1,854 results match your criteria Brain and nerve = Shinkei kenkyu no shinpo[Journal]


[Production Logistics and Crowd Dynamics in the Developing Cerebral Cortex].

Authors:
Takaki Miyata

Brain Nerve 2019 Apr;71(4):415-421

Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine.

The cerebral cortex is constructed through massive cell-production and accompanying cellular movements, which should be efficient and safe under spatiotemporal limitations. Efficiency and safety are also needed in the "production logistics" of manufacturing companies, and the "crowd dynamics" pertaining to people or vehicles. Investigating the growth of the embryonic cerebral cortex with an insight into such a system-level management of collective flows has recently revealed interesting cellular strategies to combat the spatiotemporal limitations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11477/mf.1416201287DOI Listing

[Diabetes Mellitus and Dementia].

Authors:
Hiroyuki Umegaki

Brain Nerve 2019 Apr;71(4):409-414

Community Healthcare and Geriatrics, Medicine in Growth and Aging, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine.

Accumulating data have established that diabetes mellitus (DM) is a risk factor for dementia of both Alzheimer's and vascular types. However, the underlying mechanism of DM-induced neurodegeneration remains to be fully elucidated. Insulin resistance (IR) in the brain may be involved in DM-related cognitive impairment or dementia, and treatment of IR in the brain may lead to the prevention and/or treatment of dementia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11477/mf.1416201286DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

[Cutaneous Adverse Drug Reaction Caused by Antiepileptic Drug].

Brain Nerve 2019 Apr;71(4):401-406

Department of Dermatology, Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences.

Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), and drug induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DIHS) are severe cutaneous adverse reactions, which can be life-threatening and lead to severe sequelae. Antiepileptic drugs frequently cause severe adverse reactions in the form of. It is important to understand the characteristics of each disease and attempt at early diagnosis. Read More

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https://webview.isho.jp/journal/detail/abs/10.11477/mf.14162
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11477/mf.1416201284DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

[Xeroderma Pigmentosum].

Brain Nerve 2019 Apr;71(4):394-399

Division of Dermatology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine.

Xeroderma pigmentosum is a DNA repair disorder characterized by the occurrence of pigmented freckles and skin cancers on sun-exposed areas. Additionally, more than 50% of patients present with progressive degenerative neurological symptoms. Eight clinical subtypes of this condition are known, and neurological symptoms can be seen in XP-A, B, D, F, G complementation groups. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11477/mf.1416201283DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

[Cockayne Syndrome].

Brain Nerve 2019 Apr;71(4):390-393

Department of Dermatology, Osaka Medical College.

Cockayne syndrome (CS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe photosensitive genodermatosis that is associated with premature aging caused by defects in the UV-induced DNA damage repair system, particularly the transcription-coupled nucleotide excision repair. The clinical features of CS include photosensitivity, a characteristic senile face, significant developmental abnormalities, such as short stature, underweight, and microcephaly, progressive cachexia, severe visual impairment, and sensorineural deafness. CS is clinically classified into type I (classical type), type II (congenital or severe type) and type III (late-onset or adult-onset type). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11477/mf.1416201282DOI Listing

[Sturge-Weber Syndrome].

Authors:
Chieko Sadahira

Brain Nerve 2019 Apr;71(4):384-389

Department of Dermatology, Tokyo Metropolitan Children's Medical Center.

The cutaneous findings associated with Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS) are characterized by a port-wine stain at the site of the first branching of the trigeminal nerve. Recently, a new vascular classification for the port-wine stain is proposed in association with SWS. There is no consensus regarding the screening of SWS, but suspected cases of SWS are recommended for early referral to ophthalmologists. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11477/mf.1416201281DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

[Ataxia Telangiectasia].

Authors:
Satoko Kumada

Brain Nerve 2019 Apr;71(4):380-382

Department of Neuropediatrics, Tokyo Metropolitan Neurological Hospital.

Ocular telangiectasias are pathognomonic of ataxia telangiectasia (AT), and they usually appear after 6 years of age. Skin and visceral telangiectasias may appear with advancing age. They may represent a progeric change. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11477/mf.1416201280DOI Listing

[Tuberous Sclerosis Complex].

Authors:
Mari Kaneda

Brain Nerve 2019 Apr;71(4):374-379

Dermatology, Department of Integrated Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University.

Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant inherited disorders that is characterized by the systemic hamartomas, along with epilepsy, cognitive impairment and hypopigmented macules. It is caused by genetic mutations in either TSC1 or TSC2 gene which encodes hamartin and tuberin, respectively. As the hamartin-tuberin-complex downregulates the mechanistic/mammalian target of the rapamycin complex1 (mTORC1), dysfunction in either hamartin or tuberin induces the constitutive activation of mTORC1. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11477/mf.1416201279DOI Listing

[Neurofibromatosis 1].

Authors:
Yuichi Yoshida

Brain Nerve 2019 Apr;71(4):368-372

Division of Dermatology, Department of Medicine of Sensory and Motor Organs, Tottori University School of Medicine.

A large number of genetic neurological disorders are accompanied by dermatological manifestations. Among them, neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1, Recklinghausen disease) is characterized by pigmented macules, such as café au lait macules, freckling and numerous neurofibromas. Neurological complications are also seen in NF1 and it is important to conduct appropriate imaging studies for a correct diagnosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11477/mf.1416201278DOI Listing

[Hyperpigmentation due to Vitamin B12 Deficiency].

Brain Nerve 2019 Apr;71(4):364-367

Komatsu Municipal Hospital.

Vitamin B12 deficiency is associated with mucocutaneous symptoms, such as glossitis and hyperpigmentation, as well as megaloblastic anemia and neuropathy. These are reversible conditions, and the symptoms improve with early detection and treatment. Whenever anemia is encountered in routine practice, vitamin B12 deficiency should be considered and the presence of skin symptoms should be investigated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11477/mf.1416201277DOI Listing

[Skin Manifestations of Pellagra].

Authors:
Yuuichi Yamamoto

Brain Nerve 2019 Apr;71(4):360-363

Department of Dermatology University of the Ryukyus, Graduate School of Medicine.

Pellagra is a type of dietary deficiency disease caused by an insufficiency of niacin or tryptophan. Symptoms of pellagra include diarrhea, dermatitis, and dementia. It is usually diagnosed based on a patient's dietary history and clinical symptoms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11477/mf.1416201276DOI Listing

[Skin Lesion in Fabry Disease].

Brain Nerve 2019 Apr;71(4):354-359

LSD Center, Nagoya Central Hospital.

Fabry disease is an inborn error metabolisms caused by deficiency of α-galactosidase A activity, and results in glycolipid accumulation of in multiple tissues or organs. Skin lesions occurred in Fabry disease are characterized by angiokeratoma, including acroparesthesia or hypohydrosis, among others. There are important characteristics for the diagnosis of Fabry disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11477/mf.1416201275DOI Listing

[Skin Changes in POEMS Syndrome].

Authors:
Satoshi Kuwabara

Brain Nerve 2019 Apr;71(4):350-353

Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University.

Skin changes, including peripheral edema, hyperpigmentation, hypertrichosis, and hemangioma are frequent and early manifestations of POEMS (polyneuropathy, organomegaly, enndocrinopathy, M-protein, and skin changes) syndrome. Hemangiomata is presumably caused by overproduction of the vascular endothelial growth factor, and hypertrichosis results from the deposition of melanin; however, the pathogenesis of the skin symptoms are poorly understood. Nevertheless, recognition of the skin changes facilitates early diagnosis and treatment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11477/mf.1416201274DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

[Cutaneous Lesions of Sarcoidosis].

Authors:
Hiroyuki Okamoto

Brain Nerve 2019 Apr;71(4):345-349

Department of Dermatology, Kansai Medical University.

Cutaneous lesions of sarcoidosis show varied clinical features. They are categorized into specific types; skin sarcoid, scar infiltrations with granulomas and foreign bodies, and non-specific lesions like erythema nodosum. Identification of the cutaneous lesions is important for the diagnosis of sarcoidosis, because they are an easily accessible source of tissue for histologic examination. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11477/mf.1416201273DOI Listing

[Skin Manifestations of Vasculitis].

Authors:
Naoko Ishiguro

Brain Nerve 2019 Apr;71(4):339-344

Department of Dermatology, Tokyo Women's Medical University.

Skin symptoms that might indicate vasculitis include palpable purpura, blisters, skin ulcers, livedo, and subcutaneous nodules. Palpable purpura, livedo, and subcutaneous nodules are particularly important; the first correlates with small vessel vasculitis, and the latter two with medium vessel vasculitis on histopathology. If the presence of deep lesions, as seen in cases of livedo and subcutaneous nodules are suspected, the skin biopsy must include fat tissue from the active skin lesions to arrive at the accurate histological diagnosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11477/mf.1416201272DOI Listing

[Cutaneous Manifestations of Sweet Disease].

Brain Nerve 2019 Apr;71(4):334-338

Division of Dermatology, Tohoku Medical and Pharmaceutical University.

Sweet disease, also known as acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis, is a multisystem inflammatory disorder characterized by painful erythematous plaques and aseptic neutrophilic infiltration of various organs. It is also characterized by fever, polymorphonuclear leukocytosis, and painful erythematous cutaneous plaques. Cutaneous manifestations of Sweet disease are typically painful plaque-forming erythematous papules. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11477/mf.1416201271DOI Listing

[Cutaneous Manifestation of Behçet Disease].

Brain Nerve 2019 Apr;71(4):329-333

Department of Dermatology, Saitama Medical University.

Behçet disease is an inflammatory disease of unknown etiology that affects various organs, such as the skin, eye, central nervous system, and blood vessels. Mucocutaneous manifestations are characterized by oral ulcers, genital ulcers, erythema nodosum, papulopustular eruptions, and thrombophlebitis. The diagnosis is based on the diagnostic criteria defined by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11477/mf.1416201270DOI Listing

[Dermatomyositis].

Authors:
Manabu Fujimoto

Brain Nerve 2019 Apr;71(4):323-328

Dermatology, Department of Integrated Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University.

When examining the skin manifestations of dermatomyositis, it is important to systematically observe the frequently affected sites. The head and the hands are particularly important. It is critical to look not just for symptoms included in the classification criteria, such as heliotrope rash and Gottron's papules/signs, but also for other rashes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11477/mf.1416201269DOI Listing

[Systemic Lupus Erythematosus].

Authors:
Tetsuya Tsuchida

Brain Nerve 2019 Apr;71(4):317-321

Department of Dermatology, Saitama Medical University.

The cutaneous manifestations of lupus erythematosus (LE) include LE-specific and LE-nonspecific skin lesions. LE-specific skin lesions are divided into chronic, subacute, and acute types. The representatives of the chronic and acute types are discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE) and butterfly rash, respectively. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11477/mf.1416201268DOI Listing

[The Skin Findings Associated with Neurotrauma].

Authors:
Shigeru Oya

Brain Nerve 2019 Apr;71(4):309-315

Department of Neurosurgery, Asahi General Hospital.

Head trauma is a common condition, but often, serious pathological conditions associated with it are hidden. Skin findings in child abuse cases, such as skull base fracture, battle signs, raccoon eye, open head injury, penetrating wounds, traumatic aneurysm of the superficial temporal artery, traumatic carotid cavernous sinus fistula, and fat embolism have been presented in this paper. It is necessary to observe and record skin findings at the time of consultation and to listen to the detailed medical history that resulted in such an injury. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11477/mf.1416201267DOI Listing

[Cutaneous Herpesvirus Infection].

Authors:
Daisuke Watanabe

Brain Nerve 2019 Apr;71(4):302-308

Dermatology, Aichi Medical University.

Among human herpes viruses, those known to cause neurological symptoms are the herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2 and the varicella-zoster virus (VZV), which remain latent in the dorsal root ganglion. HSV causes herpes labialis, genital herpes, etc. VZV causes varicella during the primary infection, and shingles when reactivated. Read More

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https://webview.isho.jp/journal/detail/abs/10.11477/mf.14162
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11477/mf.1416201266DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

[A Patient with Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy Who Developed Bálint Syndrome Improved by Combination Therapy Using Mefloquine and Mirtazapine].

Brain Nerve 2019 Mar;71(3):281-286

Department of Neurology and Geriatrics, Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine.

We describe a 62-year-old man who developed subacute visual loss after cord blood stem cell transplantation for malignant lymphoma. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed bilateral hyperintense lesions in the occipital and parietal lobes. A diagnosis of progressive multifocal encephalopathy (PML) was established following brain biopsy and detection of JC virus (JCV) deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11477/mf.1416201256DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

[Foix-Chavany-Marie Syndrome: A Clinical Overview].

Brain Nerve 2019 Mar;71(3):273-280

Yokohama Municipal Citizen's Hospital.

Foix-Chavany-Marie syndrome, which has been reported since the 19th century, is a cortical type of pseudobulbar palsy. Although previously most cases were due to acute recurrent stroke, recent reports have indicated that there are various causes, including infectious, developmental, epileptic and degenerative processes and various clinical courses, which may be transient or slowly progressive. Moreover, modern imaging techniques have revealed the significance of the injury of the white matter tract, such as the frontal aslant tract, rather than classical lesions of bilateral motor cortices. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11477/mf.1416201255DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

[Unique Hand Muscle Atrophy: The Split Hand Symptom].

Authors:
Kazumoto Shibuya

Brain Nerve 2019 Mar;71(3):257-263

Chiba University, Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Neurology.

When examining a patient with upper limb atrophy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) should be considered an important disease, because ALS is a devastating disease, and entirely different from cervical spondylotic amyotrophy. The split hand symptom is a very important indicator for diagnosis, because this symptom has been recognized as being specific to ALS. In the split hand symptom, the thenar and first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscles are preferentially affected. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11477/mf.1416201251DOI Listing
March 2019
6 Reads

[Dissociation of Anatomical (Neurological) Diagnosis and Imaging Diagnosis].

Authors:
Kota Miyoshi

Brain Nerve 2019 Mar;71(3):249-256

Department of Orthopaedic and Spine Surgery, Yokohama Rosai Hospital.

Identification of various spine and spinal cord disordes using anatomical diagnosis (neurological diagnosis) and imaging diagnosis is essential for effective caring of patients with these disorders; however, sometimes, dissociation of the two diagnoses is encountered. There is a risk of a diagnosis error if the causative pathophysiology of this dissociation is not understood. To avoid this error, it is necessary to fully understand the related pathophysiology of these disorders, including deviation of spinal cord segment from the spine, central cord syndrome, sensory disturbance of cervical radiculopathy, epiconus syndrome and conus medullaris syndrome, tethered spinal cord syndrome and lumbar intraforaminal and extraforaminal nerve root disturbance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11477/mf.1416201250DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

[Management of Cervical Spondylosis by Neurologists].

Authors:
Tetsuo Ando

Brain Nerve 2019 Mar;71(3):239-248

Department of Neurology, Anjo Kosei Hospital.

Neurologists have to manage patients with cervical spondylosis, a common neurological disease in individuals over the age of 50 years. The diagnosis of cervical spondylosis requires a detailed neurological examination that takes into account cervical levels. To prevent misdiagnosis, it is important to integrate the levels of the lesions revealed by imaging with the clinical findings. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11477/mf.1416201249DOI Listing
March 2019
6 Reads

[Symptomatology of Disorders of the Cervical Spine].

Authors:
Toshio Fukutake

Brain Nerve 2019 Mar;71(3):217-237

Department of Neurology Kameda Medical Center.

Although advances in neuroimaging have result in great improvement in the diagnosis of cervical spine and cord disorders, it is still more difficult to localize symptoms in the cervical spine and cord than in the brain. Here, I discuss the following relatively new aspects in cervical spine and cord symptomatology: I. Headache and facial pain; II. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11477/mf.1416201248DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

[Neuromuscular Anatomy Update: A Useful Tool for Differential Diagnosis between Cervical Spondylosis and Related Disorders].

Authors:
Masahiro Sonoo

Brain Nerve 2019 Mar;71(3):207-215

Department of Neurology, Teikyo University School of Medicine.

Neuromuscular anatomy is the indispensable background for the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of cervical spondylosis (CS), i.e. cervical spondylotic radiculopathy (CSR), cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) and cervical spondylotic amyotrophy (CSA). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11477/mf.1416201247DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

[Facts and Cases of Diseases and Observations Are Described from My Own Experience].

Authors:
Kiyoharu Inoue

Brain Nerve 2019 Mar;71(3):193-205

Department of Neurolgy, Sapporo Yamanoue Hospital.

Facts and cases of diseases and observations are described from my own experience. 1) Refer carefully with correct recognition of the levels of the vertebral body and cord segment. 2) The spinal nerve root is defined as the part of the peripheral nerves in the subarachnoid space. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11477/mf.1416201246DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

[Paraneoplastic Cerebellar Degeneration with Lambert-Eaton Myasthenic Syndrome: A Report of an Effectively Treated Case and Systematic Review of Japanese Cases].

Brain Nerve 2019 Feb;71(2):167-174

Department of Neurology and Strokology, Nagasaki University Hospital.

A 63-year-old female who developed dizziness, diplopia and subsequent gait disturbance from September X-1 year was analyzed. The first neurological findings in May X year revealed cerebellar ataxia, weakness in the proximal limbs, decreased tendon reflexes, and autonomic symptoms (ADL:mRS 3). Furthermore, an incremental phenomenon was observed in the repetitive nerve stimulation test, and she was diagnosed with Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS) based on the serum P/Q-type calcium channel (VGCC) antibody positivity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11477/mf.1416201237DOI Listing
February 2019
3 Reads

[Positron Emission Tomography Imaging for Oxidative Stress in Mitochondrial and Neurodegenerative Diseases].

Brain Nerve 2019 Feb;71(2):161-166

Department of Advanced Medicine for Community Healthcare, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui.

Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are assumed to be the pathogenic molecular mechanisms underlying various neurodegenerative diseases. We applied positron emission tomography (PET) with [62Cu] diacetyl-bis (N4-methylthiosemicarbazone) (62Cu-ATSM) to image cerebral oxidative stress based on mitochondrial dysfunction in living patients. In our previous study, we observed an increased retention of Cu-ATSM in in vitro cell lines with mitochondrial respiratory failure, suggesting that 62Cu-ATSM uptake can be a promising biomarker for evaluating oxidative stress in patients with mitochondrial or neurodegenerative diseases. Read More

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https://webview.isho.jp/journal/detail/abs/10.11477/mf.14162
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11477/mf.1416201236DOI Listing
February 2019
7 Reads

[Association between the Thalamus and Social Function in Schizophrenia].

Brain Nerve 2019 Feb;71(2):155-160

Department of Neuropsychiatry, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo.

Patients with schizophrenia face several difficulties in their daily social life owing to the impairment of social cognitive ability. However, the neural basis of this impairment has not been fully clarified. We attempted to identify the neuronal basis of social dysfunction of schizophrenia by focusing on the thalamus, which is a subcortical structure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11477/mf.1416201235DOI Listing
February 2019
7 Reads

[Sports and Physical Exercise in Multiple Sclerosis].

Authors:
Hirofumi Ochi

Brain Nerve 2019 Feb;71(2):143-152

Department of Neurology and Geriatric Medicine, Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine.

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex immune-mediated disease of the central nervous system. It is characterized by inflammatory and neurodegenerative processes that result in progressive neurological disability. In the past two decades, there have been major therapeutic advances in the treatment of MS, and a substantial number of disease-modifying drugs (DMDs) have been used in clinical practice. Read More

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https://webview.isho.jp/journal/detail/abs/10.11477/mf.14162
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11477/mf.1416201233DOI Listing
February 2019
7 Reads

[Para-sports for Muscular Dystrophy Patients].

Brain Nerve 2019 Feb;71(2):135-142

Department of Neurology, National Hospital Organization Toneyama National Hospital.

Patients with muscular dystrophy repeatedly experience loss of motor function and the ability to perform activities of daily living throughout the progression of their disease. These experiences can seriously decrease their self-esteem. Although multidisciplinary care has improved the life expectancy of these patients greatly, it can be hard for them to engage in social activities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11477/mf.1416201232DOI Listing
February 2019

[Use of Sports in the Rehabilitation of Parkinson's Disease].

Brain Nerve 2019 Feb;71(2):125-133

Department of Neurology, Tokushima National Hospital.

Parkinson's disease is a slowly progressing disease where motor function gradually worsens. It is a well-known fact that neuronal plasticity is said to be said, and rehabilitation after developing a cerebrovascular disorder is important. After a stroke, the patient's condition start from its worst state and a goal for improvement can be set for the rehabilitation period However, in Parkinson's disease, rehabilitation is effective in preventing the patient's condition from worsening further, making it difficult to set a goal. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11477/mf.1416201231DOI Listing
February 2019

[Implicit Effects of Other's Actions on One's Own Actions in Sports].

Authors:
Tsuyoshi Ikegami

Brain Nerve 2019 Feb;71(2):113-124

Center for Information and Neural Networks (CiNet), National Institute of Information and Communications Technology.

Motor contagions are implicit effects of observed actions performed by another individual on one's own actions. There are two types of motor contagions. First, action-imitative contagions are induced simply by action observation and cause one's action to become similar to the observed action. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11477/mf.1416201230DOI Listing
February 2019

[The Paralympic Brain: Brain Reorganization in Paralympic Athletes].

Brain Nerve 2019 Feb;71(2):105-112

Human Movement Control for Neurorehabilitation and Sports Laboratory, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo.

Brain recognization in Paralympic athletes occurs in a manner dependent on both disability type and sport-specific trainings. The mechanisms underlying this reorganization likely include use-dependent plasticity and disability-specific compensations. Studies of the brains of Paralympic athletes and neurorehabilitation aim to better understand the neural mechanisms responsible for brain reorganization following physical rehabilitation interventions and/or athletic trainings. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11477/mf.1416201229DOI Listing
February 2019

[Toward to Understanding of Athletes' Brain].

Brain Nerve 2019 Feb;71(2):99-103

Neural Prosthesis Project, Department of Dementia and Higher Brain Function, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science.

Tokyo Olympic Games and the Paralympic Games in 2020 is coming up next year. The interest in sports has been growing ever especially in Japan. People marvels at the excellent performance in athletes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11477/mf.1416201228DOI Listing
February 2019

[An Autopsy Case of Amiotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Characterized by Upper Motor Neuron Degeneration and Progressive Pseudobulbar Palsy].

Brain Nerve 2019 Jan;71(1):75-80

Department of Neurology, Ushioda General Hospital.

This is a case report of autopsy findings for a male Japanese patient who presented with progressive gait disturbance and dysarthria. Neurological examination at the age of 61 years revealed pseudobulbar palsy and upper motor neuron disorder. The patient appeared unaware of his illness. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11477/mf.1416201219DOI Listing
January 2019
6 Reads

[Health-related Quality of Life in Patients with Mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's Disease: A Study Using the Five-level Version of European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D-5L)].

Brain Nerve 2019 Jan;71(1):67-73

Department of Speech Therapy, School of Health Sciences, Niigata University of Health and Welfare.

Objective: To investigate the relation between health-related quality of life (QOL) rated by proxy and various characteristics of patients with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD) using European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D).

Patients: We recruited 128 AD patients with a Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) of 0.5 (very mild) to 2 (moderate) who were cognitively assessed using the Mini-Mental State examination, Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale, and Frontal Assessment Battery, and whose family caregivers underwent an interview with CDR, Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) and the five-level version of the EQ-5D for the proxy rating. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11477/mf.1416201218DOI Listing
January 2019
10 Reads

[Progress on the Pathophysiology of Idiopathic Basal Ganglia Calcification].

Authors:
Isao Hozumi

Brain Nerve 2019 Jan;71(1):59-66

Laboratory of Medical Therapeutics and Molecular Therapeutics, Gifu Pharmaceutical University.

Idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (IBGC), which is also called Fahr's disease or recently referred to as primary familial brain calcification (PFBC), is an idiopathic and intractable disease characterized by abnormal deposits of minerals including calcium in the basal ganglia and other brain regions such as the thalamus and cerebellum. Mutations in SLC20A2, PDGFRB, PDGFB, XPR1, MYORG have been reported in the past several years. The pathophysiological basis presumed by the genetic studies is the impairment of the transport of inorganic phosphate (Pi) into and out of cells in the brain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11477/mf.1416201217DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

[Deep Learning and Natural Language Processing].

Brain Nerve 2019 Jan;71(1):45-55

Department of Information and Communication Engineering, Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, The University of Tokyo.

The field of natural language processing (NLP) has seen rapid advances in the past several years since the introduction of deep learning techniques. A variety of NLP tasks including syntactic parsing, machine translation, and summarization can now be performed by relatively simple combinations of general neural network models such as recurrent neural networks and attention mechanisms. This manuscript gives a brief introduction to deep learning and an overview of the current deep learning-based NLP technology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11477/mf.1416201215DOI Listing
January 2019

[Medical Natural Language Processing for Japanese Language].

Authors:
Yoshinobu Kano

Brain Nerve 2019 Jan;71(1):33-44

Department of Behavior Informatics, Faculty of Informatics, Shizuoka University.

Artificial Intelligence technologies are recently attracting attentions. More medical information is available including inspection results and health records of numbers, images and documents, also including audio and video information of subjects. I briefly explain natural language processing of written and spoken language, then introduce a couple of research issues in medical natural language processing for the Japanese language. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11477/mf.1416201214DOI Listing
January 2019

[Artificial Intelligence for Cancer Genomic Medicine: Understanding Cancer is Beyond Human Ability].

Authors:
Satoru Miyano

Brain Nerve 2019 Jan;71(1):25-32

Laboratory of DNA Information Analysis, Human Genome Center, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo.

Cancer is a very complex disease that is caused by mutations in genomes and evolves spatiotemporally in a patient. Our institute implemented IBM Watson for Genomics and realized a turnaround time for patient diagnosis of less than four days that includes whole genome sequencing and interpretation of the data. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11477/mf.1416201213DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

[Artificial Intelligence in Psychiatry].

Brain Nerve 2019 Jan;71(1):15-23

Department of Neuropsychiatry, Keio University School of Medicine.

Diagnosis of psychiatric disorders is based primarily on subjective symptoms, and neuroimaging or other biological examinations are used for excluding organic disorders. Advances in artificial intelligence technologies, such as machine learning, may enable us to utilize neuroimaging for individual diagnosis of psychiatric disorder or treatment response prediction. In addition, such technologies may elucidate the underlying pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11477/mf.1416201212DOI Listing
January 2019
3 Reads

[Medical Application of Artificial Intelligence/Deep Learning].

Brain Nerve 2019 Jan;71(1):5-14

Global Center for Medical Engineering and Informatics, Osaka University.

Deep learning is a subset of the medical application of artificial intelligence. Its significant results are garnering attention, particularly in radiographic image interpretation, pathological diagnosis, gene analysis, and prediction of cancer recurrence. In this study, we summarize the concept of deep learning. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11477/mf.1416201211DOI Listing
January 2019

[A Case of Sjögren's Syndrome with Multiple Stenoses of the Cerebral Arteries and Transient Neurological Symptoms and Signs].

Brain Nerve 2018 Dec;70(12):1389-1396

Department of Neurology, Japanese Red Cross Yamaguchi Hospital.

A 31-year-old woman was admitted to the hospital after several episodes of transient numbness in her fingers and dysarthria. No neurological symptoms and signs were observed in this patient on admission; however, blood tests revealed elevated amylase and immunoglobulin G levels, an increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and positive anti-Sjögren's-syndrome (SjS)-related antigen A antibodies. The cerebrospinal fluid examination revealed a slight increase in the cell count and protein content. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11477/mf.1416201198DOI Listing
December 2018
8 Reads

[The Basic Modules of the Neocortex].

Brain Nerve 2018 Dec;70(12):1381-1388

Laboratory for Local Neuronal Circuits, RIKEN Center for Brain Science.

The mammalian neocortex contains diverse cell types but whether they organize into repeated modular circuits remains unknown. We discovered that major cell types in neocortical layer 5 form a lattice structure in many areas of the brain. Large-scale three-dimensional imaging revealed that distinct types of excitatory and inhibitory neurons form cell type-specific radial clusters termed microcolumns. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11477/mf.1416201197DOI Listing
December 2018
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[Imaging-Based Diagnostic Approach to Abdominal Pain in Patients with Neurological and Neuropsychiatric Disorders].

Authors:
Mitsuru Matsuki

Brain Nerve 2018 Dec;70(12):1369-1378

Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Kindai University Hospital.

We focused on diseases causing both neurological and intestinal disorders and introduce representative cases with a case based review. We frequently encountered chronic constipation in patients with schizophrenia, dementia, and Parkinson's disease, and treated them with commonly used conservative management approaches. However, some serious diseases that require early diagnosis and treatment may also be present and should be identified. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11477/mf.1416201195DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

[I Am Seeing a Human!: The Perception of an External Visual Stimulus Where None Exists].

Brain Nerve 2018 Dec;70(12):1359-1367

Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, University of Occupational and Environmental Health.

A visual hallucination (VH) is "the perception of an external visual stimulus where none exists". It frequently occurs in Lewy body disease (LBD): Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies. Although the exact pathogenesis of VH in patients with LBD is not clearly understood, many neuroimaging studies (structure MRI: brain volume, functional MRI, positron emission tomography, and single photon emission computerized tomography) have reported reduced gray matter volume, altered activation, and reduced metabolism in the dorsal and ventral visual pathways. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11477/mf.1416201194DOI Listing
December 2018
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