80 results match your criteria Brain and neuroscience advances[Journal]


Comparison of conventional and rapid-acting antidepressants in a rodent probabilistic reversal learning task.

Brain Neurosci Adv 2020 Jan-Dec;4:2398212820907177. Epub 2020 Feb 23.

School of Physiology, Pharmacology and Neuroscience, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.

Deficits in reward processing are a central feature of major depressive disorder with patients exhibiting decreased reward learning and altered feedback sensitivity in probabilistic reversal learning tasks. Methods to quantify probabilistic learning in both rodents and humans have been developed, providing translational paradigms for depression research. We have utilised a probabilistic reversal learning task to investigate potential differences between conventional and rapid-acting antidepressants on reward learning and feedback sensitivity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2398212820907177DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7085917PMC
February 2020

The role of the immune system in driving neuroinflammation.

Brain Neurosci Adv 2020 Jan-Dec;4:2398212819901082. Epub 2020 Jan 29.

Trinity College Institute for Neuroscience, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.

Neuroinflammation is now recognised as an important contributory factor in the progression of Alzheimer's disease and probably also in the early stages of the disease. It is likely that this derives largely from aberrant activation of microglia, the resident mononuclear phagocytes of the brain. These cells are responsible for physiological immune surveillance and clearance of pathogens in the central nervous system, but evidence indicates that in Alzheimer's disease, microglial function is compromised, and this contributes to the pathology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2398212819901082DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7085916PMC
January 2020

Precommissural and postcommissural fornix microstructure in healthy aging and cognition.

Brain Neurosci Adv 2020 Jan-Dec;4:2398212819899316. Epub 2020 Jan 22.

Cardiff University Brain Research Imaging Centre (CUBRIC), Cardiff, UK.

The fornix is a key tract of the hippocampal formation, whose status is presumed to contribute to age-related cognitive decline. The precommissural and postcommissural fornix subdivisions form respective basal forebrain/frontal and diencephalic networks that may differentially affect aging and cognition. We employed multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including neurite orientation density and dispersion imaging, quantitative magnetization transfer (qMT), and T-relaxometry MRI to investigate the microstructural properties of these fornix subdivisions and their relationship with aging and cognition in 149 asymptomatic participants (38-71 years). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2398212819899316DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7085915PMC
January 2020

G-protein αq gene expression plays a role in alcohol tolerance in .

Brain Neurosci Adv 2019 Jan-Dec;3:2398212819883081. Epub 2019 Nov 1.

Medicines Research Group, School of Health, Sport and Bioscience, University of East London, London, UK.

Ethanol is a psychoactive substance causing both short- and long-term behavioural changes in humans and animal models. We have used the fruit fly to investigate the effect of ethanol exposure on the expression of the Gαq protein subunit. Repetitive exposure to ethanol causes a reduction in sensitivity (tolerance) to ethanol, which we have measured as the time for 50% of a set of flies to become sedated after exposure to ethanol (ST50). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2398212819883081DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7058197PMC
November 2019

A half century of γ-aminobutyric acid.

Brain Neurosci Adv 2019 Jan-Dec;3:2398212819858249. Epub 2019 Nov 27.

UCL School of Pharmacy, University College London, London, UK.

γ-aminobutyric acid has become one of the most widely known neurotransmitter molecules in the brain over the last 50 years, recognised for its pivotal role in inhibiting neural excitability. It emerged from studies of crustacean muscle and neurons before its significance to the mammalian nervous system was appreciated. Now, after five decades of investigation, we know that most neurons are γ-aminobutyric-acid-sensitive, it is a cornerstone of neural physiology and dysfunction to γ-aminobutyric acid signalling is increasingly documented in a range of neurological diseases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2398212819858249DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7058221PMC
November 2019

Persistent memories of long-term potentiation and the -methyl-d-aspartate receptor.

Brain Neurosci Adv 2019 Jan-Dec;3:2398212819848213. Epub 2019 May 21.

Department of Physiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.

In this article, we describe our involvement in the early days of research into long-term potentiation. We start with a description of the early experiments conducted in Oslo and London where long-term potentiation was first characterised. We discuss the ways in which the molecular pharmacology of glutamate receptors control the induction and expression of long-term potentiation and its counterpart, long-term depression. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2398212819848213DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7058229PMC

Promoting and supporting credibility in neuroscience.

Brain Neurosci Adv 2019 Jan-Dec;3:2398212819844167. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Department of Psychology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2398212819844167DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7058234PMC

Starting and stopping movement by the primate brain.

Brain Neurosci Adv 2019 Jan-Dec;3:2398212819837149. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Sobell Department of Motor Neuroscience and Movement Disorders, Institute of Neurology, University College London (UCL), London, UK.

We review the current knowledge about the part that motor cortex plays in the preparation and generation of movement, and we discuss the idea that corticospinal neurons, and particularly those with cortico-motoneuronal connections, act as 'command' neurons for skilled reach-to-grasp movements in the primate. We also review the increasing evidence that it is active during processes such as action observation and motor imagery. This leads to a discussion about how movement is inhibited and stopped, and the role in these for disfacilitation of the corticospinal output. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2398212819837149DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7058194PMC

Half a century of handedness research: Myths, truths; fictions, facts; backwards, but mostly forwards.

Authors:
Chris McManus

Brain Neurosci Adv 2019 Jan-Dec;3:2398212818820513. Epub 2019 May 6.

Research Department of Clinical, Educational and Health Psychology, University College London, London, UK.

Although most people are right-handed and have language in their left cerebral hemisphere, why that is so, and in particular why about ten per cent of people are left-handed, is far from clear. Multiple theories have been proposed, often with little in the way of empirical support, and sometimes indeed with strong evidence against them, and yet despite that have become modern urban myths, probably due to the symbolic power of right and left. One thinks in particular of ideas of being right-brained or left-brained, of suggestions that left-handedness is due to perinatal brain damage, of claims that left-handers die seven years earlier than right-handers, and of the unfalsifiable ramifications of the byzantine Geschwind-Behan-Galaburda theory. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2398212818820513DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7058267PMC

Acetylcholine and cholinergic receptors.

Authors:
David A Brown

Brain Neurosci Adv 2019 Jan-Dec;3:2398212818820506. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

Department of Neuroscience, Physiology & Pharmacology, University College London, London, UK.

This review provides a distillate of the advances in knowledge about the neurotransmitter functions of acetylcholine over the 50-year period between 1967 and 2017, together with incremental information about the cognate nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, and some brief comments on possible advances in the near future. The text is supplemented by a timelines figure indicating the dates of some key advances in knowledge about acetylcholine receptors and a box-figure providing a snapshot of selected papers about acetylcholine published in the year 1967. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2398212818820506DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7058246PMC

Neuroethical issues in cognitive enhancement: Modafinil as the example of a workplace drug?

Brain Neurosci Adv 2019 Jan-Dec;3:2398212818816018. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Department of Psychiatry, Behavioural and Clinical Neuroscience Institute, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

The use of cognitive-enhancing drugs by healthy individuals has been a feature for much of recorded history. Cocaine and amphetamine are modern cases of drugs initially enthusiastically acclaimed for enhancing cognition and mood. Today, an increasing number of healthy people are reported to use cognitive-enhancing drugs, as well as other interventions, such as non-invasive brain stimulation, to maintain or improve work performance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2398212818816018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7058249PMC
February 2019

A future for neuronal oscillation research.

Brain Neurosci Adv 2018 Jan-Dec;2:2398212818794827. Epub 2019 Mar 1.

Hull York Medical School, University of York, Heslington, UK.

Neuronal oscillations represent the most obvious feature of electrical activity in the brain. They are linked in general with global brain state (awake, asleep, etc.) and specifically with organisation of neuronal outputs during sensory perception and cognitive processing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2398212818794827DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7058255PMC

Remembering the order of serially presented objects: A matter of time?

Brain Neurosci Adv 2019 23;3:2398212819883088. Epub 2019 Oct 23.

School of Physiology, Pharmacology and Neuroscience, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.

Remembering the sequence, in which stimuli are encountered or events have occurred, is a key process in episodic memory and can also facilitate recognition memory. Rodents, when presented with a sequence of objects, will explore the object encountered first; yet, whether this behaviour is because the rodents spontaneously encode the order of stimuli presentation or because of relative familiarity or temporal decay is unknown. Here, we tested sequence memory in rats using a series of spontaneous preference tasks. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2398212819883088DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6820123PMC
October 2019

Mapping the impact of exposure to maternal immune activation on juvenile Wistar rat brain macro- and microstructure during early post-natal development.

Brain Neurosci Adv 2019 Jan 4;3:2398212819883086. Epub 2019 Nov 4.

Maurice Wohl Clinical Neuroscience Institute, Department of Basic and Clinical Neuroscience, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK.

Maternal immune activation is consistently associated with elevated risk for multiple psychiatric disorders in the affected offspring. Related to this, an important goal of our work is to explore the impact of maternal immune activation effects across the lifespan. In this context, we recently reported the effects of polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid-induced maternal immune activation at gestational day 15, immediately prior to birth, at gestational day 21 and again at post-natal day 21, providing a systematic assessment of plasma interleukin 6, body temperature and weight alterations in pregnant rats and preliminary evidence for gross morphological changes and microglial neuropathology in both male and female offsprings at these time points. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2398212819883086DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6861131PMC
January 2019

Trajectory of hippocampal fibres to the contralateral anterior thalamus and mammillary bodies in rats, mice, and macaque monkeys.

Brain Neurosci Adv 2019 23;3:2398212819871205. Epub 2019 Aug 23.

School of Psychology, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK.

The routes by which the hippocampal formation projects bilaterally to the anterior thalamic nuclei and mammillary bodies were examined in the mouse, rat, and macaque monkey. Despite using different methods and different species, the principal pattern remained the same. For both target areas, the contralateral hippocampal (subiculum) projections arose via efferents in the postcommissural fornix ipsilateral to the tracer injection, which then crossed hemispheres both in or just prior to reaching the target site within the thalamus or hypothalamus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2398212819871205DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6712910PMC

The genetics of neuropsychiatric disorders.

Brain Neurosci Adv 2019 May 12;2. Epub 2018 Oct 12.

MRC Centre for Neuropsychiatric Genetics and Genomics and Division of Psychological Medicine and Clinical Neurosciences, School of Medicine, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK.

Neuropsychiatric disorders are complex conditions with poorly defined neurobiological bases. In recent years, there have been significant advances in our understanding of the genetic architecture of these conditions and the genetic loci involved. This review article describes historical attempts to identify susceptibility genes for neuropsychiatric disorders, recent progress through genome-wide association studies, copy number variation analyses and exome sequencing, and how these insights can inform the neuroscientific investigation of these conditions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2398212818799271DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6551216PMC
May 2019
2 Reads

Corrigendum.

Authors:

Brain Neurosci Adv 2019 Jan-Dec;3:2398212819829629. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1177/2398212818771822.][This corrects the article DOI: 10. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2398212819829629DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7058238PMC
January 2019

Catecholamines: Knowledge and understanding in the 1960s, now, and in the future.

Brain Neurosci Adv 2019 Jan-Dec;3:2398212818810682. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

RenaSci Ltd, Nottingham, UK.

The late 1960s was a heyday for catecholamine research. Technological developments made it feasible to study the regulation of sympathetic neuronal transmission and to map the distribution of noradrenaline and dopamine in the brain. At last, it was possible to explain the mechanism of action of some important drugs that had been used in the clinic for more than a decade (e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2398212818810682DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7058270PMC
January 2019

Local field potentials in dorsal anterior cingulate sulcus reflect rewards but not travel time costs during foraging.

Brain Neurosci Adv 2019 Jan-Dec;3:2398212818817932. Epub 2019 Jan 18.

Department of Neuroscience, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

To maximise long-term reward rates, foragers deciding when to leave a patch must compute a decision variable that reflects both the immediately available reward and the time costs associated with travelling to the next patch. Identifying the mechanisms that mediate this computation is central to understanding how brains implement foraging decisions. We previously showed that firing rates of dorsal anterior cingulate sulcus neurons incorporate both variables. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2398212818817932DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7058217PMC
January 2019

Thinking about thinking: A coordinate-based meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies of metacognitive judgements.

Brain Neurosci Adv 2018 13;2:2398212818810591. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Wellcome Centre for Human Neuroimaging, University College London, London, UK.

Metacognition supports reflection upon and control of other cognitive processes. Despite metacognition occupying a central role in human psychology, its neural substrates remain underdetermined, partly due to study-specific differences in task domain and type of metacognitive judgement under study. It is also unclear how metacognition relates to other apparently similar abilities that depend on recursive thought such as theory of mind or mentalising. Read More

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http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/2398212818810591
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2398212818810591DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6238228PMC
November 2018
2 Reads

Neuroengineering and neuroprosthetics.

Authors:
Kevin Warwick

Brain Neurosci Adv 2018 Jan-Dec;2:2398212818817499. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Coventry University, Coventry, UK.

This article contains a directed overview of the field of neuroengineering and neuroprosthetics. The aim of the article is, however, not to go over introductory material covered elsewhere, but rather to look ahead at exciting areas for likely future development. The BrainGate implant is focussed on in terms of its use as an interface between the Internet and the human nervous system. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2398212818817499DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7058230PMC
December 2018

Deep brain stimulation: An overview of history, methods, and future developments.

Brain Neurosci Adv 2018 Jan-Dec;2:2398212818816017. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Nuffield Department of Surgical Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Deep brain stimulation has already revolutionised the clinical management of treatment-resistant movement disorders and offers novel treatment options for an increasing range of neurological and psychiatric illnesses. In this article, we briefly review the history of deep brain stimulation, particularly focusing on the last 50 years, which have seen rapid development in the safety and efficacy of deep brain stimulation. We then discuss the current state of the art in deep brain stimulation, focusing on emerging indications and recent technological advances that have improved the field. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2398212818816017DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7058209PMC
December 2018

Antibody-mediated central nervous system diseases.

Brain Neurosci Adv 2018 Jan-Dec;2:2398212818817497. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Antibody-mediated central nervous system diseases are a relatively new area of clinical neuroscience with growing impact. Their recognition has challenged the dogma of the blood-brain barrier preventing antibody access into the central nervous system. The antibodies discovered so far are mainly against neurotransmitter receptors (e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2398212818817497DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7058213PMC
December 2018

Stroke: The past, present and future.

Brain Neurosci Adv 2018 ;2:2398212818810689

Division of Neuroscience and Experimental Psychology, School of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, The University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.

Since the inception of the British Neuroscience Association, there have been major advances in our knowledge of the mechanistic basis for stroke-induced brain damage. Identification of the ischaemic cascade led to the development of hundreds of new drugs, many showing efficacy in preclinical (animal-based) studies. None of these drugs has yet translated to a successful stroke treatment, current therapy being limited to thrombolysis/thrombectomy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2398212818810689DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6276980PMC
January 2018
33 Reads

Invertebrate models of behavioural plasticity and human disease.

Brain Neurosci Adv 2018 Jan-Dec;2:2398212818818068. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Biological Sciences, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK.

The fundamental processes of neural communication have been largely conserved through evolution. Throughout the last century, researchers have taken advantage of this, and the experimental tractability of invertebrate animals, to advance understanding of the nervous system that translates to mammalian brain. This started with the inspired analysis of the ionic basis of neuronal excitability and neurotransmission using squid during the 1940s and 1950s and has progressed to detailed insight into the molecular architecture of the synapse facilitated by the genetic tractability of the nematode and the fruit fly . Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2398212818818068DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7058240PMC
December 2018

Purine and purinergic receptors.

Brain Neurosci Adv 2018 Jan-Dec;2:2398212818817494. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Autonomic Neuroscience Centre, University College Medical School, London, UK.

Adenosine 5'-triphosphate acts as an extracellular signalling molecule (purinergic signalling), as well as an intracellular energy source. Adenosine 5'-triphosphate receptors have been cloned and characterised. P1 receptors are selective for adenosine, a breakdown product of adenosine 5'-triphosphate after degradation by ectonucleotidases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2398212818817494DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7058212PMC
December 2018

The utility of stem cells for neural regeneration.

Brain Neurosci Adv 2018 Jan-Dec;2:2398212818818071. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Biosciences, Durham University, Durham, UK.

The use of stem cells in biomedical research is an extremely active area of science. This is because they provide tools that can be used both in vivo and vitro to either replace cells lost in degenerative processes, or to model such diseases to elucidate their underlying mechanisms. This review aims to discuss the use of stem cells in terms of providing regeneration within the nervous system, which is particularly important as neurons of the central nervous system lack the ability to inherently regenerate and repair lost connections. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2398212818818071DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7058206PMC
December 2018

The development of antipsychotic drugs.

Brain Neurosci Adv 2018 Jan-Dec;2:2398212818817498. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Division of Psychiatry, College of Medicine & Veterinary Medicine, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.

Antipsychotic drugs revolutionised psychiatric practice and provided a range of tools for exploring brain function in health and disease. Their development and introduction were largely empirical but based on long and honourable scientific credentials and remarkable powers of clinical observation. The class shares a common core action of attenuating central dopamine transmission, which underlies the major limitation to their use - high liability to disrupt extrapyramidal function - and also the most durable hypothesis of the basis of psychotic disorders, especially schizophrenia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2398212818817498DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7058266PMC
December 2018

Perspectives from affective science on understanding the nature of emotion.

Authors:
Elaine Fox

Brain Neurosci Adv 2018 Jan-Dec;2:2398212818812628. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Emotions are at the heart of how we understand the human mind and of our relationships within the social world. Yet, there is still no scientific consensus on the fundamental nature of emotion. A central quest within the discipline of affective science is to develop an in-depth understanding of emotions, moods, and feelings and how they are embodied within the brain (affective neuroscience). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2398212818812628DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7058241PMC
December 2018

Transcranial brain stimulation: Past and future.

Authors:
John Rothwell

Brain Neurosci Adv 2018 Jan-Dec;2:2398212818818070. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, UK.

This article provides a brief summary of the history of transcranial methods for stimulating the human brain in conscious volunteers and reviews the methodology and physiology of transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation. The former stimulates neural axons and generates action potentials and synaptic activity, whereas the latter polarises the membrane potential of neurones and changes their sensitivity to ongoing synaptic inputs. When coupled with brain imaging methods such as functional magnetic resonance imaging or electroencephalography, transcranial magnetic stimulation can be used to chart connectivity within the brain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2398212818818070DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7058222PMC
December 2018

Neuroglia: Realising their true potential.

Brain Neurosci Adv 2018 Jan-Dec;2:2398212818817495. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

School of Biological Sciences, The University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.

The name neuroglia is generally translated as nerve glue. In the recent past, this has been used to describe passive structural cells. Presently, this view has been challenged and the true dynamic and multifunctional nature of neuroglia is beginning to be appreciated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2398212818817495DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7058207PMC
December 2018

Nitric oxide as a multimodal brain transmitter.

Authors:
John Garthwaite

Brain Neurosci Adv 2018 Jan-Dec;2:2398212818810683. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Wolfson Institute for Biomedical Research, University College London, London, UK.

One of the simplest molecules in existence, nitric oxide, burst into all areas of biology some 30 years ago when it was established as a major signalling molecule in the cardiovascular, nervous and immune systems. Most regions of the mammalian brain synthesise nitric oxide and it has many diverse roles both during development and in adulthood. Frequently, nitric oxide synthesis is coupled to the activation of NMDA receptors and its physiological effects are mediated by enzyme-linked receptors that generate cGMP. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2398212818810683DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7058253PMC
December 2018

50 years of decoding olfaction.

Authors:
Peter A Brennan

Brain Neurosci Adv 2018 Jan-Dec;2:2398212818817496. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

School of Physiology, Pharmacology and Neuroscience, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.

The identification, in the late 20th century, of unexpectedly large families of G-protein-coupled chemosensory receptors revolutionised our understanding of the olfactory system. The discovery that non-selective olfactory sensory neurons express a single olfactory receptor type and project to a specific glomerulus in the main olfactory bulb provided fundamental insight into the spatial pattern of odour representation in the main olfactory bulb. Studies using head-fixed awake mice and optogenetics have revealed the importance of the timing of glomerular input in relation to the sniff cycle and the role of piriform cortex in odour object recognition. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2398212818817496DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7058195PMC
November 2018

Consciousness: The last 50 years (and the next).

Authors:
Anil K Seth

Brain Neurosci Adv 2018 Jan-Dec;2:2398212818816019. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Sackler Centre for Consciousness Science and School of Engineering and Informatics, University of Sussex, Brighton, UK.

The mind and brain sciences began with consciousness as a central concern. But for much of the 20th century, ideological and methodological concerns relegated its empirical study to the margins. Since the 1990s, studying consciousness has regained a legitimacy and momentum befitting its status as the primary feature of our mental lives. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2398212818816019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7058250PMC
November 2018

Psychopharmacology: From serendipitous discoveries to rationale design, but what next?

Authors:
Emma Robinson

Brain Neurosci Adv 2018 Jan-Dec;2:2398212818812629. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

School of Physiology, Pharmacology and Neuroscience, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.

Psychopharmacology really developed as a discipline from the mid-20th century with the discovery of a number of new classes of psychoactive drugs which could modify behaviour. These drugs were discovered as a consequence of clinical observations of patients, often being treated for other conditions. These serendipitous discoveries were the start of an era of drug development which has led to the antidepressants, antipsychotics, anxiolytics and mood stabilisers used today. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2398212818812629DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7058199PMC
November 2018

Fifty Years of Advances in Neuroendocrinology.

Authors:
John A Russell

Brain Neurosci Adv 2018 Jan-Dec;2:2398212818812014. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Professor Emeritus, Edinburgh Medical School: Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine, University of Edinburgh, UK.

Importance of the neuroendocrine brain for health and happiness has become clear since the 1960s. Foundations laid 100 years ago culminated in Geoffrey W Harris's model of control by the brain of secretion of anterior and posterior pituitary gland hormones through, respectively, releasing factors secreted into the hypothalamic-hypophysial portal system, and directly from axon terminals into the systemic circulation. Confirmation, expansion and deepening of knowledge and understanding have followed increasingly sophisticated technology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2398212818812014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7058251PMC
November 2018

Cognitive representations of spatial location.

Authors:
Kate J Jeffery

Brain Neurosci Adv 2018 Jan-Dec;2:2398212818810686. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Institute of Behavioural Neuroscience and Division of Psychology and Language Sciences, University College London, London, UK.

Spatial memory has fascinated psychologists ever since the discipline began, but a series of findings beginning in the middle of last century propelled its study into the domain of neuroscience and helped bring about the cognitive revolution in psychology. Starting with the discovery that the hippocampus plays a central role in memory, particularly spatial memory, studies of the mammalian hippocampus and related regions over the latter half of the century slowly uncovered an extensive neural system involved in processing place, head direction, objects, speed and other spatially informative parameters. Meanwhile, the concurrent discovery of hippocampal synaptic plasticity allowed theoreticians and experimentalists to collaborate in linking spatial perception and memory, and genetic techniques developed towards the end of the century opened the door to circuit dissections of these processes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2398212818810686DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7058242PMC
November 2018

Synapse molecular complexity and the plasticity behaviour problem.

Authors:
Seth G N Grant

Brain Neurosci Adv 2018 Jan-Dec;2:2398212818810685. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Genes to Cognition Programme, Centre for Clinical Brain Sciences, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.

Synapses are the hallmark of brain complexity and have long been thought of as simple connectors between neurons. We are now in an era in which we know the full complement of synapse proteins and this has created an existential crisis because the molecular complexity far exceeds the requirements of most simple models of synaptic function. Studies of the organisation of proteome complexity and its evolution provide surprising new insights that challenge existing dogma and promote the development of new theories about the origins and role of synapses in behaviour. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2398212818810685DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7058196PMC
November 2018

Central control of autonomic function.

Brain Neurosci Adv 2018 Jan-Dec;2:2398212818812012. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Department of Neuroscience, Physiology and Pharmacology, University College London, London, UK.

In this review, current understanding of the control of autonomic function is outlined and its development over the last 50 years highlighted. Using the control of the cardiovascular system as the primary tool, the importance of the patterning of autonomic outflows is shown to be crucial in both homeostasis and behaviour. Technical advances have made it possible to obtain a clearer idea of how the central nervous system evolves patterns of autonomic discharge that optimise autonomic changes to support motor and behavioural responses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2398212818812012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7058216PMC
November 2018

Lesions of retrosplenial cortex spare immediate-early gene activity in related limbic regions in the rat.

Brain Neurosci Adv 2018 Jan-Dec;2:2398212818811235. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

School of Psychology, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK.

The retrosplenial cortex forms part of a network of cortical and subcortical structures that have particular importance for spatial learning and navigation in rodents. This study examined how retrosplenial lesions affect activity in this network by visualising the expression of the immediate-early genes c- and after exposure to a novel location. Groups of rats with extensive cytotoxic lesions (areas 29 and 30) and rats with lesions largely confined to area 30 (dysgranular cortex) were compared with their respective control animals for levels of c- expression measured by immunohistochemistry. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2398212818811235DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7058225PMC
November 2018

Sodium channels.

Brain Neurosci Adv 2018 Jan-Dec;2:2398212818810684. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Molecular Nociception Group, Wolfson Institute for Biomedical Research, University College London, London, UK.

In 2000, with the completion of the human genome project, nine related channels were found to comprise the complete voltage-gated sodium gene family and they were renamed Na1.1-Na1.9. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2398212818810684DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7058208PMC
November 2018

Epigenetics, chromatin and brain development and function.

Authors:
Anthony R Isles

Brain Neurosci Adv 2018 Jan-Dec;2:2398212818812011. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

MRC Centre for Neuropsychiatric Genetics and Genomics, School of Medicine, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK.

Research investigating epigenetics and chromatin function in brain and behaviour has mushroomed over the last two decades. And yet epigenetics as a biological concept predates the discovery in the 1950s of DNA as the principle mode of inheritance by over a decade. This review explores the past, present and future research into epigenetics as it relates to understanding brain development and function. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2398212818812011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7058192PMC
November 2018

The neuroscience of hearing or how to do a hard job with soft components.

Authors:
Jonathan Ashmore

Brain Neurosci Adv 2018 Jan-Dec;2:2398212818810687. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Department of Neuroscience, Physiology and Pharmacology and UCL Ear Institute, University College London, London, UK.

The inner ear is a small and relatively inaccessible structure. The use of multiple biophysical recording techniques from the late 1970s onwards, combined with molecular genetics to identify genes critically involved in cochlear development, has revealed how the cochlea acts as the front end for the central nervous system analysis of the auditory world. Some notable progress has been made in clarifying the mechanisms of frequency coding and cochlear amplification, and of mechano-transduction in hair cells and in establishing molecules necessary for normal (and by implication in abnormal) development of hearing and balance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2398212818810687DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7058193PMC
November 2018

The research domain criteria framework in drug discovery for neuropsychiatric diseases: focus on negative valence.

Brain Neurosci Adv 2018 Jan-Dec;2:2398212818804030. Epub 2018 Nov 7.

CNS Diseases Research, Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma GmbH & Co. KG, Biberach an der Riss, Germany.

Drug discovery, particularly in the field of central nervous system, has had very limited success in the last few decades. A likely contributor is the poor translation between preclinical and clinical phases. The Research Domain Criteria of the National Institutes of Mental Health is a framework which aims to identify new ways of classifying mental illnesses that are based on observable behaviour and neurobiological measures, and to provide a guiding and evolving framework to improve the translation from preclinical to clinical research. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2398212818804030DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7058263PMC
November 2018

Model-based and model-free pain avoidance learning.

Brain Neurosci Adv 2018 5;2:2398212818772964. Epub 2018 May 5.

Department of Neural Computation for Decision-making, Advanced Telecommunications Research Institute International, Kyoto, Japan.

While there is good evidence that reward learning is underpinned by two distinct decision control systems - a cognitive 'model-based' and a habitbased 'model-free' system, a comparable distinction for punishment avoidance has been much less clear. We implemented a pain avoidance task that placed differential emphasis on putative model-based and model-free processing, mirroring a paradigm and modelling approach recently developed for reward-based decision-making. Subjects performed a two-step decision-making task with probabilistic pain outcomes of different quantities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2398212818772964DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6187988PMC
May 2018
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Voltage-gated calcium channels: their discovery, function and importance as drug targets.

Brain Neurosci Adv 2018 Oct;2

Department of Neuroscience, Physiology, UCL, London, UK.

This review will first describe the importance of Ca entry for function of excitable cells, and the subsequent discovery of voltage-activated calcium conductances in these cells. This finding was rapidly followed by the identification of multiple subtypes of calcium conductance in different tissues. These were initially termed low- and high-voltage activated currents, but were then further subdivided into L-, N-, PQ-, R and T-type calcium currents on the basis of differing pharmacology, voltage-dependent and kinetic properties, and single channel conductance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2398212818794805DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6179141PMC
October 2018
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The neuroscience of depressive disorders: A brief review of the past and some considerations about the future.

Brain Neurosci Adv 2018 Jan-Dec;2:2398212818799269. Epub 2018 Oct 8.

Psychopharmacology and Emotion Research Laboratory (PERL), Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Depression is a common and debilitating mental health condition whose underlying aetiology and pathophysiology is still relatively poorly understood. In this article, we first turn to the past and briefly review what neuroscientific investigations have taught us so far about depression. In doing so, we cover neurochemical, neuroendocrine, immunological, functional and structural anatomical, and cognitive levels of description. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2398212818799269DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7058215PMC
October 2018

Anterior cingulate cortex connectivity is associated with suppression of behaviour in a rat model of chronic pain.

Brain Neurosci Adv 2018 5;2:2398212818779646. Epub 2018 Jun 5.

Center for Information and Neural Networks, National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Osaka, Japan.

A cardinal feature of persistent pain that follows injury is a general suppression of behaviour, in which motivation is inhibited in a way that promotes energy conservation and recuperation. Across species, the anterior cingulate cortex is associated with the motivational aspects of phasic pain, but whether it mediates motivational functions in persistent pain is less clear. Using burrowing behaviour as an marker of non-specific motivated behaviour in rodents, we studied the suppression of burrowing following painful confirmatory factor analysis or control injection into the right knee joint of 30 rats (14 with pain) and examined associated neural connectivity with ultra-high-field resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2398212818779646DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6109941PMC
June 2018
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Retrosplenial and postsubicular head direction cells compared during visual landmark discrimination.

Brain Neurosci Adv 2017 15;1:2398212817721859. Epub 2017 Sep 15.

Division of Psychology and Language Sciences, University College London, London, UK.

Background: Visual landmarks are used by head direction (HD) cells to establish and help update the animal's representation of head direction, for use in orientation and navigation. Two cortical regions that are connected to primary visual areas, postsubiculum (PoS) and retrosplenial cortex (RSC), possess HD cells: we investigated whether they differ in how they process visual landmarks.

Methods: We compared PoS and RSC HD cell activity from tetrode-implanted rats exploring an arena in which correct HD orientation required discrimination of two opposing landmarks having high, moderate or low discriminability. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2398212817721859DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6124005PMC
September 2017
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Retrosplenial cortex and its role in spatial cognition.

Brain Neurosci Adv 2018 19;2:2398212818757098. Epub 2018 Mar 19.

School of Psychology, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK.

Retrosplenial cortex is a region within the posterior neocortical system, heavily interconnected with an array of brain networks, both cortical and subcortical, that is, engaged by a myriad of cognitive tasks. Although there is no consensus as to its precise function, evidence from both human and animal studies clearly points to a role in spatial cognition. However, the spatial processing impairments that follow retrosplenial cortex damage are not straightforward to characterise, leading to difficulties in defining the exact nature of its role. Read More

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http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/2398212818757098
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2398212818757098DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6095108PMC
March 2018
5 Reads