14 results match your criteria Brain and neuroscience advances[Journal]

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Thinking about thinking: A coordinate-based meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies of metacognitive judgements.

Brain Neurosci Adv 2018 13;2:2398212818810591. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Wellcome Centre for Human Neuroimaging, University College London, London, UK.

Metacognition supports reflection upon and control of other cognitive processes. Despite metacognition occupying a central role in human psychology, its neural substrates remain underdetermined, partly due to study-specific differences in task domain and type of metacognitive judgement under study. It is also unclear how metacognition relates to other apparently similar abilities that depend on recursive thought such as theory of mind or mentalising. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2398212818810591DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6238228PMC
November 2018

Stroke: The past, present and future.

Brain Neurosci Adv 2018 ;2:2398212818810689

Division of Neuroscience and Experimental Psychology, School of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, The University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.

Since the inception of the British Neuroscience Association, there have been major advances in our knowledge of the mechanistic basis for stroke-induced brain damage. Identification of the ischaemic cascade led to the development of hundreds of new drugs, many showing efficacy in preclinical (animal-based) studies. None of these drugs has yet translated to a successful stroke treatment, current therapy being limited to thrombolysis/thrombectomy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2398212818810689DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6276980PMC
January 2018
19 Reads

Model-based and model-free pain avoidance learning.

Brain Neurosci Adv 2018 5;2:2398212818772964. Epub 2018 May 5.

Department of Neural Computation for Decision-making, Advanced Telecommunications Research Institute International, Kyoto, Japan.

While there is good evidence that reward learning is underpinned by two distinct decision control systems - a cognitive 'model-based' and a habitbased 'model-free' system, a comparable distinction for punishment avoidance has been much less clear. We implemented a pain avoidance task that placed differential emphasis on putative model-based and model-free processing, mirroring a paradigm and modelling approach recently developed for reward-based decision-making. Subjects performed a two-step decision-making task with probabilistic pain outcomes of different quantities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2398212818772964DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6187988PMC
May 2018
1 Read

Voltage-gated calcium channels: their discovery, function and importance as drug targets.

Brain Neurosci Adv 2018 Oct;2

Department of Neuroscience, Physiology, UCL, London, UK.

This review will first describe the importance of Ca entry for function of excitable cells, and the subsequent discovery of voltage-activated calcium conductances in these cells. This finding was rapidly followed by the identification of multiple subtypes of calcium conductance in different tissues. These were initially termed low- and high-voltage activated currents, but were then further subdivided into L-, N-, PQ-, R and T-type calcium currents on the basis of differing pharmacology, voltage-dependent and kinetic properties, and single channel conductance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2398212818794805DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6179141PMC
October 2018
12 Reads

Anterior cingulate cortex connectivity is associated with suppression of behaviour in a rat model of chronic pain.

Brain Neurosci Adv 2018 5;2:2398212818779646. Epub 2018 Jun 5.

Center for Information and Neural Networks, National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Osaka, Japan.

A cardinal feature of persistent pain that follows injury is a general suppression of behaviour, in which motivation is inhibited in a way that promotes energy conservation and recuperation. Across species, the anterior cingulate cortex is associated with the motivational aspects of phasic pain, but whether it mediates motivational functions in persistent pain is less clear. Using burrowing behaviour as an marker of non-specific motivated behaviour in rodents, we studied the suppression of burrowing following painful confirmatory factor analysis or control injection into the right knee joint of 30 rats (14 with pain) and examined associated neural connectivity with ultra-high-field resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2398212818779646DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6109941PMC

Retrosplenial and postsubicular head direction cells compared during visual landmark discrimination.

Brain Neurosci Adv 2017 15;1:2398212817721859. Epub 2017 Sep 15.

Division of Psychology and Language Sciences, University College London, London, UK.

Background: Visual landmarks are used by head direction (HD) cells to establish and help update the animal's representation of head direction, for use in orientation and navigation. Two cortical regions that are connected to primary visual areas, postsubiculum (PoS) and retrosplenial cortex (RSC), possess HD cells: we investigated whether they differ in how they process visual landmarks.

Methods: We compared PoS and RSC HD cell activity from tetrode-implanted rats exploring an arena in which correct HD orientation required discrimination of two opposing landmarks having high, moderate or low discriminability. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2398212817721859DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6124005PMC
September 2017
11 Reads

Retrosplenial cortex and its role in spatial cognition.

Brain Neurosci Adv 2018 19;2:2398212818757098. Epub 2018 Mar 19.

School of Psychology, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK.

Retrosplenial cortex is a region within the posterior neocortical system, heavily interconnected with an array of brain networks, both cortical and subcortical, that is, engaged by a myriad of cognitive tasks. Although there is no consensus as to its precise function, evidence from both human and animal studies clearly points to a role in spatial cognition. However, the spatial processing impairments that follow retrosplenial cortex damage are not straightforward to characterise, leading to difficulties in defining the exact nature of its role. Read More

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http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/2398212818757098
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2398212818757098DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6095108PMC
March 2018
3 Reads

The role of prefrontal-subcortical circuitry in negative bias in anxiety: Translational, developmental and treatment perspectives.

Brain Neurosci Adv 2018 Jan 8;2:2398212818774223. Epub 2018 May 8.

Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, University College London, London, UK.

Anxiety disorders are the most common cause of mental ill health in the developed world, but our understanding of symptoms and treatments is not presently grounded in knowledge of the underlying neurobiological mechanisms. In this review, we discuss accumulating work that points to a role for prefrontal-subcortical brain circuitry in driving a core psychological symptom of anxiety disorders - negative affective bias. Specifically, we point to converging work across humans and animal models, suggesting a reciprocal relationship between dorsal and ventral prefrontal-amygdala circuits in promoting and inhibiting negative bias, respectively. Read More

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http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/2398212818774223
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2398212818774223DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6097108PMC
January 2018
1 Read

Role of the medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens in an operant model of checking behaviour and uncertainty.

Brain Neurosci Adv 2017 27;1:2398212817733403. Epub 2017 Sep 27.

Department of Psychology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

Background: Excessive checking is a common, debilitating symptom of obsessive-compulsive disorder. To further examine cognitive processes underpinning checking behaviour, and clarify how and why checking develops, we designed a novel operant paradigm for rats, the observing response task. The present study used the observing response task to investigate checking behaviour following excitotoxic lesions of the medial prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens core and dorsal striatum, brain regions considered to be of relevance to obsessive-compulsive disorder. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2398212817733403DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5990926PMC
September 2017
7 Reads

Circadian mood variations in Twitter content.

Brain Neurosci Adv 2017 Jan 1;1:2398212817744501. Epub 2017 Dec 1.

Intelligent Systems Laboratory, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.

Background: Circadian regulation of sleep, cognition, and metabolic state is driven by a central clock, which is in turn entrained by environmental signals. Understanding the circadian regulation of mood, which is vital for coping with day-to-day needs, requires large datasets and has classically utilised subjective reporting.

Methods: In this study, we use a massive dataset of over 800 million Twitter messages collected over 4 years in the United Kingdom. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2398212817744501DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5736128PMC
January 2017
6 Reads

Hippocampal - diencephalic - cingulate networks for memory and emotion: An anatomical guide.

Brain Neurosci Adv 2017 Aug;1(1)

School of Psychology, Cardiff University, Park Place, Cardiff, Wales, UK. CF10 3AT.

This review brings together current knowledge from tract tracing studies to update and reconsider those limbic connections initially highlighted by Papez (1937) for their presumed role in emotion. These connections link hippocampal and parahippocampal regions with the mammillary bodies, the anterior thalamic nuclei, and the cingulate gyrus, all structures now strongly implicated in memory functions. An additional goal of this review is to describe the routes taken by the various connections within this network. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2398212817723443DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5608081PMC
August 2017
23 Reads

Medial temporal pathways for contextual learning: Network c- mapping in rats with or without perirhinal cortex lesions.

Brain Neurosci Adv 2017 Mar;1

School of Psychology, Cardiff University, 70 Park Place, Cardiff, CF10 3AT, Wales, U.K.

Background: In the rat brain, context information is thought to engage network interactions between the postrhinal cortex, medial entorhinal cortex, and the hippocampus. In contrast, object information is thought to be more reliant on perirhinal cortex and lateral entorhinal cortex interactions with the hippocampus.

Method: The 'context network' was explored by mapping expression of the immediate-early gene, c- after exposure to a new spatial environment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2398212817694167DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5496664PMC
March 2017
6 Reads

Segmenting subregions of the human hippocampus on structural magnetic resonance image scans: An illustrated tutorial.

Brain Neurosci Adv 2017 6;1:2398212817701448. Epub 2017 Apr 6.

Wellcome Trust Centre for Neuroimaging, Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, UK.

Background: The hippocampus plays a central role in cognition, and understanding the specific contributions of its subregions will likely be key to explaining its wide-ranging functions. However, delineating substructures within the human hippocampus in vivo from magnetic resonance image scans is fraught with difficulties. To our knowledge, the extant literature contains only brief descriptions of segmentation procedures used to delineate hippocampal subregions in magnetic resonance imaging/functional magnetic resonance imaging studies. Read More

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http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/2398212817701448
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2398212817701448DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5452574PMC
April 2017
14 Reads

Differential ability of the dorsal and ventral rat hippocampus to exhibit group I metabotropic glutamate receptor-dependent synaptic and intrinsic plasticity.

Brain Neurosci Adv 2017 Jan 24;1(1). Epub 2017 Jan 24.

School of Physiology, Pharmacology and Neuroscience, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.

Background: The hippocampus is critically involved in learning and memory processes. Although once considered a relatively homogenous structure, it is now clear that the hippocampus can be divided along its longitudinal axis into functionally distinct domains, responsible for the encoding of different types of memory or behaviour. Although differences in extrinsic connectivity are likely to contribute to this functional differentiation, emerging evidence now suggests that cellular and molecular differences at the level of local hippocampal circuits may also play a role. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2398212816689792DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5390859PMC
January 2017
3 Reads
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