1,853,928 results match your criteria Brain and Mind[Journal]


Circular RNA biogenesis is decreased in postmortem cortical gray matter in schizophrenia and may alter the bioavailability of associated miRNA.

Neuropsychopharmacology 2019 Feb 20. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

School of Biomedical Sciences and Pharmacy, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW, 2308, Australia.

Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a covalently closed subclass of lncRNA molecules formed by back splicing of linear precursor RNA. These molecules are relatively stable and particularly abundant in the mammalian brain and therefore may participate in neural development and function. With the emergence of circRNAs activity in gene regulation, these molecules have been implicated in several biological processes, including synaptic plasticity, and we therefore suspect they may have a role in neurobehavioral disorders. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41386-019-0348-1DOI Listing
February 2019

System based on subject-specific bands to recognize pedaling motor imagery: Towards a BCI for lower-limb rehabilitation.

J Neural Eng 2019 Feb 20. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Postgraduate Program in Electrical Engineering, Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, Vitoria, ES, BRAZIL.

Objective: The aim of this study is to propose a recognition system of pedaling motor imagery for lower-limb rehabilitation, which uses unsupervised methods to improve the feature extraction, and consequently the class discrimination of EEG patterns. Approach: After applying a spectrogram based on short-time Fourier transform (SSTFT), both sparseness constraints and total power are used on the time-frequency representation to automatically locate the subject-specific bands that pack the highest power during pedaling motor imagery. The output frequency bands are employed in the recognition system to automatically adjust the cut-off frequency of a low-pass filter (Butterworth, 2nd order). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1741-2552/ab08c8DOI Listing
February 2019

Continuous intracerebroventricular injection of Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide induces systemic organ dysfunction in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

Exp Gerontol 2019 Feb 17. Epub 2019 Feb 17.

Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Therapeutics, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Japan.

Systemic organ dysfunction is one of the important issues for the patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and their caregivers. Recent evidences suggest that periodontitis is a possible risk factor for progression of AD and lipopolysaccharide derived from Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg-LPS) which is a major periodontopathic bacteria induces cognitive impairment in mice. However, the precise relationships between the brain exposure of Pg-LPS and systemic organ dysfunction in AD patients are still undetermined. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exger.2019.02.007DOI Listing
February 2019

Are periaqueductal grey and dorsal raphe the foundation of appetitive and aversive control? A comprehensive review.

Prog Neurobiol 2019 Feb 17. Epub 2019 Feb 17.

Department Psychology and Brain Health Research Centre, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand. Electronic address:

Many see the periaqueductal grey (PAG) as a region responsible for the downstream control of defensive reactions. Here we provide a detailed review of anatomical and functional data on the different parts of the PAG together with the dorsal raphe, which completes the circle of periaqueductal nuclei. Based on anatomical features, we propose a new subdivision of the periaqueductal grey that accounts for the distinct characteristics of the area. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pneurobio.2019.02.001DOI Listing
February 2019

Lutein prevents corticosterone-induced depressive-like behavior in mice with the involvement of antioxidant and neuroprotective activities.

Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2019 Feb 17. Epub 2019 Feb 17.

Laboratório de Avaliação de Substâncias Bioativas, Departamento de Ciências Naturais, Universidade Regional de Blumenau, CEP 89030-903 Blumenau, Santa Catarina, Brazil.

Depression is a neuropsychiatry medical condition with high prevalence, in which the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysfunction has been postulated as the main cause. The glucocorticoids can be harmful to the brain, particularly by induction of oxidative stress and glutamatergic damage, therefore antioxidants or neuroprotective agents could have beneficial effects. Lutein (LUT) is a dietary xanthophyll able to arrive in the brain that has been used for therapy of macular degeneration. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pbb.2019.02.004DOI Listing
February 2019

Reconstruction of effective connectivity in the case of asymmetric phase distributions.

J Neurosci Methods 2019 Feb 17. Epub 2019 Feb 17.

University of Cologne, Institute of Zoology, Heisenberg Research Group of Computational Neuroscience - Modeling Neural Network Function, Zülpicher Str. 47b, 50674 Cologne, Germany; Research Centre Jülich, Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-3), Cognitive Neuroscience, 52425 Jülich, Germany. Electronic address:

Background: The interaction of different brain regions is supported by transient synchronization between neural oscillations at different frequencies. Different measures based on synchronization theory are used to assess the strength of the interactions from experimental data. One method of estimating the effective connectivity between brain regions, within the framework of the theory of weakly coupled phase oscillators, was implemented in Dynamic Causal Modelling (DCM) for phase coupling (Penny et al. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jneumeth.2019.02.009DOI Listing
February 2019

Man and the Microbiome: A New Theory of Everything?

Annu Rev Clin Psychol 2019 Feb 20. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Departments of Psychiatry and Neurobehavioural Science, University College Cork, Cork T12 K8AF, Ireland; email:

The gut microbiome is implicated in the pathophysiology of a wide range of psychological disorders. Preclinical studies have provided us with key insights into the mechanisms by which the microbiome influences bidirectional gut-brain communication. There are many signaling pathways involved, including the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, immune modulation, tryptophan and serotonin metabolism, bile acid transformation, microbial production of neuroactive compounds, and regulation of the endocannabinoid system. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-050718-095432DOI Listing
February 2019
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Estrogen, Stress, and Depression: Cognitive and Biological Interactions.

Annu Rev Clin Psychol 2019 Feb 20. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Geriatric Research, Education, and Clinical Center, Tennessee Valley Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee 37212, USA.

This article reviews the interactions of estrogen changes and psychosocial stress in contributing to vulnerability to major depressive disorder (MDD) in women. Estrogen modulates brain networks and processes related to changes in stress response, cognition, and emotional dysregulation that are core characteristics of MDD. Synergistic effects of estrogen on cognitive and emotional function, particularly during psychosocial stress, may underlie the association of ovarian hormone fluctuation and depression in women. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-050718-095557DOI Listing
February 2019
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Time-resolved quantification of the dynamic extracellular space in the brain: Study of cortical spreading depression.

J Neurophysiol 2019 Feb 20. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Multidisciplinary Research Center, Shantou University, China.

Extracellular diffusion in the brain is customarily characterized by two parameters, the extracellular space (ECS) volume fraction α and the diffusion tortuosity λ. How these two parameters are temporarily modified and correlated in a physiological/pathological event remains unclear to date. Using tetramethyl ammonium (TMA) as the ECS ion tracer in a newly updated iontophoretic sinusoidal method, we studied in this work the dynamic α( t) and λ( t) in rat somatosensory cortex during spreading depression (SD). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00348.2018DOI Listing
February 2019

Time-resolved quantification of the dynamic extracellular space in the brain during short-lived event: methodology and simulations.

J Neurophysiol 2019 Feb 20. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Shantou University.

Two macroscopic parameters describe the interstitial diffusion of substances in the extracellular space (ECS) of the brain, the ECS volume fraction α and the diffusion tortuosity λ. Past methods based on sampling the extracellular concentration of a membrane-impermeable ion tracer, such as tetramethyl ammonium (TMA+), can characterize either the dynamic α(t) alone or the constant α and λ in resting state, but never the dynamic α(t) and λ(t) simultaneously in short-lived brain events. In this work, we propose to use a sinusoidal method of TMA+ to provide time-resolved quantification of α(t) and λ(t) in acute brain events. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00347.2018DOI Listing
February 2019

Exploring the behavioral and cognitive phenotype of KBG syndrome.

Genes Brain Behav 2019 Feb 20:e12553. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Centre of Excellence for Neuropsychiatry, Vincent van Gogh Institute for Psychiatry, Venray, The Netherlands.

KBG syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder, caused by dominant mutations in ANKRD11, that is characterized by developmental delay/intellectual disability, mild craniofacial dysmorphisms, and short stature. Behavior and cognition have hardly been studied, but anecdotal evidence suggests higher frequencies of ADHD-symptoms and social-emotional impairments. In this study, behavioral and cognitive profile of KBG syndrome will be investigated in order to examine if and how cognitive deficits contribute to behavioral difficulties. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gbb.12553DOI Listing
February 2019

Role of oxytocin in the control of stress and food intake.

J Neuroendocrinol 2019 Feb 20:e12700. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Division of Brain and Neurophysiology, Department of Physiology, Jichi Medical University, Shimotsuke-shi, Tochigi-ken, JAPAN, 329-0498.

Oxytocin neurons in the hypothalamus are activated by stressful stimuli and food intake. The oxytocin receptor is located in various brain regions, including the sensory information-processing cerebral cortex, the cognitive information-processing prefrontal cortex, reward-related regions such as the ventral tegmental areas, nucleus accumbens, and raphe nucleus, stress-related areas such as the amygdala, hippocampus, ventrolateral part of the ventromedial hypothalamus, and ventrolateral periaqueductal gray, homeostasis-controlling hypothalamus, and the dorsal motor complex controlling intestinal functions. Oxytocin affects behavioural and neuroendocrine stress responses and terminates food intake via acting on the metabolic or nutritional homeostasis system, modulating emotional processing, reducing reward values of food intake, and facilitating sensory and cognitive processing through multiple brain regions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jne.12700DOI Listing
February 2019

Mark Twain's life-long fascination with phrenology.

Authors:
Stanley Finger

J Hist Behav Sci 2019 Feb 20. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, and Program in History of Medicine, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri.

Samuel Langhorne Clemens (Mark Twain; 1835-1910), American humorist and writer, followed scientific and medical developments, and relished exposing questionable practices and ideas. In his youth, he pondered how phrenologists were assessing character, and in 1855 he copied sections of a phrenology book and a skull diagram into a notebook. Later, in London, he had two phrenological examinations by Lorenzo Fowler-one without and the other after identifying himself. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jhbs.21960DOI Listing
February 2019

Editorial: Can dysregulated myelination be linked to ADHD pathogenesis and persistence?

J Child Psychol Psychiatry 2019 Mar;60(3):229-231

Converging evidence from new epidemiologic, genetic, epigenetic, neuroimaging, and experimental model findings are further refining a long-standing concept, regarding the underlying neurobiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): that ADHD onset and its persistence into adulthood are the result of dysregulated myelination and associated alterations in neuronal plasticity - linked to disrupted brain maturation and the persistence of cognitive and emotional impairments across the life span. If supported by further work, this concept represents a pathophysiologic mechanism amenable to therapeutic intervention. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.13031DOI Listing

A promising structural magnetic resonance imaging assessment in patients with preclinical cognitive decline and diabetes mellitus.

J Cell Physiol 2019 Feb 20. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Department of Radiology, the First Affiliated Hospital of University of South China, Hengyang, China.

Subjective cognitive decline (SCD) is frequently reported in diabetic patients. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with changes in the microstructure of the brain arise in diabetic patients, including changes in gray matter volume (GMV). However, the underlying mechanisms of changes in GMV in DM patients with cognitive impairment remain uncertain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcp.28359DOI Listing
February 2019

[Brain and mind: Dissidence or subordination? Notes for an epistemological reading].

Authors:
Juan C Fantin

Vertex 2018 Sep;XXIX(141):368-373

Departamento de Psiquiatría y Salud Mental, Facultad de Medicina (UBA).

Two opposing readings of significant authors - Eric Kandel and Hans Jonas - are examined in relation to the mind-brain problem. From there, the thesis is argued that the inadequacy of the critique of materialistic scientism reduces the theoretical and practical possibilities of both psychiatry and psychoanalysis. Read More

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September 2018

Trans ε viniferin decreases amyloid deposits and inflammation in a mouse transgenic Alzheimer model.

PLoS One 2019 20;14(2):e0212663. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

University of Poitiers, EA3808 Neurovascular Unit and Cognitive Disorders, Pôle Biologie Santé, POITIERS, France.

As Alzheimer's disease (AD) induces several cellular and molecular damages, it could be interesting to use multi-target molecules for therapeutics. We previously published that trans ε-viniferin induced the disaggregation of Aβ42 peptide and inhibited the inflammatory response in primary cellular model of AD. Here, effects of this stilbenoid were evaluated in transgenic APPswePS1dE9 mice. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0212663PLOS
February 2019
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The Sport Concussion Assessment Tool (SCAT2) for evaluating civilian mild traumatic brain injury. A pilot normative study.

PLoS One 2019 20;14(2):e0212541. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Neurotraumatology and Neurosurgery Research Unit (UNINN), Vall d'Hebron Research Institute (VHIR), Barcelona, Spain.

Self-report measures, particularly symptom inventories, are critical tools for identifying patients with persistent post-concussion symptoms and their follow-up. Unlike in military or sports-related assessment, in general civilian settings pre-injury levels of concussion-like symptoms are lacking. Normative data are available in adolescent and college populations, but no reference data exist to guide clinical adult explorations. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0212541PLOS
February 2019

A multifactorial approach of nutritional, intellectual, brain development, cardiovascular risk, socio-economic, demographic and educational variables affecting the scholastic achievement in Chilean students: An eight- year follow-up study.

PLoS One 2019 20;14(2):e0212279. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Laboratory of Nutrition and Neurological Sciences, Human Nutrition Area, Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology Dr. Fernando Monckeberg Barros (INTA), University of Chile, Santiago, Chile.

The aim of this study was to quantitate the relative impact of nutritional, intellectual, brain development, cardiovascular risk, socio-economic, demographic and educational variables on the results of the 2009 Quality Education Measurement System (SIMCE) tests of language and mathematics for scholastic achievement (SA) applying a multifactorial approach, in school-age children of the 2010 5th elementary school grade (5ESG) and of the 1st grade of high school (1HSG). The purposes were: i) to test the hypothesis that intellectual ability, the level of SA of the educational establishments in the 2009 SIMCE tests, sex, parental schooling levels, and head circumference-for-age Z-score are the most relevant parameters associated with 2009 SIMCE outcomes; ii) to determine the predictive ability of the 2009 SIMCE results in determining the 2013 SIMCE outcomes for the 2010 5ESG cohort (when they graduated from elementary school, 8th grade) and for determining the 2013 University Selection Test (PSU) outcomes for the 2010 1HSG group (for university admission, when they graduated from high school, 4th grade); iii) to determine the association between the 2009 SIMCE results with the 2017 PSU outcomes for the 2010 5ESG group (for university admission, when they graduated from high school, 4th grade). A representative, proportional and stratified sample of 33 schools of the Metropolitan Region of Chile was randomly chosen. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0212279PLOS
February 2019

White noise speech illusions in the general population: The association with psychosis expression and risk factors for psychosis.

PLoS One 2019 20;14(2):e0211914. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychology, Maastricht University Medical Centre, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Introduction: Positive psychotic experiences are associated with increased rate of white noise speech illusions in patients and their relatives. However, findings have been conflicting to what degree speech illusions are associated with subclinical expression of psychosis in the general population. The aim of this study was to investigate the link between speech illusions and positive psychotic experiences in a general population sample. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0211914PLOS
February 2019

T and B cell subsets differentially correlate with amyloid deposition and neurocognitive function in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment after one year of physical activity.

Exerc Immunol Rev 2019 ;25:34-49

Dept. of Neurology & Neurotherapeutics, UT Southwestern Medical Center, 6000 Harry Hines, Dallas, TX, 75390, USA. Dept. of Neurology, University of Kentucky, 741 S. Limestone St, Lexington, KY, 40506, USA.

Individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) experience cognitive declines in learning and memory greater than expected for normal aging, and are at a high risk of dementia. We previously reported that sedentary aMCI patients exhibited neuroinflammation that correlated with brain amyloid beta (Aβ) burden, as determined by 18F-florbetapir positron emission tomography (PET). These aMCI patients enrolled in a one-year randomized control trial (AETMCI, NCT01146717) to test the beneficial effects of 12 months of moderate-to-high intensity aerobic exercise training (AET) or stretching/toning (ST) control intervention on neurocognitive function. Read More

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January 2019

Unconscious Detection of One's Own Image.

Psychol Sci 2019 Feb 20:956797618822971. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

1 Laboratory of Language Neurobiology, Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology of Polish Academy of Sciences.

A key mechanism behind preferential processing of self-related information might be an early and automatic capture of attention. Therefore, the present study tested a hypothesis that one's own face will attract bottom-up attention even without conscious identification. To test this, we used a dot-probe paradigm with electrophysiological recordings, in which participants ( N = 18) viewed masked and unmasked pairs of faces (other, self) presented laterally. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797618822971DOI Listing
February 2019

Meropenem and Amikacin for Management of Post-Neurosurgical Infections from Acinetobacter baumannii.

Surg Infect (Larchmt) 2019 Feb 20. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Department of Critical Care Medicine, Suizhou Hospital Affiliated to Hubei Medical College, Hubei, China.

Background: Intra-cranial infection with Acinetobacter baumannii is a tough problem because of the presence of multi-resistance and poor drug penetration through the blood-brain barrier. Such intra-cranial infections can lead to serious complications and death. We retrospectively analyzed the culture results and clinical characteristics of patients with intra-cranial infections in our hospital and suggested intravenous (IV) meropenem and intra-thecal (IT) amikacin therapy may be effective in the management of A. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/sur.2018.242DOI Listing
February 2019

Brain stem death - an overview.

Med Leg J 2019 Feb 20:25817218822008. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

2 Department of Forensic Medicine, Kasturba Medical College (affiliated to Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, Karnataka, India), Mangalore, India.

The concept of brain death has been a very intriguing topic and has taken many forms over the years. Brain stem death is a complex state of inactivity defined by the loss of reflexes of the pathways that pass through the brain stem, the 'shaft' of the brain which links the spinal cord to the cerebral cortex and the cerebellum where there is apnoea, loss of eye movement and pain sensation. There are many criteria, based on which a person can be said to be brain dead. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0025817218822008DOI Listing
February 2019

Radiotherapy or Autologous Stem-Cell Transplantation for Primary CNS Lymphoma in Patients 60 Years of Age and Younger: Results of the Intergroup ANOCEF-GOELAMS Randomized Phase II PRECIS Study.

J Clin Oncol 2019 Feb 20:JCO1800306. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

3 Institut Curie, Site Saint-Cloud, Saint-Cloud, France.

Purpose: To determine the efficacy and toxicity of chemoimmunotherapy followed by either whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) or intensive chemotherapy and autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT) as a first-line treatment of primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL).

Patients And Methods: Immunocompetent patients (18 to 60 years of age) with untreated PCNSL were randomly assigned to receive WBRT or ASCT as consolidation treatment after induction chemotherapy consisting of two cycles of R-MBVP (rituximab 375 mg/m day (D) 1, methotrexate 3 g/m D1; D15, VP16 100 mg/m D2, BCNU 100 mg/m D3, prednisone 60 mg/kg/d D1-D5) followed by two cycles of R-AraC (rituximab 375 mg/m D1, cytarabine 3 g/m D1 to D2). Intensive chemotherapy consisted of thiotepa (250 mg/m/d D9; D8; D7), busulfan (8 mg/kg D6 through D4), and cyclophosphamide (60 mg/kg/d D3; D2). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.18.00306DOI Listing
February 2019

Volitional control of single-electrode high gamma local field potentials (LFPs) by people with paralysis.

J Neurophysiol 2019 Feb 20. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Department of Neuroscience, Brown University, United States.

Intracortical brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) can enable individuals to control effectors, such as a computer cursor, by directly decoding the user's movement intentions from action potentials and local field potentials (LFPs) recorded within the motor cortex. However, the accuracy and complexity of effector control achieved with such "biomimetic" BCIs will depend on the degree to which the intended movements used to elicit control modulate the neural activity. In particular, channels that do not record distinguishable action potentials and only record LFP modulations may be of limited use for BCI control. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00131.2018DOI Listing
February 2019

Central sensitization increases the pupil dilation elicited by mechanical pinprick stimulation.

J Neurophysiol 2019 Feb 20. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Institute of Neuroscience (IONS), Universite catholique de Louvain, Belgium.

High frequency electrical stimulation (HFS) of skin nociceptors triggers central sensitization (CS), manifested as increased pinprick sensitivity of the skin surrounding the site of HFS. Our aim was to assess the effect of CS on pinprick-evoked pupil dilation responses (PDRs) and pinprick-evoked brain potentials (PEPs). We hypothesized that the increase in the positive wave of PEPs following HFS would result from an enhanced pinprick-evoked phasic response of the locus coeruleus-noradrenergic system (LC-NS), indicated by enhanced PDRs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00816.2018DOI Listing
February 2019

Semantic representation of abstract and concrete words: a mini-review of neural evidence.

J Neurophysiol 2019 Feb 20. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

University of Padova, Italy.

Evidence from both behavioural and neuropsychological studies suggest that different types of organizational principles govern semantic representations of abstract and concrete words. The reviewed neuroimaging studies provide new evidence about the role of brain areas of the semantic network involved in the encoding of some types of information during processing of abstract and concrete concepts, characterizing better the neural underpinnings and the organizational principles of semantic representation of these types of word. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00065.2019DOI Listing
February 2019

Introduction to the Special Issue on Connectomics.

Authors:
Bharat Biswal

Brain Connect 2019 Feb;9(1)

University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark, New Jersey.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/brain.2019.29001.bbiDOI Listing
February 2019

Association between left ventricular ejection fraction and Kawasaki disease shock syndrome.

Cardiol Young 2019 Feb;29(2):178-184

1Department of Children's Heart Center,The Second Affiliated Hospital and Yuying Children's Hospital,Institute of Cardiovascular Development and Translational Medicine,Wenzhou Medical University,Wenzhou,China.

Objective: This study was performed to explore the clinical features of Kawasaki disease shock syndrome and analyse the association between the left ventricular ejection fraction and Kawasaki disease shock syndrome.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all consecutive inpatients with Kawasaki disease at Wenzhou Medical University Second Affiliated Hospital and Yuying Children's Hospital in Wenzhou, China from January 2009 to December 2016. We compared the clinical characteristics, laboratory data, and left ventricular ejection fraction between patients with and without Kawasaki disease shock syndrome and analysed the effect of the left ventricular ejection fraction on Kawasaki disease shock syndrome under different clinical conditions of Kawasaki disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1047951118002056DOI Listing
February 2019

Comorbidity and cognitive overlap between developmental dyslexia and congenital amusia.

Cogn Neuropsychol 2019 Feb 20:1-17. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

c Laboratoire de Sciences Cognitives et Psycholinguistique, Département d'Etudes Cognitives, Ecole Normale Supérieure , PSL Research University, EHESS, CNRS , Paris , France.

This study investigated whether there is a co-occurrence between developmental dyslexia and congenital amusia in adults. First, a database of online musical tests on 18,000 participants was analysed. Self-reported dyslexic participants performed significantly lower on melodic skills than matched controls, suggesting a possible link between reading and musical disorders. Read More

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https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/02643294.2019.1
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02643294.2019.1578205DOI Listing
February 2019
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Continuous Embeddings of DNA Sequencing Reads and Application to Metagenomics.

J Comput Biol 2019 Feb 20. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

1 MINES ParisTech, PSL Research University, CBIO-Centre for Computational Biology, Paris, France.

We propose a new model for fast classification of DNA sequences output by next-generation sequencing machines. The model, which we call fastDNA, embeds DNA sequences in a vector space by learning continuous low-dimensional representations of the k-mers it contains. We show on metagenomics benchmarks that it outperforms the state-of-the-art methods in terms of accuracy and scalability. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/cmb.2018.0174DOI Listing
February 2019

Potential Diagnostic Imaging of Alzheimer's Disease with Copper-64 Complexes That Bind to Amyloid-β Plaques.

Inorg Chem 2019 Feb 20. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Centre for Drug Candidate Optimisation, Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences , Monash University , Parkville , Victoria , Australia , 3052.

Amyloid-β plaques, consisting of aggregated amyloid-β peptides, are one of the pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease. Copper complexes formed using positron-emitting copper radionuclides that cross the blood-brain barrier and bind to specific molecular targets offer the possibility of noninvasive diagnostic imaging using positron emission tomography. New thiosemicarbazone-pyridylhydrazone based ligands that incorporate pyridyl-benzofuran functional groups designed to bind amyloid-β plaques have been synthesized. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.inorgchem.8b03466DOI Listing
February 2019

Identifying asymptomatic patients at high-risk for stroke.

J Cardiovasc Surg (Torino) 2019 Feb 20. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Medical Research Council Population Health Research Unit, Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK -

Background: Carotid endarterectomy and carotid artery stenting, in addition to good medical therapy, halve long-term stroke risk in asymptomatic patients with carotid artery stenosis. Since the absolute benefits following successful intervention are moderate, identification of asymptomatic patients at high-risk of future stroke could maximise the effectiveness of carotid interventions.

Aim: To summarise the evidence for high-risk features associated with increased long-term stroke risk in asymptomatic patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0021-9509.19.10912-3DOI Listing
February 2019

[Multiple ischemic stroke in Osler-Rendu-Weber disease].

Ideggyogy Sz 2019 Jan;72(1-2):65-70

Szegedi Tudományegyetem, Általános Orvostudományi Kar, Szent-Györgyi Albert Klinikai Központ, Neurológiai Klinika, Szeged.

Hereditary hemorrhagic teleangiectasia (HHT, Osler-Rendu-Weber disease) is an autosomal dominantly inherited disorder caused by the mutation of several possible genes and characterized by malformations of the arteriovenous system in multiple organs. The clinical diagnosis is based on the Curaçao criteria ((1) spontaneous, recurrent epistaxis; (2) teleangiectasias in characteristic sites (lips, oral cavity, nose, fingers); (3) visceral lesions (gastrointestinal, pulmonary, cerebral, spinal); (4) affected first degree relative). The aim of this study is to present the first genetically confirmed Hungarian case of hereditary hemorrhagic teleangiectasia with multiple ischemic strokes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18071/https://doi.org/10.18071/isz.72.0065DOI Listing
January 2019

Additional value of tau protein measurement in the diagnosis of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

Ideggyogy Sz 2019 Jan;72(1-2):39-47

Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Albert Szent-Györgyi Clinical Center, University of Szeged, Szeged.

Since the definite diagnosis of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) can currently only be provided by autopsy, there is a special need for fine diagnostic tools in live patients to achieve accurate diagnosis as early as possible. The aim of this study was to perform a preliminary retrospective analysis on the utility of the measurement of total Tau (tTau) and some other biomarkers from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with rapidly progressive dementia in the diagnostic work up of CJD. Beside the assessment of relevant clinical data and the findings of electroencephalography and brain magnetic resonance imaging, the presence of 14-3-3 protein and the levels of tTau were determined by Western blot technique and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay from the CSF of 19 patients diagnosed with rapidly progressive dementia between the period of 2004-2017 at the Department of Neurology, University of Szeged. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18071/https://doi.org/10.18071/isz.72.0039DOI Listing
January 2019
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[Selection of the optimal device-aided therapy in Parkinson's disease].

Ideggyogy Sz 2019 Jan;72(1-2):5-11

Pécsi Tudományegyetem, Neurológiai Klinika, Pécs.

For the treatment of advanced Parkinson's disease the deep brain stimulation (DBS) and the levodopa/carbidopa intestinal gel (LCIG) therapies are available in Hungary. Although they may have similar impact on the health-related quality of life and disabilities associated with the disease, they have different indications, and inclusion- and exclusion criteria. Consequently, the patient population treated with DBS and LCIG may be different. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18071/https://doi.org/10.18071/isz.72.0005DOI Listing
January 2019

Endotoxin-induced cerebral pathophysiology: differences between fetus and newborn.

Physiol Rep 2019 Feb;7(4):e13973

The Ritchie Centre, Hudson Institute of Medical Research, Clayton, Victoria, Australia.

As the comparative pathophysiology of perinatal infection in the fetus and newborn is uncertain, this study contrasted the cerebral effects of endotoxemia in conscious fetal sheep and newborn lambs. Responses to intravenous bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) or normal saline were studied on three consecutive days in fetal sheep (LPS 1 μg/kg, n = 5; normal saline n = 5) and newborn lambs (LPS 2 μg/kg, n = 10; normal saline n = 5). Cerebro-vascular function was assessed by monitoring cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral vascular resistance (CVR) over 12 h each day, and inflammatory responses were assessed by plasma TNF alpha (TNF-α), nitrate and nitrite concentrations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14814/phy2.13973DOI Listing
February 2019

Starting ketamine for neuroprotection earlier than its current use as an anesthetic/antiepileptic drug late in refractory status epilepticus.

Epilepsia 2019 Feb 19. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Neurology Department, VA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, Sepulveda Ambulatory Care Center and Nursing Home, North Hills, California.

Ketamine is currently being used as an anesthetic/antiepileptic drug in refractory status epilepticus. To validate its use, 2 clinical trials are recruiting patients. However, preclinical studies of its use in chemically induced status epilepticus in rodents have shown that it is remarkably neuroprotective, through N-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor blockade, even when given after the onset of status epilepticus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/epi.14676DOI Listing
February 2019

Zein-based core-shell microcapsules for the potential delivery of algae oil and lipophilic compounds.

Food Funct 2019 Feb 20. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Protein Research and Development Center, Guangdong Province Key Laboratory for Green Processing of Natural Products and Product Safety, National Engineering Laboratory of Wheat & Corn Further Processing, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640, P. R China.

Due to the benefits involving brain development and cardiovascular health, algae oil which is rich in omega-3 fatty acids has become a popular dietary supplement in recent years. However, the incompatibility with water and poor oxidative stability limits its addition in foods and beverages. In this work, the formation and characterization of zein-based core-shell microcapsules with tunable shell thicknesses for the potential delivery of algae oil were reported. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c8fo02302fDOI Listing
February 2019

IMM-H004 protects against oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion injury to BV2 microglia partly by modulating CKLF1 involved in microglia polarization.

Int Immunopharmacol 2019 Feb 20;70:69-79. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

State Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substances and Functions of Natural Medicines, Institute of Materia Medica & Neuroscience Center, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100050, China; Hunan University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Changsha 410208, China. Electronic address:

Background: IMM-H004 is a novel compound that has been shown to protect against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in our previous works. Chemokine-like factor 1 (CKLF1) is a chemokine that exhibits increased expression in the ischemic brain. Dysregulation of microglia polarization dynamics is a mechanism of injury expansion poststroke. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2019.02.012DOI Listing
February 2019

Mapping meditative states and stages with electrophysiology: concepts, classifications, and methods.

Curr Opin Psychol 2019 Jan 23;28:211-217. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

Contemplative Neuroscience and Integrative Medicine (CNIM) Laboratory, Vanderbilt University, United States.

Exploration of human consciousness remains a final frontier within basic neuroscience; that is, how the finite biological structure and function of the brain give rise to the seemingly infinite expanse that encompasses the terrain of the mind. Contemporary mindfulness and other contemplative practices across historical and post-modern traditions involve systematic forms of mental training that allow a practitioner to develop the mind in very specific and quantifiable ways. While there has been some progress identifying specific electrophysiological markers of meditation, some fundamental questions remain to this scientific enquiry; (1) how to concisely classify discrete and developmentally specific 'mind states' of consciousness that are in line with the subtle complex phenomenology of experience so to yield ontological quantifications? (2) what measures best represent such classification/quantification systems? (3) can the present electrophysiological purview map developmentally specified mind states and stages to neurobiological substrates, based on extant contention (i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.copsyc.2019.01.007DOI Listing
January 2019

Mindfulness training for addictions: has neuroscience revealed a brain hack by which awareness subverts the addictive process?

Authors:
Judson Brewer

Curr Opin Psychol 2019 Jan 28;28:198-203. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

Mindfulness Center, Brown University School of Public Health and Warren Alpern School of Medicine, 121 S Main St, Providence, RI 02903, United States. Electronic address:

Addiction is an age-old problem with desire pitted against self-control and will-power. In modern day substances (including food) and experiences (e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.copsyc.2019.01.014DOI Listing
January 2019

Cerebellar resting-state functional connectivity in Parkinson's disease and multiple system atrophy: Characterization of abnormalities and potential for differential diagnosis at the single-patient level.

Neuroimage Clin 2019 Feb 13;22:101720. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas (CIBERNED), Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain; Movement Disorders Unit, Neurology Service, Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, Institute of Neuroscience, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain; Institute of Biomedical Research August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain. Electronic address:

Background: Recent studies using resting-state functional connectivity and machine-learning to distinguish patients with neurodegenerative diseases from other groups of subjects show promising results. This approach has not been tested to discriminate between Parkinson's disease (PD) and multiple system atrophy (MSA) patients.

Objectives: Our first aim is to characterize possible abnormalities in resting-state functional connectivity between the cerebellum and a set of intrinsic-connectivity brain networks and between the cerebellum and different regions of the striatum in PD and MSA. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nicl.2019.101720DOI Listing
February 2019

Individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome show intact prediction but reduced adaptation in responses to repeated sounds: Evidence from Bayesian mapping.

Neuroimage Clin 2019 Feb 13;22:101721. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance, Centre for Functional and Diagnostic Imaging and Research, Copenhagen University Hospital Hvidovre, Hvidovre, Denmark; Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; Department of Neurology, Copenhagen University Hospital Bispebjerg, Copenhagen, Denmark.

One of the most common copy number variants, the 22q11.2 microdeletion, confers an increased risk for schizophrenia. Since schizophrenia has been associated with an aberrant neural response to repeated stimuli through both reduced adaptation and prediction, we here hypothesized that this may also be the case in nonpsychotic individuals with a 22q11. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nicl.2019.101721DOI Listing
February 2019

Risk, reversibility and resilience of brain circuitries linked to opioid dependence: A diffusion tensor imaging study of actively opioid-using subjects and three comparison groups.

Asian J Psychiatr 2019 Feb 13;40:107-115. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Drug De-Addiction and Treatment Centre, Department of Psychiatry, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education & Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh, India. Electronic address:

Background: Drug addiction is linked with micro-structural changes in the fronto-striatal white matter (WM) tracts. However, little is known regarding causality (risk factor for subsequent drug use vs. effect of chronic drug use) and reversibility of such changes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajp.2019.02.009DOI Listing
February 2019

Markers of neuroinflammation influence measures of cortical thickness in bipolar depression.

Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging 2019 Jan 29;285:64-66. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Scientific Institute Ospedale San Raffaele, Milano, Italy.

We tested if peripheral levels of cytokines and chemokines associate to grey matter volumes, cortical thickness and fMRI neural responses to a moral valence decision task in bipolar patients. ICAM1 and CCL4 negatively correlated with cortical thickness in Inferior Temporal Gyrus, and sCD25 in Parahippocampal Gyrus. TNF-α, Interleukine-8, and CCL2 correlated positively with cortical thickness in the Anterior Cingulate Cortex, and with lower BOLD responses to negative stimuli. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pscychresns.2019.01.009DOI Listing
January 2019

Preliminary results from a pilot study examining brain structure in older adult cannabis users and nonusers.

Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging 2019 Feb 10;285:58-63. Epub 2019 Feb 10.

Department of Psychology & Neuroscience, University of Colorado Boulder, 345 UCB, Boulder, CO, United States.

Exploring associations among cannabis use, brain structure, and cognitive function in older adults offers an opportunity to observe potential harm or benefit of cannabis. This pilot study assessed structural magnetic resonance imaging in older adults who were either current cannabis users (n = 28; mean age 69.8 years, 36% female) or nonusers (n = 28; mean age 66. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pscychresns.2019.02.001DOI Listing
February 2019

Neuronal spiking activity highlights a gradient of epileptogenicity in human tuberous sclerosis lesions.

Clin Neurophysiol 2019 Jan 30;130(4):537-547. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

Centre de Recherche Cerveau et Cognition, Université de Toulouse, Université Paul Sabatier Toulouse, Toulouse F-31330, France; Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, CerCo, UMR 5549, Toulouse F-31052, France.

Objective: The mechanisms underlying epileptogenicity in tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) are poorly understood.

Methods: We analysed neuronal spiking activity (84 neurons), fast ripples (FRs), local field potentials and intracranial electroencephalogram during interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) in the tuber and perituber of a patient using novel hybrid electrodes equipped with tetrodes.

Results: IEDs were recorded in the tuber and perituber. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinph.2018.12.013DOI Listing
January 2019
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