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    Perception of direct vs. averted gaze in portrait paintings: An fMRI and eye-tracking study.
    Brain Cogn 2018 Jun 15;125:88-99. Epub 2018 Jun 15.
    National Institute of Mental Health, Topolová 748, 250 67 Klecany, Czech Republic.
    In this study, we use separate eye-tracking measurements and functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the neuronal and behavioral response to painted portraits with direct versus averted gaze. We further explored modulatory effects of several painting characteristics (premodern vs modern period, influence of style and pictorial context). In the fMRI experiment, we show that the direct versus averted gaze elicited increased activation in lingual and inferior occipital and the fusiform face area, as well as in several areas involved in attentional and social cognitive processes, especially the theory of mind: angular gyrus/temporo-parietal junction, inferior frontal gyrus and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Read More

    Towards using fNIRS recordings of mental arithmetic for the detection of residual cognitive activity in patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC).
    Brain Cogn 2018 Jun 14;125:78-87. Epub 2018 Jun 14.
    Institute of Neural Engineering, Graz University of Technology, Graz, Austria; BioTechMed Graz, Graz, Austria; Department of Otolaryngology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany; Cluster of Excellence "Hearing4all", Hannover, Germany.
    Background: Recently, fNIRS has been proposed as a promising approach for awareness detection, and a possible method to establish basic communication in patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC).

    Aim: Using fNIRS, the present study evaluated the applicability of auditory presented mental-arithmetic tasks in this respect.

    Methods: We investigated the applicability of active attention to serial subtractions for awareness detection in ten healthy controls (HC, 21-32 y/o), by comparing the measured patterns to patterns induced by self-performance of the same task. Read More

    Do all visual deficits cause pure alexia? Dissociations between visual processing and reading suggest "no".
    Brain Cogn 2018 Jun 11;125:69-77. Epub 2018 Jun 11.
    Klinik für Neurologie, Universitätsklinikum Freiburg, Medizinische Fakultät, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg, Germany; Zentrum für Geriatrie und Gerontologie (ZGG), Universitätsklinikum Freiburg, Medizinische Fakultät, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg, Germany; Freiburg Brain Imaging, Universitätsklinikum Freiburg, Medizinische Fakultät, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg, Germany; "BrainLinks BrainTools" Exzellenzcluster, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg, Germany.
    Pure alexia is a deficit of reading affecting the ability to process a word's letters in parallel. Instead, a slow, effortful letter-by-letter reading strategy is employed. It has been claimed that a visual impairment caused the reading impairment. Read More

    Thalamic and hippocampal volume associated with memory functions in multiple sclerosis.
    Brain Cogn 2018 Jun 8;125:61-68. Epub 2018 Jun 8.
    Department of Psychology, Université du Québec à Montréal, CP 8888, succ. Centre-ville, Montreal H3C 3P8, Canada; Centre de Recherche du Centre Hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal, 900 Rue Saint-Denis, Montréal, QC H2X 3H8, Canada. Electronic address:
    Objectives: Although multiple sclerosis (MS) has long been considered to primarily affect white matter, it is now recognized that cognitive deficits in MS are also related to neocortical, thalamic and hippocampal damage. However, the association between damage to these structures and memory deficits in MS is unclear. This study examines whether MS patients with cognitive impairment have a reduction of hippocampal and/or thalamic volumes compared to cognitively intact patients, and whether these volume reductions correlate with various aspects of memory function. Read More

    The posterior semantic asymmetry (PSA): An early brain electrical signature of semantic activation from written words.
    Brain Cogn 2018 Jun 6;125:53-60. Epub 2018 Jun 6.
    Department of Psychology, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany.
    This study replicates and extends the findings of Koppehele-Gossel, Schnuerch, and Gibbons (2016) of a posterior semantic asymmetry (PSA) in event-related brain potentials (ERPs), which closely tracks the time course and degree of semantic activation from single visual words. This negativity peaked 300 ms after word onset, was derived by subtracting right- from left-side activity, and was larger in a semantic task compared to two non-semantic control tasks. The validity of the PSA in reflecting the effort to activate word meaning was again attested by a negative correlation between the meaning-specific PSA increase and verbal intelligence, even after controlling for nonverbal intelligence. Read More

    Interactive influence of sex, stressor timing, and the BclI glucocorticoid receptor polymorphism on stress-induced alterations of long-term memory.
    Brain Cogn 2018 Jun 4. Epub 2018 Jun 4.
    Department of Psychology, Sociology, and Criminal Justice, Ohio Northern University, Ada, OH 45810, USA.
    Certain susceptibility factors, such as genetic variants or specific physiological responses to stress, can dictate the effects of stress on learning and memory. Here, we examined the influence of the BclI polymorphism of the glucocorticoid receptor gene on the time-dependent effects of pre-learning stress on long-term memory. Healthy individuals were exposed to the socially evaluated cold pressor test or a control condition immediately or 30 min before word list learning. Read More

    Alterations of EEG rhythms during motor preparation following awake brain surgery.
    Brain Cogn 2018 Jun 2;125:45-52. Epub 2018 Jun 2.
    CAMIN Team, INRIA, LIRMM, Université de Montpellier, 34095 Montpellier, France; Cognition, Action et Plasticité Sensorimotrice, INSERM U1093, UFR STAPS, Université Bourgogne Franche-Comté, 21078 Dijon, France; Institut Universitaire de France, 75231 Paris, France. Electronic address:
    Slow-growing, infiltrative brain tumours may modify the electrophysiological balance between the two hemispheres. To determine whether and how asymmetry of EEG rhythms during motor preparation might occur following "awake brain surgery" for this type of tumour, we recorded electroencephalograms during a simple visuo-manual reaction time paradigm performed by the patients between 3 and 12 months after surgery and compared them to a control group of 8 healthy subjects. Frequency analyses revealed imbalances between the injured and healthy hemispheres. Read More

    Genetic variation in serotonin function impacts on altruistic punishment in the ultimatum game: A longitudinal approach.
    Brain Cogn 2018 May 30;125:37-44. Epub 2018 May 30.
    Faculty of Psychology, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany; Department of Psychology, Faculty of Science, MSB Medical School Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Growing evidence demonstrates that the serotonin system influences punishment behavior in social decision-making and that individual differences in the propensity to punish are, at least in part, due to genetic variation. However, the specific genes and their mechanisms by which they influence punishment behavior are not yet fully characterized. Here, we examined whether serotonin system-related gene variation impacts on altruistic punishment in the ultimatum game by using a longitudinal approach with three time points, covering a time frame up to four months in young adults (N = 106). Read More

    The effect of hunger and satiety in the judgment of ethical violations.
    Brain Cogn 2018 May 28;125:32-36. Epub 2018 May 28.
    School of Psychology, Brigantia Building, Bangor University, Bangor, Gwynedd, Wales LL57 2AS, UK.
    Human history is studded with instances where instinctive motivations take precedence over ethical choices. Nevertheless, the evidence of any linking between motivational states and morality has never been systematically explored. Here we addressed this topic by testing a possible linking between appetite and moral judgment. Read More

    Stress-induced reliance on habitual behavior is moderated by cortisol reactivity.
    Brain Cogn 2018 May 25. Epub 2018 May 25.
    Department of Clinical Psychological Science, Faculty of Psychology and Neuroscience, Maastricht University, The Netherlands.
    Instrumental learning, i.e., learning that specific behaviors lead to desired outcomes, occurs through goal-directed and habit memory systems. Read More

    Neural correlates of context-independent and context-dependent self-knowledge.
    Brain Cogn 2018 May 25;125:23-31. Epub 2018 May 25.
    Psychology and Neuroscience of Cognition Research Unit, Department of Psychology, University of Liège, Liège, Belgium; GIGA-CRC In Vivo Imaging, University of Liège, Liège, Belgium.
    The self-concept consists of both a general (context-independent) self-representation and a set of context-dependent selves that represent personal attributes in particular contexts (e.g., as a student, as a daughter). Read More

    The effect of diabetes on prefrontal cortex activation patterns during active walking in older adults.
    Brain Cogn 2018 May 25;125:14-22. Epub 2018 May 25.
    Albert Einstein College of Medicine Bronx, New York, USA.
    Background: Gait alterations were documented in diabetic patients. However, the effect of diabetes on cortical control of gait has not been reported. We evaluated the effect of diabetes on prefrontal cortex (PFC) Oxygenated Hemoglobin (HbO) levels during active walking in older adults. Read More

    Is it still speech? Different processing strategies in learning to discriminate stimuli in the transition from speech to non-speech including feedback evaluation.
    Brain Cogn 2018 May 22;125:1-13. Epub 2018 May 22.
    Cognitive and Developmental Psychology Unit, Center for Cognitive Science, University of Kaiserslautern, Kaiserslautern, Germany; University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium. Electronic address:
    Processing of speech was investigated by using stimuli gradually changing from speech (vowels) to non-speech (spectral rotated vowels). Stimuli were presented in descending levels of vocalization blends, from pure speech to non-speech, through step-wise combinations, resulting in ambiguous versions of the sounds. Participants performed a two-alternative forced choice task: categorization of sounds were made according to whether they contained more speech or non-speech. Read More

    Subgenual anterior cingulate-insula resting-state connectivity as a neural correlate to trait and state stress resilience.
    Brain Cogn 2018 Jul 11;124:73-81. Epub 2018 May 11.
    Laboratory of Neuropsychology, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong; Laboratory of Cognitive Affective Neuroscience, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong; The State Key Laboratory of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong; Institute of Clinical Neuropsychology, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong. Electronic address:
    Accumulating evidence indicates important roles of the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex and rostral limbic regions such as the anterior insula, in regulating stress-related affective responses and negative affect states in general. However, research is lacking in simultaneously assessing the inter-relations between trait and state affective responses to stress, and the functional connectivity between the subgenual anterior cingulate and anterior insula. This preliminary research involved matched healthy participants with high (N = 10) and low (N = 10) self-reported trait stress resilience, and assessed their affective and subgenual anterior cingulate-anterior insula resting-state functional connectivity patterns before and after a psychosocial stress task. Read More

    Electrophysiological decomposition of attentional factors on the hypercorrection effect of false lexical representations.
    Brain Cogn 2018 Jul 10;124:64-72. Epub 2018 May 10.
    Tokushima Bunri University, Nishihama, Yamashiro, Tokushima 770-8514, Japan. Electronic address:
    False memories endorsed with higher confidence are more likely to be corrected by feedback than those endorsed with lower confidence (hypercorrection effect). Errors made with high confidence and correct responses made with low confidence are both associated with large meta-memory mismatches. Therefore, they both represent a type of unexpected event which automatically captures participant attention, such that correct information provided via feedback is well-encoded. Read More

    The analysis of EEG coherence reflects middle childhood differences in mathematical achievement.
    Brain Cogn 2018 Jul 7;124:57-63. Epub 2018 May 7.
    Instituto de Neurociencias, Universidad de Guadalajara, Francisco de Quevedo 180, Col. Arcos Vallarta, Guadalajara, Jalisco 44130, Mexico.
    Symbolic numerical magnitude processing is crucial to arithmetic development, and it is thought to be supported by the functional activation of several brain-interconnected structures. In this context, EEG beta oscillations have been recently associated with attention and working memory processing that underlie math achievement. Due to that EEG coherence represents a useful measure of brain functional connectivity, we aimed to contrast the EEG coherence in forty 8-to-9-year-old children with different math skill levels (High: HA, and Low achievement: LA) according to their arithmetic scores in the Fourth Edition of the Wide Range Achievement Test (WRAT-4) while performing a symbolic magnitude comparison task (i. Read More

    The neural correlates of attachment security in typically developing children.
    Brain Cogn 2018 Jul 1;124:47-56. Epub 2018 May 1.
    Department of Child and Family Studies, College of Human Ecology, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea. Electronic address:
    This study investigated neural correlates of children's attachment security using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Fifty-one boys' attachment styles (age mean = 9.5 years, SD = 0. Read More

    Action affordances and visuo-spatial complexity in motor imagery: An fMRI study.
    Brain Cogn 2018 Jul 1;124:37-46. Epub 2018 May 1.
    Institute of Neural Engineering, Graz University of Technology, Stremayrgasse 16/IV, 8010 Graz, Austria; BioTechMed-Graz, Graz, Austria.
    Imagining a complex action requires not only motor-related processing but also visuo-spatial imagery. In the current study, we examined visuo-spatial complexity and action affordances in motor imagery (MI). Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated the neural activity in MI of reach-to-grasp movements of the right hand in five conditions. Read More

    Selective impairments in components of affective prosody in neurologically impaired individuals.
    Brain Cogn 2018 Jul 1;124:29-36. Epub 2018 May 1.
    Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, USA; Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Physical and Medicine & Rehabilitation, USA; Johns Hopkins University, Department of Cognitive Science, USA. Electronic address:
    The intent and feelings of the speaker are often conveyed less by what they say than by how they say it, in terms of the affective prosody - modulations in pitch, loudness, rate, and rhythm of the speech to convey emotion. Here we propose a cognitive architecture of the perceptual, cognitive, and motor processes underlying recognition and generation of affective prosody. We developed the architecture on the basis of the computational demands of the task, and obtained evidence for various components by identifying neurologically impaired patients with relatively specific deficits in one component. Read More

    Neural correlates of active controlled retrieval development: An exploratory ERP study.
    Brain Cogn 2018 Jul 1;124:20-28. Epub 2018 May 1.
    Département des sciences de l'activité physique, Faculté des sciences, Université du Québec à Montréal, Case postale 8888, succ. Centre-ville, Montréal, Québec H3C 3P8, Canada.
    Working memory is composed of different processes and encompasses not only the temporary storage of information but also its manipulation in order to perform complex cognitive activities. During childhood, one of these manipulation processes, namely active controlled retrieval, improves significantly between the age of 6 to 10, suggesting that the neuronal network supporting this function undergoes substantial maturational changes. The present study examined the neural activity of 14 healthy children and 14 adults while performing an active controlled retrieval task. Read More

    Change in drawing placement: A measure of change in mood state reflective of hemispheric lateralization of emotion.
    Brain Cogn 2018 Jul;124:14-19
    Department of Psychology, Wittenberg University, United States; Department of Population and Public Health Sciences, Boonshoft School of Medicine, Wright State University, United States(1).
    The Valence Hypothesis of cerebral lateralization of emotion suggests greater right hemisphere activation during negative mood and greater left hemisphere activation during positive mood. This can manifest as visual field attentional bias. Here, study participants completed an assessment of current mood state (PANAS) and made a drawing (Drawing 1). Read More

    Using an emotional saccade task to characterize executive functioning and emotion processing in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and bipolar disorder.
    Brain Cogn 2018 Jul 23;124:1-13. Epub 2018 Apr 23.
    Centre for Neuroscience Studies, Queen's University, Kingston, ON, Canada; Department of Biomedical and Molecular Sciences, Queen's University, Kingston, ON, Canada. Electronic address:
    Despite distinct diagnostic criteria, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and bipolar disorder (BD) share cognitive and emotion processing deficits that complicate diagnoses. The goal of this study was to use an emotional saccade task to characterize executive functioning and emotion processing in adult ADHD and BD. Participants (21 control, 20 ADHD, 20 BD) performed an interleaved pro/antisaccade task (look toward vs. Read More

    Pre-encoding stress induced changes in perceived stress, blood pressure and cortisol are differentially associated with recollection and familiarity.
    Brain Cogn 2018 Apr 13. Epub 2018 Apr 13.
    Department of Cognitive Psychology, Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, Faculty of Psychology, Ruhr-University Bochum, 44780 Bochum, Germany; International Graduate School of Neuroscience, Ruhr-University Bochum, 44780 Bochum, Germany. Electronic address:
    Stress before encoding is often linked to impaired memory. Further influences of stress on memory are arousal of the to be learned material and memory retrieval type (free recall vs. recognition). Read More

    Modeling cognitive deficits following neurodegenerative diseases and traumatic brain injuries with deep convolutional neural networks.
    Brain Cogn 2018 Jun 26;123:154-164. Epub 2018 Mar 26.
    Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Washington, United States.
    The accurate diagnosis and assessment of neurodegenerative disease and traumatic brain injuries (TBI) remain open challenges. Both cause cognitive and functional deficits due to focal axonal swellings (FAS), but it is difficult to deliver a prognosis due to our limited ability to assess damaged neurons at a cellular level in vivo. We simulate the effects of neurodegenerative disease and TBI using convolutional neural networks (CNNs) as our model of cognition. Read More

    Changes in brain connectivity following exposure to bilateral eye movements.
    Brain Cogn 2018 Jun 21;123:142-153. Epub 2018 Mar 21.
    Stockton University, 101 Vera King Farris Drive, Galloway, NJ 08205, USA.
    The present research assessed how engaging in bilateral eye movements influences brain activity. Participants had their resting-state brain activity recorded with electroencephalography (EEG) before and after they performed 30 s of bilateral eye movements or a center-control manipulation. We assessed differences in change scores for absolute power and coherence between the eye-movement and center-control conditions. Read More

    Behavioral evidence suggestive of frontal lobe pathology in the amnesic H.M.
    Brain Cogn 2018 Jun 20;123:136-141. Epub 2018 Mar 20.
    Department of Behavioral Sciences, Kingsborough Community College of the City University of New York, Brooklyn, NY 11235, United States. Electronic address:
    From the earliest published reports, Henry Gustav Molaison-who until his death in 2008 was known simply by his initials H.M.-was characterized as having a profound anterograde amnesia subsequent to mid temporal lobe resection, and that this amnestic condition was uncomplicated by other cognitive or behavioral impairments. Read More

    A practical comparison of algorithms for the measurement of multiscale entropy in neural time series data.
    Brain Cogn 2018 Jun 18;123:126-135. Epub 2018 Mar 18.
    Department of Psychology, State University of New York at Binghamton, USA. Electronic address:
    There is a broad family of statistical methods for capturing time series regularity, with increasingly widespread adoption by the neuroscientific community. A common feature of these methods is that they permit investigators to quantify the entropy of brain signals - an index of unpredictability/complexity. Despite the proliferation of algorithms for computing entropy from neural time series data there is scant evidence concerning their relative stability and efficiency. Read More

    Hypnotizability influences the cortical representation of visually and kinaesthetically imagined head position.
    Brain Cogn 2018 Jun 16;123:120-125. Epub 2018 Mar 16.
    Department of Translational Research and New Technologies in Medicine and Surgery, University of Pisa, Italy. Electronic address:
    The study investigates the cortical representation of the visual and kinesthetic image of a rotated position of the head in highly (highs) and low hypnotizable individuals (lows) of both gender. Participants were invited to imagine maintaining their head rotated toward one side by seeing their chin aligned with their right shoulder (V, visual imagery), and in a different condition, by feeling tension in their neck muscles (K, kinaesthetic imagery). Vividness of imagery and cognitive effort were reported after each task. Read More

    The time is "right:" Electrophysiology reveals right parietal electrode dominance in time perception.
    Brain Cogn 2018 Jun 16;123:92-102. Epub 2018 Mar 16.
    Department of Behavioral and Social Sciences, University of the Sciences, Philadelphia, PA, USA. Electronic address:
    In the present study, healthy undergraduates were asked to identify if a visual stimulus appeared on screen for the same duration as a memorized target (2 s) while event-related potentials (ERP) were recorded. Trials consisted of very short (1.25 s), short (1. Read More

    Early enhanced processing and delayed habituation to deviance sounds in autism spectrum disorder.
    Brain Cogn 2018 Jun 16;123:110-119. Epub 2018 Mar 16.
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington, CHDD Box 357920, Seattle, WA 98195, USA.
    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exhibit difficulties processing and encoding sensory information in daily life. Cognitive response to environmental change in control individuals is naturally dynamic, meaning it habituates or reduces over time as one becomes accustomed to the deviance. The origin of atypical response to deviance in ASD may relate to differences in this dynamic habituation. Read More

    Body weight and its association with impulsivity in middle and old age individuals.
    Brain Cogn 2018 Jun 16;123:103-109. Epub 2018 Mar 16.
    Area of Neuroscience, SISSA, Trieste, Italy; ANVUR, Roma, Italy.
    Impulsivity, conceptualized as impulsive personality trait, poor inhibitory control and enhanced reward sensitivity, has been strongly linked to obesity. In particular, a disequilibrium between cognitive control and reward sensitivity has been observed in obese individuals in both behavioural and imaging studies. While this issue has been widely investigated in children and adults, it has received little attention in older adults. Read More

    Modulation of the dichotic right ear advantage during bilateral but not unilateral transcranial random noise stimulation.
    Brain Cogn 2018 Jun 13;123:81-88. Epub 2018 Mar 13.
    Department of Psychological, Health, and Territorial Sciences, 'G. d'Annunzio' University of Chieti-Pescara, Italy.
    Transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) has been increasingly adopted to modulate perceptual and cognitive functions, but the effects on auditory perception are still relatively uncharted. Starting from the evidence that a stronger right ear advantage effect (REA) in dichotic listening positively correlates with speech sound processing, the present study was aimed at modulating the REA by means of high-frequency transcranial Random Noise Stimulation (hf-tRNS). Stimulation was applied over the auditory cortex (AC) either unilaterally (Experiment 1, N = 50) or bilaterally (Experiment 2, N = 24) during a verbal dichotic listening task. Read More

    Brain tissue pulsatility mediates cognitive and electrophysiological changes in normal aging: Evidence from ultrasound tissue pulsatility imaging (TPI).
    Brain Cogn 2018 Jun 13;123:74-80. Epub 2018 Mar 13.
    Université François-Rabelais de Tours, France; INSERM U930 Imagerie et Cerveau, Tours, France; CHRU de Tours, Tours, France.
    Aging is characterized by a cognitive decline of fluid abilities and is also associated with electrophysiological changes. The vascular hypothesis proposes that brain is sensitive to vascular dysfunction which may accelerate age-related brain modifications and thus explain age-related neurocognitive decline. To test this hypothesis, cognitive performance was measured in 39 healthy participants from 20 to 80 years, using tests assessing inhibition, fluid intelligence, attention and crystallized abilities. Read More

    Functional brain connectivity when cooperation fails.
    Brain Cogn 2018 Jun 8;123:65-73. Epub 2018 Mar 8.
    Department of Psychology, Catholic University of Milan, Milan, Italy.
    Functional connectivity during cooperative actions is an important topic in social neuroscience that has yet to be answered. Here, we examined the effects of administration of (fictitious) negative social feedback in relation to cooperative capabilities. Cognitive performance and neural activation underlying the execution of joint actions was recorded with functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) on prefrontal regions during a task where pairs of participants received negative feedback after their joint action. Read More

    Topographical differences of frontal-midline theta activity reflect functional differences in cognitive control abilities.
    Brain Cogn 2018 Jun 8;123:57-64. Epub 2018 Mar 8.
    Experimental Neuropsychology Unit, Department of Psychology, Saarland University, Saarbrücken, Germany.
    Electrophysiological oscillations are assumed to be the core mechanism for large-scale network communication. The specific role of frontal-midline theta oscillations as cognitive control mechanism is under debate. According to the dual mechanisms of control framework, cognitive control processes can be divided into proactive and reactive control. Read More

    The relationship between semantic access and introspective awareness.
    Brain Cogn 2018 Jun 5;123:47-56. Epub 2018 Mar 5.
    State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning & IDG/McGovern Institute for Brain Research, Beijing Normal University, China; Center for Collaboration and Innovation in Brain and Learning Sciences, Beijing Normal University, China. Electronic address:
    There have long been speculations about the relationship between consciousness and language. This study aimed to determine whether an individual's level of introspective awareness, based on self-report, relates to accessibility of their semantic system as evaluated by the N400. Thirty-five university students completed the study. Read More

    The mental simulation of state/psychological verbs in the adolescent brain: An fMRI study.
    Brain Cogn 2018 Jun 3;123:34-46. Epub 2018 Mar 3.
    Department of Neurosciences and Mental health, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, University of Milan, Italy; Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, TX, USA. Electronic address:
    This fMRI study investigated mental simulation of state/psychological and action verbs during adolescence. Sixteen healthy subjects silently read verbs describing a motor scene or not (STIMULUS: motor, state/psychological verbs) and they were explicitly asked to imagine the situation or they performed letter detection preventing them from using simulation (TASK: imagery vs. letter detection). Read More

    fMRI during Transcendental Meditation practice.
    Brain Cogn 2018 Jun 2;123:30-33. Epub 2018 Mar 2.
    Applied fMRI, San Diego, CA, USA.
    This study used a within group design to investigate blood flow patterns (fMRI) in 16 long-term practitioners of Transcendental Meditation (mean practice: 34.3 years with each having over 36,000 h of meditation practice). During Transcendental Meditation practice, blood flow patterns were significantly higher in executive and attention areas (anterior cingulate and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices) and significantly lower in arousal areas (pons and cerebellum). Read More

    Hippocampal dependent neuropsychological tests and their relationship to measures of cardiac and self-report interoception.
    Brain Cogn 2018 Jun 2;123:23-29. Epub 2018 Mar 2.
    Department of Psychology, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia.
    The hippocampus is involved in interoceptive processing (i.e., perceiving internal bodily states), with much of this evidence relating to hunger and fullness. Read More

    Non-invasive brain stimulation to investigate language production in healthy speakers: A meta-analysis.
    Brain Cogn 2018 Jun 27;123:10-22. Epub 2018 Feb 27.
    Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) has become a common method to study the interrelations between the brain and language functioning. This meta-analysis examined the efficacy of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and direct current stimulation (tDCS) in the study of language production in healthy volunteers. Forty-five effect sizes from 30 studies which investigated the effects of NIBS on picture naming or verbal fluency in healthy participants were meta-analysed. Read More

    The impact of inverted text on visual word processing: An fMRI study.
    Brain Cogn 2018 Jun 27;123:1-9. Epub 2018 Feb 27.
    Indiana University, Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Bloomington, IN, USA. Electronic address:
    Visual word recognition has been studied for decades. One question that has received limited attention is how different text presentation orientations disrupt word recognition. By examining how word recognition processes may be disrupted by different text orientations it is hoped that new insights can be gained concerning the process. Read More

    Converging operations and the role of perceptual and decisional influences on the perception of faces: Neural and behavioral evidence.
    Brain Cogn 2018 Apr 21;122:59-75. Epub 2018 Feb 21.
    Ariel University, Israel; The Pennsylvania State University, United States.
    Theoretical analyses suggest that the regularities indicative of holistic processing can be obtained by combinations of perceptual and decisional factors. Kuefner and colleagues used electrophysiological results to suggest that the composite face effect is driven solely by perceptual factors. Two limitations of their approach are (a) it did not involve behavioral measures of perceptual sensitivity or bias, and (b) it is unclear how the measures used in that study are consistent with other measures of perceptual and decisional processing. Read More

    Task-residual functional connectivity of language and attention networks.
    Brain Cogn 2018 Apr 19;122:52-58. Epub 2018 Feb 19.
    Department of Psychology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, United States; Department of Veterans Affairs, Center for Visual and Neurocognitive Rehabilitation, Atlanta, GA, United States; Department of Neurology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, United States.
    Functional connectivity using task-residual data capitalizes on remaining variance after mean task-related signal is removed from a time series. The degree of network specificity in language and attention domains featured by task-residual and resting-state data types were compared. Functional connectivity based on task-residual data evidenced stronger laterality of the language and attention connections and thus greater network specificity compared to resting-state functional connectivity of the same connections. Read More

    Prefrontal cortex activation during obstacle negotiation: What's the effect size and timing?
    Brain Cogn 2018 Apr 15;122:45-51. Epub 2018 Feb 15.
    Center for the Study of Movement, Cognition, and Mobility, Neurological Institute, Tel Aviv Medical Center, Tel Aviv, Israel; Laboratory of Early Markers of Neurodegeneration, Tel Aviv Medical Center, Tel Aviv, Israel; Department of Neurology, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Israel; Sagol School of Neuroscience, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.
    Background: Obstacle negotiation is a daily activity that requires the integration of sensorimotor and cognitive information. Recent studies provide evidence for the important role of prefrontal cortex during obstacle negotiation. We aimed to explore the effects of obstacle height and available response time on prefrontal activation. Read More

    More far is more right: Manual and ocular line bisections, but not the Judd illusion, depend on radial space.
    Brain Cogn 2018 Apr 9;122:34-44. Epub 2018 Feb 9.
    Department of Neurology, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland; Zurich Center for Integrative Human Physiology, University of Zurich, Switzerland.
    Line bisection studies generally find a left-to-right shift in bisection bias with increasing distance between the observer and the target line, which may be explained by hemispheric differences in the processing of proximo-distal information. In the present study, the segregation between near and far space was further characterized across the motor system and contextual cues. To this aim, 20 right-handed participants were required to perform a manual bisection task of simple lines presented at three different distances (60, 90, 120 cm). Read More

    Association of the N100 TMS-evoked potential with attentional processes: A motor cortex TMS-EEG study.
    Brain Cogn 2018 Apr 4;122:9-16. Epub 2018 Feb 4.
    Department of Adolescent Psychiatry, Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio, Finland; Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.
    The most thoroughly studied transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)-evoked electroencephalogram (EEG) potential (TEP), N100, is often defined as a measure of cortical inhibition. We explored the association of the N100 amplitude with attention in 51 young healthy adults. Navigated TMS with simultaneous EEG registering was applied over the left primary motor cortex at the intensity of 110% of the resting motor threshold. Read More

    Reduced inter-hemispheric interference in ageing: Evidence from a divided field Stroop paradigm.
    Brain Cogn 2018 Apr 5;122:26-33. Epub 2018 Feb 5.
    University of Hull, United Kingdom.
    One of the most important structural changes that occur in the brain during the course of life relates to the corpus callosum, the largest neural pathway that connects the two cerebral hemispheres. It has been shown that the corpus callosum, and in particular its anterior sections, endures a process of degeneration in ageing. Hence, a primary question is whether such structural changes in the brain of older adults have functional consequences on inter-hemispheric communication. Read More

    The impact of perceptual changes to studied items on ERP correlates of familiarity and recollection is subject to hemispheric asymmetries.
    Brain Cogn 2018 Apr 20;122:17-25. Epub 2018 Jan 20.
    Brain & Cognition Group, Department of Psychology, Saarland University, Saarbrücken, Germany.
    It is still unclear which role the right hemisphere (RH) preference for perceptually specific and the left hemisphere (LH) bias towards abstract memory representations play at the level of episodic memory retrieval. When stimulus characteristics hampered the retrieval of abstract memory representations, these hemispheric asymmetries have previously only modulated event-related potential (ERP) correlates of recollection (late positive complex, LPC), but not of familiarity (FN400). In the present experiment, we used stimuli which facilitated the retrieval of abstract memory representations. Read More

    Attentional rather than sensory differences characterize auditory processing in Williams syndrome.
    Brain Cogn 2018 03;121:24-37
    Department of Hearing and Speech Sciences, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, United States; Vanderbilt Kennedy Center for Research on Human Development, United States. Electronic address:
    Individuals with Williams Syndrome (WS) exhibit an atypical auditory profile. Across two experiments, we used event-related potentials (ERPs) in a three-stimulus auditory oddball task to examine early sensory (P1, N1, P2) and later cognitive (P3a, P3b) stages of cortical auditory processing in adults with WS and age-matched typical peers. In Study 1, piano chords served as standard, target, and novel stimuli; whereas, in Study 2, a variety of non-piano sounds comprised the novel stimuli. Read More

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