1,980 results match your criteria Brain and nerve = Shinkei kenkyu no shinpo[Journal]


[Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy Associated with HIV Infection Diagnosed by Brain Biopsy with Repeated Negative PCR Testing of CSF JC Virus DNA].

Brain Nerve 2020 May;72(5):541-546

Department of Neurology, University of Fukui Hospital.

A 36-year-old man with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection was admitted to our hospital due to progressive ataxia. Brain MRI demonstrated high-signal intensity in the white matter of the right parietal lobe and left cerebellar hemisphere on T2-weighted images. Despite antiretroviral therapy, as his clinical symptoms worsened and MRI lesions gradually increased with the appearance of gadolinium-enhanced lesions, immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome by progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) associated with HIV infection was suspected. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11477/mf.1416201559DOI Listing

[Central Nervous System Involvement in Breath-Hold Diving].

Brain Nerve 2020 May;72(5):533-539

Division of Neurosurgery, Nishinihon Hospital.

Diving accident in breath-hold (BH) divers (Ama) is a stroke-like neurological condition involving the brain. Ama divers are at a risk of ischemic brain injuries which are situated in watershed or terminal zones of cerebral arteries, and/or corticomedullary junctional area of cerebral arteries. The underlying mechanisms of brain damage in BH diving remains to be elucidated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11477/mf.1416201558DOI Listing

[Factors Influencing Brain Interstitial Fluid Concentrations of Amyloid β and Tau].

Brain Nerve 2020 May;72(5):525-531

Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo.

In patients with Alzheimer's disease, the brain interstitial space is an important place where amyloid-β oligomers and aggregates exist. Although tau aggregates are observed inside neurons, extracellular brain interstitial fluid tau has drawn attention because of increasing understanding of cell-to-cell propagation of tau aggregation. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of factors influencing brain interstitial fluid concentrations of amyloid-β and tau, mainly focusing on known epidemiological risk factors for Alzheimer's disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11477/mf.1416201557DOI Listing

[New Arrival of Disease Modifying Drugs Initiates New Era in Multiple Sclerosis Treatment in Japan].

Authors:
Takayuki Kondo

Brain Nerve 2020 May;72(5):517-523

Department of Neurology, Kansai Medical University Medical Center.

Multiple sclerosis disease modifying drugs (MS-DMD) currently used in Japan are interferon β-1a, interferon β-1b and gratiramer acetate, fingolimod, dimethyl furmarate, and natalizumab. Ofatumumab and siponimod will be approved probably in 2021. Ofatumumab is an ant-CD20 human monoclonal antibody. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11477/mf.1416201555DOI Listing

[Cognitive Impairment in Multiple Sclerosis].

Brain Nerve 2020 May;72(5):509-515

Department of Clinical Research, National Hospital Organization Hokkaido Medical Center.

Cognitive impairment is one of the major symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS) and one that often remains unnoticed. An adequate battery should be used to evaluate cognitive function in patients with MS because cognitive impairment in MS typically involves specific deficits such as sustained attention and information processing speed rather than global cognitive decline. Cognitive impairment could influence patients' daily and social activities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11477/mf.1416201554DOI Listing

[Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Multiple Sclerosis].

Authors:
Yukio Miki

Brain Nerve 2020 May;72(5):493-508

Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine.

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the imaging modality of choice for patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). The roles of MRI in MS include diagnosis, imaging biomarkers, and safety monitoring for patients receiving disease-modifying drugs (DMDs). In terms of diagnosis, MRI plays a pivotal role in the international diagnosis criteria (McDonald criteria). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11477/mf.1416201553DOI Listing

[Explanation of Multiple Sclerosis Diagnostic Criteria].

Authors:
Ichiro Nakashima

Brain Nerve 2020 May;72(5):485-491

Division of Neurology, Tohoku Medical and Pharmaceutical University.

The McDonald diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis include clinical, radiological, and laboratory feature last revised in 2017. The aim of the most recent revision was to improve sensitivity of the McDonald diagnostic criteria for a faster diagnosis, without sacrificing specificity. with the revised criteria, the time between onset and diagnosis reduced from approximately half a year to 2-3 months. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11477/mf.1416201552DOI Listing

[Epidemiology of Multiple Sclerosis: Is Multiple Sclerosis on the Rise?]

Authors:
Hirofumi Ochi

Brain Nerve 2020 May;72(5):467-484

Department of Neurology and Geriatric Medicine, Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine.

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a worldwide disease with an uneven geographic distribution. There has been a sharp increase in MS prevalence over time almost throughout the world, including Japan. The reasons for the increase in the prevalence of MS are unknown. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11477/mf.1416201551DOI Listing

Body Knowledge in Children with Congenital Upper Limb Deficiency.

Brain Nerve 2020 04;72(4):445-451

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, The University of Tokyo Hospital.

Background: It is advantageous to effectively develop motor functions and a deep understanding of one's body (for example, relative positions, relationships, names, and functions of body parts). It has been reported that lexical-semantic knowledge of the defective body part is diminished in children with congenital lower limb deficiencies, and the features of body knowledge in children with congenital upper limb deficiencies (ULDs) have not been clarified. This study aimed to explore how children with ULDs perceive their bodies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11477/mf.1416201543DOI Listing

[Update on Iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease].

Brain Nerve 2020 Apr;72(4):437-443

Laboratory of Comparative Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University.

Recent progress in understanding of iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) has revealed pathological and biochemical features specific to patients with iatrogenic CJD Based on the pathological and biochemical characteristics, we have identified iatrogenic CJD cases among presumed sporadic cases; in a neurosurgeon and in a patient with a medical history of neurosurgery. In addition, incidents of suspected CJD exposure via contaminated neurosurgical instruments are occasionally noted. Therefore, improvement of CJD case recognition and tracking of neurosurgical instruments are necessary to prevent iatrogenic CJD transmission via neurosurgical instruments. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11477/mf.1416201542DOI Listing

[Pitfalls in Reading EEG for Temporal Lobe Epilepsy: The "Southern-hemisphere" Spike and Normal Variants].

Brain Nerve 2020 Apr;72(4):425-436

Division of Neurology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine.

Electroencephalogram (EEG) reading in clinical settings commonly uses three montage types: referential montage, bipolar montage, and average montage. Since each montage type has its advantages and disadvantages, there is no single best montage. To correctly read EEG, it is essential 1) to use the montage appropriate for the focus and distribution of epileptic activity and 2) to correctly recognize EEG waveforms that are often misdiagnosed as epileptic activity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11477/mf.1416201541DOI Listing

[Pitfalls for Diagnosis of Polyneuropathy by Nerve Conduction Study].

Authors:
Sonoko Misawa

Brain Nerve 2020 Apr;72(4):417-423

Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University.

Nerve conduction study is helpful and useful for diagnosing peripheral neuropathies. However, there can be some pitfalls in the diagnosis of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) and its mimics. POEMS syndrome, anti-MAG antibody neuropathy, and amyloid neuropathies can sometimes be diagnosed as CIDP, but their therapeutic strategies are evidently different from that for CIDP. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11477/mf.1416201540DOI Listing

[Imaging Diagnosis].

Brain Nerve 2020 Apr;72(4):407-415

Center for Preventive Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine.

Neuroimaging often plays a decisive role in the diagnosis and management of neurological diseases. We present some instructive cases in which we made or were about to make a misdiagnosis because of misleading findings, and define important points to be noted in the interpretation of images to avoid future misinterpretations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11477/mf.1416201539DOI Listing

[Brain Tumor].

Authors:
Takashi Komori

Brain Nerve 2020 Apr;72(4):399-405

Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology (Neuropathology), Tokyo Metropolitan Neurological Hospital.

The World Health Organization's (WHO) classification of the central nervous system tumors represented the primary source of diagnosis and grading criteria for the brain tumors. The revision of the WHO classification in 2016 represented a shift from the traditional principle of using neuropathological diagnoses primarily based on the microscopic features, to using molecularly oriented diagnoses. New entities, defined by both the histological and molecular features, such as isocitrate dehydrogenase mutations and 1p/19q co-deletion, were included. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11477/mf.1416201538DOI Listing

[The Turning Point of Diagnostic Process for Infectious Disease of Nervous System].

Authors:
Kazuo Yoshizawa

Brain Nerve 2020 Apr;72(4):387-397

Department of Neurology, National Hospital Organization Mito Medical Center.

Infectious diseases of the nervous system are a group of diseases; timely diagnosis and treatment for these diseases determines the effect of prognosis on life and functions. Diagnosis itself is not very difficult in cases presenting with typical symptoms. However, if mild and atypical symptoms have been present for long, the underlying disease may not be easily recognized as a neurological disease or infectious disorder, and the diagnosis may be delayed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11477/mf.1416201537DOI Listing

[Peripheral Nerve Disease].

Brain Nerve 2020 Apr;72(4):381-386

Department of Neurology and Clinical Neuroscience, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine.

The Diagnostic process of neurological disorders consists of anatomical and etiological diagnoses, and that of neuropathies usually starts with a suspicion of peripheral nerve disturbance based on neurological findings, which is subsequently confirmed by electrophysiology. However, there are numerous pitfalls in interpreting neurological features and electrophysiological data in the anatomical diagnosis process, possibly leading to misdiagnoses of "neuropathy" in patients with myelopathies, myopathies, neuromuscular junction diseases, or motor neuron diseases. We present the case of a 7-year-old girl showing acute flaccid quadriplegia with overt abnormalities in a nerve conduction study who was initially misdiagnosed with Guillain-Barré syndrome. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11477/mf.1416201536DOI Listing

[Pitfalls in Diagnostic Evaluation of Muscle Diseases].

Authors:
Katsuhisa Ogata

Brain Nerve 2020 Apr;72(4):371-380

Institute of Clinical Research/Department of Neurology, National Hospital Organization Higashisaitama National Hospital.

Diagnostic procedures for muscle diseases provide confirmation of the presence of muscle disorder, and their etiological assessments and precise classification, including the molecular analysis. It is important to understand the correlation between structural changes observed in muscle pathology and functional changes with electrophysiological tests to avoid pitfalls in the diagnostic evaluation of muscle diseases. Here, I present two cases with difficulties in differentiating between inflammatory and hereditary muscle diseases, and discuss pitfalls in the diagnostic process. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11477/mf.1416201535DOI Listing

[Demyelinating Disease].

Brain Nerve 2020 Apr;72(4):355-370

Department of Neurology, Keio University School of Medicine.

The diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) relies on the demonstration of disease dissemination in space and time, and the exclusion of other neurological disorders. However, it is often difficult to exclude alternative diagnoses with a single MRI examination or during a short clinical course. "Red flags" are recommended as clinical and paraclinical indicators that could help suggest alternative diagnoses to MS, and may improve diagnostic accuracy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11477/mf.1416201534DOI Listing

[Intractable Neurological Disease].

Brain Nerve 2020 Apr;72(4):345-354

Department of Neurology, National Hospital Organization Shizuoka Medical Center.

Subacute intractable neurological diseases sometimes require patients to make various choices in life without accepting the disease. Therefore, doctors need to be diagnose these diseases early. However, in clinical settings, diagnosis is often sought only from the localized history and symptoms and not the overall picture of the disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11477/mf.1416201533DOI Listing

[Diagnosis of MSA-P and PSP-P in Early Stage].

Brain Nerve 2020 Apr;72(4):331-343

Hiroshima City Hiroshima Citizens Hospital.

Differentiating Parkinson's disease (PD) from multiple system atrophy with predominant parkinsonism (MSA-P) or progressive supranuclear palsy-parkinsonism (PSP-P) in early stages of the disease is extremely difficult. MSA-P and PSP-P are often misdiagnosed as PD. MSA-P and PSP-P may be diagnosed in their early stages by considering clinical symptoms and neuroradiological findings together. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11477/mf.1416201532DOI Listing

[Pitfalls for Diagnoses of Dementia Disease: Careful Points of Attentions in a Diagnosis of Atypical Dementia].

Authors:
Masaki Ikeda

Brain Nerve 2020 Apr;72(4):323-330

Department of Neurology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine.

As the elderly population has increased in the recent years, the number of patients with dementia in Japan has been increasing, and this tendency will continue in the future. Although patients with juvenile-onset (early-onset) dementia form only a small proportion of the whole population with dementia, juvenile-onset dementia is associated with serious social problems with respect to working and burden on caregivers. Juvenile-onset dementia was considered an important item in the "New Orange Plan" devised by the Japanese Government for policy measures against dementia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11477/mf.1416201531DOI Listing

[Stroke].

Authors:
Hiroaki Kimura

Brain Nerve 2020 Apr;72(4):311-321

Department of Neurology and Cerebrovascular Medicine, Saitama International Medical Center, Saitama Medical University.

The path to the diagnosis of strokes is straightforward and unquestionable in most cases. In the era of interventional stroke therapies, which have potential adverse effects, an accurate diagnosis is needed for. However, there are non-cerebrovascular diseases exhibiting neurological symptoms that simulate strokes (stroke mimics), and strokes exhibiting atypical or uncommon symptoms that suggest diseases other than strokes (stroke chameleons). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11477/mf.1416201530DOI Listing

[Headache and Vertigo].

Brain Nerve 2020 Apr;72(4):303-309

Fujisawa District, Ebara Corporation.

Headache is one of the most common symptoms in clinical practice. Classification and diagnosis of headache are based on the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD) published by the International Headache Society. Currently, the third edition of the International Headache Classification (ICHD-3) -published in 2018- is used for headache medical treatment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11477/mf.1416201529DOI Listing

[Consciousness Disturbance].

Brain Nerve 2020 Apr;72(4):295-301

Department of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine, Keio University School of Medcine.

Various diseases cause consciousness disturbance, many of which are directly related to life and functional prognosis. As they often affect the respiratory and circulatory functions, differential diagnosis must be considered while stabilizing the patients. Although appropriate treatment should be started promptly after differential diagnosis, preconceptions could lead to misdiagnosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11477/mf.1416201528DOI Listing

[Medical Malpractice in Neurological Diseases].

Authors:
Masayuki Ohira

Brain Nerve 2020 Apr;72(4):287-294

Department of Cerebrovascular Medicine, Saitama International Medical Center, Saitama Medical University.

The results of medical lawsuits in Japan can affect actual clinical settings, and it might be useful to analyze medical lawsuits in order to understand medical issues. Some diseases such as subarachnoid hemorrhage, cerebral infarction treated with thrombolytic therapy and treatable encephalitis could cause problems, which in turn may lead to lawsuits, when the results of treatment for those situations are fatal. In addition, there are cases in which other neurological diseases are related to litigation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11477/mf.1416201526DOI Listing

[Clinical Aspects of Cervicogenic Headache].

Brain Nerve 2020 Mar;72(3):251-258

Department of Anesthesiology, Kameda-Daiichi Hospital.

Cervicogenic headache (CEH) is a lateralized non-pulsative headache syndrome caused by cervical spine disorders. The headache is initiated in the neck, which subsequently spreads to the occipital, frontal, and orbital regions, and is accompanied by ipsilateral shoulder pain. The prevalence of CEH is considered to be 15-20% among cases of chronic headache. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11477/mf.1416201514DOI Listing

[Association between the Gut Microbiome and Cognitive Function].

Authors:
Naoki Saji

Brain Nerve 2020 Mar;72(3):241-250

Center for Comprehensive Care and Research on Memory Disorders, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology.

Dysregulation of the gut microbiome is associated with several life-threatening conditions, and might therefore represent a useful target for the prevention of dementia. However, the relationship between the gut microbiome and dementia has not yet been fully elucidated. Here, we recruited outpatients visiting our memory clinic to participate in this study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11477/mf.1416201513DOI Listing

[The Life of Mokichi Saito].

Authors:
Raita Kikuchi

Brain Nerve 2020 Mar;72(3):227-238

Department of Neurology, Ushioda General Hospital.

Mokichi Saito (1882-1953) was born in Yagamata in 1882. After he graduated from junior high school, he was adopted by the Saito family. He started writing songs from the time he was in school. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11477/mf.1416201511DOI Listing

[How to Improve QOL even with ADHD].

Authors:
Keiko Takayama

Brain Nerve 2020 Mar;72(3):215-225

NPO Edison Club.

This article examines how the characteristics of ADHD (attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder) affect self-formation and what kind of supporter's involvement is desirable for the person's self-formation. For those with ADHD, prevention of over-adaptation and resilience after failure are important, and it is desirable for them to utilize the characteristics of ADHD in society while preventing secondary obstacles in their social life. In addition, this article introduces International Classification of Living Function model by World Health Organization, which states that "the state of health and the level of disability change depending on the environment," and the importance of family support based on this model. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11477/mf.1416201510DOI Listing

[My Story of Recovery from Brain Damage].

Authors:
Keiko Seki

Brain Nerve 2020 Mar;72(3):203-213

Mitaka Research Institute of Cognitive Dysfunctions.

The author (hereafter referred to as I) is a speech-language-hearing pathologist and former professor of neuropsychology at Kobe University, who had been engaged in neuropsychological rehabilitation and research of conditions, such as aphasia and unilateral spatial neglect, for 37 years. In July 2009, I experienced right hemispheric infarction in Kobe City, and developed left-sided hemiparesis and various symptoms of cognitive dysfunctions, which was previously my field of expertise. As a neuropsychological rehabilitation expert, I focused my efforts on recovery and I have recovered the majority of my cognitive and neurologic functions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11477/mf.1416201509DOI Listing

[Savant Syndrome and an "Oshikuramanju Hypothesis"].

Brain Nerve 2020 Mar;72(3):193-201

Okusawa Hospital and Clinics.

Oshikuramanju is a simple Japanese, competitive game and we adapted the name to describe "competition" between different brain functions related to Savant syndrome. We also show that Savant-like ability exists in animals other than humans and describe three types of Savant syndrome: autistic, acquired, and transcranial magnetic stimulation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11477/mf.1416201508DOI Listing

[A Case of Primary Central Nervous System Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis that was Completely Ameliorated by Corticosteroid Treatment].

Brain Nerve 2020 Feb;72(2):159-165

Department of Neurosurgery, Kindai University School of Medicine.

Lymphomatoid granulomatosis (LYG) is an angiocentric, angiodestructive lymphoreticular proliferative disease that usually affects the lungs but it has been speculated to also effect the central nervous system (CNS). However, unique primary LYG of the CNS has rarely been reported in the literature. Herein, we describe a clinical case of a 37-year-old female patient with grade 1 primary CNS-LYG having a good prognosis owing to corticosteroid treatment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11477/mf.1416201496DOI Listing
February 2020

[Pericytes of the Nervous System: Physiological and Pathological Role].

Brain Nerve 2020 Feb;72(2):151-158

Department of Neurology and Clinical Neuroscience, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine.

Pericytes stabilize microvessels by wrapping them with their processes. They are located within the neurovascular unit between endothelial cells, astrocytes, and neurons, and interact with neighboring cells to generate diverse functional responses that are critical for central nerve system (CNS) function in health and disease. Recent evidence suggests that brain pericytes play crucial roles in regulating microvascular functions, such as blood-brain barrier properties, capillary blood flow, angiogenesis, and the entry of leukocytes into the brain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11477/mf.1416201495DOI Listing
February 2020

[Emerging Disease-modifying Strategies Targeting α-synuclein in Parkinson's Disease].

Brain Nerve 2020 Feb;72(2):143-150

Division of Neurology, Department of Neuroscience and Sensory Organs, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine.

Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease after Alzheimer's disease. Although the standard dopamine replacement therapy can alleviate motor symptoms, presently there is no available treatment to stop or reverse disease progression. Thus, there is an urgent need for the development of novel disease-modifying therapies to prevent the accumulation of cytotoxic α-synuclein (αS), a protein involved in PD pathogenesis, in the nervous system. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11477/mf.1416201494DOI Listing
February 2020

[α-Synuclein as Diagnostic Biomarker].

Authors:
Kenjiro Ono

Brain Nerve 2020 Feb;72(2):137-141

Division of Neurology, Department of Medicine, Showa University School of Medicine.

Although α-synuclein protein (αS) undergoes aggregation from a monomer to assemblies, such as oligomers, protofibrils, and mature fibrils, the early intermediate aggregates, that is, oligomers, are considered to be the most toxic species in the pathogenesis of α-synucleinopathies, including Parkinson's disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). While it has been reported that the αS concentration in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is decreased significantly in patients with PD and DLB, there have been reports of the αS oligomer concentration being elevated in the CSF of patients with PD. Moreover, it is supposed that the αS oligomer concentration is also elevated in the blood of patients with PD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11477/mf.1416201493DOI Listing
February 2020

[Diagnosis of Multiple System Atrophy for Establishing Disease-modifying Therapies].

Brain Nerve 2020 Feb;72(2):131-136

Department of Neurology, Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine.

More accurate and early diagnoses of neurodegenerative diseases are required to establish disease-modifying therapies. Obtaining a clear diagnosis of multiple system atrophy (MSA), a neurodegenerative disease, can be challenging because MSA has a number of clinical subtypes and many other diseases, known as mimics, are characterized by symptoms that are similar to those of MSA. This paper discusses the factors that make the clinical diagnosis of MSA difficult. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11477/mf.1416201492DOI Listing
February 2020

[Perspective of α-synuclein and Familial Parkinson's Disease].

Brain Nerve 2020 Feb;72(2):119-129

Department of Neurology, Juntendo University School of Medicine.

To date, there have been several reports about the genes associated with familial Parkinson's disease. These genes are classified following the PARK nomenclature. The prevalence of these genes varies between countries. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11477/mf.1416201491DOI Listing
February 2020

[REM Sleep Behavior Disorder and α-synucleinopathy].

Brain Nerve 2020 Feb;72(2):107-117

Department of Neurology, Dokkyo Medical University Saitama Medical Center.

REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) can progress to Parkinson's disease, Lewy body dementia, or multiple system atrophy within 20 years of onset. Accurate diagnosis of RBD is therefore important for early intervention. The development of markers that can more sensitively evaluate the effects of high-risk groups or candidate therapies that develop α-synucleinopathy in the short term is the key to a successful clinical trial. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11477/mf.1416201490DOI Listing
February 2020

[Recovery of Forgotten Memories: Modulation of Memory Recall by Brain Histamine System].

Authors:
Hiroshi Nomura

Brain Nerve 2020 Jan;72(1):69-74

Department of Pharmacology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokkaido University.

Even after memories fade they may persist latently in the brain. However, there are no clinically applicable methods for reactivating memory traces and promoting memory retrieval. In the brain histamine modulates learning and memory, sleep and wakefulness, feeding, drinking, and neuroendocrine functions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11477/mf.1416201479DOI Listing
January 2020

[Prospects for Treatment of Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder].

Authors:
Ichiro Nakashima

Brain Nerve 2020 Jan;72(1):61-68

Department of Neurology, Tohoku Medical and Pharmaceutical University.

Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is a disease related to anti-aquaporin-4 antibody. Since NMOSD was once considered a phenotype of multiple sclerosis, no approved drugs are available for its treatment. In Japan, the current standard treatment for preventing relapses in patients with NMOSD is low-dose prednisolone and/or oral immuno-suppressants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11477/mf.1416201478DOI Listing
January 2020

[Multiple Sclerosis].

Brain Nerve 2020 Jan;72(1):45-60

Department of Neurology, Keio University School of Medicine.

Treatments for multiple sclerosis have improved dramatically over the last 20 years. These treatments help to reduce relapses and prevent progression of neurodegeneration and physical disability. Other clinical trials on remyelination therapies for multiple sclerosis are ongoing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11477/mf.1416201477DOI Listing
January 2020

[Current Status and Future Prospects of Therapeutic Development of Parkinson's Disease].

Authors:
Hideki Mochizuki

Brain Nerve 2020 Jan;72(1):35-43

Department of Neurology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine.

There has been remarkable progress in the search for Parkinson's disease therapies. However, L-dopa replacement therapy remains the gold standard despite drawbacks that include wearing off and dyskinesias. Devices such as continuous infusion pumps and new dosage forms have been developed to improve the treatment response to L-dopa. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11477/mf.1416201476DOI Listing
January 2020

[Current Clinical Trials in the Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease].

Authors:
Akira Tamaoka

Brain Nerve 2020 Jan;72(1):23-34

Department of Neurology, Division of Clinical Medicine, University of Tsukuba.

There is an urgent need for Alzheimer's disease (AD) treatments because of the growing number of individuals with preclinical, prodromal, and dementia forms of AD. Unfortunately, there are few effective treatments for AD, and many drug development trials for AD ultimately have failed. Current AD clinical trials include disease-modifying therapies, symptomatic cognitive enhancers, and symptomatic agents addressing neuropsychiatric and behavioral changes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11477/mf.1416201475DOI Listing
January 2020

[Current Therapies for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis in Japan].

Brain Nerve 2020 Jan;72(1):13-22

Department of Neurology, Shiga University of Medical Science.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive muscle wasting and weakness. Riluzole was the sole drug available for treating ALS until 2015, when edaravone was approved as a new anti-ALS drug. Recent discoveries of the disease-causal genes and proteins, as well as the rapid advancement of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell manipulations, drug deliveries, and molecular modifications have provided diverse and promising drug candidates. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11477/mf.1416201474DOI Listing
January 2020

[Neural Mechanisms Underlying Bilaterally Asymmetric Behavior].

Brain Nerve 2019 Dec;71(12):1409-1417

Group of Brain Function and Structure, Laboratory of Developmental Biology, Division of Biological Science, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University.

Lateralized behaviors are key movements of symmetrically organized animals. These behaviors are controlled by asymmetric activity of the bilateral brain. The neural mechanisms underlying these activities were recently revealed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11477/mf.1416201462DOI Listing
December 2019

[The Last Lecture of Professor Masao Ito: The Cerebellum and Cerebrum].

Brain Nerve 2019 Dec;71(12):1391-1396

Department of Basic Science, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo.

Comment Professor Masao Ito's last lecture, delivered at the University of Tokyo Faculty of Medicine on March 7, 1989, is reproduced here in an abridged form. Its original title was "the Cerebellum and Cerebrum," and this lecture was a real masterpiece, full of insights and suggestions on brain functions, together with humorous phrases here and there. When I tried to reproduce this lecture by using all figures at that time, just one week after Professor Ito passed away, I was struck by his foresight even after thirty years. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11477/mf.1416201459DOI Listing
December 2019

[Great Footmark of the Late Professor Masao Ito: The Past and Future of the Japan Neuroscience Society].

Authors:
Tadashi Isa

Brain Nerve 2019 Dec;71(12):1385-1390

Division of Neurobiology and Physiology, Department of Neuroscience, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University.

Professor Masao Ito passed away in December last year at the age of 90. He not only performed great scientific achievements in the studies of the cerebellar circuit functions, but also made a great contribution to promotion of the neuroscience researches both in and outside Japan. His contribution includes foundation of the Japan Neuroscience Society, RIKEN Brain Science Institute, working as the president of International Brain Research Organization, foundation of Human Frontier Science Program and foundation of federation of scientific associations in Asia such as FAONS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11477/mf.1416201458DOI Listing
December 2019

[Postnatal Development of Cerebellar Neural Circuits].

Brain Nerve 2019 Dec;71(12):1373-1383

Department of Neurophysiology, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo.

Prof. Masao Ito contributed greatly to the elucidation of the structure and function of cerebellar neuronal circuits. He formulated a cerebellar motor learning theory and an internal model hypothesis and pursued how complex cerebellar functions resulted from the operation of neural circuits. Read More

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December 2019

[Neuroscience on Cognitive Control of Behavior: Functional Division among Prefrontal Areas].

Authors:
Keiji Tanaka

Brain Nerve 2019 Dec;71(12):1357-1371

RIKEN Center for Brain Science.

The prefrontal cortex is greatly developed in primates and is considered to play an important role in cognitive control of behavior. In the visual and motor systems, research into the functional division between cortical areas has advanced. The prefrontal cortex has also been shown to be divided into several areas which have different anatomical connections with other brain sites. Read More

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December 2019