1,322,005 results match your criteria Brain disorders & therapy[Journal]


Implications of the mitochondrial interactome of mammalian thioredoxin 2 for normal cellular function and disease.

Free Radic Biol Med 2019 Apr 21. Epub 2019 Apr 21.

Department of Chemistry, University of Patras, Rion 26504, Greece. Electronic address:

Multiple thioredoxin isoforms exist in all living cells. To explore the possible functions of mammalian mitochondrial thioredoxin 2 (Trx2), an interactome of mouse Trx2 was initially created using (i) a monothiol mouse Trx2 species for capturing protein partners from different organs and (ii) yeast two hybrid screens on human liver and rat brain cDNA libraries. The resulting interactome consisted of 195 proteins (Trx2 included) plus the mitochondrial 16S RNA. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2019.04.018DOI Listing

Single-Cell Transcriptomics Analyses of Neural Stem Cell Heterogeneity and Contextual Plasticity in a Zebrafish Brain Model of Amyloid Toxicity.

Cell Rep 2019 Apr;27(4):1307-1318.e3

Kizil Lab, German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE) Dresden, Helmholtz Association, Tatzberg 41, 01307 Dresden, Germany; Kizil Lab, Technische Universität Dresden, Center for Regenerative Therapies Dresden (CRTD), Fetscherstr. 105, 01307 Dresden, Germany. Electronic address:

The neural stem cell (NSC) reservoir can be harnessed for stem cell-based regenerative therapies. Zebrafish remarkably regenerate their brain by inducing NSC plasticity in a Amyloid-β-42 (Aβ42)-induced experimental Alzheimer's disease (AD) model. Interleukin-4 (IL-4) is also critical for AD-induced NSC proliferation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2019.03.090DOI Listing

Powerful Homeostatic Control of Oligodendroglial Lineage by PDGFRα in Adult Brain.

Cell Rep 2019 Apr;27(4):1073-1089.e5

Department of Pathology, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, Toyama 930-0194, Japan. Electronic address:

Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) are widely distributed cells of ramified morphology in adult brain that express PDGFRα and NG2. They retain mitotic activities in adulthood and contribute to oligodendrogenesis and myelin turnover; however, the regulatory mechanisms of their cell dynamics in adult brain largely remain unknown. Here, we found that global Pdgfra inactivation in adult mice rapidly led to elimination of OPCs due to synchronous maturation toward oligodendrocytes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2019.03.084DOI Listing

Bile Acids as Metabolic Regulators and Nutrient Sensors.

Annu Rev Nutr 2019 Apr 24. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Department of Integrative Medical Sciences, Northeast Ohio Medical University, Rootstown, Ohio 44272; email:

Bile acids facilitate nutrient absorption and are endogenous ligands for nuclear receptors that regulate lipid and energy metabolism. The brain-gut-liver axis plays an essential role in maintaining overall glucose, bile, and immune homeostasis. Fasting and feeding transitions alter nutrient content in the gut, which influences bile acid composition and pool size. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-nutr-082018-124344DOI Listing

Formulation and characterization of conjugate vaccines to reduce opioid use disorders suitable for pharmaceutical manufacturing and clinical evaluation.

Mol Pharm 2019 Apr 24. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

This study focused on formulating conjugate vaccines targeting oxycodone and heroin for technology transfer, Good Manufacturing Process (GMP), and clinical evaluation. Lead vaccines used the highly immunogenic carrier protein keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), which poses formulation problems because of its size. To address this barrier to translation, an oxycodone-based hapten conjugated to GMP-grade subunit KLH (OXY-sKLH) and adsorbed on alum adjuvant was studied with regard to carbodiimide coupling reaction time, buffer composition, purification methods for conjugates, conjugate size, state of aggregation, and protein:alum ratio. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.molpharmaceut.8b01296DOI Listing

Characterization of Intracellular Peptides from Zebrafish () Brain.

Zebrafish 2019 Apr 24. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

1 Bioscience Institute, São Paulo State University, São Vicente, Brazil.

Peptides represent a large class of cell signaling molecules, and they are mainly produced by the classical secretory pathway or during protein degradation. The peptide profile of (zebrafish) shows a lack of information when compared with other consolidated animal models. The aim of this work was to characterize the peptide profile of zebrafish brain by using triplex reductive methylation of amines labeling and liquid chromatography coupled to electron spray mass spectrometry. Read More

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https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/10.1089/zeb.2018.1718
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/zeb.2018.1718DOI Listing
April 2019
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Validity of the CES-D for depression screening in military service members with a history of mild traumatic brain injury.

Brain Inj 2019 Apr 24:1-9. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

b Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center (DVBIC) San Antonio VA Polytrauma Rehabilitation Center, South Texas Veterans Healthcare System , San Antonio , Texas , USA.

Primary Objective: To advance knowledge about the value of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies - Depression scale (CES-D) for depression screening in military service members with a history of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI).

Research Design: Retrospective data from 336 military service members with a history of mTBI were extracted from a TBI Repository at a large military medical center. Participants included in this study screened positive for mTBI in a primary care clinic or soldier readiness processing center and were enrolled in the TBI repository from November 6, 2014 to May 31, 2017. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02699052.2019.1610191DOI Listing

Pentraxin-3 vs C-reactive protein and other prognostic biomarkers in acute coronary syndrome: A substudy of the Platelet Inhibition and Patients Outcomes (PLATO) trial.

Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care 2019 Apr 24:2048872619846334. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

7 Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology Uppsala University, Sweden.

Aims: We investigated the dynamics, associations with patient characteristics, other biomarkers, and clinical outcomes of pentraxin 3 in acute coronary syndrome.

Methods And Results: In multivariate analyses, pentraxin 3 measured in 5154 patients randomised in the Platelet Inhibition and Patients Outcomes (PLATO) trial (NCT00391872) was compared with leukocytes, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, cystatin C, N-terminal prohormone brain natriuretic peptide, high-sensitivity troponin T and growth differentiation factor 15 concerning prediction of clinical outcome. Pentraxin 3 peaked earlier than high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and was more strongly correlated with N-terminal prohormone brain natriuretic peptide and high-sensitivity troponin T than with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2048872619846334DOI Listing

First-in-Human Brain Imaging of [18F]TRACK, a PET tracer for Tropomyosin Receptor Kinases.

ACS Chem Neurosci 2019 Apr 24. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

The tropomyosin receptor kinase TrkA/B/C family is responsible for human neuronal growth, survival and differentiation from early nervous system development stages onward. Downregulation of TrkA/B/C receptors characterizes numerous neurological disorders including Alzheimer disease (AD). Abnormally expressed Trk receptors or chimeric Trk fusion proteins are also well-characterized oncogenic drivers in a variety of neurogenic and non-neurogenic human neoplasms and are currently the focus of intensive clinical research. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acschemneuro.9b00144DOI Listing

[Neural mechanisms of dissociation: implication for borderline personality disorder].

Tijdschr Psychiatr 2019 ;61(4):267-275

Background: Dissociation is a prevalent symptom in borderline personality disorder (BPD), which can have detrimental effects on everyday functioning and treatment. Until now, little is known about the brain networks implicated in dissociation in BPD. Research on dissociative disorders and posttraumatic stress disorder found alterations in networks implicated in cognitive control and arousal modulation. Read More

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January 2019

Disorder of the personality: a possible factor of risk for the dementia.

Actas Esp Psiquiatr 2019 Mar 1;47(2):61-9. Epub 2019 Mar 1.

Centro de Asistencia Primaria Sant Cugat-Mutua de Terrassa (Sant Cugat del Vallés-Barcelona). España Residencia y Centro de Día Sant Cugat (Departament de Benestar i Familia-SISPAP / Grup Mutuam) (Sant Cugat del Vallés-Barcelona). España.

Objectives: The fact that more and more people suffer from dementia makes it very important to know the different risk factors to prevent their appearance. The objective of this article is to study personality disorder as a possible risk factor for the onset of an insane process, and to relate personality disorders of Cluster B and dementia.

Methodology: A systematic review and meta-analysis was carried out with scientific literature published up to 2015. Read More

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DHA protects PC12 cells against oxidative stress and apoptotic signals through the activation of the NFE2L2/HO-1 axis.

Int J Mol Med 2019 Jun 23;43(6):2523-2531. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

A. Gemelli University Polyclinic Foundation, Italy IRCCS, I‑00168 Rome, Italy.

Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an omega‑3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, derived mainly from fish oil. It is well known that DHA is present in high concentrations in nervous tissue and plays an important role in brain development and neuroprotection. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying its role remain to be fully elucidated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ijmm.2019.4170DOI Listing

Global brain ischemia in rats is associated with mitochondrial release and downregulation of Mfn2 in the cerebral cortex, but not the hippocampus.

Int J Mol Med 2019 Jun 16;43(6):2420-2428. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Biomedical Center and Institute of Medical Biochemistry, Jessenius Faculty of Medicine in Martin, Comenius University in Bratislava, SK‑03601 Martin, Slovak Republic.

Mitochondria are crucial for neuronal cell survival and death through their functions in ATP production and the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. Mitochondrial dysfunction is considered to play a central role in several serious human diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease and ischemic neurodegeneration. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of transient global brain ischemia on the expression of selected proteins involved in mitochondrial dynamics and mitochondria‑associated membranes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ijmm.2019.4168DOI Listing

Safe and sustained expression of human iduronidase after adeno-associated virus 9 intrathecal administration in infant rhesus monkeys.

Hum Gene Ther 2019 Apr 24. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

University of Pennsylvania, Gene Therapy Program , Suite 2000 TRL , 125 S. 31st Street , Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States , 19104.

Many neuropathic diseases cause early, irreversible neurologic deterioration, which warrants therapeutic intervention during the first months of life. In the case of mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I), a recessive lysosomal storage disorder that results from a deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme, α-l-iduronidase (IDUA), one of the most promising treatment approaches is to restore enzyme expression through gene therapy. Specifically, administering neurotropic adeno-associated virus (AAV) encoding IDUA into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) via suboccipital administration has demonstrated remarkable efficacy in large animals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/hum.2019.012DOI Listing

Loss of consciousness and altered mental state predicting depressive and post-concussive symptoms after mild traumatic brain injury.

Brain Inj 2019 Apr 24:1-6. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

f Department of Emergency Medicine , University of Michigan Medical School , Ann Arbor , MI , USA.

Objective: Limited studies exist on the association between loss of consciousness (LOC) and altered mental state (AMS) and development of depressive and post-concussive symptoms within six months after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). We tested the hypothesis that presence of both LOC and AMS predict the highest risk of symptoms within the first six months post-mTBI compared to either variable alone, and that LOC alone is more strongly associated with these symptoms.

Research Design: We analyzed data from 407 subjects with mTBI from the Head injury Serum Markers for Assessing Response to Trauma (HeadSMART) cohort, a prospective cohort of patients post-TBI presenting to two urban emergency departments. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02699052.2019.1606447DOI Listing

[A design of raster plot for illustrating dynamic neuronal activity during deep brain stimulation].

Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi 2019 Apr;36(2):177-182

Key Laboratory of Biomedical Engineering of Ministry of Education, College of Biomedical Engineering and Instrument Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027,

Deep brain stimulation (DBS), which usually utilizes high frequency stimulation (HFS) of electrical pulses, is effective for treating many brain disorders in clinic. Studying the dynamic response of downstream neurons to HFS and its time relationship with stimulus pulses can reveal important mechanisms of DBS and advance the development of new stimulation modes (e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7507/1001-5515.201805016DOI Listing

Essential contributions of enhancer genomic regulatory elements to microglial cell identity and functions.

Wiley Interdiscip Rev Syst Biol Med 2019 Apr 23:e1449. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

CHU de Québec Research Center - Department of Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Université Laval, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada.

Microglia are the specialized macrophages of the brain and play essential roles in ensuring its proper functioning. Accumulating evidence suggests that these cells coordinate the inflammatory response that accompanies various clinical brain conditions, including neurodegenerative diseases and psychiatric disorders. Therefore, investigating the functions of these cells and how these are regulated have become important areas of research in neuroscience over the past decade. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/wsbm.1449DOI Listing

The relationship between biological and psychosocial risk factors and resting-state functional connectivity in 2-month-old Bangladeshi infants: a feasibility and pilot study.

Dev Sci 2019 Apr 23:e12841. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Laboratories of Cognitive Neuroscience, Division of Developmental Medicine, Department of Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.

Childhood poverty has been associated with structural and functional alterations in the developing brain. However, poverty does not alter brain development directly, but acts through associated biological or psychosocial risk factors (e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/desc.12841DOI Listing

Eriodictyol alleviates lipopolysaccharide-triggered oxidative stress and synaptic dysfunctions in BV-2 microglial cells and mouse brain.

J Cell Biochem 2019 Apr 23. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Laboratory of Functional Chemistry and Nutrition of Food, College of Food Science and Engineering, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi province, PR China.

Oxidative stress takes part in the development of the neurodegenerative disease. Eriodictyol, a flavonoid, commonly presents in citrus fruits, which was well-known for its various bioactivities. The purpose of this study was to investigate the neuroprotective effects of eriodictyol on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, synaptic dysfunctions, and the potential mechanisms involved. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcb.28736DOI Listing

HIV and Alzheimer's disease: complex interactions of HIV-Tat with amyloid β peptide and Tau protein.

J Neurovirol 2019 Apr 23. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Section of Infections of the Nervous System, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bldg 10; Room 7C-103, 10 Center Drive, Bethesda, MD, 20892, USA.

In patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the HIV-Tat protein may be continually produced despite adequate antiretroviral therapy. As the HIV-infected population is aging, it is becoming increasingly important to understand how HIV-Tat may interact with proteins such as amyloid β and Tau which accumulate in the aging brain and eventually result in Alzheimer's disease. In this review, we examine the in vivo data from HIV-infected patients and animal models and the in vitro experiments that show how protein complexes between HIV-Tat and amyloid β occur through novel protein-protein interactions and how HIV-Tat may influence the pathways for amyloid β production, degradation, phagocytosis, and transport. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-019-00736-zDOI Listing

Brain biopsy in suspected non-neoplastic neurological disease.

Acta Neurochir (Wien) 2019 Apr 23. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Neuropathology Unit, Hospital de Santo Antonio, Centro Hospitalar e Universitario do Porto, Porto, Portugal.

Brain biopsy has a well-established role in the diagnosis of CNS neoplasia. Nevertheless, despite being essential for the diagnosis of some benign neurological diseases, little consensus exists regarding its indications for disease diagnosis and patient orientation. Our aim was to assess brain biopsy diagnostic yield in patients with neurological deterioration of unknown etiology, to identify the clinical characteristics associated with an increased likelihood of achieving a diagnostic biopsy as well as the characteristics linked to a particular diagnosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00701-019-03910-8DOI Listing

Defining Compulsive Behavior.

Neuropsychol Rev 2019 Apr 23. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Obsessive, Compulsive, and Anxiety Spectrum Research Program, Institute of Psychiatry, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Compulsive tendencies are a central feature of problematic human behavior and thereby are of great interest to the scientific and clinical community. However, no consensus exists about the precise meaning of 'compulsivity,' creating confusion in the field and hampering comparison across psychiatric disorders. A vague conceptualization makes compulsivity a moving target encompassing a fluctuating variety of behaviors, which is unlikely to improve the new dimension-based psychiatric or psychopathology approach. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11065-019-09404-9DOI Listing

Local transgene expression and whole-body transgenesis to model brain diseases in nonhuman primate.

Animal Model Exp Med 2019 Mar 29;2(1):9-17. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

Institut des Maladies Neurodégénératives University of Bordeaux UMR 5293 Bordeaux France.

Animal model is an essential tool in the life sciences research, notably in understanding the pathogenesis of the diseases and for further therapeutic intervention success. Rodents have been the most frequently used animals to model human disease since the establishment of gene manipulation technique. However, they remain inadequate to fully mimic the pathophysiology of human brain disease, partially due to huge differences between rodents and humans in terms of anatomy, brain function, and social behaviors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ame2.12055DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6431118PMC

Maternal Immune Activation during Pregnancy Alters the Behavior Profile of Female Offspring of Sprague Dawley Rats.

eNeuro 2019 Mar-Apr;6(2). Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Department of Anatomy, Physiology, and Pharmacology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5E5, Canada.

Sex differences are documented in psychiatric and neurological disorders, yet most preclinical animal research has been conducted in males only. There is a need to better understand of the nature of sex differences in brain disease in order to meet the needs of psychiatric patients. We present the behavior profile of adult female offspring produced using a maternal immune activation (MIA) model where pregnant rats receive an immune stimulant and the offspring typically show various abnormalities consistent with psychiatric illnesses such as schizophrenia and autism. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/ENEURO.0437-18.2019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6477592PMC

Syringobulbia in Patients with Chiari Malformation Type I: A Systematic Review.

Biomed Res Int 2019 19;2019:4829102. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

Department of Neurosurgery, First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, China.

This study aimed to summarize the clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment of Chiari malformation type I- (CM-1-) associated syringobulbia. We performed a literature review of CM-1-associated syringobulbia in PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, and Web of Science databases. Our concerns were the clinical features, radiologic presentations, treatment therapies, and prognoses of CM-1-associated syringobulbia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/4829102DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6444244PMC

The oncometabolite 2-hydroxyglutarate inhibits microglial activation via the AMPK/mTOR/NF-κB pathway.

Acta Pharmacol Sin 2019 Apr 23. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Neuropsychiatric Diseases and College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123, China.

Microglia, the brain-resident macrophage, is known as the innate immune cell type in the central nervous system. Microglia is also the major cellular component of tumor mass of gliomas that plays a key role in glioma development. Mutations of isocitrate dehydrogenases 1 and 2 (IDH1/2) frequently occur in gliomas, which leads to accumulation of oncometabolic product 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41401-019-0225-9DOI Listing

Focal stimulation of the sheep motor cortex with a chronically implanted minimally invasive electrode array mounted on an endovascular stent.

Nat Biomed Eng 2018 Dec 3;2(12):907-914. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Vascular Bionics Laboratory, Department of Medicine (Royal Melbourne Hospital), University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia.

Direct electrical stimulation of the brain can alleviate symptoms associated with Parkinson's disease, depression, epilepsy and other neurological disorders. However, access to the brain requires invasive procedures, such as the removal of a portion of the skull or the drilling of a burr hole. Also, electrode implantation into tissue can cause inflammatory tissue responses and brain trauma, and lead to device failure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41551-018-0321-zDOI Listing
December 2018

The neural development of empathy is sensitive to caregiving and early trauma.

Nat Commun 2019 Apr 23;10(1):1905. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Interdisciplinary Center, Herzliya, 46150, Israel.

Empathy is a core human social ability shaped by biological dispositions and caregiving experiences; yet the mechanisms sustaining maturation of the neural basis of empathy are unknown. Here, we followed eighty-four children, including 42 exposed to chronic war-related adversity, across the first decade of life, and assessed parenting, child temperament, and anxiety disorders as contributors to the neural development of empathy. At preadolescence, participants underwent magenetoencephalography while observing others' distress. Read More

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http://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-019-09927-y
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-09927-yDOI Listing
April 2019
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Meta-analysis of epigenome-wide association studies in neonates reveals widespread differential DNA methylation associated with birthweight.

Authors:
Leanne K Küpers Claire Monnereau Gemma C Sharp Paul Yousefi Lucas A Salas Akram Ghantous Christian M Page Sarah E Reese Allen J Wilcox Darina Czamara Anne P Starling Alexei Novoloaca Samantha Lent Ritu Roy Cathrine Hoyo Carrie V Breton Catherine Allard Allan C Just Kelly M Bakulski John W Holloway Todd M Everson Cheng-Jian Xu Rae-Chi Huang Diana A van der Plaat Matthias Wielscher Simon Kebede Merid Vilhelmina Ullemar Faisal I Rezwan Jari Lahti Jenny van Dongen Sabine A S Langie Tom G Richardson Maria C Magnus Ellen A Nohr Zongli Xu Liesbeth Duijts Shanshan Zhao Weiming Zhang Michelle Plusquin Dawn L DeMeo Olivia Solomon Joosje H Heimovaara Dereje D Jima Lu Gao Mariona Bustamante Patrice Perron Robert O Wright Irva Hertz-Picciotto Hongmei Zhang Margaret R Karagas Ulrike Gehring Carmen J Marsit Lawrence J Beilin Judith M Vonk Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin Anna Bergström Anne K Örtqvist Susan Ewart Pia M Villa Sophie E Moore Gonneke Willemsen Arnout R L Standaert Siri E Håberg Thorkild I A Sørensen Jack A Taylor Katri Räikkönen Ivana V Yang Katerina Kechris Tim S Nawrot Matt J Silver Yun Yun Gong Lorenzo Richiardi Manolis Kogevinas Augusto A Litonjua Brenda Eskenazi Karen Huen Hamdi Mbarek Rachel L Maguire Terence Dwyer Martine Vrijheid Luigi Bouchard Andrea A Baccarelli Lisa A Croen Wilfried Karmaus Denise Anderson Maaike de Vries Sylvain Sebert Juha Kere Robert Karlsson Syed Hasan Arshad Esa Hämäläinen Michael N Routledge Dorret I Boomsma Andrew P Feinberg Craig J Newschaffer Eva Govarts Matthieu Moisse M Daniele Fallin Erik Melén Andrew M Prentice Eero Kajantie Catarina Almqvist Emily Oken Dana Dabelea H Marike Boezen Phillip E Melton Rosalind J Wright Gerard H Koppelman Letizia Trevisi Marie-France Hivert Jordi Sunyer Monica C Munthe-Kaas Susan K Murphy Eva Corpeleijn Joseph Wiemels Nina Holland Zdenko Herceg Elisabeth B Binder George Davey Smith Vincent W V Jaddoe Rolv T Lie Wenche Nystad Stephanie J London Debbie A Lawlor Caroline L Relton Harold Snieder Janine F Felix

Nat Commun 2019 Apr 23;10(1):1893. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

The Generation R Study Group, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Birthweight is associated with health outcomes across the life course, DNA methylation may be an underlying mechanism. In this meta-analysis of epigenome-wide association studies of 8,825 neonates from 24 birth cohorts in the Pregnancy And Childhood Epigenetics Consortium, we find that DNA methylation in neonatal blood is associated with birthweight at 914 sites, with a difference in birthweight ranging from -183 to 178 grams per 10% increase in methylation (P < 1.06 x 10). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-09671-3DOI Listing

Genome-wide association study of medication-use and associated disease in the UK Biobank.

Nat Commun 2019 Apr 23;10(1):1891. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Institute for Molecular Bioscience, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, 4072, Australia.

Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of medication use may contribute to understanding of disease etiology, could generate new leads relevant for drug discovery and can be used to quantify future risk of medication taking. Here, we conduct GWASs of self-reported medication use from 23 medication categories in approximately 320,000 individuals from the UK Biobank. A total of 505 independent genetic loci that meet stringent criteria (P < 10/23) for statistical significance are identified. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-09572-5DOI Listing

Inflammasomes in neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases.

EMBO Mol Med 2019 Apr 23. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

VIB Center for Inflammation Research, Ghent, Belgium

Neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration often result from the aberrant deposition of aggregated host proteins, including amyloid-β, α-synuclein, and prions, that can activate inflammasomes. Inflammasomes function as intracellular sensors of both microbial pathogens and foreign as well as host-derived danger signals. Upon activation, they induce an innate immune response by secreting the inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18, and additionally by inducing pyroptosis, a lytic cell death mode that releases additional inflammatory mediators. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.15252/emmm.201810248DOI Listing

Clinical series of Parkinson's disease in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: Retrospective chart review.

J Neurol Sci 2019 Mar 26;401:62-65. Epub 2019 Mar 26.

Department of Neurology, Inkosi Albert Luthuli Central Hospital, Cato Manor, Durban, South Africa; Department of Neurology, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa. Electronic address:

Background: There is limited data on Parkinson's disease (PD) in South Africa.

Methods: Demographic and clinical information was extracted from the hospital records of patients who were coded as PD (International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision, G20) from 2002 to 2016.PD was diagnosed using the United Kingdom Parkinson's Disease Society Brain Bank Clinical Diagnostic Criteria (UKBBC). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2019.03.023DOI Listing

Radiation-induced vascular changes in the intracranial irradiation field in medulloblastoma survivors: An MRI study.

Radiother Oncol 2019 Apr 10;136:50-55. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Department of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology/Hemostaseology, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Germany.

Background And Purpose: While survival times after treatment of medulloblastoma are increasing, little is known about radiochemotherapy (RCT)-induced cerebrovascular changes. High resolution vessel wall imaging (VWI) sequences are an emerging tool for the evaluation of cerebrovascular diseases. We performed VWI in medulloblastoma long-term survivors to screen for late sequelae of RCT. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radonc.2019.03.017DOI Listing

Evidence for the involvement of a GABAergic mechanism in the effectiveness of natural and synthetically modified incensole derivatives in neuropharmacological disorders: A computational and pharmacological approach.

Phytochemistry 2019 Apr 20;163:58-74. Epub 2019 Apr 20.

Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Organic Chemistry, Kurt-Mothes-Str. 2, D-06120 Halle (Saale) Germany.

In the course of our continuing exploration for novel bioactive lead compounds (s) from the species Boswellia, we have recently reported incensole derivatives isolated from Boswellia papyrifera Hochst. Given the known antidepressant-like effects of incensole and incensole acetate, we herein present that the low dose intraperitoneal administration of incensole derivatives, namely, incensfuran and incensone, showed significant antidepressant-like effects in the forced swim test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST). Furthermore, these compounds were evaluated for their anxiolytic potential in the elevated plus maze (EPM) and light dark box (LDB) tests and anticonvulsant effects in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizure tests. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2019.04.007DOI Listing

Gα deficiency in the dorsomedial hypothalamus leads to obesity, hyperphagia, and reduced thermogenesis associated with impaired leptin signaling.

Mol Metab 2019 Apr 12. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Metabolic Diseases Branch, Bethesda, MD, 20892, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: Gα couples multiple receptors, including the melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R), to intracellular cAMP generation. Germline inactivating Gα mutations lead to obesity in humans and mice. Mice with brain-specific Gα deficiency also develop obesity with reduced energy expenditure and locomotor activity, and impaired adaptive thermogenesis, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molmet.2019.04.005DOI Listing

Fetal Exposure to high levels of Maternal Glucocorticoids Alters Reelin Signaling in The Prefrontal Cortex of Rat Pups.

Int J Dev Neurosci 2019 Apr 20. Epub 2019 Apr 20.

Research Center for Neuroscience, Institute of Molecular Biosciences, Mahidol University, Nakornpathom, Thailand. Electronic address:

Maternal stress (MS) is associated with various neuropsychiatric disorders and cognitive impairment in the offspring. However, it is unclear how early life stress alters the pup's brain development and how it contributes to the pathology of neuropsychiatric disorders later in life. Reelin is a large extracellular matrix glycoprotein that plays essential roles in early brain development such as neural migration, synaptic development, and maturation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdevneu.2019.04.004DOI Listing

Successful microvascular decompression surgery for dolichoectatic vertebral artery compression of medulla oblongata in a patient with hypersomnia disorder.

Br J Neurosurg 2019 Apr 24:1-3. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

a Division of Vascular and Endovascular Neurosurgery, Firoozgar Hospital , Iran University of Medical Sciences , Tehran , Iran.

Introduction: Hypersomnia is a condition in which a person has trouble staying awake during the day. There are several potential causes of it, including sleep apnea and sleep disorders.

Case Presentation: A 43 year old male was referred to our practice with complaints of hypersomnia, snoring, slurred speech and sleep apnea for more diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02688697.2019.1594694DOI Listing

Brain Imaging of the Cortex in ADHD: A Coordinated Analysis of Large-Scale Clinical and Population-Based Samples.

Authors:
Martine Hoogman Ryan Muetzel Joao P Guimaraes Elena Shumskaya Maarten Mennes Marcel P Zwiers Neda Jahanshad Gustavo Sudre Thomas Wolfers Eric A Earl Juan Carlos Soliva Vila Yolanda Vives-Gilabert Sabin Khadka Stephanie E Novotny Catharina A Hartman Dirk J Heslenfeld Lizanne J S Schweren Sara Ambrosino Bob Oranje Patrick de Zeeuw Tiffany M Chaim-Avancini Pedro G P Rosa Marcus V Zanetti Charles B Malpas Gregor Kohls Georg G von Polier Jochen Seitz Joseph Biederman Alysa E Doyle Anders M Dale Theo G M van Erp Jeffery N Epstein Terry L Jernigan Ramona Baur-Streubel Georg C Ziegler Kathrin C Zierhut Anouk Schrantee Marie F Høvik Astri J Lundervold Clare Kelly Hazel McCarthy Norbert Skokauskas Ruth L O'Gorman Tuura Anna Calvo Sara Lera-Miguel Rosa Nicolau Kaylita C Chantiluke Anastasia Christakou Alasdair Vance Mara Cercignani Matt C Gabel Philip Asherson Sarah Baumeister Daniel Brandeis Sarah Hohmann Ivanei E Bramati Fernanda Tovar-Moll Andreas J Fallgatter Bernd Kardatzki Lena Schwarz Anatoly Anikin Alexandr Baranov Tinatin Gogberashvili Dmitry Kapilushniy Anastasia Solovieva Hanan El Marroun Tonya White Georgii Karkashadze Leyla Namazova-Baranova Thomas Ethofer Paulo Mattos Tobias Banaschewski David Coghill Kerstin J Plessen Jonna Kuntsi Mitul A Mehta Yannis Paloyelis Neil A Harrison Mark A Bellgrove Tim J Silk Ana I Cubillo Katya Rubia Luisa Lazaro Silvia Brem Susanne Walitza Thomas Frodl Mariam Zentis Francisco X Castellanos Yuliya N Yoncheva Jan Haavik Liesbeth Reneman Annette Conzelmann Klaus-Peter Lesch Paul Pauli Andreas Reif Leanne Tamm Kerstin Konrad Eileen Oberwelland Weiss Geraldo F Busatto Mario R Louza Sarah Durston Pieter J Hoekstra Jaap Oosterlaan Michael C Stevens J Antoni Ramos-Quiroga Oscar Vilarroya Damien A Fair Joel T Nigg Paul M Thompson Jan K Buitelaar Stephen V Faraone Philip Shaw Henning Tiemeier Janita Bralten Barbara Franke

Am J Psychiatry 2019 Apr 24:appiajp201918091033. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

The Department of Human Genetics, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, the Netherlands (Hoogman, Guimaraes, Shumskaya, Wolfers, Bralten, Franke); the Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition, and Behavior, Radboud University, Nijmegen, the Netherlands (Hoogman, Shumskaya, Mennes, Wolfers, Buitelaar, Bralten, Franke); the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, the Netherlands (Muetzel, El Marroun, White, Tiemeier); the Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, the Netherlands (Muetzel); the Department of Cognitive Neuroscience, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition, and Behavior, Nijmegen, the Netherlands (Guimaraes, Zwiers, Buitelaar); the Imaging Genetics Center, Stevens Neuroimaging and Informatics Institute, Keck School of Medicine of USC, Marina del Rey, Calif. (Jahanshad, Thompson); National Human Genome Research Institute, Bethesda, Md. (Sudre, Shaw); the Department of Behavioral Neuroscience, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland (Earl, Fair, Nigg); the Department of Psychiatry and Forensic Medicine, Autonomous University of Barcelona, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Spain (Soliva Vila, Ramos-Quiroga, Vilarroya); Instituto ITACA, Polytechnic University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain (Vives-Gilabert); the Olin Neuropsychiatry Research Center, Hartford Hospital, Hartford, Conn. (Khadka, Novotny, Stevens); University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen (UMCG), Department of Psychiatry, Interdisciplinary Center Psychopathology and Emotion Regulation (ICPE), Groningen, the Netherlands (Hartman, Schweren); Faculty of Behavioral and Movement Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Heslenfeld); the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, the Netherlands (Hoekstra); NICHE Lab, Department of Psychiatry, UMC Utrecht Brain Center, Utrecht, the Netherlands (Ambrosino, Oranje, de Zeeuw, Durston); Laboratory of Psychiatric Neuroimaging (LIM-21), Department and Institute of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil (Chaim-Avancini, Rosa, Zanetti, Busatto); the Center for Interdisciplinary Research on Applied Neurosciences (NAPNA), University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil (Chaim-Avancini, Rosa, Zanetti, Busatto); the Developmental Imaging Group, Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Melbourne, Australia (Malpas); the Clinical Outcomes Research Unit (CORe), Department of Medicine, Royal Melbourne Hospital, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia (Malpas); the Melbourne School of Psychological Sciences, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia (Malpas); the Child Neuropsychology Section, University Hospital RWTH Aachen, Aachen, Germany (Kohls, Konrad; Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, University Hospital RWTH Aachen, Aachen, Germany (Polier, Seitz); Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine-Brain and Behavior (INM-7), Research Center Jülich, Jülich, Germany (Polier); the Clinical and Research Programs in Pediatric Psychopharmacology and Adult ADHD, Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston (Biederman); the Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston (Biederman, Doyle); the Center for Genomic Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston (Doyle); the Departments of Neurosciences, Radiology, and Psychiatry and the Center for Multimodal Imaging and Genetics, University of California San Diego (Dale); the Clinical and Translational Neuroscience Laboratory, Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, University of California Irvine, Irvine (van Erp); the Division of Behavioral Medicine and Clinical Psychology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, and the Department of Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati (Epstein, Tamm); the Center for Human Development, University of California San Diego, San Diego (Jernigan); the Division of Molecular Psychiatry, Center of Mental Health, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany (Ziegler, Lesch); the Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam University Medical Centers, Amsterdam (Schrantee, Reneman); the Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway (Høvik); the Division of Psychiatry, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway (Høvik, Haavik); the Department of Biological and Medical Psychology, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway (Lundervold); the K.G. Jebsen Center for Neuropsychiatric Disorders, Department of Biomedicine, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway (Lundervold, Haavik); the School of Psychology and the Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, and the Trinity College Institute of Neuroscience, Trinity College Dublin, Ireland (Kelly); the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York (Kelly, Castellanos, Yoncheva); the Department of Psychiatry, Trinity College Dublin, Ireland (McCarthy, Skokauskas, Frodl); the Centre for Advanced Medical Imaging, St. James's Hospital, Dublin, Ireland (McCarthy); the Center for Child and Adolescent Mental Health, NTNU, Norway, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway (Skokauskas); the Center for MR Research, University Children's Hospital, and the Zurich Center for Integrative Human Physiology, Zurich (O'Gorman Tuura); Magnetic Resonance Image Core Facility, August Pi i Sunyer Biomedical Research Institute (IDIBAPS), Barcelona, Spain (Calvo, Lazaro); the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychology, Institute of Neurosciences, Hospital Clinic, Barcelona, Spain (Lera-Miguel, Nicolau, Lazaro); the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology, and Neuroscience, King's College London (Chantiluke, Christakou, Cubillo, Rubia); the School of Psychology and Clinical Language Sciences, Centre for Integrative Neuroscience and Neurodynamics, University of Reading, Reading, U.K. (Christakou); the Department of Paediatrics, University of Melbourne, Australia (Vance, Coghill, Silk); the Department of Neuroscience, Brighton and Sussex Medical School, Falmer, Brighton, U.K. (Cercignani, Gabel, Harrison); the Social, Genetic, and Developmental Psychiatry Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology, and Neuroscience, King's College London (Asherson, Kuntsi); the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Central Institute of Mental Health, Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim/Heidelberg University, Mannheim, Germany (Baumeister, Brandeis, Hohmann, Banaschewski); the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Psychiatric Hospital, University of Zurich, Zurich (Brandeis, Brem, Walitza); the Neuroscience Center Zurich, University of Zurich and ETH Zurich, Zurich (Brandeis, Brem, Walitza); the D'Or Institute for Research and Education, Rio de Janeiro (Bramati, Tovar-Moll, Mattos); the Morphological Sciences Program, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Tovar-Moll); the Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Hospital of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany (Fallgatter, Schwarz, Ethofer); LEAD Graduate School, University of Tübingen, Germany (Fallgatter); the Department of Biomedical Magnetic Resonance, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany (Kardatzki, Ethofer); the National Medical Research Center for Children's Health, Department of Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Densitometry, Moscow (Anikin); the National Medical Research Center for Children's Health, Moscow (Baranov, Solovieva); Russian National Research Medical University, Ministry of Health and Social Development of the Russian Federation, Central Clinical Hospital MSHE, Moscow (Namazova-Baranova); the National Medical Research Center for Children's Health, Laboratory of Neurology and Cognitive Health, Moscow (Gogberashvili, Karkashadze); the National Medical Research Center for Children's Health, Department of Information Technologies, Moscow (Kapilushniy); the Department of Pediatrics, Erasmus MC-Sophia, Rotterdam, the Netherlands (El Marroun); the Department of Psychology, Education, and Child Studies, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam, the Netherlands (El Marroun); the Department of Radiology, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, the Netherlands (White); Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Mattos); the Department of Psychiatry, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia (Coghill); the Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Melbourne, Australia (Coghill, Silk); the Division of Neuroscience, University of Dundee, Dundee, U.K. (Coghill); the Child and Adolescent Mental Health Center, Capital Region Copenhagen (Plessen); the Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital Lausanne, Switzerland (Plessen); the Department of Neuroimaging, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology, and Neuroscience, King's College London (Mehta, Paloyelis); Sussex Partnership NHS Foundation Trust, Swandean, East Sussex, U.K. (Harrison); the Monash Institute for Cognitive and Clinical Neurosciences (MICCN) and the School of Psychological Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia (Bellgrove); Deakin University, School of Psychology, Geelong, Australia (Silk); the Department of Medicine, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain (Lazaro); the Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg, Germany (Frodl); the German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE), Germany (Frodl); Bezirksklinikum Regensburg, Germany (Zentis); the Nathan Kline Institute for Psychiatric Research, Orangeburg, N.Y. (Castellanos); the Brain Imaging Center, Amsterdam University Medical Centers, Amsterdam (Reneman); the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Psychosomatics, and Psychotherapy, Tübingen, Germany (Conzelmann); the Department of Psychology, Biological Psychology, Clinical Psychology, and Psychotherapy, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany (Conzelmann, Pauli, Baur-Streubel, Zierhut); the Laboratory of Psychiatric Neurobiology, Institute of Molecular Medicine, I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow (Lesch); the Department of Neuroscience, School for Mental Health and Neuroscience (MHeNS), Maastricht University, Maastricht, the Netherlands (Lesch); the Department of Psychiatry, Psychosomatic Medicine, and Psychotherapy, University Hospital Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany (Reif); JARA Institute Molecular Neuroscience and Neuroimaging (INM-11), Institute for Neuroscience and Medicine, Research Center Jülich, Germany (Konrad); Translational Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, University Hospital RWTH Aachen, Aachen, Germany (Oberwelland Weiss); Cognitive Neuroscience (INM-3), Institute for Neuroscience and Medicine, Research Center Jülich, Germany (Oberwelland Weiss); the Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil (Busatto, Louza); the Clinical Neuropsychology Section, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Oosterlaan); Emma Children's Hospital Amsterdam Medical Center, Amsterdam (Oosterlaan); the Department of Pediatrics, VU Medical Center, Amsterdam (Oosterlaan); the Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Conn. (Stevens); the Department of Psychiatry, Vall d'Hebron University Hospital, Barcelona, Spain (Ramos-Quiroga); Biomedical Network Research Center on Mental Health (CIBERSAM), Barcelona, Spain (Lazaro, Ramos-Quiroga); Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute (IMIM), Barcelona, Spain (Vilarroya); the Department of Psychiatry, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland (Fair, Nigg); Karakter Child and Adolescent Psychiatry University Center, Nijmegen, the Netherlands (Buitelaar); Departments of Psychiatry and of Neuroscience and Physiology, SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, New York (Faraone); NIHM, Bethesda, Md. (Shaw); the Department of Social and Behavioral Science, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston (Tiemeier).

Objective: Neuroimaging studies show structural alterations of various brain regions in children and adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), although nonreplications are frequent. The authors sought to identify cortical characteristics related to ADHD using large-scale studies.

Methods: Cortical thickness and surface area (based on the Desikan-Killiany atlas) were compared between case subjects with ADHD (N=2,246) and control subjects (N=1,934) for children, adolescents, and adults separately in ENIGMA-ADHD, a consortium of 36 centers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2019.18091033DOI Listing

Neuroimaging Studies on Disorders of Consciousness: A Meta-Analytic Evaluation.

J Clin Med 2019 Apr 16;8(4). Epub 2019 Apr 16.

NeuroMi, Milan Center for Neuroscience, 20126 Milano, Italy.

Neuroimaging tools could open a window on residual neurofunctional activity in the absence of detectable behavioural responses in patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC). Nevertheless, the literature on this topic is characterised by a large heterogeneity of paradigms and methodological approaches that can undermine the reproducibility of the results. To explicitly test whether task-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) can be used to systematically detect neurofunctional differences between different classes of DOC, and whether these differences are related with a specific category of cognitive tasks (either active or passive), we meta-analyzed 22 neuroimaging studies published between 2005 and 2017 using the Activation Likelihood Estimate method. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm8040516DOI Listing

DNA Methylation Contributes to the Differential Expression Levels of in Male Mice Neurons and Astrocytes.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Apr 14;20(8). Epub 2019 Apr 14.

Regenerative Medicine Program, Max Rady College of Medicine, Rady Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3E 0J9, Canada.

Methyl CpG binding protein-2 (MeCP2) isoforms (E1 and E2) are important epigenetic regulators in brain cells. Accordingly, MeCP2 loss- or gain-of-function mutation causes neurodevelopmental disorders, including Rett syndrome (RTT), duplication syndrome (MDS), and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Within different types of brain cells, highest MeCP2 levels are detected in neurons and the lowest in astrocytes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20081845DOI Listing

Noninvasive Brain Stimulation and Psychotherapy in Anxiety and Depressive Disorders: A Viewpoint.

Brain Sci 2019 Apr 14;9(4). Epub 2019 Apr 14.

Service de Physiologie, Explorations Fonctionnelles, Hôpital Henri-Mondor, AP-HP, 94010 Créteil, France.

Among the most prevalent psychiatric conditions stand anxiety and depression. Psychotherapy and medications are considered effective treatments in these clinical settings. However, pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy (i. Read More

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https://www.mdpi.com/2076-3425/9/4/82
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9040082DOI Listing
April 2019
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Intra-Vitreal Administration of Microvesicles Derived from Human Adipose-Derived Multipotent Stromal Cells Improves Retinal Functionality in Dogs with Retinal Degeneration.

J Clin Med 2019 Apr 13;8(4). Epub 2019 Apr 13.

Department of Experimental Biology, The Faculty of Biology and Animal Science, University of Environmental and Life Sciences, 50-375 Wroclaw, Poland.

This study was designed to determine the influence of microvesicles (MVs) derived from multipotent stromal cells isolated from human adipose tissue (hASCs) on retinal functionality in dogs with various types of retinal degeneration. The biological properties of hASC-MVs were first determined using an in vitro model of retinal Muller-like cells (CaMLCs). The in vitro assays included analysis of hASC-MVs influence on cell viability and metabolism. Read More

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https://www.mdpi.com/2077-0383/8/4/510
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm8040510DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Recent Developments in Metal-Based Drugs and Chelating Agents for Neurodegenerative Diseases Treatments.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Apr 12;20(8). Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Laboratory of Molecular Modeling, Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Lavras, Lavras/MG, 37200-000, Brazil.

The brain has a unique biological complexity and is responsible for important functions in the human body, such as the command of cognitive and motor functions. Disruptive disorders that affect this organ, e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20081829DOI Listing

Extracellular S100β Disrupts Bergman Glia Morphology and Synaptic Transmission in Cerebellar Purkinje Cells.

Brain Sci 2019 Apr 12;9(4). Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Krasnoyarsk State Medical University named after Prof. V.F. Voino-Yasenetsky, Research Institute of Molecular Medicine and Pathobiochemistry, Partizan Zheleznyak st. 1, 660022 Krasnoyarsk, Russia.

Astrogliosis is a pathological process that affects the density, morphology, and function of astrocytes. It is a common feature of brain trauma, autoimmune diseases, and neurodegeneration including spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1), a poorly understood neurodegenerative disease. S100β is a Ca binding protein. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9040080DOI Listing

Anti-Obesity Effects of Tocotrienols and Bran in High-Fat Diet-Treated Mice.

Nutrients 2019 Apr 12;11(4). Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Molecular Cell Biology Laboratory, Systems Engineering and Science, Graduate School of Engineering and Science, Shibaura Institute of Technology, Fukasaku 307, Minuma-ku, Saitama 337-8570, Japan.

Obesity is a serious public health issue in developed countries, and is known to increase the risk of several diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular events and arteriosclerosis. These phenomena are closely correlated with oxidative damage. Recently, several lines of evidence have demonstrated that neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's are also related to oxidative damage. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu11040830DOI Listing

Prevention of Deficit in Neuropsychiatric Disorders through Monitoring of Arsenic and Its Derivatives as Well as Through Bioinformatics and Cheminformatics.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Apr 12;20(8). Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Norgenotech AS, Gaustadalleen 21, 0349 Oslo, Norway.

Neuropsychiatric disorders are induced by various risk factors, including direct exposure to environmental chemicals. Arsenic exposure induces neurodegeneration and severe psychiatric disorders, but the molecular mechanisms by which brain damage is induced are not yet elucidated. Our aim is to better understand the molecular mechanisms of arsenic toxicity in the brain and to elucidate possible ways to prevent arsenic neurotoxicity, by reviewing significant experimental, bioinformatics, and cheminformatics studies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20081804DOI Listing

Oxidative Stress: A Key Modulator in Neurodegenerative Diseases.

Molecules 2019 Apr 22;24(8). Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Nucleic Acids Research Lab, Department of Chemistry, University of Delhi (North Campus), Delhi 110007, India.

Oxidative stress is proposed as a regulatory element in ageing and various neurological disorders. The excess of oxidants causes a reduction of antioxidants, which in turn produce an oxidation-reduction imbalance in organisms. Paucity of the antioxidant system generates oxidative-stress, characterized by elevated levels of reactive species (oxygen, hydroxyl free radical, and so on). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules24081583DOI Listing

Crosstalk between Oxidative Stress and Tauopathy.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Apr 22;20(8). Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Molecular Recognition Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Seoul 02792, Korea.

Tauopathy is a collective term for neurodegenerative diseases associated with pathological modifications of tau protein. Tau modifications are mediated by many factors. Recently, reactive oxygen species (ROS) have attracted attention due to their upstream and downstream effects on tauopathy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20081959DOI Listing

Exercise During Adolescence Attenuated Depressive-Like Behaviors and Hippocampal Mitochondrial Dysfunction Following Early Life Stress in Adult Male Rats.

Iran J Pharm Res 2018 ;17(Suppl2):124-133

Department of Exercise Physiology, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

In this study, we assumed that treating animals with an antidepressant agents or voluntary running wheel exercise (RW) during adolescence may have beneficial outcomes against early life stress (ELS) which could be effective on behavior and mitochondrial function. Evidence indicated that ELS has deleterious impacts on brain and increases the risk of brain disorders such as depression. Maternal separation stress (MS) model to male rats (postnatal day or PND2-PND14) were performed to determination of depressive-like behaviors using the forced swimming test, splash test, and mitochondrial function in the hippocampus. Read More

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January 2018

Memory and Learning Complaints in Relation to Depression among Elderly People with Multimorbidity.

Geriatrics (Basel) 2017 May 9;2(2). Epub 2017 May 9.

Department of Pathophysiology, School of Basic Medicine and the Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education of China for Neurological Disorders, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, China.

Although current models of care are generally well-suited to providing treatment for individual medical conditions, the emergence of multimorbidity is becoming a serious concern for practitioners and policy researchers, particularly in developing countries. The challenges of tackling multimorbidity are further compounded when the multimorbidity co-occurs with psychiatric conditions such as cognitive and depressive disorders. Understanding the relationships between multimorbidity and psychiatric illnesses is therefore of considerable clinical importance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics2020015DOI Listing
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