1,868,581 results match your criteria Brain and Mind[Journal]


Mu opioid receptors in the medial habenula contribute to naloxone aversion.

Neuropsychopharmacology 2019 Apr 20. Epub 2019 Apr 20.

McGill University, Faculty of Medicine, Douglas Research Centre, Montreal, Canada.

The medial habenula (MHb) is considered a brain center regulating aversive states. The mu opioid receptor (MOR) has been traditionally studied at the level of nociceptive and mesolimbic circuits, for key roles in pain relief and reward processing. MOR is also densely expressed in MHb, however, MOR function at this brain site is virtually unknown. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41386-019-0395-7DOI Listing
April 2019
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Acute cerebellar stroke and middle cerebral artery stroke exert distinctive modifications on functional cortical connectivity: A comparative study via EEG graph theory.

Clin Neurophysiol 2019 Apr 6;130(6):997-1007. Epub 2019 Apr 6.

Unità Operativa Complessa di Neurologia, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS, Rome, Italy; Institute of Neurology, Area of Neuroscience, Catholic University of The Sacred Heart, Rome, Italy.

Objective: We tested whether acute cerebellar stroke may determine changes in brain network architecture as defined by cortical sources of EEG rhythms.

Methods: Graph parameters of 41 consecutive stroke patients (<5 days from the event) were studied using eLORETA EEG sources. Network rearrangements of stroke patients were investigated in delta, alpha 2, beta 2 and gamma bands in comparison with healthy subjects. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S13882457193011
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinph.2019.03.017DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Levetiracetam-induced a new seizure type in a girl with a novel SV2A gene mutation.

Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2019 Mar 28;181:64-66. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Department of Neurology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053, China; The Beijing Key Laboratory of Neuromodulation, Beijing 100053, China; Center of Epilepsy, Beijing Institute for Brain Disorder, Beijing 100069, China; Department of Pediatrics, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053, China. Electronic address:

The target brain binding site of levetiracetam (LEV) is synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2A (SV2A). Up to now, only a homozygous pathogenic SV2A gene mutation was reported in human. We now report a novel heterozygous pathogenic SV2A gene mutation both in a girl and her mother result in epilepsy and poor response to LEV. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S03038467193008
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clineuro.2019.03.020DOI Listing
March 2019
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Oxytocin in the tumor microenvironment is associated with lower inflammation and longer survival in advanced epithelial ovarian cancer patients.

Psychoneuroendocrinology 2019 Apr 6;106:244-251. Epub 2019 Apr 6.

Diabetes Research Institute, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, United States.

Background: Prior research demonstrates a protective role for oxytocin in ovarian cancer based on its anti-proliferative, anti-migratory, and anti-invasive effects in vitro and in vivo. However, the role of endogenous oxytocin has not been examined in ovarian cancer patients. Oxytocin also has anti-inflammatory properties that have not been examined in cancer. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2019.04.007DOI Listing
April 2019
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Cortical thickness correlates of cognitive performance in cognitively-matched individuals with and without schizophrenia.

Brain Cogn 2019 Apr 17;132:129-137. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Psychology, York University, Toronto, ONT, Canada.

Schizophrenia is characterized by psychosis and, in most cases, cognitive impairment. It is unclear, however, whether these elements of the disorder represent distinct or related disease processes. Accordingly, this study investigated 3-way interactions between group, cognition and cortical thickness in cognitively-matched patients with schizophrenia and healthy control groups. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bandc.2019.04.003DOI Listing

Cerebral cortex impairment in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder: A case report and literature review.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2019 Apr 6;32:9-12. Epub 2019 Apr 6.

Department of Neurology, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Background: Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is an autoimmune disorder of the central nervous system that usually presents with acute myelitis and/or optic neuritis. Cortical lesions used to be regarded as "red flags" of NMOSD, and indicated the possibility of alternative diagnoses. We recently had reported a NMOSD patient with weakness in both lower limbs resulting from cortical damage, which was usually attributed to spinal cord lesions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msard.2019.04.005DOI Listing

No evidence for altered up- and downregulation of brain activity in visual cortex during illusory shape perception in autism.

Cortex 2019 Mar 26;117:247-256. Epub 2019 Mar 26.

Radboud University, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may be marked by an altered balance between sensory input and prior expectations. Because many illusions rely on integrating sensory input with prior information such as spatial context, individuals with ASD may therefore be less susceptible to visual illusions than typically developing (TD) individuals. Yet empirical evidence on the matter is rather divergent, varying depending on the type of illusion, study procedure, and population. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2019.03.011DOI Listing

Neural organization of speech production: A lesion-based study of error patterns in connected speech.

Cortex 2019 Mar 7;117:228-246. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

University of South Carolina, Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, United States.

While numerous studies have explored single-word naming, few have evaluated the behavioral and neural correlates of more naturalistic language, like connected speech, which we produce every day. Here, in a retrospective analysis of 120 participants at least six months following left hemisphere stroke, we evaluated the distribution of word errors (paraphasias) and associated brain damage during connected speech (picture description) and object naming. While paraphasias in connected speech and naming shared underlying neural substrates, analysis of the distribution of paraphasias suggested that lexical-semantic load is likely reduced during connected speech. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2019.02.029DOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads

A novel end-to-end brain tumor segmentation method using improved fully convolutional networks.

Comput Biol Med 2019 Mar 18;108:150-160. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

School of Information Science and Technology, and Centers for Biomedical Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, AH 230027, China.

Accurate brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) tumor segmentation continues to be an active research topic in medical image analysis since it provides doctors with meaningful and reliable quantitative information in diagnosing and monitoring neurological diseases. Successful deep learning-based proposals have been designed, and most of them are built upon image patches. In this paper, a novel end-to-end brain tumor segmentation method is developed using an improved fully convolutional network by modifying the U-Net architecture. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00104825193008
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compbiomed.2019.03.014DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Longitudinal diffusion weighted imaging of limbic regions in patients with major depressive disorder after 6 years and partial to full remission.

Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging 2019 Apr 12;287:75-86. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Otto von Guericke University, 39120 Magdeburg, Germany.

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of major depressive disorder (MDD) on white matter microstructures after a 6-year period compared to healthy controls (HC). This study included a small sample size of 26 participants, including 14 patients with MDD clinically diagnosed at baseline, and 12 HCs. MRI brain scans were conducted at baseline and follow-up, 75. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S09254927183026
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pscychresns.2019.04.004DOI Listing
April 2019
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Socioeconomic hardship and delayed reward discounting: Associations with working memory and emotional reactivity.

Dev Cogn Neurosci 2019 Apr 4;37:100642. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Department of Psychology, University of Georgia, 125 Baldwin Street, Athens, GA, 30602, Greece.

Prolonged exposure to socioeconomic hardship (SH) is associated with greater delayed reward discounting (DRD), a form of impulsive decision-making that reflects a reduced capacity to delay gratification and a significant correlate of diverse risk behaviors, but the neurobehavioral mechanisms linking SH and DRD are unknown. An emerging hypothesis suggests that cognitive and affective stress associated with poverty may tax neurocognitive functions, such as working memory (WM), and lead to impulsive DRD. Furthermore, research suggests that emotional reactivity (ER) is an important dispositional factor to consider in the link between executive functions and DRD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dcn.2019.100642DOI Listing

Novel variants and phenotypes widen the phenotypic spectrum of GABRG2-related disorders.

Seizure 2019 Mar 19;69:99-104. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

PEDEGO Research Unit, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland; Medical Research Center, Oulu University Hospital, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland; Biocenter Oulu, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland; Department of Children and Adolescents, Division of Pediatric Neurology, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland.

Purpose: Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has made genetic testing of patients with epileptic encephalopathies easier - novel variants are discovered and new phenotypes described. Variants in the same gene - even the same variant - can cause different types of epilepsy and neurodevelopmental disorders. Our aim was to identify the genetic causes of epileptic encephalopathies in paediatric patients with complex phenotypes. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S10591311173083
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.seizure.2019.03.010DOI Listing
March 2019
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On-line regeneration of electrochemical biosensor for in vivo repetitive measurements of striatum Cu under global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion events.

Biosens Bioelectron 2019 Mar 9;135:111-119. Epub 2019 Mar 9.

School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Key Laboratory of Theoretical Organic Chemistry and Functional Molecule of Ministry of Education, Hunan University of Science and Technology, Xiangtan, Hunan 411201, PR China. Electronic address:

The detection of Cu ion, one of the metal ions substantial in cerebral physiology, is critical in studying brain activities and understanding brain functions. However, repetitive measurements of Cu in the progress of physiological and pathological events is still challenging, because lack of the platform for repetitive on-line detection-regeneration cycle. Herein we report the design of a regenerated electrochemical biosensor combined with the in vivo microdialysis system. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2019.03.014DOI Listing

Exploring the role of BDNF DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder.

J Psychiatr Res 2019 Apr 6;114:17-23. Epub 2019 Apr 6.

University of Milan, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences Luigi Sacco, Milano, Italy; CRC "Aldo Ravelli", University of Milan, Milano, Italy; Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University, CA, USA. Electronic address:

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a clinically heterogeneous neuropsychiatric condition associated with profound disability, whose susceptibility, stemming from genetic and environmental factors that intersect with each other, is still under investigation. In this perspective, we sought to explore the transcriptional regulation of Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF), a promising candidate biomarker in both development and etiology of different neuropsychiatric conditions, in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from OCD patients and healthy controls. In particular, we focused on BDNF gene expression and interrogated in depth DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation at gene promoters (exons I, IV and IX) in a sample of OCD patients attending a tertiary OCD Clinic to receive guidelines-recommended treatment, and matched controls. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2019.04.006DOI Listing

Previous glucocorticoid treatment in childhood and adolescence is associated with long-term differences in subcortical grey matter volume and microstructure.

Neuroimage Clin 2019 Apr 11;23:101825. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance, Centre for Functional and Diagnostic Imaging and Research, Copenhagen University Hospital, Hvidovre, Denmark. Electronic address:

Background: Glucocorticoids are widely used in the treatment of several pediatric diseases with undisputed disease-related benefits. Perinatal exposure to high levels of glucocorticoids can have long-term adverse cerebral effects. In adults, glucocorticoid treatment has been associated with smaller volumes of subcortical grey matter structures. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nicl.2019.101825DOI Listing

Morphological control of mitochondria as the novel mechanism of Gastrodia elata in attenuating mutant huntingtin-induced protein aggregations.

Phytomedicine 2018 Nov 14;59:152756. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Department of Biotechnology and Animal Science, National Ilan University, Ilan, Taiwan, ROC. Electronic address:

Background: According to Compendium of Materia Medica, Gastrodia elata (GE) Blume as a top grade and frequently prescribed herbal medicine has been used in treating dizziness, headaches, and epilepsy, indicating a neuroprotective effect. Because GE is capable of suppressing a hyperactive liver and thus calming endogenous wind, and because Huntington's disease (HD) can be classified as a phenomenon of disturbed liver wind, it is suggested that GE might be beneficial in treating HD. However, although current studies support GE for the prevention of diverse neurodegenerations such as HD, its detailed mechanisms remain elusive. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2018.11.016DOI Listing
November 2018

Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid sellar tumor in an adult with a familial history of a germline SMARCB1 mutation: case report and review of the literature.

World Neurosurg 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Neurosurgery, Toronto Western Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Background: Adult sellar ATRT is a rare diagnosis that has recently been shown to be a clinicopathologically and genetically distinct variant of ATRT occurring almost exclusively in middle-aged females. While up to one third of pediatric ATRT is caused by a familial syndrome, no previous cases of a familial adult sellar ATRT have been reported. We present the first case report of a familial germline mutation causing adult sellar ATRT and a literature review of 29 previously published cases of sporadic adult sellar ATRT. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2019.04.083DOI Listing

Association between supratotal glioblastoma resection and patient survival: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

World Neurosurg 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Radiology, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam.

Background: Gross total resection (GTR) of contrast enhancement (CE) improves survival of glioblastoma (GBM) patients. However, GBM infiltrates into brain parenchyma, beyond CE. It remains unclear whether resection beyond CE (supratotal resection, SPTR) improves survival without causing additional neurological deficits. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2019.04.092DOI Listing

What is the optimal timing and sequence of immunotherapy when used in combination with stereotactic radiation in the treatment of brain metastases?

World Neurosurg 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Neurosurgery, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY; Department of Radiation Oncology, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY. Electronic address:

Checkpoint immunotherapy (CIT) is an emerging and exciting treatment modality in the treatment of cancer. Much excitement exists in the potential of CIT to revolutionize the treatment and prognosis of brain metastases. The combination of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and CIT has been further studied and showed promise over treatment with either modalities alone. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2019.04.093DOI Listing

Validation of the social functioning scale: Comparison and evaluation in early psychosis, autism spectrum disorder and social anxiety disorder.

Psychiatry Res 2019 Mar 26;276:45-55. Epub 2019 Mar 26.

Autism Clinic for Translational Research, Brain and Mind Centre, Central Clinical School, Faculty of Medicine, University of Sydney, Camperdown, Sydney, NSW 2050 Australia. Electronic address:

Social functioning is an important component of mental disorders for assessment and treatment. There is no recognised self-report instrument to measure social functioning across disorders where social impairment is significant. The Social Functioning Scale (SFS) has, however, been used to assess social functioning in psychotic disorders, including Schizophrenia and Early Psychosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2019.03.037DOI Listing

Primary cilium and brain aging: role in neural stem cells, neurodegenerative diseases and glioblastoma.

Ageing Res Rev 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Cellular Oncology group, Biodonostia Health Research Institute, San Sebastian, Spain; CIBER de Fragilidad y Envejecimiento Saludable (CIBERfes), Madrid, Spain; IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation, Bilbao, Spain. Electronic address:

Brain aging is characterized by a progressive loss of tissue integrity and function as a consequence of impaired homeostasis and regeneration capacities. The primary cilium is a highly conserved organelle that projects from the cell surface in a single copy in virtually all mammalian cell types including neural stem/progenitors cells and neurons. Increasing evidence in the last decade points out that primary cilium could be a relevant mediator of neural stem cell activity, neurogenesis, neuronal maturation and maintenance, and brain tumorigenesis. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S15681637183030
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arr.2019.04.004DOI Listing
April 2019
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Predicting clinical outcomes of cirrhosis patients with hepatic encephalopathy from the fecal microbiome.

Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Taiwan; Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Science, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan; College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: Gut dysbiosis plays a role in hepatic encephalopathy (HE), while its relationship at the acute episode of overt HE (AHE), the disease progression and clinical outcomes remains unclear. We aimed to identify AHE-specific microbiome and its association to patients' outcomes.

Methods: We profiled fecal microbiome changes for a cohort of 62 patients with cirrhosis and AHE i) before treatment, ii) 2-3 days after medication and iii) 2-3 months after recovery, and three control cohorts i) healthy individuals, patients with ii) compensated or iii) decompensated cirrhosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcmgh.2019.04.008DOI Listing

Differential Effects of Unipolar versus Bipolar Depression on Episodic Memory Updating.

Neurobiol Learn Mem 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

National Center for Biological Sciences, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Bangalore 560065, India; Centre for Brain Development and Repair, Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Bangalore 560065, India; Centre for Discovery Brain Sciences, Deanery of Biomedical Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Hugh Robson Building, 15 George Square, Edinburgh EH89XD, UK.

Episodic memories, when reactivated, can be modified or updated by new learning. Since such dynamic memory processes remain largely unexplored in psychiatric disorders, we examined the impact of depression on episodic memory updating. Unipolar and bipolar depression patients, and age/education matched controls, first learned a set of objects (List-1). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nlm.2019.04.008DOI Listing

Endothelial Progenitor Cells: potential novel therapeutics for ischaemic stroke.

Authors:
Ulvi Bayraktutan

Pharmacol Res 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Stroke, Division of Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Sciences Building, Nottingham City Hospital Campus, School of Medicine, The University of Nottingham, Hucknall Road, Nottingham, NG5 1PB, UK. Electronic address:

Stroke is classified into two main groups depending on its aetiology; ischaemic stroke and haemorrhagic stroke which successively develop from the occlusion or rupture of an artery leading to the brain. Despite being the leading cause of human cerebral damage, there is currently no medical therapy for haemorrhagic stroke and thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator remains the only approved pharmacotherapy for ischaemic stroke. However, due to its short therapeutic window (first 4. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phrs.2019.04.017DOI Listing

Protective function of autophagy during VLCFA-induced cytotoxicity in a neurodegenerative cell model.

Free Radic Biol Med 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Université de Bourgogne Franche-Comté, Dijon, F-21000, France; Team 'Biochemistry of the Peroxisome, Inflammation and Lipid Metabolism' EA 7270, Inserm, F-21000, Dijon, France. Electronic address:

In recent years, a particular interest has focused on the accumulation of fatty acids with very long chains (VLCFA) in the occurrence of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis or dementia. Indeed, it seems increasingly clear that this accumulation of VLCFA in the central nervous system is accompanied by a progressive demyelination resulting in death of neuronal cells. Nevertheless, molecular mechanisms by which VLCFA result in toxicity remain unclear. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2019.04.016DOI Listing

Neuroimaging Evidence for Right Orbitofrontal Cortex Differences in Adolescents With Emotional and Behavioral Dysregulation.

J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

University of Vermont, Burlington; Vermont Center on Behavior and Health, University of Vermont, Burlington.

Objective: To characterize the structural and functional neurobiology of a large group of adolescents exhibiting a behaviorally and emotionally dysregulated phenotype.

Method: Age 14 adolescents from the IMAGEN study were investigated. Latent class analysis (LCA) on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was used to identify a class of individuals with elevated behavioral and emotional difficulties ("dysregulated"; n=233) who were compared to a matched sample from a low symptom class (controls, n=233). Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S08908567193026
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2019.01.021DOI Listing
April 2019
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Transcriptional activation of SIRT6 via FKHRL1/FOXO3a inhibits the Warburg effect in glioblastoma cells.

Cell Signal 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

State Key Laboratory of Silkworm Genome Biology, Institute of Sericulture and Systems Biology, Southwest University, Beibei, Chongqing 400716, China; Engineering Research Center for Cancer Biomedical and Translational Medicine, Southwest University, Beibei, Chongqing 400716, China; Chongqing Engineering and Technology Research Center for Silk Biomaterials and Regenerative Medicine, Southwest University, Beibei, Chongqing 400716, China; Cancer Center, Medical Research Institute, Southwest University, Beibei, Chongqing, China. Electronic address:

Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive and malignant form of brain tumors. However, its molecular mechanisms of tumorigenesis and cancer development remained to elucidate. Here, we reported FKHRL1, also called as FOXO3a, was an anti-cancer factor that inhibited the Warburg effect in GBM. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cellsig.2019.04.009DOI Listing

Exendin-4 attenuates brain mitochondrial toxicity through PI3K/Akt-dependent pathway in amyloid beta (1-42)-induced cognitive deficit rats.

Neurochem Int 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Division of Pharmacology, Institute of Pharmaceutical Research, GLA University, Mathura, 281 406, India.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by memory loss, disorientation and gradual deterioration of intellectual ability. In the pharmacotherapy of AD, the mitochondrial protective activity of Exendin-4 in experimental studies is yet to be established though its effectiveness is demonstrated in these patients. Therefore, the mitochondria protective activity of Exendin-4 (5 μg/kg, i. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S01970186193002
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuint.2019.04.006DOI Listing
April 2019
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Therapeutic Efficacy of Glial Cell-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Loaded Collagen Scaffolds in ex vivo organotypic brain slice Parkinson's Disease Models.

Brain Res Bull 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Laboratory of Psychiatry and Experimental Alzheimer's Research, Medical University of Innsbruck, Austria. Electronic address:

Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is a potent trophic factor that supports the survival of dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra (SN), which degenerate in Parkinson's disease (PD). The application of GDNF to the brain is challenging but biomaterials such as collagen can present novel strategies to target therapeutics to the brain. In this study, we assess the efficacy of collagen scaffolds loaded with GDNF on dopaminergic neuronal survival in organotypic ex vivo slices: axotomy, rotenone, and 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) models. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresbull.2019.04.012DOI Listing
April 2019
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miR-124 upregulates astrocytic glutamate transporter-1 via the Akt and mTOR signaling pathway post ischemic stroke.

Brain Res Bull 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Neurosurgery, Wuxi People's Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, 299 Qingyang Road, Wuxi, 214023, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

High-concentration glutamic acid (Glu) induced by ischemic stroke can be inhibited by glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1), which is the main mechanism for preventing excessive extracellular glutamate accumulation in the central nervous system. Upregulation of miR-124 could reduce the infarct area and promote the recovery of neurological function after ischemic stroke. A previous study investigated whether miR-124 could regulate GLT-1 expression in normal culture conditions. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S03619230183060
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresbull.2019.04.013DOI Listing
April 2019
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Proconvulsant effects of sildenafil citrate on pilocarpine-induced seizures: involvement of cholinergic, nitrergic and pro-oxidant mechanisms.

Brain Res Bull 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Neuropsychopharmacology Laboratory, Drug Research and Development Center, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Fortaleza, CE, Brazil; Pharmacy Department, Faculty of Dentistry, Nursing and Pharmacy, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Fortaleza, CE, Brazil. Electronic address:

Sildenafil is a phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor used for the treatment of erectile dysfunction and pulmonary hypertension. Proconvulsant effect is a serious adverse event associated with sildenafil use. Here, we investigated the possible proconvulsant effects of sildenafil in pilocarpine (PILO)-induced seizures model, which mimics some aspects of temporal lobe epilepsy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresbull.2019.04.008DOI Listing

BDNF Val66Met genetic variation and its plasma level in patients with morbid obesity: A case-control study.

Gene 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. Electronic address:

Obesity is a major public health concern worldwide. Genetic, behavioral, and environmental factors contribute to the multifactorial etiology of obesity. Evidence suggests an association between human Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) Val66Met single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and obesity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2019.04.045DOI Listing

Role of astrocytes-derived D-serine in PFOS-induced neurotoxicity through NMDARs in the rat primary hippocampal neurons.

Toxicology 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Environmental Health and Toxicology, School of Public Health, Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116044, China; Dalian Key Laboratory of Hematology, Liaoning Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Medical Center, Department of Environmental Health and Toxicology, School of Public Health, Dalian Medical University. Dalian, Liaoning, 116044, China. Electronic address:

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is one of the perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), and has been used in industrial and consumer products. It has already been shown that PFOS could be detected in the environmental media and biological species including humans, due to its resistance to environmental degradation. PFOS is known to induce a series of adverse impacts on human health, e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tox.2019.04.007DOI Listing

NEURAL CORRELATES OF EGOCENTRIC AND ALLOCENTRIC FRAMES OF REFERENCE COMBINED WITH METRIC AND NON-METRIC SPATIAL RELATIONS.

Neuroscience 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Helmholtz Institute, Experimental Psychology, Utrecht University, 3584, CS, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Spatial relations (SRs: coordinate/metric vs categorical/non metric) and frames of reference (FoRs: egocentric/body vs allocentric/external element) represent the building blocks underlying any spatial representation. In the present 7 T fMRI study we have identified for the first time the neural correlates of the spatial representations emerging from the combination of the two dimensions. The direct comparison between the different spatial representations revealed a bilateral fronto-parietal network, mainly right sided, that was more involved in the egocentric categorical representations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2019.04.021DOI Listing

Modulation of automatic and creative features of the Remote Associates Test by angular gyrus stimulation.

Neuropsychologia 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Psychology, Bar Ilan University, Ramat Gan, Israel; The Gonda Brain Research Center, Bar Ilan University, Israel.

Creative thinking comprises two main components: divergent and convergent thinking. The Remote Associates Test (RAT) was designed to examine the ability to form associative elements into new combinations, however it is widely used as a general creativity measure, without sub-dividing it to its components. Our goal here was to explore the sub-components of the RAT, aiming to link them to the angular gyrus (AG) activation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2019.04.010DOI Listing

Behavioral and electctrophysiological evidence for enhanced sensitivity to subtle variations of pain expressions of same-race than other-race faces.

Neuropsychologia 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Peking-Tsinghua Center for Life Sciences, China. Electronic address:

Recent research has shown enhanced brain activity in responses to pain expression of same-race than other-race faces. However, due to the stimuli used in electctrophysiological (EEG) research (i.e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2019.04.008DOI Listing
April 2019
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Improved balance performance accompanied by structural plasticity in blind adults after training.

Neuropsychologia 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Universität Hamburg, Biological Psychology and Neuropsychology, Von-Melle-Park 11, 20146, Hamburg, Germany. Electronic address:

Postural control requires the sensory integration of visual, vestibular, and proprioceptive signals. In the absence of vision, either by blindfolding or in blind individuals, balance performance is typically poorer than with sight. Previous research has suggested that despite showing compensatory vestibular and proprioceptive processing during upright standing, balance performance in blind individuals is overall lower than in sighted controls with eyes open. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00283932193007
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2019.04.005DOI Listing
April 2019
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The effects of short-term and long-term environmental enrichment on locomotion, mood-like behavior, cognition and hippocampal gene expression.

Behav Brain Res 2019 Apr 17:111917. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Psychiatric Neuroscience Lab, Discipline of Psychiatry, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australia; Department of Psychiatry, Melbourne Medical School, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, Australia. Electronic address:

Background: Environmental enrichment (EE) has been shown to modulate behavior and hippocampal gene expression; however, the currently available literature does not explain the differential effects that may relate to the duration of EE.

Aim: To investigate the differential effects of short- and long-term EE on locomotion, anxiety-, depressive- and cognition-like behaviors, and hippocampal gene expression under physiological conditions.

Methods: We assigned either short-term or long-term intervention with respective controls to healthy C57BL/6 mice (n = 12-16/group). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2019.111917DOI Listing

Tauopathy in the periaqueductal gray, kölliker-fuse nucleus and nucleus retroambiguus is not predicted by ultrasonic vocalization in tau-P301L mice.

Behav Brain Res 2019 Apr 17:111916. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

The Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, Discovery Neuroscience theme, Australia. Electronic address:

Upper airway and vocalization control areas such as the periaqueductal gray (PAG), kölliker-fuse nucleus (KF) and nucleus retroambiguus (NRA) are prone to developing tauopathy in mice expressing the mutant human tau P301 L protein. Consequently, impaired ultrasonic vocalization (USV) previously identified in tau-P301 L mice at the terminal disease stage of 8-9 months of age, was attributed to the presence of tauopathy in these regions. Our aim was to establish whether the onset of USV disorders manifest prior to the terminal stage, and if USV disorders are predictive of the presence of tauopathy in the PAG, KF and NRA. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2019.111916DOI Listing

Fractionating adaptive learning: A meta-analysis of the reversal learning paradigm.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Psychology, National University of Singapore, Singapore; NUS Graduate School for Integrative Sciences and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore. Electronic address:

In constantly changing environments, individuals need to overcome old habitual behaviors in order to learn new associations. Neuroimaging studies have focused on prediction errors, reversal errors and reversal switching in the reversal learning paradigm. Due to the inconsistencies of brain functioning across studies, we attempt to shed light on the concordant activity by performing meta-analyses on different components of reversal learning. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2019.04.006DOI Listing

Challenges to the Parental Brain: Neuroethological and Translational Considerations.

Front Neuroendocrinol 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine, Tufts University, N. Grafton, MA 01536.

Extending from research documenting adaptive parental responses in nonthreatening contexts, the influences of various neuroethological and physiological challenges on effective parenting responses are considered in the current review. In natural habitats, rodent family units are exposed to predators, compromised resources, and other environmental stressors that disrupt HPA axis functions. With the additional physiological demands associated with caring for offspring, alterations in stress-related neuroendocrine responsiveness contribute to adaptive responses in many challenging contexts. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yfrne.2019.04.004DOI Listing

REST: An epigenetic regulator of neuronal stress responses in the young and ageing brain.

Front Neuroendocrinol 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Neuroimmunology & Neurotherapeutics Laboratory, School of Pharmacy and Biomolecular Sciences, University of Brighton, Brighton BN2 4GJ, UK. Electronic address:

The transcriptional repressor REST (Repressor Element-1 Silencing Transcription factor) is a key modulator of the neuronal epigenome and targets genes involved in neuronal differentiation, axonal growth, vesicular transport, ion channel conductance and synaptic plasticity. Whilst its gene expression-modifying properties have been examined extensively in neuronal development, REST's response towards stress-induced neuronal insults has only recently been explored. Overall, REST appears to be an ideal candidate to fine-tune neuronal gene expression following different forms of cellular, neuropathological, psychological and physical stressors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yfrne.2019.04.001DOI Listing

Tetramethylpyrazine attenuates blood-brain barrier disruption in ischemia/reperfusion injury through the JAK/STAT signaling pathway.

Eur J Pharmacol 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Neurosurgery, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei, 430060, PR China. Electronic address:

Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) has been studied in depth and is widely used in the treatment of many kinds of diseases in China. However, whether it has neuroprotec-tive effects on cerebral ischemia remains unclear. An ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury animal model was established via middle cerebral artery occlusion in this study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2019.04.028DOI Listing

Post-Concussion: Receded Near Point of Convergence is Not Diagnostic of Convergence Insufficiency.

Am J Ophthalmol 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Ophthalmology, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA; Department of Ophthalmology, Harvard Medical School; Department of Ophthalmology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear, Boston, MA.

Purpose: To determine the frequency of receded near point of convergence (NPC) in patients with chronic concussion-related symptoms, and among those with receded NPC to enumerate the frequency of convergence insufficiency and other oculomotor disorders.

Study: Design: Retrospective cross-sectional study METHODS: Clinic charts were retrospectively reviewed for the prior 3.5 years to identify all patients <21 years old who were >28 days post-concussion, had chronic concussion-related symptoms, had normal visual acuity, and received a comprehensive sensorimotor examination. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajo.2019.04.008DOI Listing

Retinal Vessel Phenotype in Patients with Non-Arteritic Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy.

Am J Ophthalmol 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of ophthalmology, University Hospital of Grenoble-Alpes, France; Grenoble-Alpes University, HP2 Laboratory, INSERM U1042, Grenoble, France; Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital of Grenoble-Alpes, Grenoble, France. Electronic address:

Purpose: The pathophysiology of non-arteritic AION (N-AION) is not completely understood. Studies of the retinal vasculature phenotype in patients with N-AION could help us to understand vascular abnormalities associated with the disease.

Design: Retrospective case series with matched controls. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajo.2019.04.007DOI Listing

Inhibitory Control of Emotional Interference in Children with Learning Disorders: Evidence from Event-related Potentials and Event-related Spectral Perturbation Analysis.

Brain Res 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Health Promotion, Education, and Behavior, University of South Carolina, United States.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2019.04.016DOI Listing

Subtle differences in synaptic transmission in medial nucleus of trapezoid body neurons between wild-type and Fmr1 knockout mice.

Authors:
Yong Lu

Brain Res 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, College of Medicine, Northeast Ohio Medical University, Rootstown, OH 44272, USA. Electronic address:

In animal models for fragile X syndrome where the gene for fragile X mental retardation protein is knocked out (Fmr1 KO), neurotransmission in multiple brain regions shifts excitation/inhibition balance, resulting in hyperexcitability in neural circuits. Here, using whole-cell recordings from brainstem slices, we investigated synaptic transmission at the medial nucleus of trapezoid body (MNTB, a critical nucleus in the brainstem sound localization circuit), in Fmr1 KO and wild-type (WT) mice 2-3 weeks of age in both sexes. Surprisingly, neither synaptic excitation nor inhibition in KO neurons was significantly changed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2019.04.006DOI Listing

Sensitivity to amplitude envelope rise time in infancy and vocabulary development at three years: A significant relationship.

Dev Sci 2019 Apr 20:e12836. Epub 2019 Apr 20.

The MARCS Institute for Brain, Behaviour and Development, Western Sydney University, Penrith, Australia.

Here we report, for the first time, a relationship between sensitivity to amplitude envelope rise time in infants and their later vocabulary development. Recent research in auditory neuroscience has revealed that amplitude envelope rise time plays a mechanistic role in speech encoding. Accordingly, individual differences in infant discrimination of amplitude envelope rise times could be expected to relate to individual differences in language acquisition. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/desc.12836DOI Listing
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