1,405,215 results match your criteria Brain disorders & therapy[Journal]


Oxycodone injections not paired with conditioned place preference have little effect on the hippocampal opioid system in female and male rats.

Synapse 2020 Jul 12:e22182. Epub 2020 Jul 12.

Feil Family Brain and Mind Research Institute, Weill Cornell Medicine, 407 East 61st Street, New York, NY, 10065, United States.

Oxycodone (Oxy) conditioned place preference (CPP) in Sprague-Dawley rats results in sex-specific alterations in hippocampal opioid circuits in a manner that facilitates opioid-associative learning processes, particularly in females. Here, we examined if Oxy (3mg/kg, I.P. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/syn.22182DOI Listing

Deep brain stimulation for post-thalamic stroke complex movement disorders.

Neurol Sci 2020 Jul 11. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

The Walton Centre for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Liverpool, UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10072-020-04572-6DOI Listing

Childhood Maltreatment in Bipolar Disorders.

Curr Top Behav Neurosci 2020 Jul 12. Epub 2020 Jul 12.

NORMENT, Division of Mental Health and Addiction, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.

In this chapter, we will focus on childhood maltreatment and its role in the vulnerability to BD.We will review how childhood maltreatment and trauma not only predispose to the development of BD but also to a more unstable, pernicious, and severe clinical expression of the disorder. This environmental risk factor is suggested to be part of a multiple hit model of vulnerability, involving not only early stressors (prenatal and postnatal ones) but also interactions with the genetic background of individuals and with other stressors occurring later in life. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/7854_2020_149DOI Listing

Imaging for central nervous system (CNS) interstitial fluidopathy: disorders with impaired interstitial fluid dynamics.

Jpn J Radiol 2020 Jul 11. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

Department of Radiology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan.

After the introduction of the glymphatic system hypothesis, an increasing number of studies on cerebrospinal fluid and interstitial fluid dynamics within the brain have been investigated and reported. A series of diseases are known which develop due to abnormality of the glymphatic system including Alzheimer's disease, traumatic brain injury, stroke, or other disorders. These diseases or disorders share the characteristics of the glymphatic system dysfunction or other mechanisms related to the interstitial fluid dynamics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11604-020-01017-0DOI Listing

Structural connectivity predicts clinical outcomes of deep brain stimulation for Tourette syndrome.

Brain 2020 Jul 12. Epub 2020 Jul 12.

Scientific Computing and Imaging Institute, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA.

Deep brain stimulation may be an effective therapy for select cases of severe, treatment-refractory Tourette syndrome; however, patient responses are variable, and there are no reliable methods to predict clinical outcomes. The objectives of this retrospective study were to identify the stimulation-dependent structural networks associated with improvements in tics and comorbid obsessive-compulsive behaviour, compare the networks across surgical targets, and determine if connectivity could be used to predict clinical outcomes. Volumes of tissue activated for a large multisite cohort of patients (n = 66) implanted bilaterally in globus pallidus internus (n = 34) or centromedial thalamus (n = 32) were used to generate probabilistic tractography to form a normative structural connectome. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/awaa188DOI Listing

Post-traumatic aneurysmal rupture involving the circle of Willis affected by fibromuscular dysplasia. A case report and systematic review.

Leg Med (Tokyo) 2020 Jul 3;47:101742. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Institute of Human Anatomy, Department of Neurosciences, University of Padova, Padova, Italy. Electronic address:

The fatal rupture of a saccular aneurysm at the junction between the left anterior cerebral artery and anterior communicating artery affected by fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) is a rare condition. Here is reported the case of a subject involved in a road traffic accident a few minutes before the death, which opened the debate on the real cause of death in a forensic setting. By autopsy, the examination of the brain revealed subarachnoid haemorrhage with flooding of the ventricles due to the breached saccular aneurysm of the junction between the left anterior cerebral artery and anterior communicating artery, in FMD mainly affecting the circle of Willis arteries. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.legalmed.2020.101742DOI Listing

Scrutinizing the molecular, biochemical, and cytogenetic attributes in subjects with Rett syndrome (RTT) and their mothers.

Epilepsy Behav 2020 Jul 9;111:107277. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Human Genetics Laboratory, Department of Zoology, School of Life Sciences, Bharathiar University, 641046, Tamil Nadu, India. Electronic address:

Rett syndrome (RTT) is a stern dominant progressive neurological development disorder linked with X chromosome ranking second for mental slowdown, exclusively in females after few months of birth with normal development and growth period. Genetically any defects in universally expressed methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2) transcription regulator gene are considered as radix for RTT in almost all the previous studies. Our study mainly focuses in unraveling the genetic alterations like identifying MeCP2 gene polymorphisms, chromosomal abnormalities, or X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) as underlying cause of RTT in prototypes sorted through Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Text Revised (DSM IV). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yebeh.2020.107277DOI Listing

Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio correlates with disease activity in myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody associated disease (MOGAD) in children.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2020 Jun 30;45:102345. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Children's Neurosciences, Evelina London Children's Hospital, Guys and St. Thomas' Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Kings Health Partners, London, UK; School of Life Course Sciences, Facultly of Life Sciences and Medicine, King's College London, London, UK. Electronic address:

The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) was shown correlate with disease activity in systemic autoimmunity and MS. In a cohort of 62 children with demyelinating diseases; NLR was high both acutely (P<.001) and during remission (P=. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msard.2020.102345DOI Listing

Ceramide signalling in inherited and multifactorial brain metabolic diseases.

Neurobiol Dis 2020 Jul 9:105014. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Neurometabolic Diseases Laboratory, IDIBELL, Hospital Duran i Reynals, Gran Via 199, 08908, L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain; Catalan Institution of Research and Advanced Studies (ICREA), Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain; Center for Biomedical Research on Rare Diseases (CIBERER), ISCIII, Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:

In recent years, research on sphingolipids, particularly ceramides, has attracted increased attention, revealing the important roles and many functions of these molecules in several human neurological disorders. The nervous system is enriched with important classes of sphingolipids, e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nbd.2020.105014DOI Listing

Progressive tau aggregation does not alter functional brain network connectivity in seeded hTau.P301L mice.

Neurobiol Dis 2020 Jul 9:105011. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Laboratory of Cell Biology and Histology, University of Antwerp, Belgium. Electronic address:

Progressive accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau is a hallmark of various neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease. However, to date, the functional effects of tau pathology on brain network connectivity have been investigated to a limited extent. To directly interrogate the impact of tau pathology on functional brain connectivity, we conducted a longitudinal experiment in which we monitored a seeded hTau. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nbd.2020.105011DOI Listing

Continuous infusion of cefepime and neurotoxicity: a retrospective cohort study.

Clin Microbiol Infect 2020 Jul 9. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Department of Infectious Diseases and General Internal Medicine, University Hospital of Liège, Liège, Belgium.

Objectives: Neurotoxicity related to cefepime is increasingly reported in the literature but specific data concerning continuous infusion (CI) of the drug are still lacking. Our primary objective was to evaluate the incidence of neurotoxicity related to CI of cefepime and the associated risk factors. Our secondary objectives were to analyze the plasma cefepime concentrations and to define the threshold above which neurotoxicity occurs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmi.2020.07.003DOI Listing

Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan-5 forms perisynaptic matrix assemblies in the adult rat cortex.

Cell Signal 2020 Jul 9:109710. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Department of Anatomy, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary; SE NAP B Research Group of Experimental Neuroanatomy and Developmental Biology, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary.

Composition of the brain extracellular matrix changes in time as maturation proceeds. Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 5 (CSPG-5), also known as neuroglycan C, has been previously associated to differentiation since it shapes neurite growth and synapse forming. Here, we show that this proteoglycan persists in the postnatal rat brain, and its expression is higher in cortical regions with plastic properties, including hippocampus and the medial prefrontal cortex at the end of the second postnatal week. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cellsig.2020.109710DOI Listing

Heterogeneity in Temporal Ordering of Depression and Participation After Traumatic Brain Injury.

Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2020 Jul 9. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle WA.

Objectives: To examine heterogeneity in the temporal patterns of depression and participation over the first two years post-TBI.

Design: Observational prospective longitudinal study.

Setting: Inpatient rehabilitation centers, with 1- and 2-year follow-up conducted primarily by telephone. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2020.05.026DOI Listing

Selective sub-nucleus effects of intra-amygdala oxytocin on fear extinction.

Behav Brain Res 2020 Jul 9:112798. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Laboratory of Behavioral and Genomic Neuroscience, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA.

There is growing evidence that the neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) modulates fear and extinction in humans and rodents through actions in corticolimbic circuits including the central amygdala (CeA). Prior studies have, however, been limited to subjects that exhibit intact basal extinction, rather than extinction-impaired populations that could potentially therapeutically benefit from viable OT-targeting treatments. Here, we assessed the effects of pre-extinction training infusion of OT into the CeA, or basolateral amygdala (BLA), on extinction in an inbred mouse strain (S1) model of impaired extinction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2020.112798DOI Listing

Peripubertal stress following maternal immune activation sex-dependently alters depression-like behaviors in offspring.

Behav Brain Res 2020 Jul 9:112800. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Salari Institute of Cognitive and Behavioral Disorders (SICBD), Alborz, Karaj, Iran. Electronic address:

There is an increasing evidence that maternal immune activation can render the offspring more vulnerable to the impacts of peripubertal stress on behavioral abnormalities in adulthood. The aim of this study was to investigate the combined effects of maternal immune activation and peripubertal stress on depression-related behaviors in male and female offspring. Pregnant mice were treated with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) or vehicle, and then offspring were subjected to stressful conditions or left unstressed during peripubertal period. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2020.112800DOI Listing

Expression of neuronal Na/K-ATPase α subunit isoforms in the mouse brain following genetically programmed or behaviourally-induced oxidative stress.

Neuroscience 2020 Jul 9. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Centre for Neuroscience Studies, Queen's University, 18 Stuart St., Kingston, Ontario, K7L 3N6, Canada; Department of Biomedical and Molecular Sciences, Queen's University, 18 Stuart St., Kingston, Ontario, K7L 3N6, Canada. Electronic address:

The Na/K-ATPase is a transmembrane ion pump that has a critical homeostatic role within every mammalian cell; however, it is vulnerable to the effects of increased oxidative stress. Understanding how expression of this transporter is influenced by oxidative stress may yield insight into its role in the pathophysiology of neurological and neuropsychiatric diseases. In this study we investigated whether increased oxidative stress could influence Na/K-ATPase expression in various brain regions of mice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2020.07.009DOI Listing

AIMAFE: Autism spectrum disorder identification with multi-atlas deep feature representation and ensemble learning.

J Neurosci Methods 2020 Jul 9:108840. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Hunan Provincial Key Lab on Bioinformatics, School of Computer Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083, China. Electronic address:

Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that could cause problems in social communications. Clinically, diagnosing ASD mainly relies on behavioral criteria while this approach is not objective enough and could cause delayed diagnosis. Since functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) can measure brain activity, it provides data for the study of brain dysfunction disorders and has been widely used in ASD identification. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jneumeth.2020.108840DOI Listing

TLR4-TAK1-p38 MAPK pathway and HDAC6 regulate the expression of sigma-1 receptors in rat primary cultured microglia.

J Pharmacol Sci 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Pharmacology, Graduate School of Biomedical & Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Japan. Electronic address:

Microglia maintain brain homeostasis as the main immune cells in the central nervous system. Activation of sigma-1 receptor (Sig1R) plays neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory roles in microglia. Recent studies showed that Sig1R expression level has been reduced in the brain of the patients with neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jphs.2020.06.007DOI Listing

Personality, emotional and cognitive functions in young adults born preterm.

Brain Dev 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Department of Molecular and Developmental Medicine, University of Siena, Siena, Italy. Electronic address:

Background: Survival of preterm very low birthweight infants resulted in high risk for developmental cognitive deficits, poor academic achievement, and behaviour disorders. While numerous studies evaluated the prevalence of neurodevelopmental disability in early childhood, poor literature is available for infants born very low birthweight in adulthood.

Materials And Methods: Fifty-five young adults born preterm (mean age: 18 ± 2. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.braindev.2020.06.014DOI Listing

Integrative Analysis Identifies Key Molecular Signatures Underlying Neurodevelopmental Deficits in Fragile X Syndrome.

Biol Psychiatry 2020 May 13. Epub 2020 May 13.

Translational Laboratory in Genetic Medicine, Agency for Science, Technology and Research, Singapore (A∗STAR), Singapore; Department of Physiology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore; Department of Medicine, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore. Electronic address:

Background: Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by epigenetic silencing of FMR1 and loss of FMRP expression. Efforts to understand the molecular underpinnings of the disease have been largely performed in rodent or nonisogenic settings. A detailed examination of the impact of FMRP loss on cellular processes and neuronal properties in the context of isogenic human neurons remains lacking. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2020.05.005DOI Listing

[Disorders of consciousness secondary to traumatic brain injuries].

Rehabilitacion (Madr) 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Institut Guttmann, Institut Universitari de Neurorehabilitació adscrit a la UAB, Badalona, Barcelona, España; Fundació Institut d'Investigació en Ciències de la Salut Germans Trias i Pujol, Badalona, Barcelona, España; Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Barcelona, España.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rh.2020.04.004DOI Listing

Protective effect of Lactobacillus salivarius Li01 on thioacetamide-induced acute liver injury and hyperammonaemia.

Microb Biotechnol 2020 Jul 11. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, National Clinical Research Center for Infectious Diseases, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310003, China.

The gut microbiota plays pivotal roles in liver disease onset and progression. The protective effects of Lactobacillus salivarius Li01 on liver diseases have been reported. In this study, we aimed to detect the protective effect of L. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1751-7915.13629DOI Listing

Priming of microglia with IFN-γ impairs adult hippocampal neurogenesis and leads to depression-like behaviors and cognitive defects.

Glia 2020 Jul 11. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

School of Life Science and Technology, Center for Informational Biology, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, China.

Neuroinflammation driven by interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and microglial activation has been linked to neurological disease. However, the effects of IFN-γ-activated microglia on hippocampal neurogenesis and behavior are unclear. In the present study, IFN-γ was administered to mice via intracerebroventricular injection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/glia.23878DOI Listing

Huntingtin gene CAG repeat size affects autism risk: Family-based and case-control association study.

Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 2020 Jul 11. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

Interdepartmental Program "Autism 0-90", "Gaetano Martino" University Hospital, University of Messina, Messina, Italy.

The Huntingtin (HTT) gene contains a CAG repeat in exon 1, whose expansion beyond 39 repeats consistently leads to Huntington's disease (HD), whereas normal-to-intermediate alleles seemingly modulate brain structure, function and behavior. The role of the CAG repeat in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) was investigated applying both family-based and case-control association designs, with the SCA3 repeat as a negative control. Significant overtransmission of "long" CAG alleles (≥17 repeats) to autistic children and of "short" alleles (≤16 repeats) to their unaffected siblings (all p < 10 ) was observed in 612 ASD families (548 simplex and 64 multiplex). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.b.32806DOI Listing

Density-induced social stress alters oxytocin and vasopressin activities in the brain of a small rodent species.

Integr Zool 2020 Jul 11. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

State Key Laboratory of Integrated Pest Management, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101, China.

It is known that social stress could alter oxytocin (OT) and arginine-vasopressin (AVP) expression in specific regions of brains which regulate the aggressive behavior of small rodents, but the effects of density-induced social stress are still unknown. Brandt's voles (Lasiopodomys brandtii) is a small herbivores in the grassland of China, but the underlying neurological mechanism of population regulation is still unknown. We tested the effects of housing density of Brandt's voles on OT/AVP system with physical contact (allowing aggression) and without physical contact (not allowing aggression) under laboratory conditionunder laboratory conditions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1749-4877.12467DOI Listing

Expansion of the phenotypic spectrum of de novo missense variants in kinesin family member 1A (KIF1A).

Hum Mutat 2020 Jul 11. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

Brain and Mitochondrial Research Group, Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, Australia.

Defects in the motor domain of kinesin family member 1A (KIF1A), a neuron-specific ATP-dependent anterograde axonal transporter of synaptic cargo, are well-recognized to cause a spectrum of neurological conditions, commonly known as KIF1A-associated neurological disorders (KAND). Here we report one mutation-negative female with classic Rett syndrome (RTT) harboring a de novo heterozygous novel variant [NP_001230937.1:p. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/humu.24079DOI Listing

Synaptic Loss in Primary Tauopathies Revealed by [ C]UCB-J Positron Emission Tomography.

Mov Disord 2020 Jul 11. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

Background: Synaptic loss is a prominent and early feature of many neurodegenerative diseases.

Objectives: We tested the hypothesis that synaptic density is reduced in the primary tauopathies of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) (Richardson's syndrome) and amyloid-negative corticobasal syndrome (CBS).

Methods: Forty-four participants (15 CBS, 14 PSP, and 15 age-/sex-/education-matched controls) underwent PET with the radioligand [ C]UCB-J, which binds to synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2A, a marker of synaptic density; participants also had 3 Tesla MRI and clinical and neuropsychological assessment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mds.28188DOI Listing

Bugs, breathing and blood pressure: Microbiota-gut-brain axis signalling in cardiorespiratory control in health and disease.

J Physiol 2020 Jul 11. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, College of Medicine & Health, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.

There is clear evidence of physiological effects of the gut microbiota on whole body function in health and disease. Microbiota-gut-brain axis signalling is recognised as a key player in behavioural disorders such as depression and anxiety. Recent evidence suggests that the gut microbiota affects neurocontrol networks responsible for homeostatic functions that are essential for life. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/JP280279DOI Listing

Reduced expression of the glucocorticoid receptor in the hippocampus of patients with drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy and comorbid depression.

Epilepsia 2020 Jul 11. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Department of (Neuro) Pathology, Amsterdam Neuroscience, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Objective: Depressive disorders are common among about 50% of the patients with drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). The underlying etiology remains elusive, but hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation due to changes in glucocorticoid receptor (GR) protein expression could play an important role. Therefore, we set out to investigate expression of the GR in the hippocampus, an important brain region for HPA axis feedback, of patients with drug-resistant TLE, with and without comorbid depression. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/epi.16598DOI Listing

The E3 ubiquitin ligase Itch deficiency promotes antigen-driven B-cell responses in mice.

Eur J Immunol 2020 Jul 11. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

Beijing Institute of Brain Disorders, Laboratory of Brain Disorders, Ministry of Science and Technology, Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Disorders, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 100069, China.

Deficiency of Itch, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, usually induced severe systemic and progressive autoimmune disease. The Itch function is well-studied in T cells but not in B cells. We hypothesize that B-cell-specific Itch deficiency promoted antigen-induced B-cell activation and antibody-expressing plasma cell (PC) production. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/eji.202048640DOI Listing

Metamizole but not Ibuprofen reduces the plasma concentration of sertraline - Implications for the concurrent treatment of pain and depression/anxiety disorders.

Br J Clin Pharmacol 2020 Jul 11. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, Medical Faculty, RWTH Aachen, Pauwelsstr. 30, 52074, Aachen, Germany.

Aim: Comorbidity of pain and depression or anxiety is a challenging clinical phenomenon, often requiring the concurrent application of antidepressant and analgesic drugs. Growing evidence suggests that the analgesic metamizole exhibits cytochrome P450 inducing properties. In the present study, we assessed the impact of metamizole and ibuprofen on plasma concentrations of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor sertraline. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bcp.14471DOI Listing

Thalamic atrophy correlates with dysfunctional impulsivity in multiple sclerosis.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2020 Jul 4;44:102374. Epub 2020 Jul 4.

Centre de Ressources et de Compétence Sclérose en Plaques CRCSEP CHU de Nice. Université Nice côté d'azur (URRIS UR2CA). hôpital Pasteur 2. 30 voie romaine, Nice 06002, France.

Background: Recent studies highlight the central role of thalamic atrophy in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) related disorders. Behavioural aspects of (MS) are rarely explored but their investigation is of high interest. Dickman's Impulsiveness Inventory (DII) allows distinguishing functional impulsivity (FI) which is the ability to react fast and properly when necessary, from dysfunctional impulsivity (DI) which is a behavioural symptom corresponding to the tendency to miss forethought before acting. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msard.2020.102374DOI Listing

PhotoGal4: A Versatile Light-Dependent Switch for Spatiotemporal Control of Gene Expression in Drosophila Explants.

iScience 2020 Jun 23;23(7):101308. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Department of Neurology, McKnight Brain Institute, and Norman Fixel Institute for Neurological Diseases, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA; Department of Neuroscience, Center for Translational Research in Neurodegenerative Disease, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA; Genetics Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA. Electronic address:

We present here PhotoGal4, a phytochrome B-based optogenetic switch for fine-tuned spatiotemporal control of gene expression in Drosophila explants. This switch integrates the light-dependent interaction between phytochrome B and PIF6 from plants with regulatory elements from the yeast Gal4/UAS system. We found that PhotoGal4 efficiently activates and deactivates gene expression upon red- or far-red-light irradiation, respectively. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isci.2020.101308DOI Listing

Altered brain function and clinical features in patients with first-episode, drug naïve major depressive disorder: A resting-state fMRI study.

Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging 2020 Jun 27;303:111134. Epub 2020 Jun 27.

Department of Bipolar Disorder, Tianjin Anding Hospital, 13 Liulin Road, Hexi District, Tianjin 300222, China. Electronic address:

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is characterized by heterogeneous clinical performance and neurocognitive impairment. It is important to explore the correlation between global functioning and regional homogeneity (ReHo)/amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) values in MDD patients. 67 first-episode, drug naïve MDD patients and 69 healthy subjects were enrolled in the study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pscychresns.2020.111134DOI Listing

Fasudil inhibits the activation of microglia and astrocytes of transgenic Alzheimer's disease mice via the downregulation of TLR4/Myd88/NF-κB pathway.

J Neuroimmunol 2020 Jun 23;346:577284. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Institute of Brain Science, Shanxi Key Laboratory of Inflammatory Neurodegenerative Diseases, Shanxi Datong University, Datong 037009, China; Research Center of Neurobiology, The Key Research Laboratory of Benefiting Qi for Acting Blood Circulation Method to Treat Multiple Sclerosis of State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanxi University of Chinese Medicine, Jinzhong 030619, China; Dept. of Neurology, First Affiliated Hospital, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan 030001, China. Electronic address:

Emerging evidence suggests an association of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) with microglial and astrocytic dysregulation. Recent studies have proposed that activated microglia can transform astrocytes to a neurotoxic A1 phenotype, which has been shown to be involved in the promotion of neuronal damage in several neurodegenerative diseases, including AD. In the present study, we observed an obvious microglial activation and A1-specific astrocyte response in the brain tissue of APP/PS1 Tg mice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jneuroim.2020.577284DOI Listing

Maternal high-fat diet stimulates proinflammatory pathway and increases the expression of Tryptophan Hydroxylase 2 (TPH2) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in adolescent mice hippocampus.

Neurochem Int 2020 Jul 8:104781. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Laboratory of Neuroscience and Nutrition, Department of Biosciences, Federal University of São Paulo/UNIFESP (Campus Baixada Santista), Santos, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:

Maternal high-fat diet (HFD) consumption can promote a systemic inflammatory condition that may impair the offspring brain development, damaging memory and learning, when it reaches the hippocampus. This study aims to evaluate maternal HFD effects, during pregnancy and lactation, upon dams/mice offspring nutritional status, protein and gene expression of inflammatory pathway (JNK, pJNK and TNF-α), serotonin system molecules (Tryptophan Hydroxylase 2 (TPH2), key-enzyme of serotonin synthesis, serotonin transporter (SERT); 5-HT1A serotonergic receptor (5-HT1A)) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) on recently weaned mice offspring hippocampus. Female Swiss mice were fed a control diet (CD, 11,5% fat) or a HFD (45. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuint.2020.104781DOI Listing

The Regulatory and Enzymatic Functions of CRMPs in Neuritogenesis, Synaptic Plasticity, and Gene Transcription.

Authors:
Sheng Tao Hou

Neurochem Int 2020 Jul 8:104795. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Brain Research Centre and Department of Biology, Southern University of Science and Technology, 1088 Xueyuan Blvd, Nanshan District, Shenzhen, Guangdong Province, PR China, 518055; Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology, and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:

Collapsin response mediator proteins (CRMPs) are ubiquitously expressed in neurons from worms to humans. A cardinal feature of CRMPs is to mediate growth cone collapse in response to Semaphorin-3A signaling through interactions with cytoskeletal proteins. These are critical regulatory roles that CRMPs play during neuritogenesis and neural network formation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuint.2020.104795DOI Listing

Prognostic Impact of Changes in Intrarenal Venous Flow Pattern in Patients with Heart Failure.

J Card Fail 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Department of Cardiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.

Background: It remains unclear whether intrarenal venous flow (IRVF) patterns in heart failure (HF) patients could change over the clinical course, and whether the changes could have a clinical impact. Thus, this study aimed to clarify these characteristics as well as to identify the relation between changes in the IRVF pattern and renal impairment progression.

Methods And Results: HF patients with repetitive IRVF evaluations were enrolled. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cardfail.2020.06.016DOI Listing

Enriched environment rearing from birth reduced anxiety, improved learning and memory, and promoted social interactions in adult male mice.

Neuroscience 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Institute of Neuroscience and State Key Laboratory of Neuroscience, CAS Center for Excellence in Brain Science and Intelligence Technology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031, China; School of Life Sciences, Peking-Tsinghua Center for Life Sciences, and Peking University McGovern Institute, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China. Electronic address:

Rearing rodents in an enriched environment (EE), with increased sensory stimulations and social interactions, is a well-established model for naturally increasing neural activity. It is well-known that EE-rearing of rodents from adolescence or during adulthood leads to extensive biochemical, morphological, electrophysiological and behavioral changes. Here, we examine the effects of EE-rearing from birth on adult behavior. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2020.07.004DOI Listing

Social defeat stress in adolescent mice induces depressive-like behaviors with reduced oligodendrogenesis.

Neuroscience 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Department of Neurophysiology and Brain Science, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya 467-8601, Japan. Electronic address:

Strong stress related to adverse experiences during adolescence can cause mental disorders, as well as affecting brain structure and function. However, the underlying neurobiological mechanisms remain largely unknown. To investigate whether stress induced by adverse experience during adolescence affects oligodendrocyte (OL) remodeling, social defeat stress was applied to 6-week-old adolescent mice for 10 days, followed by behavioral tests and assessments of oligodendrogenesis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2020.07.002DOI Listing

Learning and memory retention deficits in prepubertal guinea pigs prenatally exposed to low levels of the organophosphorus insecticide malathion.

Neurotoxicol Teratol 2020 Jul 8:106914. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Division of Translational Toxicology, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201, United States of America; Department of Pharmacology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201, United States of America.

High doses of malathion, an organophosphorus (OP) insecticide ubiquitously used in agriculture, residential settings, and public health programs worldwide, induce a well-defined toxidrome that results from the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). However, prenatal exposures to malathion levels that are below the threshold for AChE inhibition have been associated with increased risks of neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorder with intellectual disability comorbidity. The present study tested the hypothesis that prenatal exposures to a non-AChE-inhibiting dose of malathion are causally related to male-biased cognitive deficits later in life in a precocial species. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ntt.2020.106914DOI Listing

Near-infrared Deep Brain Stimulation in Living Mice.

Authors:
Shuo Chen

Methods Mol Biol 2020 ;2173:71-82

Helen Wills Neuroscience Institute, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA.

Optogenetics has revolutionized the experimental interrogation of neural circuits in the past decade and holds potential for the treatment of neurological disorders. However, optogenetic stimulation of deep brain neurons requires the insertion of invasive optical fibers because the activating blue-green light cannot penetrate deep inside brain tissue. Here we describe a minimally invasive technique for the stimulation of deep brain neurons by transcranial near-infrared light (NIR), where upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) are used as optogenetic actuators to locally convert NIR into visible light. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-0716-0755-8_4DOI Listing
January 2020

Interleukin-1 promotes autoimmune neuroinflammation by suppressing endothelial heme oxygenase-1 at the blood-brain barrier.

Acta Neuropathol 2020 Jul 11. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

Institute for Molecular Medicine, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Mainz, Germany.

The proinflammatory cytokine interleukin 1 (IL-1) is crucially involved in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS) and its animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Herein, we studied the role of IL-1 signaling in blood-brain barrier (BBB) endothelial cells (ECs), astrocytes and microglia for EAE development, using mice with the conditional deletion of its signaling receptor IL-1R1. We found that IL-1 signaling in microglia and astrocytes is redundant for the development of EAE, whereas the IL-1R1 deletion in BBB-ECs markedly ameliorated disease severity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00401-020-02187-xDOI Listing

Bassoon inhibits proteasome activity via interaction with PSMB4.

Cell Mol Life Sci 2020 Jul 10. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Department of Neurochemistry and Molecular Biology, Leibniz Institute for Neurobiology, Magdeburg, Germany.

Proteasomes are protein complexes that mediate controlled degradation of damaged or unneeded cellular proteins. In neurons, proteasome regulates synaptic function and its dysfunction has been linked to neurodegeneration and neuronal cell death. However, endogenous mechanisms controlling proteasomal activity are insufficiently understood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00018-020-03590-zDOI Listing

Overrepresentation of genetic variation in the AnkyrinG interactome is related to a range of neurodevelopmental disorders.

Eur J Hum Genet 2020 Jul 10. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Department of Medical Genetics, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium.

Upon the discovery of numerous genes involved in the pathogenesis of neurodevelopmental disorders, several studies showed that a significant proportion of these genes converge on common pathways and protein networks. Here, we used a reversed approach, by screening the AnkyrinG protein-protein interaction network for genetic variation in a large cohort of 1009 cases with neurodevelopmental disorders. We identified a significant enrichment of de novo potentially disease-causing variants in this network, confirming that this protein network plays an important role in the emergence of several neurodevelopmental disorders. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41431-020-0682-0DOI Listing

The innate immune toll-like-receptor-2 modulates the depressogenic and anorexiolytic neuroinflammatory response in obstructive sleep apnoea.

Sci Rep 2020 Jul 10;10(1):11475. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Sleep and Brain Plasticity Centre, Department of Neuroimaging, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience (IoPPN), King's College London (KCL), De Crespigny Park, Box 089, London, SE5 8AF, UK.

The increased awareness of obstructive sleep apnoea's (OSA) links to Alzheimer's disease and major psychiatric disorders has recently directed an intensified search for their potential shared mechanisms. We hypothesised that neuroinflammation and the microglial TLR2-system may act as a core process at the intersection of their pathophysiology. Moreover, we postulated that inflammatory-response might underlie development of key behavioural and neurostructural changes in OSA. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-68299-2DOI Listing

NMDAR-mediated modulation of gap junction circuit regulates olfactory learning in C. elegans.

Nat Commun 2020 Jul 10;11(1):3467. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, 02138, USA.

Modulation of gap junction-mediated electrical synapses is a common form of neural plasticity. However, the behavioral consequence of the modulation and the underlying molecular cellular mechanisms are not understood. Here, using a C. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-17218-0DOI Listing

Young Onset Parkinson's Disease: A Modern and Tailored Approach.

J Parkinsons Dis 2020 Jul 9. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Department of Rehabilitation, Radboud University Medical Center, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Center of Expertise for Parkinson and Movement Disorders Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

In people with young onset Parkinson's disease (YOPD), onset of symptoms is between 21 and 40 years of age. The distinction between YOPD and late-onset Parkinson's disease is supported by genetic differences (a genetic etiology is more common in people with YOPD) and clinical differences (e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JPD-202135DOI Listing

The Choice Between Advanced Therapies for Parkinson's Disease Patients: Why, What, and When?

J Parkinsons Dis 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Department of Neurology, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam Neuroscience, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

When oral dopaminergic medication falls short in the treatment of Parkinson's disease, patients are left with motor response fluctuations and dyskinesias that may have a large impact on functioning in daily life. They may benefit from one of the currently available advanced treatments, namely deep brain stimulation, continuous levodopa-carbidopa intestinal gel, and continuous subcutaneous apomorphine infusion. The indication, choice between the separate advanced treatments and the timing can be challenging and will be discussed against the background of the progressive nature of the disease, the heterogeneity of disease manifestation and variable patient characteristics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JPD-202104DOI Listing
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