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    3736 results match your criteria Brain and Language [Journal]

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    Statistical experience and individual cognitive differences modulate neural activity during sentence production.
    Brain Lang 2018 Jun 15;183:47-53. Epub 2018 Jun 15.
    Department of Speech, Language and Hearing Sciences, The George Washington University, 2115 G Street NW #226, Washington, DC 20052, United States. Electronic address:
    I explored how individual cognitive differences combine with prior statistical experience to determine choice of sentence structure during speech. Participants were exposed to English language input with controlled statistical properties wherein some verbs appeared equally often in two possible structures and others appeared in only one. Subsequently, they produced sentences naturally while their brain activity was scanned. Read More

    Aging modulates fronto-temporal cortical interactions during lexical production. A dynamic causal modeling study.
    Brain Lang 2018 Jun 15;184:11-19. Epub 2018 Jun 15.
    Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, LPNC UMR 5105, F-38000 Grenoble, France. Electronic address:
    In this dynamic causal modeling (DCM) study, we evaluated the effect of age on the effective connectivity of a cerebral network involved in lexical production. Younger and older adults performed an object naming task during fMRI. The DCM was used to explore the interactions between four regions of interest: the occipital cortex, OC; the lateral temporal cortex, LTC; the medial temporal cortex, MTC; and the inferior frontal cortex, IFC. Read More

    When two are better than one: Bilateral mesial temporal lobe contributions associated with better vocabulary skills in children and adolescents.
    Brain Lang 2018 Jun 15;184:1-10. Epub 2018 Jun 15.
    Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, Währinger Gürtel 18-20, 1090 Vienna, Austria. Electronic address:
    This study considered the involvement of the mesial temporal lobe (MTL) in language and verbal memory functions in healthy children and adolescents. We investigated 30 healthy, right-handed children and adolescents, aged 7-16, with a fMRI language paradigm and a comprehensive cognitive test battery. We found significant MTL activations during language fMRI in all participants; 63% of them had left lateralized MTL activations, 20% exhibited right MTL lateralization, and 17% showed bilateral MTL involvement during the fMRI language paradigm. Read More

    Contralateral functional reorganization of the speech supplementary motor area following neurosurgical tumor resection.
    Brain Lang 2018 May 18;183:41-46. Epub 2018 May 18.
    Department of Neurosurgery, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, United States; Semel Neuropsychiatric Institute, Brain Research Institute, Center for Cognitive Neurosciences and Department of Pscychology, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, United States.
    We evaluated plasticity in speech supplemental motor area (SMA) tissue in two patients using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), following resection of tumors in or associated with the dominant hemisphere speech SMA. Patient A underwent resection of a anaplastic astrocytoma NOS associated with the left speech SMA, experienced SMA syndrome related mutism postoperatively, but experienced full recovery 14 months later. FMRI performed 32 months after surgery demonstrated a migration of speech SMA to homologous contralateral hemispheric regional tissue. Read More

    Neural organization of ventral white matter tracts parallels the initial steps of reading development: A DTI tractography study.
    Brain Lang 2018 May 18;183:32-40. Epub 2018 May 18.
    Parenting and Special Education Research Unit, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, KU Leuven, Belgium.
    Insight in the developmental trajectory of the neuroanatomical reading correlates is important to understand related cognitive processes and disorders. In adults, a dual pathway model has been suggested encompassing a dorsal phonological and a ventral orthographic white matter system. This dichotomy seems not present in pre-readers, and the specific role of ventral white matter in reading remains unclear. Read More

    Unattended processing of hierarchical pitch variations in spoken sentences.
    Brain Lang 2018 May 16;183:21-31. Epub 2018 May 16.
    Leiden University Center for Linguistics (LUCL) & Leiden Institute for Brain and Cognition (LIBC), Leiden, The Netherlands. Electronic address:
    An auditory oddball paradigm was employed to examine the unattended processing of pitch variation which functions to signal hierarchically different levels of meaning contrasts. Four oddball conditions were constructed by varying the pitch contour of critical words embedded in a Mandarin Chinese sentence. Two conditions included lexical-level word meaning contrasts (i. Read More

    Syntactic and semantic restrictions on morphological recomposition: MEG evidence from Greek.
    Brain Lang 2018 May 16;183:11-20. Epub 2018 May 16.
    NYUAD Institute, New York University Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates; Department of Psychology, New York University, USA; Department of Linguistics, New York University, USA.
    Complex morphological processing has been extensively studied in the past decades. However, most of this work has either focused on only certain steps involved in this process, or it has been conducted on a few languages, like English. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the spatiotemporal cortical processing profile of the distinct steps previously reported in the literature, from decomposition to re-composition of morphologically complex items, in a relatively understudied language, Greek. Read More

    Knowledge and learning of verb biases in amnesia.
    Brain Lang 2018 May - Jul;180-182:62-83. Epub 2018 May 22.
    Department of Psychology and Human Development, Vanderbilt University, United States.
    Verb bias-the co-occurrence frequencies between a verb and the syntactic structures it may appear with-is a critical and reliable linguistic cue for online sentence processing. In particular, listeners use this information to disambiguate sentences with multiple potential syntactic parses (e.g. Read More

    White matter pathways for prosodic structure building: A case study.
    Brain Lang 2018 May 11;183:1-10. Epub 2018 May 11.
    Department of Neuropsychology, Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Stephanstraße 1a, 04103 Leipzig, Germany; Berlin School of Mind and Brain, Humboldt University Berlin, Unter den Linden 6, 10099 Berlin, Germany.
    The relevance of left dorsal and ventral fiber pathways for syntactic and semantic comprehension is well established, while pathways for prosody are little explored. The present study examined linguistic prosodic structure building in a patient whose right arcuate/superior longitudinal fascicles and posterior corpus callosum were transiently compromised by a vasogenic peritumoral edema. Compared to ten matched healthy controls, the patient's ability to detect irregular prosodic structure significantly improved between pre- and post-surgical assessment. Read More

    Identification of neural structures involved in stuttering using vibrotactile feedback.
    Brain Lang 2018 May - Jul;180-182:50-61. Epub 2018 May 7.
    Division of Psychology and Language Sciences, University College London, UK. Electronic address:
    Feedback delivered over auditory and vibratory afferent pathways has different effects on the fluency of people who stutter (PWS). These features were exploited to investigate the neural structures involved in stuttering. The speech signal vibrated locations on the body (vibrotactile feedback, VTF). Read More

    Structural neural predictors of Farsi-English bilingualism.
    Brain Lang 2018 May - Jul;180-182:42-49. Epub 2018 May 22.
    Department of Speech and Hearing Science, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287, USA. Electronic address:
    The neurobiology of bilingualism is hotly debated. The present study examines whether normalized cortical measurements can be used to reliably classify monolinguals versus bilinguals in a structural MRI dataset of Farsi-English bilinguals and English monolinguals. A decision tree classifier classified bilinguals with an average correct classification rate of 85%, and monolinguals with a rate of 71. Read More

    Are lexical tones musical? Native language's influence on neural response to pitch in different domains.
    Brain Lang 2018 May - Jul;180-182:31-41. Epub 2018 Apr 23.
    MARCS Institute for Brain, Behaviour & Development, Western Sydney University, Sydney, Australia.
    Language experience shapes musical and speech pitch processing. We investigated whether speaking a lexical tone language natively modulates neural processing of pitch in language and music as well as their correlation. We tested tone language (Mandarin Chinese), and non-tone language (Dutch) listeners in a passive oddball paradigm measuring mismatch negativity (MMN) for (i) Chinese lexical tones and (ii) three-note musical melodies with similar pitch contours. Read More

    Motor preparation in picture naming tasks.
    Brain Lang 2018 May - Jul;180-182:24-30. Epub 2018 Apr 17.
    EMG and Motor Control Unit, Neurology Department, Hospital Clinic, and IDIBAPS (Institut d'Investigació August Pi i Sunyer), Facultat de Medicina, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    In certain circumstances, words can be uttered as an involuntary action. We hypothesize that, once pronunciation of a word is fully prepared it can be triggered as a reflex with no need for cortical processing. We used modified protocols of picture naming tasks, with different levels of cognitive demands, to measure reaction time to word pronunciation (RTWP). Read More

    Frontotemporal stimulation modulates semantically-guided visual search during confrontation naming: A combined tDCS and eye tracking investigation.
    Brain Lang 2018 May - Jul;180-182:14-23. Epub 2018 Apr 11.
    Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) was paired with eye tracking to elucidate contributions of frontal, temporoparietal and anterior temporal cortex to early visual search patterns during picture naming (e.g., rapid visual scanning to diagnostic semantic features). Read More

    The beneficial effect of a speaker's gestures on the listener's memory for action phrases: The pivotal role of the listener's premotor cortex.
    Brain Lang 2018 May - Jul;180-182:8-13. Epub 2018 Apr 10.
    Dipartimento di Psicologia, Università di Torino, Torino, Italy; Center for Logic, Language and Cognition, Università di Torino, Torino, Italy.
    Memory for action phrases improves in the listeners when the speaker accompanies them with gestures compared to when the speaker stays still. Since behavioral studies revealed a pivotal role of the listeners' motor system, we aimed to disentangle the role of primary motor and premotor cortices. Participants had to recall phrases uttered by a speaker in two conditions: in the gesture condition, the speaker performed gestures congruent with the action; in the no-gesture condition, the speaker stayed still. Read More

    The impact of auditory white noise on semantic priming.
    Brain Lang 2018 May - Jul;180-182:1-7. Epub 2018 Apr 10.
    Hear and Say Centre, Brisbane, Australia. Electronic address:
    It has been proposed that white noise can improve cognitive performance for some individuals, particularly those with lower attention, and that this effect may be mediated by dopaminergic circuitry. Given existing evidence that semantic priming is modulated by dopamine, this study investigated whether white noise can facilitate semantic priming. Seventy-eight adults completed an auditory semantic priming task with and without white noise, at either a short or long inter-stimulus interval (ISI). Read More

    Language function in childhood idiopathic epilepsy syndromes.
    Brain Lang 2018 Mar 30. Epub 2018 Mar 30.
    Department of Neurology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, United States. Electronic address:
    Purpose: To examine the impact of diverse syndromes of focal and generalized epilepsy on language function in children with new and recent onset epilepsy. Of special interest was the degree of shared language abnormality across epilepsy syndromes and the unique effects associated with specific epilepsy syndromes.

    Methods: Participants were 136 youth with new or recent-onset (diagnosis within past 12 months) epilepsy and 107 healthy first-degree cousin controls. Read More

    Hearing sounds as words: Neural responses to environmental sounds in the context of fluent speech.
    Brain Lang 2018 Apr 6;179:51-61. Epub 2018 Mar 6.
    Department of Psychology, The University of Chicago, 5848 S. University Ave., Chicago, IL 60637, United States.
    Environmental sounds (ES) can be understood easily when substituted for words in sentences, suggesting that linguistic context benefits may be mediated by processes more general than some language-specific theories assert. However, the underlying neural processing is not understood. EEG was recorded for spoken sentences ending in either a spoken word or a corresponding ES. Read More

    Mapping lexical-semantic networks and determining hemispheric language dominance: Do task design, sex, age, and language performance make a difference?
    Brain Lang 2018 Apr 5;179:42-50. Epub 2018 Mar 5.
    Center for Multimodal Imaging and Genetics, University of California - San Diego, 9452 Medical Center Drive, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA; Department of Psychiatry, University of California - San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA; SDSU/UCSD Joint Doctoral Program in Clinical Psychology, San Diego, CA, USA. Electronic address:
    Blocked and event-related fMRI designs are both commonly used to localize language networks and determine hemispheric dominance in research and clinical settings. We compared activation profiles on a semantic monitoring task using one of the two designs in a total of 43 healthy individual to determine whether task design or subject-specific factors (i.e. Read More

    Representation of action semantics in the motor cortex and Broca's area.
    Brain Lang 2018 Apr 2;179:33-41. Epub 2018 Mar 2.
    Department of Computer Science and Technology, Tongji University, Shanghai, PR China.
    Previous studies have shown that both reading action words and observing actions engage the motor cortex and Broca's area, but it is still controversial whether a somatotopic representation exists for action verbs within the motor cortex and whether Broca's area encodes action-specific semantics for verbs. Here we examined these two issues using a set of functional MRI experiments, including word reading, action observation and a movement localiser task. Results from multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) showed a somatotopic organisation within the motor areas and action-specific activation in Broca's area for observed actions, suggesting the representation of action semantics for observed actions in these neural regions. Read More

    The motor features of action verbs: fMRI evidence using picture naming.
    Brain Lang 2018 Apr 2;179:22-32. Epub 2018 Mar 2.
    School of Psychology, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China; Key Laboratory of Cognition and Personality of Ministry of Education, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China. Electronic address:
    The processing disadvantage of verbs compared to nouns and the greater vulnerability of verbs in brain damage have been ascribed to greater processing demands of morpho-syntactical or/and semantic properties for verbs, or/and visual complexity in picture-naming studies. Using picture naming, the current functional magnetic resonance imaging study examined the neural substrates underlying the semantic distinction between nouns and verbs. Under forced (externally-elicited) or free (internally-motivated) conditions, participants named a set of pictorial stimuli as objects or actions performed on/with the objects in Chinese. Read More

    Lexical olfaction recruits olfactory orbitofrontal cortex in metaphorical and literal contexts.
    Brain Lang 2018 Apr 23;179:11-21. Epub 2018 Feb 23.
    Faculty of Psychology, Ruhr-University Bochum, Universitätsstrasse 150, 44801 Bochum, Germany; International Psychoanalytic University, Stromstrasse 1, 10555 Berlin, Germany.
    The investigation of specific lexical categories has substantially contributed to advancing our knowledge on how meaning is neurally represented. One sensory domain that has received particularly little attention is olfaction. This study aims to investigate the neural representation of lexical olfaction. Read More

    Sluggish dorsally-driven inhibition of return during orthographic processing in adults with dyslexia.
    Brain Lang 2018 Apr 13;179:1-10. Epub 2018 Feb 13.
    Developmental and Cognitive Neuroscience Lab, Department of General Psychology, University of Padua, Padova 35131, Italy; Child Psychopathology Unit, Scientific Institute, IRCCS Eugenio Medea, Bosisio Parini, Lecco 23842, Italy.
    Dyslexia (D) is a neurodevelopmental reading disorder characterized by phonological and orthographic deficits. Before phonological decoding, reading requires a specialized orthographic system for parallel letter processing that assigns letter identities to different spatial locations. The magnocellular-dorsal (MD) stream rapidly process the spatial location of visual stimuli controlling visuo-spatial attention. Read More

    Native language status of the listener modulates the neural integration of speech and iconic gestures in clear and adverse listening conditions.
    Brain Lang 2018 Feb - Mar;177-178:7-17
    Radboud University, Centre for Language Studies, Erasmusplein 1, 6525 HT Nijmegen, The Netherlands; Radboud University, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition, and Behaviour, Montessorilaan 3, 6525 HR Nijmegen, The Netherlands; Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics, Wundtlaan 1, 6525 XD Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Native listeners neurally integrate iconic gestures with speech, which can enhance degraded speech comprehension. However, it is unknown how non-native listeners neurally integrate speech and gestures, as they might process visual semantic context differently than natives. We recorded EEG while native and highly-proficient non-native listeners watched videos of an actress uttering an action verb in clear or degraded speech, accompanied by a matching ('to drive'+driving gesture) or mismatching gesture ('to drink'+mixing gesture). Read More

    Event-related desynchronization of mu and beta oscillations during the processing of novel tool names.
    Brain Lang 2018 Feb - Mar;177-178:44-55. Epub 2018 Feb 6.
    Institute of Experimental Psychology, Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, Germany.
    According to the embodied cognition framework, the formation of conceptual representations integrates the type of experience during learning. In this electroencephalographic study, we applied a linguistic variant of a training paradigm, in which participants learned to associate novel names to novel tools while either manipulating or visually exploring them. The analysis focused on event-related desynchronization (ERD) of oscillations in the mu and beta frequency range, which reflects activation of sensorimotor brain areas. Read More

    Atypical temporal activation pattern and central-right brain compensation during semantic judgment task in children with early left brain damage.
    Brain Lang 2018 Feb - Mar;177-178:37-43. Epub 2018 Feb 3.
    Center for Bioinformatics Research, National Chiao Tung University, 1001, University Road, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan.
    In this study we investigated the event-related potentials (ERPs) during the semantic judgment task (deciding if the two Chinese characters were semantically related or unrelated) to identify the timing of neural activation in children with early left brain damage (ELBD). The results demonstrated that compared with the controls, children with ELBD had (1) competitive accuracy and reaction time in the semantic judgment task, (2) weak operation of the N400, (3) stronger, earlier and later compensational positivities (referred to the enhanced P200, P250, and P600 amplitudes) in the central and right region of the brain to successfully engage in semantic judgment. Our preliminary findings indicate that temporally postlesional reorganization is in accordance with the proposed right-hemispheric organization of speech after early left-sided brain lesion. Read More

    Context-dependent lexical ambiguity resolution: MEG evidence for the time-course of activity in left inferior frontal gyrus and posterior middle temporal gyrus.
    Brain Lang 2018 Feb - Mar;177-178:23-36. Epub 2018 Feb 2.
    University of York, Department of Psychology, UK. Electronic address:
    An MEG study investigated the role of context in semantic interpretation by examining the comprehension of ambiguous words in contexts leading to different interpretations. We compared high-ambiguity words in minimally different contexts (to bowl, the bowl) to low-ambiguity counterparts (the tray, to flog). Whole brain beamforming revealed the engagement of left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) and posterior middle temporal gyrus (LPMTG). Read More

    Pre-articulatory electrical activity associated with correct naming in individuals with aphasia.
    Brain Lang 2018 Feb - Mar;177-178:1-6. Epub 2018 Feb 21.
    Department of Neurology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425, United States. Electronic address:
    Picture naming is a language task that involves multiple neural networks and is used to probe aphasia-induced language deficits. The pattern of neural activation seen in healthy individuals during picture naming is disrupted in individuals with aphasia, but the time-course of the disruption remains unclear. Specifically, it remains unclear which anatomical and temporal aspects of neural processing are necessary for correct naming. Read More

    Auditory prediction during speaking and listening.
    Brain Lang 2018 Feb 2. Epub 2018 Feb 2.
    School of Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology, Université de Montréal, Canada; Sainte-Justine Hospital Research Centre, Montreal, Canada; Centre for Research on Brain, Language and Music, Montreal, Canada. Electronic address:
    In the present EEG study, the role of auditory prediction in speech was explored through the comparison of auditory cortical responses during active speaking and passive listening to the same acoustic speech signals. Two manipulations of sensory prediction accuracy were used during the speaking task: (1) a real-time change in vowel F1 feedback (reducing prediction accuracy relative to unaltered feedback) and (2) presenting a stable auditory target rather than a visual cue to speak (enhancing auditory prediction accuracy during baseline productions, and potentially enhancing the perturbing effect of altered feedback). While subjects compensated for the F1 manipulation, no difference between the auditory-cue and visual-cue conditions were found. Read More

    Modulation of intra- and inter-hemispheric connectivity between primary and premotor cortex during speech perception.
    Brain Lang 2018 Jan 31. Epub 2018 Jan 31.
    Department of Speech, Hearing and Phonetic Sciences, University College London, Chandler House, 2 Wakefield Street, London WC1N 1PF, UK.
    Primary motor (M1) areas for speech production activate during speechperception. It has been suggested that such activation may be dependent upon modulatory inputs from premotor cortex (PMv). If and how PMv differentially modulates M1 activity during perception of speech that is easy or challenging to understand, however, is unclear. Read More

    Neural correlates of sine-wave speech intelligibility in human frontal and temporal cortex.
    Brain Lang 2018 Jan 31. Epub 2018 Jan 31.
    Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, 505 Parnassus Ave., San Francisco, CA 94143, United States; Center for Integrative Neuroscience, University of California, San Francisco, 675 Nelson Rising Ln., Room 535, San Francisco, CA 94158, United States; Weill Institute for Neurosciences, University of California, San Francisco, 675 Nelson Rising Ln., Room 535, San Francisco, CA 94158, United States. Electronic address:
    Auditory speech comprehension is the result of neural computations that occur in a broad network that includes the temporal lobe auditory cortex and the left inferior frontal cortex. It remains unclear how representations in this network differentially contribute to speech comprehension. Here, we recorded high-density direct cortical activity during a sine-wave speech (SWS) listening task to examine detailed neural speech representations when the exact same acoustic input is comprehended versus not comprehended. Read More

    An interactive model of auditory-motor speech perception.
    Brain Lang 2017 Dec 18. Epub 2017 Dec 18.
    Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK; School of Psychology, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK.
    Mounting evidence indicates a role in perceptual decoding of speech for the dorsal auditory stream connecting between temporal auditory and frontal-parietal articulatory areas. The activation time course in auditory, somatosensory and motor regions during speech processing is seldom taken into account in models of speech perception. We critically review the literature with a focus on temporal information, and contrast between three alternative models of auditory-motor speech processing: parallel, hierarchical, and interactive. Read More

    Reanalyzing neurocognitive data on the role of the motor system in speech perception within COSMO, a Bayesian perceptuo-motor model of speech communication.
    Brain Lang 2017 Dec 11. Epub 2017 Dec 11.
    Univ. Grenoble Alpes, Gipsa-lab, F-38000 Grenoble, France; CNRS, Gipsa-lab, F-38000 Grenoble, France. Electronic address:
    While neurocognitive data provide clear evidence for the involvement of the motor system in speech perception, its precise role and the way motor information is involved in perceptual decision remain unclear. In this paper, we discuss some recent experimental results in light of COSMO, a Bayesian perceptuo-motor model of speech communication. COSMO enables us to model both speech perception and speech production with probability distributions relating phonological units with sensory and motor variables. Read More

    Cortical thickness of planum temporale and pars opercularis in native language tone processing.
    Brain Lang 2018 Jan 7;176:42-47. Epub 2017 Dec 7.
    Department of Linguistics and Phonetics, Lund University, Box 201, 22100 Lund, Sweden. Electronic address:
    The present study investigated the relationship between linguistic tone processing and cortical thickness of bilateral planum temporale (PT) and pars opercularis of the inferior frontal gyrus (IFGpo). Swedish tones on word stems function as cues to upcoming endings. Correlating structural brain imaging data with participants' response time patterns for suffixes, we found that thicker cortex in the left PT was associated with greater reliance on tones to anticipate upcoming inflections on real words. Read More

    Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation over left inferior frontal gyrus enhances sentence comprehension.
    Brain Lang 2018 Jan 23;176:36-41. Epub 2017 Nov 23.
    Dipartimento di Psicologia, Università di Milano-Bicocca, Italy.
    We tested the possibility of enhancing natural language comprehension through the application of anodal tDCS (a-tDCS) over the left inferior frontal gyrus, a key region for verbal short-term memory and language comprehension. We designed a between subjects sham- and task-controlled study. During tDCS stimulation, participants performed a sentence to picture matching task in which targets were sentences with different load on short-term memory. Read More

    Using rotated speech to approximate the acoustic mismatch negativity response to speech.
    Brain Lang 2018 Jan 22;176:26-35. Epub 2017 Nov 22.
    Stockholm University, Department of Linguistics, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. Electronic address:
    The mismatch negativity (MMN) response is influenced by the magnitude of the acoustic difference between standard and deviant, and the response is typically larger to linguistically relevant changes than to linguistically irrelevant changes. Linguistically relevant changes between standard and deviant typically co-occur with differences between the two acoustic signals. It is therefore not straightforward to determine the contribution of each of those two factors to the MMN response. Read More

    Captive gorillas' manual laterality: The impact of gestures, manipulators and interaction specificity.
    Brain Lang 2017 Dec 13;175:130-145. Epub 2017 Nov 13.
    Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Department of Primatology, Deutscher Platz 6, 04103 Leipzig, Germany. Electronic address:
    Relationships between humans' manual laterality in non-communicative and communicative functions are still poorly understood. Recently, studies showed that chimpanzees' manual laterality is influenced by functional, interactional and individual factors and their mutual intertwinement. However, what about manual laterality in species living in stable social groups? We tackled this question by studying three groups of captive gorillas (N=35) and analysed their most frequent manual signals: three manipulators and 16 gesture types. Read More

    Brain white matter structure and language ability in preschool-aged children.
    Brain Lang 2018 Jan 10;176:19-25. Epub 2017 Nov 10.
    Child & Adolescent Imaging Research (CAIR) Program, Alberta Children's Hospital Research Institute, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada; Owerko Centre, Alberta Children's Hospital Research Institute, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada; Department of Radiology, Alberta Children's Hospital Research Institute, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada. Electronic address:
    Brain alterations are associated with reading and language difficulties in older children, but little research has investigated relationships between early language skills and brain white matter structure during the preschool period. We studied 68 children aged 3.0-5. Read More

    Neural correlates of quantity processing of Chinese numeral classifiers.
    Brain Lang 2018 Jan 9;176:11-18. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    Research Center for Mind, Brain, and Learning, National Chengchi University, Taipei, Taiwan; Department of Psychology, National Chengchi University, Taipei, Taiwan. Electronic address:
    Linguistic analysis suggests that numeral classifiers carry quantity information. However, previous neuroimaging studies have shown that classifiers did not elicit higher activation in the intraparietal sulcus (IPS), associated with representation of numerical magnitude, than tool nouns did. This study aimed to control the semantic attributes of classifiers and reexamine the underlying neural correlates. Read More

    Stopping and slowing manual and spoken responses: Similar oscillatory signatures recorded from the subthalamic nucleus.
    Brain Lang 2018 Jan 7;176:1-10. Epub 2017 Nov 7.
    Krembil Research Institute, Toronto, ON, Canada; Division of Neurology, Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada. Electronic address:
    Response control in the forms of stopping and slowing responses is thought to be implemented by a frontal-subcortical network, which includes the subthalamic nucleus (STN). For manual control, stopping is linked to STN beta (13-30 Hz) and slowing responses are linked to lower frequencies (<12 Hz). Whether similar STN oscillatory activities are associated with the control of spoken responses is not clear. Read More

    Neural correlates for naming disadvantage of the dominant language in bilingual word production.
    Brain Lang 2017 Dec 2;175:123-129. Epub 2017 Nov 2.
    State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning & IDG/McGovern Institute for Brain Research, Beijing Normal University, China; Center for Collaboration and Innovation in Brain and Learning Sciences, Beijing Normal University, China. Electronic address:
    The present study investigated the neural correlates of naming disadvantage of the dominant language under the mixed language context. Twenty one unbalanced Chinese-English bilinguals completed a cued picture naming task while being scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Behavioral results showed that naming pictures in the second lanuage (L2) was significantly slower than naming pictures in the first language (L1) under a single language context. Read More

    Representation and processing of multi-word expressions in the brain.
    Brain Lang 2017 Dec 2;175:111-122. Epub 2017 Nov 2.
    School of Psychology, University of Nottingham, United Kingdom.
    Language comprehension is sensitive to the predictability of the upcoming information. Prediction allows for smooth, expedient and successful communication. While general discourse-based constraints have been investigated in detail, more specific phrase-level prediction has received little attention. Read More

    Neural oscillatory mechanisms during novel grammar learning underlying language analytical abilities.
    Brain Lang 2017 Dec 21;175:99-110. Epub 2017 Oct 21.
    Leiden University Centre for Linguistics, Postbus 9515, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands; Leiden Institute for Brain and Cognition, c/o LUMC, Postzone C2-S, P.O. Box 9600, 2300 RC Leiden, The Netherlands.
    The goal of the present study was to investigate the initial phases of novel grammar learning on a neural level, concentrating on mechanisms responsible for individual variability between learners. Two groups of participants, one with high and one with average language analytical abilities, performed an Artificial Grammar Learning (AGL) task consisting of learning and test phases. During the task, EEG signals from 32 cap-mounted electrodes were recorded and epochs corresponding to the learning phases were analysed. Read More

    Spread the word: MMN brain response reveals whole-form access of discontinuous particle verbs.
    Brain Lang 2017 Dec 20;175:86-98. Epub 2017 Oct 20.
    Brain Language Laboratory, Department of Philosophy and Humanities, Freie Universität, Berlin, Germany; Berlin School of Mind and Brain, Humboldt Universität zu Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    The status of particle verbs such as rise (…) up as either lexically stored or combinatorially assembled is an issue which so far has not been settled decisively. In this study, we use the mismatch negativity (MMN) brain response to observe neurophysiological responses to discontinuous particle verbs. The MMN can be used to distinguish between whole-form storage and combinatorial processes, as it is enhanced to stored words compared to unknown pseudowords, whereas combinatorially legal strings elicit a reduced MMN relative to ungrammatical ones. Read More

    Commonalities and differences in the neural representations of English, Portuguese, and Mandarin sentences: When knowledge of the brain-language mappings for two languages is better than one.
    Brain Lang 2017 Dec 15;175:77-85. Epub 2017 Oct 15.
    Department of Psychology, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. Electronic address:
    This study extended cross-language semantic decoding (based on a concept's fMRI signature) to the decoding of sentences across three different languages (English, Portuguese and Mandarin). A classifier was trained on either the mapping between words and activation patterns in one language or the mappings in two languages (using an equivalent amount of training data), and then tested on its ability to decode the semantic content of a third language. The model trained on two languages was reliably more accurate than a classifier trained on one language for all three pairs of languages. Read More

    Intracerebral stimulation of left and right ventral temporal cortex during object naming.
    Brain Lang 2017 Dec 10;175:71-76. Epub 2017 Oct 10.
    Service de Neurologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Nancy, Nancy, France; CRAN, UMR 7039, CNRS et Université de Lorraine, Nancy, France. Electronic address:
    While object naming is traditionally considered asa left hemisphere function, neuroimaging studies have reported activations related to naming in the ventral temporal cortex (VTC) bilaterally. Our aim was to use intracerebral electrical stimulation to specifically compare left and right VTC in naming. In twenty-three epileptic patients tested for visual object naming during stimulation, the proportion of naming impairments was significantly higher in the left than in the right VTC (31. Read More

    Neural correlates of the lexicality effect in children.
    Brain Lang 2017 Dec 8;175:64-70. Epub 2017 Oct 8.
    Department of Psychology and Human Development, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37203, USA.
    The comparison of words and pseudowords has been extensively used in adult neuroimaging studies to inform neurocognitive models of reading but has rarely been used to inform models of reading acquisition. Using a rhyming judgment task, the current study examined age-related differences in the spelling to sound mapping mechanisms involved in word and pseudoword reading. We hypothesized a developmental increase in specialization of the brain mechanisms engaged for word and pseudoword processing. Read More

    Anterior cingulate cortex sulcation and its differential effects on conflict monitoring in bilinguals and monolinguals.
    Brain Lang 2017 Dec 7;175:57-63. Epub 2017 Oct 7.
    Centre for Neurolinguistics and Psycholinguistics, University Vita-Salute San Raffaele and Scientific Institute San Raffaele, Milano, Italy. Electronic address:
    The role of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in modulating the effect of bilingual experience on cognitive control has been reported at both functional and structural neural levels. Individual differences in the ACC sulcal patterns have been recently correlated with cognitive control efficiency in monolinguals. We aimed to investigate whether differences of ACC sulcation mediate the effect of bilingualism on cognitive control efficiency. Read More

    Sex steroid hormones and sex hormone binding globulin levels, CYP17 MSP AI (-34T:C) and CYP19 codon 39 (Trp:Arg) variants in children with developmental stuttering.
    Brain Lang 2017 Dec 6;175:47-56. Epub 2017 Oct 6.
    Department of Neuroscience, Faculty of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Developmental stuttering is known to be a sexually dimorphic and male-biased speech motor control disorder. In the present case-control study, we investigated the relationship between developmental stuttering and steroid hormones. Serum levels of testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), oestradiol, progesterone, cortisol, and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), as well as the 2nd/4th digit ratio (2D:4D), an indicator of prenatal testosterone level, were compared between children who stutter (CWS) and children who do not stutter (CWNS). Read More

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