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    Sluggish dorsally-driven inhibition of return during orthographic processing in adults with dyslexia.
    Brain Lang 2018 Feb 13;179:1-10. Epub 2018 Feb 13.
    Developmental and Cognitive Neuroscience Lab, Department of General Psychology, University of Padua, Padova 35131, Italy; Child Psychopathology Unit, Scientific Institute, IRCCS Eugenio Medea, Bosisio Parini, Lecco 23842, Italy.
    Dyslexia (D) is a neurodevelopmental reading disorder characterized by phonological and orthographic deficits. Before phonological decoding, reading requires a specialized orthographic system for parallel letter processing that assigns letter identities to different spatial locations. The magnocellular-dorsal (MD) stream rapidly process the spatial location of visual stimuli controlling visuo-spatial attention. Read More

    Native language status of the listener modulates the neural integration of speech and iconic gestures in clear and adverse listening conditions.
    Brain Lang 2018 Jan 29;177-178:7-17. Epub 2018 Jan 29.
    Radboud University, Centre for Language Studies, Erasmusplein 1, 6525 HT Nijmegen, The Netherlands; Radboud University, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition, and Behaviour, Montessorilaan 3, 6525 HR Nijmegen, The Netherlands; Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics, Wundtlaan 1, 6525 XD Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Native listeners neurally integrate iconic gestures with speech, which can enhance degraded speech comprehension. However, it is unknown how non-native listeners neurally integrate speech and gestures, as they might process visual semantic context differently than natives. We recorded EEG while native and highly-proficient non-native listeners watched videos of an actress uttering an action verb in clear or degraded speech, accompanied by a matching ('to drive'+driving gesture) or mismatching gesture ('to drink'+mixing gesture). Read More

    Event-related desynchronization of mu and beta oscillations during the processing of novel tool names.
    Brain Lang 2018 Feb 5;177-178:44-55. Epub 2018 Feb 5.
    Institute of Experimental Psychology, Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, Germany.
    According to the embodied cognition framework, the formation of conceptual representations integrates the type of experience during learning. In this electroencephalographic study, we applied a linguistic variant of a training paradigm, in which participants learned to associate novel names to novel tools while either manipulating or visually exploring them. The analysis focused on event-related desynchronization (ERD) of oscillations in the mu and beta frequency range, which reflects activation of sensorimotor brain areas. Read More

    Atypical temporal activation pattern and central-right brain compensation during semantic judgment task in children with early left brain damage.
    Brain Lang 2018 Feb 2;177-178:37-43. Epub 2018 Feb 2.
    Center for Bioinformatics Research, National Chiao Tung University, 1001, University Road, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan.
    In this study we investigated the event-related potentials (ERPs) during the semantic judgment task (deciding if the two Chinese characters were semantically related or unrelated) to identify the timing of neural activation in children with early left brain damage (ELBD). The results demonstrated that compared with the controls, children with ELBD had (1) competitive accuracy and reaction time in the semantic judgment task, (2) weak operation of the N400, (3) stronger, earlier and later compensational positivities (referred to the enhanced P200, P250, and P600 amplitudes) in the central and right region of the brain to successfully engage in semantic judgment. Our preliminary findings indicate that temporally postlesional reorganization is in accordance with the proposed right-hemispheric organization of speech after early left-sided brain lesion. Read More

    Context-dependent lexical ambiguity resolution: MEG evidence for the time-course of activity in left inferior frontal gyrus and posterior middle temporal gyrus.
    Brain Lang 2018 Feb 2;177-178:23-36. Epub 2018 Feb 2.
    University of York, Department of Psychology, UK. Electronic address:
    An MEG study investigated the role of context in semantic interpretation by examining the comprehension of ambiguous words in contexts leading to different interpretations. We compared high-ambiguity words in minimally different contexts (to bowl, the bowl) to low-ambiguity counterparts (the tray, to flog). Whole brain beamforming revealed the engagement of left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) and posterior middle temporal gyrus (LPMTG). Read More

    Pre-articulatory electrical activity associated with correct naming in individuals with aphasia.
    Brain Lang 2018 Jan 25;177-178:1-6. Epub 2018 Jan 25.
    Department of Neurology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425, United States. Electronic address:
    Picture naming is a language task that involves multiple neural networks and is used to probe aphasia-induced language deficits. The pattern of neural activation seen in healthy individuals during picture naming is disrupted in individuals with aphasia, but the time-course of the disruption remains unclear. Specifically, it remains unclear which anatomical and temporal aspects of neural processing are necessary for correct naming. Read More

    Auditory prediction during speaking and listening.
    Brain Lang 2018 Feb 2. Epub 2018 Feb 2.
    School of Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology, Université de Montréal, Canada; Sainte-Justine Hospital Research Centre, Montreal, Canada; Centre for Research on Brain, Language and Music, Montreal, Canada. Electronic address:
    In the present EEG study, the role of auditory prediction in speech was explored through the comparison of auditory cortical responses during active speaking and passive listening to the same acoustic speech signals. Two manipulations of sensory prediction accuracy were used during the speaking task: (1) a real-time change in vowel F1 feedback (reducing prediction accuracy relative to unaltered feedback) and (2) presenting a stable auditory target rather than a visual cue to speak (enhancing auditory prediction accuracy during baseline productions, and potentially enhancing the perturbing effect of altered feedback). While subjects compensated for the F1 manipulation, no difference between the auditory-cue and visual-cue conditions were found. Read More

    Modulation of intra- and inter-hemispheric connectivity between primary and premotor cortex during speech perception.
    Brain Lang 2018 Jan 31. Epub 2018 Jan 31.
    Department of Speech, Hearing and Phonetic Sciences, University College London, Chandler House, 2 Wakefield Street, London WC1N 1PF, UK.
    Primary motor (M1) areas for speech production activate during speechperception. It has been suggested that such activation may be dependent upon modulatory inputs from premotor cortex (PMv). If and how PMv differentially modulates M1 activity during perception of speech that is easy or challenging to understand, however, is unclear. Read More

    Neural correlates of sine-wave speech intelligibility in human frontal and temporal cortex.
    Brain Lang 2018 Jan 31. Epub 2018 Jan 31.
    Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, 505 Parnassus Ave., San Francisco, CA 94143, United States; Center for Integrative Neuroscience, University of California, San Francisco, 675 Nelson Rising Ln., Room 535, San Francisco, CA 94158, United States; Weill Institute for Neurosciences, University of California, San Francisco, 675 Nelson Rising Ln., Room 535, San Francisco, CA 94158, United States. Electronic address:
    Auditory speech comprehension is the result of neural computations that occur in a broad network that includes the temporal lobe auditory cortex and the left inferior frontal cortex. It remains unclear how representations in this network differentially contribute to speech comprehension. Here, we recorded high-density direct cortical activity during a sine-wave speech (SWS) listening task to examine detailed neural speech representations when the exact same acoustic input is comprehended versus not comprehended. Read More

    An interactive model of auditory-motor speech perception.
    Brain Lang 2017 Dec 18. Epub 2017 Dec 18.
    Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK; School of Psychology, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK.
    Mounting evidence indicates a role in perceptual decoding of speech for the dorsal auditory stream connecting between temporal auditory and frontal-parietal articulatory areas. The activation time course in auditory, somatosensory and motor regions during speech processing is seldom taken into account in models of speech perception. We critically review the literature with a focus on temporal information, and contrast between three alternative models of auditory-motor speech processing: parallel, hierarchical, and interactive. Read More

    Reanalyzing neurocognitive data on the role of the motor system in speech perception within COSMO, a Bayesian perceptuo-motor model of speech communication.
    Brain Lang 2017 Dec 11. Epub 2017 Dec 11.
    Univ. Grenoble Alpes, Gipsa-lab, F-38000 Grenoble, France; CNRS, Gipsa-lab, F-38000 Grenoble, France. Electronic address:
    While neurocognitive data provide clear evidence for the involvement of the motor system in speech perception, its precise role and the way motor information is involved in perceptual decision remain unclear. In this paper, we discuss some recent experimental results in light of COSMO, a Bayesian perceptuo-motor model of speech communication. COSMO enables us to model both speech perception and speech production with probability distributions relating phonological units with sensory and motor variables. Read More

    Cortical thickness of planum temporale and pars opercularis in native language tone processing.
    Brain Lang 2018 Jan 7;176:42-47. Epub 2017 Dec 7.
    Department of Linguistics and Phonetics, Lund University, Box 201, 22100 Lund, Sweden. Electronic address:
    The present study investigated the relationship between linguistic tone processing and cortical thickness of bilateral planum temporale (PT) and pars opercularis of the inferior frontal gyrus (IFGpo). Swedish tones on word stems function as cues to upcoming endings. Correlating structural brain imaging data with participants' response time patterns for suffixes, we found that thicker cortex in the left PT was associated with greater reliance on tones to anticipate upcoming inflections on real words. Read More

    Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation over left inferior frontal gyrus enhances sentence comprehension.
    Brain Lang 2018 Jan 23;176:36-41. Epub 2017 Nov 23.
    Dipartimento di Psicologia, Università di Milano-Bicocca, Italy.
    We tested the possibility of enhancing natural language comprehension through the application of anodal tDCS (a-tDCS) over the left inferior frontal gyrus, a key region for verbal short-term memory and language comprehension. We designed a between subjects sham- and task-controlled study. During tDCS stimulation, participants performed a sentence to picture matching task in which targets were sentences with different load on short-term memory. Read More

    Using rotated speech to approximate the acoustic mismatch negativity response to speech.
    Brain Lang 2018 Jan 22;176:26-35. Epub 2017 Nov 22.
    Stockholm University, Department of Linguistics, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. Electronic address:
    The mismatch negativity (MMN) response is influenced by the magnitude of the acoustic difference between standard and deviant, and the response is typically larger to linguistically relevant changes than to linguistically irrelevant changes. Linguistically relevant changes between standard and deviant typically co-occur with differences between the two acoustic signals. It is therefore not straightforward to determine the contribution of each of those two factors to the MMN response. Read More

    Captive gorillas' manual laterality: The impact of gestures, manipulators and interaction specificity.
    Brain Lang 2017 Dec 13;175:130-145. Epub 2017 Nov 13.
    Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Department of Primatology, Deutscher Platz 6, 04103 Leipzig, Germany. Electronic address:
    Relationships between humans' manual laterality in non-communicative and communicative functions are still poorly understood. Recently, studies showed that chimpanzees' manual laterality is influenced by functional, interactional and individual factors and their mutual intertwinement. However, what about manual laterality in species living in stable social groups? We tackled this question by studying three groups of captive gorillas (N=35) and analysed their most frequent manual signals: three manipulators and 16 gesture types. Read More

    Brain white matter structure and language ability in preschool-aged children.
    Brain Lang 2018 Jan 10;176:19-25. Epub 2017 Nov 10.
    Child & Adolescent Imaging Research (CAIR) Program, Alberta Children's Hospital Research Institute, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada; Owerko Centre, Alberta Children's Hospital Research Institute, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada; Department of Radiology, Alberta Children's Hospital Research Institute, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada. Electronic address:
    Brain alterations are associated with reading and language difficulties in older children, but little research has investigated relationships between early language skills and brain white matter structure during the preschool period. We studied 68 children aged 3.0-5. Read More

    Neural correlates of quantity processing of Chinese numeral classifiers.
    Brain Lang 2018 Jan 9;176:11-18. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    Research Center for Mind, Brain, and Learning, National Chengchi University, Taipei, Taiwan; Department of Psychology, National Chengchi University, Taipei, Taiwan. Electronic address:
    Linguistic analysis suggests that numeral classifiers carry quantity information. However, previous neuroimaging studies have shown that classifiers did not elicit higher activation in the intraparietal sulcus (IPS), associated with representation of numerical magnitude, than tool nouns did. This study aimed to control the semantic attributes of classifiers and reexamine the underlying neural correlates. Read More

    Stopping and slowing manual and spoken responses: Similar oscillatory signatures recorded from the subthalamic nucleus.
    Brain Lang 2018 Jan 7;176:1-10. Epub 2017 Nov 7.
    Krembil Research Institute, Toronto, ON, Canada; Division of Neurology, Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada. Electronic address:
    Response control in the forms of stopping and slowing responses is thought to be implemented by a frontal-subcortical network, which includes the subthalamic nucleus (STN). For manual control, stopping is linked to STN beta (13-30 Hz) and slowing responses are linked to lower frequencies (<12 Hz). Whether similar STN oscillatory activities are associated with the control of spoken responses is not clear. Read More

    Neural correlates for naming disadvantage of the dominant language in bilingual word production.
    Brain Lang 2017 Dec 2;175:123-129. Epub 2017 Nov 2.
    State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning & IDG/McGovern Institute for Brain Research, Beijing Normal University, China; Center for Collaboration and Innovation in Brain and Learning Sciences, Beijing Normal University, China. Electronic address:
    The present study investigated the neural correlates of naming disadvantage of the dominant language under the mixed language context. Twenty one unbalanced Chinese-English bilinguals completed a cued picture naming task while being scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Behavioral results showed that naming pictures in the second lanuage (L2) was significantly slower than naming pictures in the first language (L1) under a single language context. Read More

    Representation and processing of multi-word expressions in the brain.
    Brain Lang 2017 Dec 2;175:111-122. Epub 2017 Nov 2.
    School of Psychology, University of Nottingham, United Kingdom.
    Language comprehension is sensitive to the predictability of the upcoming information. Prediction allows for smooth, expedient and successful communication. While general discourse-based constraints have been investigated in detail, more specific phrase-level prediction has received little attention. Read More

    Neural oscillatory mechanisms during novel grammar learning underlying language analytical abilities.
    Brain Lang 2017 Dec 21;175:99-110. Epub 2017 Oct 21.
    Leiden University Centre for Linguistics, Postbus 9515, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands; Leiden Institute for Brain and Cognition, c/o LUMC, Postzone C2-S, P.O. Box 9600, 2300 RC Leiden, The Netherlands.
    The goal of the present study was to investigate the initial phases of novel grammar learning on a neural level, concentrating on mechanisms responsible for individual variability between learners. Two groups of participants, one with high and one with average language analytical abilities, performed an Artificial Grammar Learning (AGL) task consisting of learning and test phases. During the task, EEG signals from 32 cap-mounted electrodes were recorded and epochs corresponding to the learning phases were analysed. Read More

    Spread the word: MMN brain response reveals whole-form access of discontinuous particle verbs.
    Brain Lang 2017 Dec 20;175:86-98. Epub 2017 Oct 20.
    Brain Language Laboratory, Department of Philosophy and Humanities, Freie Universität, Berlin, Germany; Berlin School of Mind and Brain, Humboldt Universität zu Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    The status of particle verbs such as rise (…) up as either lexically stored or combinatorially assembled is an issue which so far has not been settled decisively. In this study, we use the mismatch negativity (MMN) brain response to observe neurophysiological responses to discontinuous particle verbs. The MMN can be used to distinguish between whole-form storage and combinatorial processes, as it is enhanced to stored words compared to unknown pseudowords, whereas combinatorially legal strings elicit a reduced MMN relative to ungrammatical ones. Read More

    Commonalities and differences in the neural representations of English, Portuguese, and Mandarin sentences: When knowledge of the brain-language mappings for two languages is better than one.
    Brain Lang 2017 Dec 15;175:77-85. Epub 2017 Oct 15.
    Department of Psychology, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. Electronic address:
    This study extended cross-language semantic decoding (based on a concept's fMRI signature) to the decoding of sentences across three different languages (English, Portuguese and Mandarin). A classifier was trained on either the mapping between words and activation patterns in one language or the mappings in two languages (using an equivalent amount of training data), and then tested on its ability to decode the semantic content of a third language. The model trained on two languages was reliably more accurate than a classifier trained on one language for all three pairs of languages. Read More

    Intracerebral stimulation of left and right ventral temporal cortex during object naming.
    Brain Lang 2017 Dec 10;175:71-76. Epub 2017 Oct 10.
    Service de Neurologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Nancy, Nancy, France; CRAN, UMR 7039, CNRS et Université de Lorraine, Nancy, France. Electronic address:
    While object naming is traditionally considered asa left hemisphere function, neuroimaging studies have reported activations related to naming in the ventral temporal cortex (VTC) bilaterally. Our aim was to use intracerebral electrical stimulation to specifically compare left and right VTC in naming. In twenty-three epileptic patients tested for visual object naming during stimulation, the proportion of naming impairments was significantly higher in the left than in the right VTC (31. Read More

    Neural correlates of the lexicality effect in children.
    Brain Lang 2017 Dec 8;175:64-70. Epub 2017 Oct 8.
    Department of Psychology and Human Development, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37203, USA.
    The comparison of words and pseudowords has been extensively used in adult neuroimaging studies to inform neurocognitive models of reading but has rarely been used to inform models of reading acquisition. Using a rhyming judgment task, the current study examined age-related differences in the spelling to sound mapping mechanisms involved in word and pseudoword reading. We hypothesized a developmental increase in specialization of the brain mechanisms engaged for word and pseudoword processing. Read More

    Anterior cingulate cortex sulcation and its differential effects on conflict monitoring in bilinguals and monolinguals.
    Brain Lang 2017 Dec 7;175:57-63. Epub 2017 Oct 7.
    Centre for Neurolinguistics and Psycholinguistics, University Vita-Salute San Raffaele and Scientific Institute San Raffaele, Milano, Italy. Electronic address:
    The role of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in modulating the effect of bilingual experience on cognitive control has been reported at both functional and structural neural levels. Individual differences in the ACC sulcal patterns have been recently correlated with cognitive control efficiency in monolinguals. We aimed to investigate whether differences of ACC sulcation mediate the effect of bilingualism on cognitive control efficiency. Read More

    Sex steroid hormones and sex hormone binding globulin levels, CYP17 MSP AI (-34T:C) and CYP19 codon 39 (Trp:Arg) variants in children with developmental stuttering.
    Brain Lang 2017 Dec 6;175:47-56. Epub 2017 Oct 6.
    Department of Neuroscience, Faculty of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Developmental stuttering is known to be a sexually dimorphic and male-biased speech motor control disorder. In the present case-control study, we investigated the relationship between developmental stuttering and steroid hormones. Serum levels of testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), oestradiol, progesterone, cortisol, and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), as well as the 2nd/4th digit ratio (2D:4D), an indicator of prenatal testosterone level, were compared between children who stutter (CWS) and children who do not stutter (CWNS). Read More

    Epilepsy, language, and social skills.
    Brain Lang 2017 Oct 4. Epub 2017 Oct 4.
    UCLA David Geffen School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, United States. Electronic address:
    Language and social skills are essential for intrapersonal and interpersonal functioning and quality of life. Since epilepsy impacts these important domains of individuals' functioning, understanding the psychosocial and biological factors involved in the relationship among epilepsy, language, and social skills has important theoretical and clinical implications. This review first describes the psychosocial and biological factors involved in the association between language and social behavior in children and in adults and their relevance for epilepsy. Read More

    Alpha band event-related desynchronization underlying social situational context processing during irony comprehension: A magnetoencephalography source localization study.
    Brain Lang 2017 Dec 30;175:42-46. Epub 2017 Sep 30.
    Department of Child and Adolescent Mental Health, National Institute of Mental Health, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, 4-1-1 Ogawahigashicho, Kodaira, Tokyo 187-8553, Japan.
    Irony comprehension requires integration of social contextual information. Previous studies have investigated temporal aspects of irony processing and its neural substrates using psychological/electroencephalogram or functional magnetic resonance imaging methods, but have not clarified the temporospatial neural mechanisms of irony comprehension. Therefore, we used magnetoencephalography to investigate the neural generators of alpha-band (8-13Hz) event-related desynchronization (ERD) occurring from 600 to 900ms following the onset of a critical sentence at which social situational contexts activated ironic representation. Read More

    Dissociable intrinsic functional networks support noun-object and verb-action processing.
    Brain Lang 2017 Dec 18;175:29-41. Epub 2017 Sep 18.
    National Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning & IDG/McGovern Institute for Brain Research, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China. Electronic address:
    The processing mechanism of verbs-actions and nouns-objects is a central topic of language research, with robust evidence for behavioral dissociation. The neural basis for these two major word and/or conceptual classes, however, remains controversial. Two experiments were conducted to study this question from the network perspective. Read More

    Cerebellar induced differential polyglot aphasia: A neurolinguistic and fMRI study.
    Brain Lang 2017 Dec 14;175:18-28. Epub 2017 Sep 14.
    Centre for Neurolinguistics and Psycholinguistics, University Vita-Salute San Raffaele, Milan, Italy.
    Research has shown that linguistic functions in the bilingual brain are subserved by similar neural circuits as in monolinguals, but with extra-activity associated with cognitive and attentional control. Although a role for the right cerebellum in multilingual language processing has recently been acknowledged, a potential role of the left cerebellum remains largely unexplored. This paper reports the clinical and fMRI findings in a strongly right-handed (late) multilingual patient who developed differential polyglot aphasia, ataxic dysarthria and a selective decrease in executive function due to an ischemic stroke in the left cerebellum. Read More

    Relationship between neuronal network architecture and naming performance in temporal lobe epilepsy: A connectome based approach using machine learning.
    Brain Lang 2017 Sep 9. Epub 2017 Sep 9.
    Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Neurology, Charleston, SC, USA.
    Impaired confrontation naming is a common symptom of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). The neurobiological mechanisms underlying this impairment are poorly understood but may indicate a structural disorganization of broadly distributed neuronal networks that support naming ability. Importantly, naming is frequently impaired in other neurological disorders and by contrasting the neuronal structures supporting naming in TLE with other diseases, it will become possible to elucidate the common systems supporting naming. Read More

    Changes in intrinsic local connectivity after reading intervention in children with autism.
    Brain Lang 2017 Dec 3;175:11-17. Epub 2017 Sep 3.
    University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA. Electronic address:
    Most of the existing behavioral and cognitive intervention programs in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have not been tested at the neurobiological level, thus falling short of finding quantifiable neurobiological changes underlying behavioral improvement. The current study takes a translational neuroimaging approach to test the impact of a structured visual imagery-based reading intervention on improving reading comprehension and assessing its underlying local neural circuitry. Behavioral and resting state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) data were collected from children with ASD who were randomly assigned to an Experimental group (ASD-EXP; n=14) and a Wait-list control group (ASD-WLC; n=14). Read More

    The supramarginal and angular gyri underlie orthographic competence in Spanish language.
    Brain Lang 2017 Dec 31;175:1-10. Epub 2017 Aug 31.
    CINDFA. Grupo RIO, Guadalajara, Mexico.
    Orthographic competence allows automatic word recognition and reading fluency. To elucidate how the orthographic competence in Spanish-speaking adults might affect the neurofunctional mechanisms of visual word recognition, 32 young adults equally divided in two groups (HSS: High Spelling Skills, and LSS: Low Spelling Skills) were evaluated using fMRI methods, while they performed an orthographic recognition task involving pseudohomophones. HSS achieved significantly more correct responses and lower reaction times than LSS. Read More

    Tone-grammar association within words: Concurrent ERP and fMRI show rapid neural pre-activation and involvement of left inferior frontal gyrus in pseudoword processing.
    Brain Lang 2017 11;174:119-126
    Department of Linguistics, Centre for Languages and Literature, Lund University, Box 201, 221 00 Lund, Sweden. Electronic address:
    Using a concurrent ERP/fMRI paradigm, we investigated how listeners take advantage of morphologically relevant tonal information at the beginning of words to predict and pre-activate likely word endings. More predictive, low tone word stems gave rise to a 'pre-activation negativity' (PrAN) in the ERPs, a brain potential which has previously been found to increase along with the degree of predictive certainty as regards how a word is going to end. It is suggested that more predictive, low tone stems lead to rapid access to word endings with processing subserved by the left primary auditory cortex as well as the supramarginal gyrus, while high tone stems - which are less predictive - decrease predictive certainty, leading to increased competition between activated word endings, which needs to be resolved by the left inferior frontal gyrus. Read More

    Insensitivity to response-contingent feedback in adolescents with developmental language disorder (DLD).
    Brain Lang 2017 11;174:112-118
    Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, University of Iowa, Iowa City 52242, USA. Electronic address:
    The aim of the study was to investigate the efficiency of the use of response-contingent feedback in adolescents with and without developmental language disorder (DLD) by using the balloon analogue risk task (BART). The BIS/BAS scales were also used to evaluate a participant's responses to reward- or punishment-related events in everyday situations. The results showed that adolescents with DLD performed on the BART at a suboptimal level due to inefficient use of response-contingent feedback. Read More

    White matter microstructure integrity in relation to reading proficiency☆.
    Brain Lang 2017 11 14;174:103-111. Epub 2017 Aug 14.
    Texas Institute for Measurement, Evaluation and Statistics (TIMES), and Department of Psychology, University of Houston, 4849 Calhoun Rd., Houston, TX 77204, USA.
    Components of reading proficiency such asaccuracy, fluency, and comprehension require the successful coordination of numerous, yet distinct, cortical regions. Underlying white matter tracts allow for communication among these regions. This study utilized unique residualized tract - based spatial statistics methodology to identify the relations of white matter microstructure integrity to three components of reading proficiency in 49 school - aged children with typically developing phonological decoding skills and 27 readers with poor decoders. Read More

    Resting state functional connectivity of the anterior striatum and prefrontal cortex predicts reading performance in school-age children.
    Brain Lang 2017 11 12;174:94-102. Epub 2017 Aug 12.
    Instituto de Neurobiología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Querétaro, Mexico.
    The current study investigated the neural basis of reading performance in 60 school-age Spanish-speaking children, aged 6 to 9years. By using a data-driven approach and an automated matching procedure, we identified a left-lateralized resting state network that included typical language regions (Wernicke's and Broca's regions), prefrontal cortex, pre- and post-central gyri, superior and middle temporal gyri, cerebellum, and subcortical regions, and explored its relevance for reading performance (accuracy, comprehension and speed). Functional connectivity of the left frontal and temporal cortices and subcortical regions predicted reading speed. Read More

    Data-driven classification of patients with primary progressive aphasia.
    Brain Lang 2017 11 10;174:86-93. Epub 2017 Aug 10.
    German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE), Magdeburg, Germany.
    Current diagnostic criteria classify primary progressive aphasia into three variants-semantic (sv), nonfluent (nfv) and logopenic (lv) PPA-though the adequacy of this scheme is debated. This study took a data-driven approach, applying k-means clustering to data from 43 PPA patients. The algorithm grouped patients based on similarities in language, semantic and non-linguistic cognitive scores. Read More

    Neural correlates of bilingual language control during interlingual homograph processing in a logogram writing system.
    Brain Lang 2017 11 24;174:72-85. Epub 2017 Jul 24.
    Department of Functional Brain Imaging, IDAC, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan.
    Bilingual studies using alphabetic languages have shown parallel activation of two languages during word recognition. However, little is known about the brain mechanisms of language control during word comprehension with a logogram writing system. We manipulated the types of words (interlingual homographs (IH), cognates, and language-specific words) and the types of participants (Chinese (L1)-Japanese (L2) bilinguals vs. Read More

    Finding features, figuratively.
    Brain Lang 2017 11 21;174:61-71. Epub 2017 Jul 21.
    University of Pennsylvania, Department of Psychology, 425 S. University Ave., Philadelphia, PA 19104-6018, United States.
    Object concepts refer to unique clusters of properties that can be selectively activated or inhibited depending on what information is currently relevant. This conceptual "stretching" enables limitless new meanings to be generated, and figurative language provides a useful framework in which to study this conceptual flexibility. Here we probe the cognitive and neural mechanisms underlying the comprehension of novel metaphors as a means of understanding the conceptual flexibility inherent to language processing more generally. Read More

    Common variation in the autism risk gene CNTNAP2, brain structural connectivity and multisensory speech integration.
    Brain Lang 2017 11 22;174:50-60. Epub 2017 Jul 22.
    The Sheryl and Daniel R. Tishman Cognitive Neurophysiology Laboratory, Children's Evaluation and Rehabilitation Center (CERC), Department of Pediatrics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine & Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY 10461, USA; Department of Neuroscience, Rose F. Kennedy Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities Research Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA; Ernest J. Del Monte Institute for Neuroscience, Department of Neuroscience, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY 14642, USA. Electronic address:
    Three lines of evidence motivated this study. 1) CNTNAP2 variation is associated with autism risk and speech-language development. 2) CNTNAP2 variations are associated with differences in white matter (WM) tracts comprising the speech-language circuitry. Read More

    When speaker identity is unavoidable: Neural processing of speaker identity cues in natural speech.
    Brain Lang 2017 11 15;174:42-49. Epub 2017 Jul 15.
    MARCS Institute for Brain, Behaviour, & Development, Western Sydney University, Locked Bag 1797, Penrith, NSW 2751, Australia; ARC Centre of Excellence for the Dynamics of Language, Canberra, ACT, Australia. Electronic address:
    Speech sound acoustic properties vary largely across speakers and accents. When perceiving speech, adult listeners normally disregard non-linguistic variation caused by speaker or accent differences, in order to comprehend the linguistic message, e.g. Read More

    Reading network in dyslexia: Similar, yet different.
    Brain Lang 2017 11 15;174:29-41. Epub 2017 Jul 15.
    Centre for Brain Research, School of Psychology, The University of Auckland, New Zealand. Electronic address:
    Dyslexia is a developmental disorder characterized by reading and phonological difficulties, yet important questions remain regarding its underlying neural correlates. In this study, we used partial least squares (PLS), a multivariate analytic technique, to investigate the neural networks used by dyslexics while performing a word-rhyming task. Although the overall reading network was largely similar in dyslexics and typical readers, it did not correlate with behavior in the same way in the two groups. Read More

    Onset age of L2 acquisition influences language network in early and late Cantonese-Mandarin bilinguals.
    Brain Lang 2017 11 14;174:16-28. Epub 2017 Jul 14.
    Center for the Study of Applied Psychology, Key Laboratory of Mental Health and Cognitive Science of Guangdong Province, School of Psychology, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631, PR China. Electronic address:
    Early second language (L2) experience influences the neural organization of L2 in neuro-plastic terms. Previous studies tried to reveal these plastic effects of age of second language acquisition (AoA-L2) and proficiency-level in L2 (PL-L2) on the neural basis of language processing in bilinguals. Although different activation patterns have been observed during language processing in early and late bilinguals by task-fMRI, few studies reported the effect of AoA-L2 and high PL-L2 on language network at resting state. Read More

    Mens inversus in corpore inverso? Language lateralization in a boy with situs inversus totalis.
    Brain Lang 2017 11 11;174:9-15. Epub 2017 Jul 11.
    Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Medical University Vienna, Währinger Gürtel 18-20, 1090 Vienna, Austria. Electronic address:
    Situs inversus totalis is a rare condition where the visceral organs are organized as a mirror image of default organ position. In this study we picture the co-development between brain and visceral organs in a case of situs inversus totalis from a fetal stage to adolescence and compare our findings to an age-, gender-, and education-matched control with normal position of thoracic and abdominal organs. We show that in this case of situs inversus, functional and structural brain lateralization do not coincide with visceral organ situs. Read More

    Axon guidance pathways served as common targets for human speech/language evolution and related disorders.
    Brain Lang 2017 11 8;174:1-8. Epub 2017 Jul 8.
    MOE Key Laboratory of Bioinformatics, School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China. Electronic address:
    Human and several nonhuman species share the rare ability of modifying acoustic and/or syntactic features of sounds produced, i.e. vocal learning, which is the important neurobiological and behavioral substrate of human speech/language. Read More

    Phonological experience modulates voice discrimination: Evidence from functional brain networks analysis.
    Brain Lang 2017 10 27;173:67-75. Epub 2017 Jun 27.
    Key Laboratory of Cognition and Personality of Ministry of Education, Faculty of Psychology, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China. Electronic address:
    Numerous behavioral studies have found a modulation effect of phonological experience on voice discrimination. However, the neural substrates underpinning this phenomenon are poorly understood. Here we manipulated language familiarity to test the hypothesis that phonological experience affects voice discrimination via mediating the engagement of multiple perceptual and cognitive resources. Read More

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