique (clearly defined), (2) muscle relaxation in some moment of the process and (3) "logic relaxation"; (4) it must necessarily be a self-induced state, and (5) use of "self-focus" skill (coined "anchor"). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresprot.2004.09.002DOI Listing
November 2004
2 Reads

Use of frozen sections to determine neuronal number in the murine hippocampus and neocortex using the optical disector and optical fractionator.

Brain Res Brain Res Protoc 2004 Nov;14(1):45-57

Department of Pediatrics, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA.

Stereology is an important technique for the quantification of neurons in subregions of the central nervous system. A commonly used method of stereology relies upon embedment of tissue in glycol methacrylates to allow production of sections that are resistant to shrinkage in thickness. However, the use of glycol methacrylates for stereology has several disadvantages, including severe constraints on the size of tissue that can be processed and the long duration of time often required for infiltration. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresprot.2004.09.003DOI Listing
November 2004

A pre-clinical assessment model of rat autogeneic bone marrow stromal cell transplantation into the central nervous system.

Brain Res Brain Res Protoc 2004 Nov;14(1):37-44

Department of Neurosurgery, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, North 15, West 7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8638, Japan.

In order to verify the biological aspects of 'autogeneic' bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) transplantation for neurological disorders, we aimed our study towards the assessment of the survival, distribution, and differentiation of autologous BMSC in the central nervous system (CNS). We harvested rat BMSC from femur bones, and the nuclei were then fluorescently labeled by a 24-h co-culture with bis-benzimide. These BMSC were stereotactically injected into the striatum (n=6) or thoracic cord (n=8) of each animal. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresprot.2004.09.004DOI Listing
November 2004
1 Read

Assessment of cognitive functions in severely paralysed and severely brain-damaged patients: neuropsychological and electrophysiological methods.

Brain Res Brain Res Protoc 2004 Nov;14(1):25-36

Institute of Medical Psychology and Behavioral Neurobiology, University of Tuebingen, D-72074 Tuebingen, Germany.

A systematic neuropsychological assessment technique is described for use with severely physically disabled individuals, possibly with combined motor and cognitive disorders. Target neurological conditions may be, e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresprot.2004.09.001DOI Listing
November 2004
2 Reads

Recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 2 effectively transduces primary rat brain astrocytes and microglia.

Brain Res Brain Res Protoc 2004 Nov;14(1):18-24

Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA.

Recombinant adeno-associated virus-2 (rAAV2) under control of the chicken beta actin promoter/truncated CMV enhancer (CBA) was investigated for its ability to transduce primary cultures of rat brain neurons, microglia and astrocytes. This vector was highly effective in all three cell types in heparin-sensitive manners (astrocytes, microglia and neurons transduced by >98%, 75%, and 95%, respectively). However, astrocytes co-cultured with neurons were not transduced. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresprot.2004.08.001DOI Listing
November 2004
32 Reads

Detection and semi-quantitative determination of low abundance GFAP mRNA in mouse brain by capillary electrophoresis coupled with laser-induced fluorescence.

Brain Res Brain Res Protoc 2004 Nov;14(1):13-7

Department of Biochemistry, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

The sensitivity of capillary electrophoresis coupled with laser-induced fluorescence (CE-LIF) was compared with conventional agarose gel electrophoresis-ethidium bromide-UV method (AE-EUV) for detection and semi-quantitative determination of GFAP mRNA in mouse brain. GFAP expression was induced by the neurotoxin MPTP in C57BL mice. Serially diluted RNA samples (0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresprot.2004.07.001DOI Listing
November 2004
2 Reads