1,838,872 results match your criteria Brain and Language [Journal]


Adaptive behaviour and quality of life in school-age children with congenital visual disorders and different levels of visual impairment.

Res Dev Disabil 2018 Dec 14;85:154-162. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Developmental Neurosciences Programme, UCL Great Ormond Street Institute of Child Health, London, UK; Neurodisability Service, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, UK.

Background: Adaptive behaviours are vital skills that allow individuals to function independently and are potentially amenable to behavioural interventions. Previous research indicated that adaptive behaviours are reduced in children and adolescents with severe to profound VI, but it was unclear if this was also the case for children with mild to moderate VI.

Aim: The aim of the study was to assess differences in adaptive behaviour in children with congenital visual disorders and different levels of visual impairment and their influence on quality of life and everyday strengths and difficulties. Read More

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December 2018

Epilepsy and seizures in children with congenital heart disease: A prospective study.

Seizure 2018 Nov 26;64:50-53. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Clinique d'Investigation Neuro-Cardiaque (CINC), CHU Sainte-Justine, Montreal, Canada.

Purpose: Children with complex congenital heart disease (CHD) experience high incidence of perioperative seizures. Population-based studies also report high epilepsy co-morbidity in CHD. Given the increasing survival of patients with CHD and the interference of seizures and epilepsy with the long-term outcomes, characterizing them in this population is of high relevance. Read More

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November 2018

Brain activity in struggling readers before intervention relates to future reading gains.

Cortex 2018 Nov 16;111:286-302. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Department of Psychology, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA; Biomedical Imaging Center, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA.

Neural markers for reading-related changes in response to intervention could inform intervention plans by serving as a potential index of the malleability of the reading network in struggling readers. Of particular interest is the role of brain activation outside the reading network, especially in executive control networks important for reading comprehension. However, it is unclear whether any intervention-related executive control changes in the brain are specific to reading tasks or reflect more domain general changes. Read More

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November 2018

Neuronal Receptors Display Cytoskeleton-Independent Directed Motion on the Plasma Membrane.

iScience 2018 Dec 5;10:234-244. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Centre for Developmental Neurobiology, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, London SE1 1UL, UK; MRC Centre for Neurodevelopmental Disorders, King's College London, New Hunt's House, Guy's Campus, London SE1 1UL, UK. Electronic address:

Directed transport of transmembrane proteins is generally believed to occur via intracellular transport vesicles. However, using single-particle tracking in rat hippocampal neurons with a pH-sensitive quantum dot probe that specifically reports surface movement of receptors, we have identified a subpopulation of neuronal EphB2 receptors that exhibit directed motion between synapses within the plasma membrane itself. This receptor movement occurs independently of the cytoskeleton but is dependent on cholesterol and is regulated by neuronal activity. Read More

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December 2018
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Convergent microstructural brain changes across genetic models of autism spectrum disorder-A pilot study.

Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging 2018 Dec 8;283:83-91. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Department of Radiology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI 53705, USA; Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin, School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI 53705, USA; Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, 53706 USA; Neuroscience Training Program, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, 53705 USA. Electronic address:

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex and genetically heterogeneous neuropsychiatric disease affecting as many as 1 in 68 children. Large scale genetic sequencing of individuals along the autism spectrum has uncovered several genetic risk factors for ASD; however, understanding how, and to what extent, individual genes contribute to the overall disease phenotype remains unclear. Neuroimaging studies of ASD have revealed a wide spectrum of structural and functional perturbations that are thought to reflect, in part, the complex genetic heterogeneity underpinning ASD. Read More

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December 2018

Impact of moderate prenatal alcohol exposure on histaminergic neurons, histidine decarboxylase levels and histamine H receptors in adult rat offspring.

Alcohol 2018 Jul 22;76:47-57. Epub 2018 Jul 22.

Department of Neurosciences, University of New Mexico School of Medicine, Albuquerque, NM, 87131, United States. Electronic address:

We have reported that moderate prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) elevates histamine H receptor-mediated inhibition of glutamatergic neurotransmission in dentate gyrus (DG), and that the H receptor antagonist ABT-239 ameliorates PAE-induced deficits in DG long-term potentiation. Here, we investigated whether PAE alters other markers of histaminergic neurotransmission. Long-Evans rat dams voluntarily consumed either a 0% or a 5% ethanol solution 4 h each day throughout gestation. Read More

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Behavioral and neural evidence on the processing of ambiguous adjective-noun dependencies in Korean sentence comprehension.

Brain Lang 2018 Dec 14;188:28-41. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Dept. of Media and Communication, Konkuk Univeirsity, Seoul 5029, Republic of Korea; Brain and Cognition Research Center, Konkuk University, Seoul 5029, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

In Korean, it is allowed for an adjective to modify a distant noun that appears after an intervening relative clause instead of an adjacent noun. The current study investigated the time course of syntactic and semantic integration between an adjective (A) and an adjacent noun (N1) and/or a distant noun (N2) during on-line reading comprehension of Korean sentences. Semantic congruence between adjectives and nouns were manipulated, such that A was congruent with both N1 and N2, either with N1 or N2, or with none of N1/N2. Read More

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December 2018

Experimentally induced subclinical hypothyroidism causes decreased functional connectivity of the cuneus: A resting state fMRI study.

Psychoneuroendocrinology 2018 Dec 12;102:158-163. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Neurology, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany; Department of Psychology II, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany.

Objective: The aim of this study was to experimentally evaluate the effects of subclinical mild hypothyroidism on brain network connectivity as determined by resting state fMRI (rsfMRI) which serves as a proxy for global changes in brain function.

Methods: Fifteen otherwise healthy patients with complete hypothyroidism under stable, long term levothyroxine substitution volunteered for the study. They reduced their pretest levothyroxine dosage by 30% for 52-56 days. Read More

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December 2018

Resting state functional connectivity and neural correlates of face-name encoding in patients with ischemic vascular lesions with and without the involvement of the left inferior frontal gyrus.

Cortex 2018 Nov 26;113:15-28. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Department of Neurology, Faculdade de Medicina FMUSP, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:

Face-name association is a relevant ability for social interactions and involves the ventral and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices, particularly in the left hemisphere, bilateral hippocampal, fusiform gyrus and occipital regions. Previous studies demonstrated the primary role of the hippocampus for this ability in healthy subjects. However, no study has examined the participation of the left inferior frontal area, specially the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) in patients with ischemic vascular lesions. Read More

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November 2018

Mapping whole brain connectivity changes: The potential impact of different surgical resection approaches for temporal lobe epilepsy.

Cortex 2018 Nov 17;113:1-14. Epub 2018 Nov 17.

Neuroscience and Aphasia Research Unit, Division of Neuroscience and Experimental Psychology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Manchester, UK; MRC Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, University of Cambridge, UK. Electronic address:

In neurosurgery there are several situations that require transgression of the temporal cortex. For example, a subset of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy require surgical resection (most typically, en-bloc anterior temporal lobectomy). This procedure is the gold standard to alleviate seizures but is associated with chronic cognitive deficits. Read More

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November 2018
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Compounding matters: Event-related potential evidence for early semantic access to compound words.

Cognition 2018 Dec 14;184:44-52. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Psychology and the Jack and Nora Walker Centre for Lifespan Development Research, Brock University, Canada.

Reading words in a native language triggers a largely obligatory cognitive process that we accept as leading to comprehension of the word - we cannot suppress our understanding of word meaning. In this study, we investigated the early stages of this comprehension process by means of event-related potentials (ERPs) to identify when this processing of meaning - that is, semantic processing - first occurs. We report that, when processing visually presented compound words, semantic access at some level occurs as early as the P100 and persists through to the N400. Read More

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December 2018

Gaze allocation in face-to-face communication is affected primarily by task structure and social context, not stimulus-driven factors.

Cognition 2018 Dec 14;184:28-43. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Experimental Psychology, Helmholtz Institute, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands; Developmental Psychology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands; Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, University Medical Center, Utrecht, the Netherlands.

Gaze allocation to human faces has recently been shown to be greatly dependent on the social context. However, what has not been considered explicitly here, is how gaze allocation may be supportive of the specific task that individuals carry out. In the present study, we combined these two insights. Read More

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December 2018

One of us? how facial and symbolic cues to own- versus other-race membership influence access to perceptual awareness.

Cognition 2018 Dec 14;184:19-27. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Psychology, Center for Brain and Cognitive Sciences, School of Education, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Information that conveys racial group membership plays a powerful role in influencing people's information processing including perceptual, memory and evaluative judgments. Yet whether own- and other-race information can differentially impact people's perceptual awareness at a preconscious level remains unclear. Employing a breaking continuous flash suppression (b-CFS) paradigm, we investigated whether compared with other-race stimuli, participants' own-race stimuli would be prioritized to gain privileged access to perceptual awareness. Read More

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December 2018

Profiling of miRNAs in serum of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder shows significant alterations.

J Psychiatr Res 2018 Dec 8;109:185-192. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Yasuj University of Medical Sciences, Yasuj, Iran; CEINGE-biotecnologie Avanzate, Naples, Italy. Electronic address:

Background: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a common psychiatric disorder, is identified by abnormal levels of impulsivity, inattention, and hyperactivity. MiRNAs play important roles in neural network development of the brain. Circulating miRNAs (cmiRNAs) are offered as promising noninvasive markers for psychiatric disorders. Read More

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December 2018

A mouse model for intellectual disability caused by mutations in the X-linked 2'‑O‑methyltransferase Ftsj1 gene.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Functional Genomics, Interfaculty Institute of Genetics and Functional Genomics, University Medicine Greifswald, Felix-Hausdorff-Strasse 8, 17489 Greifswald, Germany.

Mutations in the X chromosomal tRNA 2'‑O‑methyltransferase FTSJ1 cause intellectual disability (ID). Although the gene is ubiquitously expressed affected individuals present no consistent clinical features beyond ID. In order to study the pathological mechanism involved in the aetiology of FTSJ1 deficiency-related cognitive impairment, we generated and characterized an Ftsj1 deficient mouse line based on the gene trapped stem cell line RRD143. Read More

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December 2018

NMDAR encephalitis presenting as akinesia in a patient with Parkinson disease.

J Neuroimmunol 2018 Dec 12;328:35-37. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Neuroimmunology Laboratory, IRCCS Mondino Foundation, Pavia, Italy. Electronic address:

We describe the case of a woman with Parkinson disease who developed an N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antibody-mediated encephalitis. As a novelty, the encephalitis presentation mimicked a worsening of the pre-existing extrapyramidal syndrome, manifesting mainly as severe bradykinesia and, eventually, akinesia. Brain MRI was normal, whereas cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis disclosed unique-to-CSF oligoclonal bands. Read More

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December 2018

Single-trial EEG dissociates motivation and conflict processes during decision-making under risk.

Neuroimage 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Psychology, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, 60208, USA.

In making decisions under risk (i.e., choosing whether to gamble when the outcome probabilities are known), two aspects of decision are of particular concern. Read More

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December 2018

Non-invasive MRI of brain clearance pathways using multiple echo time arterial spin labelling: An Aquaporin-4 study.

Neuroimage 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

UCL Centre for Advanced Biomedical Imaging, Division of Medicine, UCL, London, UK.

There is currently a lack of non-invasive tools to assess water transport in healthy and pathological brain tissue. Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channels are central to many water transport mechanisms, and emerging evidence also suggests that AQP4 plays a key role in amyloid-β (Aβ) clearance, possibly via the glymphatic system. Here, we present the first non-invasive technique sensitive to AQP4 channels polarised at the blood-brain interface (BBI). Read More

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December 2018

A multiomic approach to characterize the temporal sequence in Alzheimer's disease-related pathology.

Neurobiol Dis 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Institute of Biomedicine, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio 70210, Finland. Electronic address:

No single-omic approach completely elucidates the multitude of alterations taking place in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we coupled transcriptomic and phosphoproteomic approaches to determine the temporal sequence of changes in mRNA, protein, and phosphopeptide expression levels from human temporal cortical samples, with varying degree of AD-related pathology. This approach highlighted fluctuation in synaptic and mitochondrial function as the earliest pathological events in brain samples with AD-related pathology. Read More

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December 2018

Cerebrospinal fluid ferritin levels predict brain hypometabolism in people with underlying β-amyloid pathology.

Neurobiol Dis 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Melbourne Dementia Research Centre, The Florey Institute for Neuroscience and Mental Health, The University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; Cooperative Research Center for Mental Health, Victoria, Australia. Electronic address:

β-Amyloid pathology is elevated in ~30% of cognitively normal people over 65, and is associated with accelerated neurodegeneration in the pre-clinical stages of Alzheimer's disease. Recent findings reveal that brain iron might also act to propel neurodegeneration in people with underlying amyloid pathology. Here, repeated PET scans of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) were used as a biomarker for brain hypometabolism and a downstream biomarker of neurodegeneration to investigate whether levels of ferritin in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF; a reporter of brain iron load) are associated with prodromal disease progression of people with high β-amyloid pathology determined by established cut-off values in CSF t-tau/Aβ ratio. Read More

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December 2018

5-methylcytosine and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in brains of patients with multiple system atrophy and patients with Parkinson's disease.

J Chem Neuroanat 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Neurology, University of Bonn, Germany; German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE), University of Bonn, Germany.

Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a sporadic neurodegenerative disorder of unknown etiology, characterized pathologically by α-synuclein aggregates preferentially found in oligodendroglial cells. DNA methylation has emerged as a mechanism of regulation of α-synuclein expression. Reduced 5-methylcytosine (5-mC) DNA methylation of α-synuclein has been found in the brains of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Read More

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December 2018

The Acute Influence of Acid Suppression with Esomeprazole on Gastrointestinal Microbiota and Brain Gene Expression Profiles in a Murine Model of Restraint Stress.

Neuroscience 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, B168 12700 E. 19th Avenue, Aurora, CO 80045, USA. Electronic address:

The central nervous system (CNS) and gastrointestinal tract (GIT) are linked through neuro-endocrine and humoral pathways. Critically ill patients suffer severe physical and emotional stress and frequently receive acid suppressants; however, stress and acid suppression may alter GIT microbiota. This study evaluated the effects of acid suppression on the GIT microbiota and genome-wide expression of brain-specific genes in a murine model of restraint stress. Read More

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December 2018

Effective Effectors: How T cells Access and Infiltrate the Central nervous System.

Pharmacol Ther 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Duke Brain Tumor Immunotherapy Program, Department of Neurosurgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710., United States; The Preston Robert Tisch Brain Tumor Center, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710., United States; Department of Neurosurgery, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC 27710., United States; Department of Biomedical Engineering, Pratt School of Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC 27710, United States; Department of Pathology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC 27710., United States. Electronic address:

Several Phase II and III clinical trials have demonstrated that immunotherapy can induce objective responses in otherwise refractory malignancies in tumors outside the central nervous system. In large part, effector T cells mediate much of the antitumor efficacy in these trials, and potent antitumor T cells can be generated through vaccination, immune checkpoint blockade, adoptive transfer, and genetic manipulation. However, activated T cells must still traffic to, infiltrate, and persist within tumor in order to mediate tumor lysis. Read More

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December 2018

A tale of two steroids: the importance of the androgens DHEA and DHEAS for early neurodevelopment.

J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

School of Health & Biomedical Sciences, RMIT University - Bundoora Campus, Melbourne, 3083, Australia. Electronic address:

DHEA and DHEAS are neuroactive neurosteroids that interact with several major receptor system in the brain, including sigma (σ), glutamate, and GABA-A receptors. It has been recognized as early as 1952, that the loss of DHEA/DHEAS in adult life is associated with neuropsychiatric disorders (eg schizophrenia, depression). However, the mechanistic role for DHEA/DHEAS in any of these domains remains speculative, not the least because the presence of these androgens in the adrenal gland and brain is largely confined to humans and only some non-human primates. Read More

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December 2018

Comparing Stress and Arousal Systems in Response to Different Social Contexts in Children with ASD.

Biol Psychol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, United States; Vanderbilt Kennedy Center, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, United States; Vanderbilt Brain Institute, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, United States.

Response to psychological stress can vary based on the extent to which the context is perceived as stressful, especially under different social conditions. The purpose of this preliminary study was to compare physiological stress (cortisol) and regulation (respiratory sinus arrhythmia, RSA) of 10-12 year old children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD, n = 31) or typical development (TD, n = 25) when exposed to two social stress protocols. The extent to which perceived emotion (affect recognition) and anxiety (state and trait) mediate the stress response was also explored. Read More

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December 2018

Stress hormones and eating disorders.

Mol Cell Endocrinol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Aims: The aim of this paper is to emphasize the role of stress processes in the aetiology of eating disorders.

Methods: We have examined the literature for evidence that people with eating disorders might exhibit markers of stress and show signs of the "maltreated ecophenotype".

Results: Early adversity is more common among people with binge eating behaviours. Read More

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December 2018

Expression of immediate early genes in brain reward circuitries: Differential regulation by psychostimulant and opioid drugs.

Neurochem Int 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

NIDA Intramural Program, Molecular Neuropsychiatry Research Branch, 251 Bayview Boulevard, Baltimore, MD, 21224, USA. Electronic address:

Although some of the clinical manifestations of substance use disorders might be superficially similar, it is highly likely that different classes of abused drugs including opioids (heroin, morphine, and oxycodone, other opioids) and psychostimulants (cocaine and amphetamines) cause different neuroadaptations in various brain regions dependent in the distribution and concentration of their biochemical sites of actions. In fact, different molecular networks are indeed impacted by acute and chronic administration of addictive substances. Some of the genes whose expression is influenced by the administration of these substances are immediate-early genes (IEGs). Read More

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December 2018

Role of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in the long-term effects of repeated social defeat stress on the rewarding and psychomotor properties of cocaine in mice.

Behav Brain Res 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Unidad de Investigación Psicobiología de las Drogodependencias, Departamento de Psicobiologia, Facultad de Psicología, Universidad de Valencia, Spain. Electronic address:

Exposure to social stress increases the vulnerability of experimental animals to the rewarding effects of cocaine and it has been suggested that the glutamatergic system could be involved in these effects of stress. The aim of this work is to determine the role of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptors in the influence of social stress on the conditioned place preference and locomotor sensitization induced by cocaine. Mice treated with saline or NMDA antagonist memantine (5 or 10 mg/kg) underwent repeated social defeat or were kept in the exploration control condition. Read More

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December 2018

Exposure to methylphenidate in adolescence and adulthood modulates cross-sensitization to amphetamine in adulthood in three genetically variant female rat strains.

Behav Brain Res 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Neurobiology & Anatomy, University of Texas McGovern Medical School, Houston, TX 77030 United States.

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a developmental, behavioral disorder that is characterized by patterns of impulsivity and limited attention. Stimulants, such as methylphenidate (MPD) and amphetamine (Amph), are utilized as first-line agents in the treatment of ADHD. While Amph is known elicit dependence, MPD is not. Read More

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December 2018

Bioluminescence imaging of Arc expression in mouse brain under acute and chronic exposure to pesticides.

Neurotoxicology 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Molecular Neuroscience, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, Toyama, 930-0194, Japan. Electronic address:

Exposure to pesticides can induce neurobehavioral effects in rodents, as well as in other mammals, including humans. However, the effects of the toxicity of pesticides on the central nervous system (CNS) remain largely unclear. The expression of the activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein gene (Arc) is induced in a neuronal-activity-dependent manner and is implicated in synaptic and experience-dependent plasticity. Read More

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December 2018

Distinct neural responses to social and semantic violations: An N400 study.

Int J Psychophysiol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Stony Brook University, United States of America.

We investigated event-related brain potential correlates of encountering context-incongruent social information. Building on evidence that information semantically incongruent with its context elicits an N400 response (a prominent negative-going deflection in the ongoing electroencephalogram; EEG), we hypothesized that statements incongruent (relative to congruent) with basic standards of amicable treatment by others (e.g. Read More

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December 2018

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor signaling mitigates the impact of acute social stress.

Neuropharmacology 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Neuroscience Institute, Center for Behavioral Neuroscience, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303, United States. Electronic address:

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is known to promote fear learning as well as avoidant behavioral responses to chronic social defeat stress, but, conversely, this peptide can also have antidepressant effects and can reduce depressant-like symptoms such as social avoidance. The purpose of this study was to use a variety of approaches to determine whether BDNF acting on tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) promotes or prevents avoidant phenotypes in hamsters and mice that have experienced acute social defeat stress. We utilized systemic and brain region-dependent manipulation of BDNF signaling before or immediately following social defeat stress in Syrian hamsters, TrkB knock-in mice, and C57Bl/6J mice and measured the subsequent behavioral response to a novel opponent. Read More

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December 2018

Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid inflammatory cytokines in perinatal depression.

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Northwestern University, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences.

Background: While perinatal depression is one of the most common complications of pregnancy, there is an insufficient understanding of the mechanistic underpinnings of disease. While an association between peripheral inflammatory cytokines and major depressive disorder has been demonstrated, cytokines cannot freely cross the blood brain barrier and thus they give little insight into alternations in brain function. As the brain is in direct communication with the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), assessment of inflammation in the CSF may be more directly related to the biologic markers of affective change. Read More

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December 2018

The Golden Section and beauty in nature: The perfection of symmetry and the charm of asymmetry.

Prog Biophys Mol Biol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Departamento de Botânica,Campus Universitário, S/N, C.P. 345 Capão do Leão, RS, Brazil. Electronic address:

It is not unanimous among scientists if there is beauty in science. Some deny it. Mental clarity of conclusions when captured in simple looking equations is mathematical beauty. Read More

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December 2018

Eosinophilic cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis associated with neural Angiostrongylus vasorum infection in a dog.

Vet Clin Pathol 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Small Animal Clinical Science, Institute of Veterinary Science, University of Liverpool, Neston, UK.

A 1-year-old, female intact Pug dog was presented to the Small Animal Teaching Hospital of the University of Liverpool with a 4-week history of progressive multifocal intracranial signs. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) detected multiple hemorrhagic lesions in the brain. The Baermann and zinc sulfate flotation tests with centrifugation, performed on fecal samples, were positive for lungworm larvae and an antigenic test confirmed Angiostrongylus vasorum infection. Read More

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December 2018

Do male and female soccer players differ in helping? A study on prosocial behavior among young players.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0209168. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Social and Organizational Psychology, Faculty of Social and Behavioural Sciences, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Acting prosocially can be quite challenging in one of the most salient intergroup contexts in contemporary society: Soccer. When winning is the ultimate goal, balancing self-interest with helping a fellow player in distress can be a tough decision; yet it happens. To date, we know little about what motivates soccer players to offer such help in the heat of the game. Read More

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December 2018

Role of serum levels of intraoperative brain natriuretic peptide for predicting acute kidney injury in living donor liver transplantation.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0209164. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: Patients with end-stage liver disease frequently experience acute kidney injury (AKI) after living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). Serum levels of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) have increasingly been accepted as a predictor of AKI in clinical settings. This study investigated the predictive role of intraoperative BNP levels in the early development of AKI after LDLT. Read More

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December 2018

Small-molecule induction of Aβ-42 peptide production in human cerebral organoids to model Alzheimer's disease associated phenotypes.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0209150. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Service d'Etude des Prions et Infections Atypiques (SEPIA), Institut François Jacob, CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, Fontenay-aux-Roses, France.

Human mini-brains (MB) are cerebral organoids that recapitulate in part the complexity of the human brain in a unique three-dimensional in vitro model, yielding discrete brain regions reminiscent of the cerebral cortex. Specific proteins linked to neurodegenerative disorders are physiologically expressed in MBs, such as APP-derived amyloids (Aβ), whose physiological and pathological roles and interactions with other proteins are not well established in humans. Here, we demonstrate that neuroectodermal organoids can be used to study the Aβ accumulation implicated in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Read More

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December 2018

The courses of maternal and paternal depressive and anxiety symptoms during the prenatal period in the FinnBrain Birth Cohort study.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0207856. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

University of Turku, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Turku Brain and Mind Center, FinnBrain Birth Cohort Study, Turku, Finland.

Maternal prenatal symptoms of depression and anxiety have been suggested to impose differential effects on later offspring development, depending on their characteristics, such as timing, intensity and persistence. Paternal symptoms have been less investigated. While knowledge on these trajectory characteristics is essential for improved comprehension of prenatal stress, prospective studies including both expecting parents have been scarce. Read More

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December 2018

Indomethacin blocks the increased conditioned rewarding effects of cocaine induced by repeated social defeat.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0209291. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Psychobiology, Faculty of Psychology, Universitat de València, Valencia, Spain.

It is well established that repeated social defeat stress can induce negative long-term consequences such as increased anxiety-like behavior and enhances the reinforcing effect of psychostimulants in rodents. In the current study, we evaluated how the immune system may play a role in these long-term effects of stress. A total of 148 OF1 mice were divided into different experimental groups according to stress condition (exploration or social defeat) and pre-treatment (saline, 5 or 10 mg/kg of the anti-inflammatory indomethacin) before each social defeat or exploration episode. Read More

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December 2018

Dyslexia on a continuum: A complex network approach.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0208923. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Psychology, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York, United States of America.

We investigated the efficacy of graph-theoretic metrics of task-related functional brain connectivity in predicting reading difficulty and explored the hypothesis that task conditions emphasizing audiovisual integration would be especially diagnostic of reading difficulty. An fMRI study was conducted in which 24 children (8 to 14 years old) who were previously diagnosed with dyslexia completed a rhyming judgment task under three presentation modality conditions. Regression analyses found that characteristic connectivity metrics of the reading network showed a presentation modality dependent relationship with reading difficulty: Children with more segregated reading networks and those that used fewer of the available connections were those with the least severe reading difficulty. Read More

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December 2018

Diagnosis and management of foetal alcohol specturm disorder.

Curr Opin Psychiatry 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

FASD Specialist Behaviour Clinic, Surrey and Borders Partnership NHS Foundation Trust, Redhill, UK.

Purpose Of Review: Our understanding of the diagnosis and management of Foetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD), has been increasingly refined in the last 45 years: This review highlights current understanding and identifies future areas for research.

Recent Findings: Newer techniques such as three-dimensional facial recognition and advanced brain imaging, have advanced our understanding. Despite this, there remain areas, such as the relationship with other neurodevelopmental disorders, that have been insufficiently explored. Read More

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December 2018

ICU Structure and Outcomes Following Traumatic Brain Injury.

Crit Care Med 2019 Jan;47(1):e68-e69

Division of Anaesthesia, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom Intensive Care National Audit & Research Centre, London, United Kingdom.

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January 2019

Immature electrophysiological properties of human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons transplanted into the mouse cortex for 7 weeks.

Neuroreport 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo.

The transplantation of human-induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived cells has emerged as a potential clinical approach for the treatment of brain diseases. Recent studies with animal disease models have shown that hiPSC-derived neurons transplanted into the brain, especially the nigrostriatal area, could restore degenerated brain functions. Further works are required to test whether hiPSC-derived neurons can also gain functional properties for other cortical areas. Read More

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December 2018

Sensory Restoration of the Facial Region.

Ann Plast Surg 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

From the Department of Plastic Surgery, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN.

Normal sensitivity of the face is very important for preserving its integrity and function as an efferent source of information for the brain. The trigeminal nerve, which is the largest cranial nerve, conducts most of facial sensory function through its 3 branches: the ophthalmic nerve (V1), the maxillary nerve (V2), and the mandibular nerve (V3). The trigeminal nerve may be damaged by a variety of etiologies including inflammatory disorders, brain tumor resection, trauma, iatrogenic injury, or congenital anomalies. Read More

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December 2018

Concurrent Radiosurgery and Immune Checkpoint Inhibition: Improving Regional Intracranial Control for Patients With Metastatic Melanoma.

Am J Clin Oncol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR.

Objectives: The anti-CTLA-4 and antiprogrammed cell death-1 (PD-1) therapies have significantly improved survival of patients with metastatic melanoma. However, there is limited data regarding the interaction between immunotherapy (IT) and stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) in patients with brain metastasis, particularly how combination therapy may affect toxicity and intracranial tumor control.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 26 patients with metastatic melanoma who received immune check point inhibitors and SRS for brain metastasis from 2011 to 2017. Read More

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December 2018

Effective connectivity in subjects with mild cognitive impairment as assessed using functional near-infrared spectroscopy.

Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Rehabilitation Technical Aids for Old-Age Disability, National Research Center for Rehabilitation Technical Aids, Beijing, 100176.

Objective: This study aimed to reveal the physiological mechanism in subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) based on effective connectivity (EC) method.

Methods: EC was assessed by dynamic Bayesian inference (DBI) of the oxygenated hemoglobin concentration (Δ[HbO2]) signals measured through functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). The Δ[HbO2] signals were recorded from the left prefrontal cortex (LPFC), right prefrontal cortex (RPFC), left motor cortex (LMC), right motor cortex (RMC), left occipital lobe (LOL) and right occipital lobe (ROL) of 26 subjects with MCI (MCI group) and 28 healthy elderly subjects (control group) at resting state. Read More

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December 2018

Effects of Binge Drinking on the Developing Brain.

Alcohol Res 2018 ;39(1):87-96

Scott A. Jones and Jordan M. Lueras are graduate students in the Department of Behavioral Neuroscience, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon. Bonnie J. Nagel, Ph.D., is an associate professor in the Departments of Behavioral Neuroscience and Psychiatry, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon.

Binge drinking is a pattern of alcohol drinking that raises a person's blood alcohol concentration to at least .08%, which amounts to consuming five alcoholic drinks for men and four alcoholic drinks for women in about 2 hours. It is the most common form of alcohol misuse in adolescents and young adults. Read More

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January 2018

Binge Drinking's Effects on the Developing Brain-Animal Models.

Alcohol Res 2018 ;39(1):77-86

Susanne Hiller-Sturmhöfel, Ph.D., is a science writer and editor affiliated with CSR Inc., Arlington, Virginia. Linda Patia Spear, Ph.D., is a distinguished professor, Department of Psychology, State University of New York, and the director of the Developmental Exposure Alcohol Research Center, Binghamton University, Binghamton, New York.

Adolescence typically is a time of experimentation, including alcohol use and, particularly, binge drinking. Because the brain is still developing during adolescence, such exposure could have long-lasting effects. Animal models and adolescent intermittent ethanol exposure (AIE) paradigms have been used to help elucidate the consequences of adolescent binge drinking. Read More

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January 2018
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