1,978,766 results match your criteria Brain and Mind[Journal]


Neuroserpin extends the time window of tPA thrombolysis in a rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion.

J Biochem Mol Toxicol 2020 Jul 13:e22570. Epub 2020 Jul 13.

Department of Neurosurgery, Xiangyang Central Hospital Affiliated to Hubei University of Arts and Science, Xiangyang, China.

Tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) is characterized as an effective drug for early thrombolytic therapy in acute cerebral infarction (ACI). However, tPA will increase the risk of hemorrhage if it is used beyond the treatment time window. The study aims to explore the effects of neuroserpin (NSP) on the time window of tPA thrombolysis in ACI and the underlying mechanism. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbt.22570DOI Listing

PsychENCODE and beyond: transcriptomics and epigenomics of brain development and organoids.

Neuropsychopharmacology 2020 Jul 13. Epub 2020 Jul 13.

Child Study Center, Yale University, New Haven, CT, 06520, USA.

Crucial decisions involving cell fate and connectivity that shape the distinctive development of the human brain occur in the embryonic and fetal stages-stages that are difficult to access and investigate in humans. The last decade has seen an impressive increase in resources-from atlases and databases to biological models-that is progressively lifting the curtain on this critical period. In this review, we describe the current state of genomic, transcriptomic, and epigenomic datasets charting the development of normal human brain with a particular focus on recent single-cell technologies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41386-020-0763-3DOI Listing

Effects of Substance Misuse and Family History of Substance Use Disorder on Delay Discounting in Adolescents and Young Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

Eur Addict Res 2020 Jul 13;26(4-5):293-303. Epub 2020 Jul 13.

Department of Psychiatry, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Background: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and substance use disorder (SUD) often co-occur. Both disorders are characterized by impulsive choice. However, little is known about the effects of substance misuse (SM) and family history of SUD (FH) on impulsive choice in ADHD-SUD comorbidity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000509147DOI Listing

Anticancer Effects of Viscum album Fraxini Extract on Medulloblastoma Cells in vitro.

Complement Med Res 2020 Jul 13:1-8. Epub 2020 Jul 13.

Department of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, Gemeinschaftskrankenhaus Herdecke, Herdecke, Germany,

Background: Mistletoe therapy is frequently administered as a supportive treatment in diverse pediatric cancer entities including brain tumors. Medulloblastoma is the most common brain tumor in childhood. Its high risk to metastasize and its long-term sequelae caused by aggressive chemo- or radiotherapies are still challenging. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000507318DOI Listing

Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome, Multiple Sclerosis and interferon therapy: Association, co-incidence or convoluted interplay?

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2020 Jul 3;45:102356. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Department of Neurology, University Hospital of Heraklion, Crete, Greece; Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, University of Crete, Crete, Greece; Department of Neurology & Comprehensive Stroke Center, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI, United States.

Background: Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) has only rarely been reported in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS).

Methods: Case report of a patient with relapsing remitting (RR) MS patient on interferon (INF) treatment, who developed posterior fossa PRES.

Results: A 46-year-old male diagnosed with RR MS in 2010 was placed on INF beta-1a therapy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msard.2020.102356DOI Listing

Social cognition in Multiple Sclerosis is associated to changes in brain connectivity: A resting-state fMRI study.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2020 Jun 24;45:102333. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Neurology Department, School of Medicine, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Chile. Electronic address:

Background: Multiple Sclerosis produces changes in the functional connectivity of the brain. Resting-State fMRI is a useful tool for the study of functional changes in the human brain, and its metrics can be related to clinical findings involved in clinical decline. Social cognition has focused increasing interest because patients are exposed to experiencing social disorganization during the progression of the disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msard.2020.102333DOI Listing

Measurements of the corpus callosum index and fractional anisotropy of the corpus callosum and their cutoff values are useful to assess global brain volume loss in multiple sclerosis.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2020 Jul 8;45:102388. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Division of Neurology, Tohoku Medical and Pharmaceutical University, Sendai, Japan.

Objectives: Recent studies suggest that parameters of the corpus callosum (CC), such as the CC index (CCI) and fractional anisotropy (FA) of the CC, may be related to the degree of brain volume loss (BVL) in MS patients; however, cutoff values that determine the degree of BVL have not been set.

Methods: Seventy-five MS patients and 21 healthy controls (HCs) underwent volumetric MRI examinations. MS patients were also evaluated for T2 lesion load, the CCI, and FA of the CC. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msard.2020.102388DOI Listing

Molecular mechanisms for targeted ASD treatments.

Curr Opin Genet Dev 2020 Jul 10;65:126-137. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Institute of Science and Technology Austria, Klosterneuburg, Austria. Electronic address:

The possibility to generate construct valid animal models enabled the development and testing of therapeutic strategies targeting the core features of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). At the same time, these studies highlighted the necessity of identifying sensitive developmental time windows for successful therapeutic interventions. Animal and human studies also uncovered the possibility to stratify the variety of ASDs in molecularly distinct subgroups, potentially facilitating effective treatment design. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gde.2020.06.004DOI Listing

Caregiver burden worsens in the second year after subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation for Parkinson's disease.

Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2020 Jul 4;78:4-8. Epub 2020 Jul 4.

Department of Neurology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; Department of Neurosurgery, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; Surgical Therapies Improving Movement Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Caregiver burden (CB) in Parkinson's disease (PD) does not improve in the short term after bilateral subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS), despite motor improvement. This may be due to increased caregiver demands after surgery or the possibility that DBS unresponsive non-motor factors, such as executive dysfunction, contribute to CB.

Objective: To evaluate the trajectory of CB in year 2 following bilateral STN DBS surgery for PD, and to test whether post-operative CB changes correlate with changes in executive function in a subgroup with available neuropsychological testing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.parkreldis.2020.06.036DOI Listing

Atypical clinical presentation of pathologically proven Parkinson's disease: The role of Parkinson's disease related metabolic pattern.

Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2020 Jul 4;78:1-3. Epub 2020 Jul 4.

Department of Neurology, UMC Ljubljana, Zaloška Cesta 2, 1000, Ljubljana, Slovenia; Chair of Neurology, Medical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Vrazov Trg 2, 1000, Ljubljana, Slovenia.

Regional changes in brain metabolism upgraded with measurements of specific metabolic brain patterns and automated diagnostic algorithms can help to differentiate among neurodegenerative parkinsonisms, but with few reports on pathological confirmation. Here we describe a parkinsonian patient with atypical presentation and F-FDG-PET imaging consistent with idiopathic Parkinson's disease. The latter was confirmed at the pathohistological examination. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.parkreldis.2020.06.035DOI Listing

Fine particulate matter exposure during childhood relates to hemispheric-specific differences in brain structure.

Environ Int 2020 Jul 10;143:105933. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine of University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90063, USA; Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90027, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Emerging findings have increased concern that exposure to fine particulate matter air pollution (aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm; PM) may be neurotoxic, even at lower levels of exposure. Yet, additional studies are needed to determine if exposure to current PM levels may be linked to hemispheric and regional patterns of brain development in children across the United States. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2020.105933DOI Listing

Morphological decomposition compensates for imperfections in phonological decoding. Neural evidence from typical and dyslexic readers of an opaque orthography.

Cortex 2020 Jun 15;130:172-191. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders and IIPDM, University of Haifa, Haifa, Israel.

The current study examined the widely held, but un-tested, assumption that morphological decomposition can compensate for missing phonological information in reading opaque orthographies. In addition, we tested whether morphological decomposition can compensate for the phonological decoding deficits in readers with dyslexia. Hebrew provides a unique opportunity to test these questions as it has a rich Semitic morphology, and two versions of script: a transparent orthography (with diacritic marks, 'pointed') and an opaque orthography (without diacritic marks, 'un-pointed'). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2020.05.014DOI Listing

Letter to the editor: Mental health work in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic: What progress have we made so far and what is the next step?

J Psychiatr Res 2020 May 26;129:122-123. Epub 2020 May 26.

The National Clinical Research Center for Mental Disorder & Beijing Key Laboratory of Mental Disorders, Beijing Anding Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China; Advanced Innovation Center for Human Brain Protection, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2020.05.023DOI Listing

The double-edged sword of digital self-care: Physician perspectives from Northern Germany.

Soc Sci Med 2020 Jul 7;260:113174. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Department of Political Science, University of Vienna, Austria; Department of Global Health & Social Medicine, King's College London, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Increasingly, patients are expected to take initiative and care for themselves through practices of digital self-care: by generating data, by looking for people who can help them make sense of the information, and by being the main actors in disease prevention. Equipped with smart phones and other tools to collect data on various aspects of their bodies and lives from brain waves to activity to diet, patients are expected to prevent lifestyle diseases and diagnose their own medical problems, heralding an entirely new model of care within doctor-patient relationships. In this article we explore physician perspectives on how digital self-care practices are encountered, understood, and incorporated (or not) in the health care system. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2020.113174DOI Listing

Correlations between COVID-19 and burden of dementia: An ecological study and review of literature.

J Neurol Sci 2020 Jul 4;416:117013. Epub 2020 Jul 4.

Department of Neurology and Stroke Unit, San Camillo de' Lellis General District Hospital, Rieti, Italy; Neurological Section, Neuro-epidemiology Unit, SMDN-Centre for Cardiovascular Medicine and Cerebrovascular Disease Prevention, Sulmona, L'Aquila, Italy. Electronic address:

Introduction: Current evidence on the association between COVID-19 and dementia is sparse. This study aims to investigate the associations between COVID-19 caseload and the burden of dementia.

Methods: We gathered data regarding burden of dementia (disability-adjusted life years [DALYs] per 100,000), life expectancy, and healthy life expectancy (HALE) from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2017 study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2020.117013DOI Listing

Source-based artifact-rejection techniques available in TESA, an open-source TMS-EEG toolbox.

Brain Stimul 2020 Jul 10. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

The Turner Institute for Brain and Mental Health, School of Psychological Sciences, Monash Biomedical Imaging, Monash University, Victoria, 3168, Australia; Hopwood Centre for Neurobiology, Lifelong Health Theme, South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute (SAHMRI), P.O. Box 11060, Adelaide, 5001, Australia; Discipline of Psychiatry, Adelaide Medical School, University of Adelaide, Adelaide Health and Medical Sciences Building, Corner of North Terrace & George Street, Adelaide, 5000, Australia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brs.2020.06.079DOI Listing

Non-Invasive Vagal Nerve Stimulation Decreases Brain Activity During Trauma Scripts.

Brain Stimul 2020 Jul 10. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA; Department of Radiology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA; Atlanta VA Medical Center, Decatur, GA.

Background: Traumatic stress can have lasting effects on neurobiology and result in psychiatric conditions such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We hypothesize that non-invasive cervical vagal nerve stimulation (nVNS) may alleviate trauma symptoms by reducing stress sympathetic reactivity. This study examined how nVNS alters neural responses to personalized traumatic scripts. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brs.2020.07.002DOI Listing

Transcranial Random Noise Stimulation is More Effective than Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation for Enhancing Working Memory in Healthy Individuals: Behavioural and Electrophysiological Evidence.

Brain Stimul 2020 Jul 10. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Brain and Mental Health Research Hub, School of Psychological Sciences and Monash Biomedical Imaging, Monash Institute of Cognitive and Clinical Neuroscience, Monash University, Clayton, Australia. Electronic address:

Background: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been shown to improve working memory (WM) performance in healthy individuals, however effects tend to be modest and variable. Transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS) can be delivered with a direct-current offset (DC-offset) to induce equal or even greater effects on cortical excitability than tDCS. To-date, no research has directly compared the effects of these techniques on WM performance or underlying neurophysiological activity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brs.2020.07.001DOI Listing

Factors associated with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in systemic sclerosis (SSc).

Autoimmun Rev 2020 Jul 10:102602. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Department of Rheumatology, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, The University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada; Division of Rheumatology, St. Joseph's Healthcare London, London, ON, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a lethal complication affecting 8-15% of patients. Screening tests such as echocardiography and pulmonary function tests allow for triaging patients for diagnosis by right heart catheterization. Understanding risk factors of SSc-PAH could help differentiate high-risk patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.autrev.2020.102602DOI Listing

Manganese Induced Nervous Injury by α-synuclein Accumulation via ATP-sensitive K(+) channels and GABA Receptors.

Toxicol Lett 2020 Jul 10. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Department of Toxicology, School of Public Health, Guilin Medical University, Guilin 541004, China. Electronic address:

Manganese (Mn) is an environmental pollutant having a toxic effect on Parkinson's disease, with significant damage seen in the neurons of basal ganglia. Hence, Mn pollution is a public health concern. A Sprague-Dawley rat model was used to determine the damage to basal nuclei, and the effect of Mn intake was detected using the Morris water maze test and transmission electron microscopy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxlet.2020.07.008DOI Listing

Structural LTP: from synaptogenesis to regulated synapse enlargement and clustering.

Authors:
Kristen M Harris

Curr Opin Neurobiol 2020 Jul 10;63:189-197. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

University of Texas at Austin, United States. Electronic address:

Nature teaches us that form precedes function, yet structure and function are intertwined. Such is the case with synapse structure, function, and plasticity underlying learning, especially in the hippocampus, a crucial brain region for memory formation. As the hippocampus matures, enduring changes in synapse structure produced by long-term potentiation (LTP) shift from synaptogenesis to synapse enlargement that is homeostatically balanced by stalled spine outgrowth and local spine clustering. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conb.2020.04.009DOI Listing

Crosstalk between brain, lung and heart in critical care.

Anaesth Crit Care Pain Med 2020 Jul 10. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Department of Anaesthesia and Critical Care, University Hospital of Toulouse, University Toulouse 3 Paul Sabatier, Toulouse, France.

Extracerebral complications, especially pulmonary and cardiovascular, are frequent in brain-injured patients and are major determinants of the outcome. Two major pathways have been described: brain-lung and brain-heart interactions. Lung injuries after acute brain damages include ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and neurogenic pulmonary œdema (NPE), whereas heart injuries can range from cardiac enzymes release, ECG abnormalities to left ventricle dysfunction or cardiogenic shock. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.accpm.2020.06.016DOI Listing

Differences in cautiousness between mainland and island Podarcis siculus populations are paralleled by differences in brain noradrenaline/adrenaline concentrations.

Physiol Behav 2020 Jul 10:113072. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Division of Animal Physiology, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Roosveltov trg 6, HR, 10 000 Zagreb, Croatia. Electronic address:

Adaptive behavior is shaped by the type and intensity of selection pressures coming from the environment, such as predation risk and resource availability, and can be modulated by individual's neuroendocrine profile involving steroid hormones and the brain-stem monoaminergic circuits projecting to forebrain structures. Boldness when faced with a predator and exploration/activity when confronted with a new environment reflect the degree of cautiousness and/or "risk-taking" of an individual. In this study we have explored to which extent two populations of Podarcis siculus occupying different ecological niches: mainland (ML) and an islet (ISL) differ in the level of cautiousness and whether these differences are paralleled by differences in their monoaminergic profiles. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2020.113072DOI Listing

A novel m.11406T>A mutation in mitochondrial ND4 gene causes MELAS Syndrome.

Mitochondrion 2020 Jul 10. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Research Institute of Neuromuscular and Neurodegenerative Diseases and Department of Neurology, Qilu Hospital, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, 250012 China; Mitochondrial Medicine Laboratory, Qilu Hospital (Qingdao), Shandong University, Qingdao, Shandong, 266035 China; Brain Science Research Institute, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, 250000, China. Electronic address:

Pathogenic point mutations of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) are associated with a large number of heterogeneous diseases involving multiple systems with which patients may present with a wide range of clinical phenotypes. In this study, we describe a novel heteroplasmic missense mutation, m.11406T>A, of the ND4 gene encoding the subunit 4 of mitochondrial complex I in a 32-year-old woman with recurrent epileptic seizure, headache and bilateral hearing loss. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mito.2020.06.011DOI Listing

Acute Colonic Pseudo-Obstruction after Posterior Spinal Fusion: A Case Report and Literature Review.

World Neurosurg 2020 Jul 10. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Pediatric and Adult Neurosurgery, UCHealth Brain & Spine Clinic, Children's Hospital of Colorado- Colorado Springs, CO.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2020.07.013DOI Listing

Intraparietal sulcus maintains working memory representations of somatosensory categories in an adaptive, context-dependent manner.

Neuroimage 2020 Jul 10:117146. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Neurocomputation and Neuroimaging Unit, Freie Universität Berlin, Habelschwerdter Allee 45, Berlin, Germany, 14195; Berlin School of Mind and Brain, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Luisenstraße 56, Berlin, Germany, 10117. Electronic address:

Working memory (WM) representations are generally known to be influenced by task demands, but it is not clear whether this extends to the somatosensory domain. One way to investigate the influence of task demands is with categorization paradigms, wherein either a single stimulus or an associated category is maintained in WM. In the somatosensory modality, category representations have been identified in the premotor cortex (PMC) and the intraparietal sulcus (IPS). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2020.117146DOI Listing

Distinct neural substrates underlying target facilitation and distractor suppression: A combined voxel-based morphometry and resting-state functional connectivity study.

Neuroimage 2020 Jul 10:117149. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Key Laboratory for NeuroInformation of Ministry of Education, High-Field Magnetic Resonance Brain Imaging Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, School of Life Science and Technology, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, 610054, China. Electronic address:

Selective attention, the ability to filter relevant from a sea of sensory information, relies on the prioritization of goal-relevant information (target facilitation) and the suppression of goal-irrelevant information (distractor suppression). Although several lines of evidence have shown that target facilitation and distractor suppression were mediated by distinct mechanisms, the underlying neural substrates remain unclear. To address this question, we acquired structural and resting-state magnetic resonance imaging scans, as well as behavioral data from a modified Posner cueing task. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2020.117149DOI Listing

On-scalp MEG SQUIDs are sensitive to early somatosensory activity unseen by conventional MEG.

Neuroimage 2020 Jul 10:117157. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

NatMEG, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Nobels väg 9, 171 77, Stockholm, Sweden.

Magnetoencephalography (MEG) has a unique capacity to resolve the spatio-temporal development of brain activity from non-invasive measurements. Conventional MEG, however, relies on sensors that sample from a distance (20-40 mm) to the head due to thermal insulation requirements (the MEG sensors function at 4 K in a helmet). A gain in signal strength and spatial resolution may be achieved if sensors are moved closer to the head. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2020.117157DOI Listing

Functional Connectivity Fingerprints of the Human Pulvinar: Decoding its role in Cognition.

Neuroimage 2020 Jul 10:117162. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Neuroscience Department, Laboratory for Behavioral Neurology and Imaging of Cognition, University Medical School of Geneva, Campus BIOTECH H8, 9 Chemin des Mines, 1202, Geneva, Switzerland.

The pulvinar is the largest thalamic nucleus in the brain and considered as a key structure in sensory processing and attention. Although its anatomy is well known, in particular thanks to studies in non-human primates, its role in perception and cognition remains poorly understood. Here, we used resting-state functional connectivity from a large sample of high-resolution data provided by the Human Connectome Project, combined with a large-scale meta-analysis approach to segregate and characterize the functional organization of the pulvinar nucleus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2020.117162DOI Listing

From Shape to Meaning: Evidence for Multiple Fast Feedforward Hierarchies of Concept Processing in the Human Brain.

Neuroimage 2020 Jul 10:117148. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Department of Neuroscience, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC, USA. Electronic address:

A number of fMRI studies have provided support for the existence of multiple concept representations in areas of the brain such as the anterior temporal lobe (ATL) and inferior parietal lobule (IPL). However, the interaction among different conceptual representations remains unclear. To better understand the dynamics of how the brain extracts meaning from sensory stimuli, we conducted a human high-density electroencephalography (EEG) study in which we first trained participants to associate pseudowords with various animal and tool concepts. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2020.117148DOI Listing

LIMK, Cofilin 1 and actin dynamics involvement in fear memory processing.

Neurobiol Learn Mem 2020 Jul 10:107275. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Instituto de Fisiología, Biología Molecular y Neurociencias, Departamento de Fisiología, Biología Molecular y Celular, CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina. Electronic address:

Long-term memory has been associated with morphological changes in the brain, which in turn tightly correlate with changes in synaptic efficacy. Such plasticity is proposed to rely on dendritic spines as a neuronal canvas on which these changes can occur. Given the key role of actin cytoskeleton dynamics in spine morphology, major regulating factors of this process such as Cofilin 1 (Cfl1) and LIM kinase (LIMK), an inhibitor of Cfl1 activity, are prime molecular targets that may regulate dendritic plasticity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nlm.2020.107275DOI Listing

Reduced midbrain dopamine neuron number in the adult non-human primate brain after fetal radiation exposure.

Neuroscience 2020 Jul 10. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Department of Neuroscience, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, United States.

Early gestation is a neurodevelopmental period that is especially vulnerable to environmental insult and one in which neurogenesis features prominently. Prenatal perturbation during early gestation has been linked to neuropsychiatric illnesses such as autism and schizophrenia, and severe environmental insult during this period can result in profound mental impairment. Midbrain dopamine neurons are generated during early gestation and play a key role in the motor, cognitive and reward circuitries implicated in neuropsychiatric disease and addiction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2020.07.005DOI Listing

The enigmatic fetal subplate compartment forms an early tangential cortical nexus and provides the framework for construction of cortical connectivity.

Authors:
Ivica Kostovic

Prog Neurobiol 2020 Jul 10:101883. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Croatian Institute for Brain Research, School of Medicine, University of Zagreb, Scientific Centre of Excellence for Basic, Clinical and Translational Neuroscience, Salata 12, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia. Electronic address:

The most prominent transient compartment of the primate fetal cortex is the deep, cell-sparse, synapse-containing subplate compartment (SPC). The developmental role of the SPC and its extraordinary size in humans remain enigmatic. This paper evaluates evidence on the development and connectivity of the SPC and discusses its role in the pathogenesis of neurodevelopmental disorders. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pneurobio.2020.101883DOI Listing

Brain Functional Connectivity in Chronic Tic Disorders and Gilles de la Tourette syndrome.

Prog Neurobiol 2020 Jul 10:101884. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

IRCCS Centro Neurolesi Bonino Pulejo, Messina, Italy. Electronic address:

The pathophysiology of chronic tic disorder (cTD) and Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) is characterized by the dysfunction of both motor and non - motor cortico - striatal - thalamo - cortical (CSTC) circuitries, which leads to tic release and comorbids. A role of fronto - parietal network (FPN) connectivity breakdown has been postulated for tic pathogenesis, given that the FPN entertain connections with limbic, paralimbic, and CSTC networks. Our study was aimed at characterizing the FPN functional connectivity in cTD and GTS in order to assess the role of its deterioration in tic severity and the degree of comorbids. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pneurobio.2020.101884DOI Listing

Glial cell activation and altered metabolic profile in the spinal-trigeminal axis in a rat model of multiple sclerosis associated with the development of trigeminal sensitization.

Brain Behav Immun 2020 Jul 10. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Department of Pharmacological and Biomolecular Sciences -Università degli Studi di Milano -Milan, Italy. Electronic address:

Trigeminal neuralgia is often an early symptom of multiple sclerosis (MS), and it generally does not correlate with the severity of the disease. Thus, whether it is triggered simply by demyelination in specific central nervous system areas is currently questioned. Our aims were to monitor the development of spontaneous trigeminal pain in an animal model of MS, and to analyze: i) glial cells, namely astrocytes and microglia in the central nervous system and satellite glial cells in the trigeminal ganglion, and ii) metabolic changes in the trigeminal system. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2020.07.001DOI Listing

Optic nerve length before and after spaceflight.

Ophthalmology 2020 Jul 10. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Department of Radiation Sciences, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; Umeå Center for Functional Brain Imaging, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.

Objective: The spaceflight-associated neuro-ocular syndrome (SANS) affects astronauts on missions to the International Space Station (ISS). SANS has blurred vision and ocular changes as typical features. The objective of this study was to investigate if microgravity can create deformations or movements of the eye and/or optic nerve, and if such changes could be linked to SANS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ophtha.2020.07.007DOI Listing

Novel bexarotene derivatives: Synthesis and cytotoxicity evaluation for glioma cells in 2D and 3D in vitro models.

Eur J Pharmacol 2020 Jul 10:173346. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Shemyakin-Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Miklukho-Maklaya Str. 16/10, 117997, Moscow, Russia.

Glioblastoma (GBM) is an aggressive and lethal form of brain cancer with a high invasion capacity and a lack of effective chemotherapeutics. Retinoid bexarotene (BXR) inhibits the neurospheroidal colony formation and migration of primary glioblastoma cells but has side effects. To enhance the BXR glioblastoma selectivity and cytotoxicity, we chemically modified it at the carboxyl group with either nitroethanolamine (NEA) with a NO-donating group (a well-known bioactivity enhancer; BXR-NEA) or a dopamine (DA) moiety (to represent the highly toxic for various tumor cells N-acyldopamine family; BXR-DA). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2020.173346DOI Listing

BCL11B-related disorder in two canadian children: Expanding the clinical phenotype.

Eur J Med Genet 2020 Jul 10:104007. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Medical Genetics, London Health Sciences Centre, London, Ontario, Canada; Children's Health Research Institute, London, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:

The product of the BCL11B (B-Cell Leukemia 11) gene is a bi-functional transcriptional regulator that can act as either a repressor or an activator. It plays an important role in the development of the nervous, immune, and cutaneous systems, and is also involved in dental and craniofacial development. BCL11B-Related Disorder (BCL11BRD) is a novel rare neurodevelopmental disorder associated with mutations in BCL11B. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmg.2020.104007DOI Listing

Aberrant Structural Connectivity in Childhood Maltreatment: A Meta-Analysis.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2020 Jul 10. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Department of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London, London, SE5 8AF UK.

We conducted the first meta-analysis of whole-brain voxel-based DTI studies in childhood maltreatment to elucidate regions of white matter (WM) microstructure abnormality relative to non-maltreated controls. Fourteen DTI datasets were included, comprising 386 individuals with childhood maltreatment and 612 non-maltreated controls. Anisotropic effect-size signed differential mapping, a voxel-based meta-analytic method, was used to examine regions of altered fractional anisotropy (FA) in maltreated individuals relative to controls. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2020.07.004DOI Listing

Multiple large-scale neural networks underlying emotion regulation.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2020 Jul 10. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behavior, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmengen, the Netherlands.

Recent models suggest emotion generation, perception, and regulation rely on multiple, interacting large-scale brain networks. Despite the wealth of research in this field, the exact functional nature and different topological features of these neural networks remain elusive. Here, we addressed both using a well-established data-driven meta-analytic grouping approach. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2020.07.001DOI Listing

The developmental origins of subliminal face processing.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2020 Jul 10. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Department of Psychology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA; Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Leipzig, Germany.

Sensitive responding to facial information is of key importance during human social interactions. Research shows that adults glean much information from another person's face without conscious perception, attesting to the robustness of face processing in the service of adaptive social functioning. Until recently, it was unclear whether such subliminal face processing is an outcome of extensive learning, resulting in adult face processing skills, or an early defining feature of human face processing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2020.07.003DOI Listing

Lipid-based microbubbles and ultrasound for therapeutic application.

Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2020 Jul 10. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Laboratory of Theranostics, Faculty of Pharma-Science, Teikyo University, Tokyo, Japan. Electronic address:

Microbubbles with diagnostic ultrasound have had a long history of use in the medical field. In recent years, the therapeutic application of the combination of microbubbles and ultrasound, called sonoporation, has received increased attention as microbubble oscillation or collapse close to various barriers in the body was recognized to potentially open those barriers, increasing drug transport across them. In this review, we aimed to describe the development of lipid-stabilized microbubbles equipped with functions, such as long circulation and drug loading, and the therapeutic application of sonoporation for tumor-targeted therapy, brain-targeted therapy, and immunotherapy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.addr.2020.07.005DOI Listing

Differential impact of stress and environmental enrichment on corticolimbic circuits.

Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2020 Jul 10:172993. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Department of Pharmacology and Systems Physiology, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, United States; Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, United States; Department of Neurology, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, United States.

Stress exposure can produce profound change in physiology and behavior that can impair health and well-being. Of note, stress exposure is linked to anxiety disorders and depression in humans. The widespread impact of these disorders warrants investigation into treatments to mitigate the harmful effects of stress. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pbb.2020.172993DOI Listing

Adolescent-onset vs. adult-onset cocaine use: Impact on cognitive functioning in animal models and opportunities for translation.

Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2020 Jul 10:172994. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215, United States of America. Electronic address:

Animal models are poised to make key contributions to the study of cognitive deficits associated with chronic cocaine use in people. Advantages of animal models include use of a longitudinal experimental design that can control for drug use history and onset-age, sex, drug consumption, and abstinence duration. Twenty-two studies were reviewed (13 in adult male rats, 5 in adolescent vs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pbb.2020.172994DOI Listing

Synaptosome as a tool in Alzheimer's disease research.

Brain Res 2020 Jul 10:147009. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Department of Anatomy, School of Biomedical Sciences, Brain Research New Zealand, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.

Synapse dysfunction is an integral feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathophysiology. In fact, prodromal manifestation of structural and functional deficits in synapses much prior to appearance of overt pathological hallmarks of the disease indicates that AD might be considered as a degenerative disorder of the synapses. Several research instruments and techniques have allowed us to study synaptic function and plasticity and their alterations in pathological conditions, such as AD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2020.147009DOI Listing

Different brain profiles in children with prenatal alcohol exposure with or without early adverse exposures.

Hum Brain Mapp 2020 Jul 13. Epub 2020 Jul 13.

Alberta Children's Hospital Research Institute, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) can alter brain development and impact mental health outcomes, and often occurs in conjunction with postnatal adversity (e.g., maltreatment). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hbm.25130DOI Listing

Principal Components Analysis of the Hesitation Scale: More Than Just Social Support Seeking.

Clin Psychol Psychother 2020 Jul 13. Epub 2020 Jul 13.

University of Central Missouri, Warrensburg, Missouri.

The seeking of support from others during times of need is a critical strategy for overcoming challenging life events and ameliorating associated stress. The larger percentage of research examining help seeking behavior has been conducted with non-clinical samples, and conclusions remain somewhat unclear due to several limitations, including methodological inconsistencies across studies. The Hesitation Scale (HS) was developed to measure social support seeking in patients with traumatic brain injury but has not undergone thorough psychometric evaluation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cpp.2492DOI Listing

Dietary fat exacerbates postprandial hypothalamic inflammation involving glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive cells and microglia in male mice.

Glia 2020 Jul 13. Epub 2020 Jul 13.

IPMC, CNRS, Université Côte d'Azur, IPMC, CNRS, Valbonne, France.

In humans, obesity is associated with brain inflammation, glial reactivity, and immune cells infiltration. Studies in rodents have shown that glial reactivity occurs within 24 hr of high-fat diet (HFD) consumption, long before obesity development, and takes place mainly in the hypothalamus (HT), a crucial brain structure for controlling body weight. Here, we sought to characterize the postprandial HT inflammatory response to 1, 3, and 6 hr of exposure to either a standard diet (SD) or HFD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/glia.23882DOI Listing

Understanding brain development - Indian researchers' past, present and growing contribution.

Int J Dev Biol 2020 ;64(1-2-3):123-132

Brain Development and Disease Mechanisms, Institute for Stem Cell Science and Regenerative Medicine (inStem), Bangalore, India.

The brain is the seat of all higher-order functions in the body. Brain development and the vast array of neurons and glia it produces is a baffling mystery to be studied. Neuroscientists using a vast number of model systems have been able to crack many of the nitty-gritty details using various model systems. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1387/ijdb.190204bmDOI Listing
January 2020

A new tension induction paradigm unravels tissue response and the importance of E-cadherin in the developing epidermis.

Int J Dev Biol 2020 ;64(4-5-6):353-362

Department of Biological Sciences, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Colaba, Mumbai, India.

The epidermis, being the outermost epithelial layer in metazoans, experiences multiple external and self-generated mechanical stimuli. The tissue-scale response to these mechanical stresses has been actively studied in the adult stratified epidermis. However, the response of the developing bi-layered epidermis to differential tension and its molecular regulation has remained poorly characterised. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1387/ijdb.190219msDOI Listing
January 2020
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