3,303 results match your criteria Brain and Cognition[Journal]


Confidence tracks sensory- and decision-related ERP dynamics during auditory detection.

Brain Cogn 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH 45433, USA.

Recent research has focused on measuring neural correlates of metacognitive judgments in decision and post-decision processes during memory retrieval and categorization. However, many tasks (e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bandc.2018.10.007DOI Listing
December 2018

Enhancing memory with stress: Progress, challenges, and opportunities.

Brain Cogn 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Yale Stress Center, Department of Psychiatry, Yale University, 2 Church Street South, Suite 209, New Haven, CT 06519, United States. Electronic address:

Stress can strongly influence what we learn and remember, including by making memories stronger. Experiments probing stress effects on hippocampus-dependent memory in rodents have revealed modulatory factors and physiological mechanisms by which acute stress can enhance long-term memory. However, extending these findings and mechanisms to understand when stress will enhance declarative memory in humans faces important challenges. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S02782626183018
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bandc.2018.11.009DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Maternal reading fluency is associated with functional connectivity between the child's future reading network and regions related to executive functions and language processing in preschool-age children.

Brain Cogn 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Reading and Literacy Discovery Center, Pediatric Neuroimaging Research Consortium, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, USA; Educational Neuroimaging Center, Faculty of Education in Science and Technology, Technion, Haifa, Israel. Electronic address:

Reading is an acquired skill that relies on cognitive-control and language abilities. Home reading environment has been positively correlated with activation in parietal-temporal-occipital association cortex supporting mental imagery and narrative comprehension during a story-listening task in preschool-age children. However, the degree to which maternal reading ability influences early brain development, specifically neural circuits involved with language and reading, is not well understood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bandc.2018.11.010DOI Listing
December 2018

Language or music? Environmental influences on infants' handedness from 5 to 12 months.

Brain Cogn 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Université Paris Descartes, Laboratoire de Psychopathologie et Processus de Santé (EA 4057), France; Unité de recherche en Psychiatrie et Psychopathologie, EPS Erasme, France.

The main purpose of this study was to test the influence of music environment on hand-use preference in infants from 5 to 12 months, compared to speech environment. According to hemispheric specialization, our hypothesis was that infants would reach for objects more with their right hand in a speech context (left hemisphere), and more with their left hand in a music context (right hemisphere). 61 full-term infants aged from 5 to 12 months participated in this study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bandc.2018.12.003DOI Listing
December 2018

Ability to process musical pitch is unrelated to the memory advantage for vocal music.

Brain Cogn 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

International Laboratory for Brain, Music, and Sound Research, Canada; Department of Psychology, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Canada.

Listeners remember vocal melodies better than instrumental melodies, but the origins of the effect are unclear. One explanation for the 'voice advantage' is that general perceptual mechanisms enhance processing of conspecific signals. An alternative possibility is that the voice, by virtue of its expressiveness in pitch, simply provides more musical information to the listener. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bandc.2018.11.011DOI Listing
December 2018
2.477 Impact Factor

Ventral attention and motor network connectivity is relevant to functional impairment in spatial neglect after right brain stroke.

Brain Cogn 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Kessler Foundation, 1199 Pleasant Valley Way, West Orange, NJ 07052, USA; Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ 07102, USA. Electronic address:

Emerging research suggests spatial neglect after right stroke is linked to dysfunctional attention and motor networks. Advanced functional connectivity analysis clarified brain network recovery, however we need to know how networks participate in adaptive motor performance. We need to verify network changes associated with validated functional measures and spatial-motor performance in spatial neglect, especially in patients with large brain lesions and significant disability. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bandc.2018.11.013DOI Listing
December 2018

Parietal lobe volume distinguishes attentional control in bilinguals and monolinguals: A structural MRI study.

Brain Cogn 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

University of Houston, United States.

Research suggests that bilingualism is associated with increases in parietal gray matter volume (GMV). These parietal GMV increases are a source of variability that may help explain the reported bilingual/monolingual differences in attentional control. The current study examined how parietal GMV variability and a participant's language background predicted Simon task performance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bandc.2018.12.001DOI Listing
December 2018

Spatial characteristics of spontaneous and stimulus-induced individual functional connectivity networks in severe disorders of consciousness.

Brain Cogn 2018 Nov 27. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Institute of Medical Psychology and Behavioral Neurobiology, University of Tübingen, Germany. Electronic address:

Background: Functional connectivity (fcMRI) analyses of resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data revealed substantial differences between states of consciousness. The underlying cause-effect linkage, however, remains unknown to the present day. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between fcMRI measures and Disorders of Consciousness (DOC) in resting state and under adequate stimulation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bandc.2018.11.007DOI Listing
November 2018
1 Read

The time course of semantic and relational processing during verbal analogical reasoning.

Brain Cogn 2018 Dec 1. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

Loyola University Chicago, Department of Psychology, 1032 W Sheridan Rd., Chicago, IL 60660, United States.

Analogy is an important ability that allows humans to discover relationships between information domains that often vary in surface and relational characteristics. Cognitive neuroscience studies of analogy have demonstrated the importance of the prefrontal cortex during relational comparisons, but little is known about how semantic and relational similarity interact throughout its time course. We used scalp electroencephalography (EEG) analyzed with event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine the neural time course of analogical reasoning while 16 participants solved four-term verbal analogies. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S02782626183025
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bandc.2018.11.012DOI Listing
December 2018
4 Reads

Further to the right: Viewing distance modulates attentional asymmetries ('pseudoneglect') during visual exploration.

Brain Cogn 2018 Nov 22. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Perception and Eye Movement Laboratory, Departments of Neurology and BioMedical Research, University Hospital, University of Bern, Switzerland.

Previous studies showed that the small leftward bias found in healthy humans' spatial judgments of lines ("pseudoneglect") shifts to the right with increasing distance between stimuli and observer. In this study, we investigated whether such a modulation of attentional asymmetry can also be observed in free visual exploration. Participants freely explored photographs of naturalistic scenes for 7 s in near (60 cm) and far (140 cm) space. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bandc.2018.11.008DOI Listing
November 2018
3 Reads
2.477 Impact Factor

Feasibility of using auditory event-related potentials to investigate learning and memory in nonverbal individuals with Angelman syndrome.

Brain Cogn 2018 12 22;128:73-79. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Department of Hearing and Speech Sciences, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, United States.

The combination of intellectual, communicative, and motor deficits limit the use of standardized behavioral assessments of cognition in individuals with Angelman syndrome (AS). The current study is the first to objectively evaluate learning and memory in AS using auditory event-related potentials (ERP) during passive exposure to spoken stimuli. Fifteen nonverbal individuals with the deletion subtype of AS (age 4-45 years) completed the auditory incidental memory paradigm. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bandc.2018.11.001DOI Listing
December 2018

Improving innovative decision-making: Training-induced changes in fronto-parietal networks.

Brain Cogn 2018 12 20;128:46-55. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Scuola Universitaria Superiore IUSS Pavia, Pavia, Italy; Cognitive Neuroscience Laboratory, ICS Maugeri, Pavia, Italy.

Innovative decision-making entails the balance of exploitative and explorative choices, and has been linked to the efficiency of executive functioning, including working-memory and attentional skills, associated with fronto-parietal networks. Based on the notion that such skills can be improved by cognitive training, we assessed whether a cognitive training enhancing basic executive skills might also improve the ability to manage the exploration-exploitation trade-off and its financial consequences, and whether any improvement in training-related performance would be reflected in neurostructural changes within fronto-parietal networks. Eighteen subjects participated in a baseline assessment, a training period and a follow-up measurement, while a matched group of 18 subjects did not undertake the training program. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S02782626183016
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bandc.2018.11.004DOI Listing
December 2018
3 Reads

Goals matter: Amplification of the motivational significance of the feedback when goal impact is increased.

Brain Cogn 2018 12 16;128:56-72. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Cognitive & Affective Psychophysiology Laboratory, Department of Experimental Clinical and Health Psychology, Ghent University, Belgium.

Performance monitoring (PM) entails the continuous evaluation of actions and their outcomes. At the electrophysiological level, PM has been consistently related to two event-related brain potentials (ERPs): the Feedback-Related Negativity (FRN) and the P3. In a previous within-subject crossover design study, we showed that feedback's goal impact (i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bandc.2018.11.002DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Effects of intermittent theta burst stimulation applied to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex on empathy and impulsivity in healthy adult males.

Brain Cogn 2018 12 15;128:37-45. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Klinik und Poliklinik für Forensische Psychiatrie, Universitätsmedizin Rostock, Germany. Electronic address:

Impulsivity and empathy are clinically relevant multi-dimensional concepts. Existing evidence suggests the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (LDLPFC) plays a crucial role in impulsivity and empathy. However, the neuromodulation effect of excitatory repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation at the LDLPFC is insufficiently explored in the current literature. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bandc.2018.11.003DOI Listing
December 2018

Monolinguals and bilinguals disengage attention differently following conflict and errors: Evidence from ERPs.

Brain Cogn 2018 12 15;128:28-36. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Department of Psychology, York University, Toronto, Canada.

Monolingual and bilingual young adults performed a task-switching experiment while EEG was recorded to investigate how bilingualism affects cognitive control following conflict. Participants were given pure blocks composed of three intermixed tasks, each consisting of univalent trials in which they responded to one feature of the stimulus - color, shape, or size. In the crucial conflict block, an irrelevant feature was added to one of the tasks, creating bivalent trials that included conflict. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bandc.2018.11.006DOI Listing
December 2018

Young children's sentence comprehension: Neural correlates of syntax-semantic competition.

Brain Cogn 2018 Nov 12. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

Department of Neuropsychology, Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Stephanstraße 1A, 04103 Leipzig, Germany. Electronic address:

Sentence comprehension requires the assignment of thematic relations between the verb and its noun arguments in order to determine who is doing what to whom. In some languages, such as English, word order is the primary syntactic cue. In other languages, such as German, case-marking is additionally used to assign thematic roles. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bandc.2018.09.003DOI Listing
November 2018
2 Reads

Structural brain changes as a function of second language vocabulary training: Effects of learning context.

Brain Cogn 2018 Nov 11. Epub 2018 Nov 11.

Department of Psychology and Center for Brain, Behavior, and Cognition, Pennsylvania State University, United States. Electronic address:

Recent research indicates that learning a second language (L2) results in both functional and structural brain changes. However, few studies have examined whether structural brain changes vary as a function of the context in which L2 learning takes place. The current study examines changes in cortical thickness (CT) and gray matter volume (GMV) in response to short-term L2 vocabulary learning. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bandc.2018.09.004DOI Listing
November 2018

Abnormal processing of prosodic boundary in adults who stutter: An ERP study.

Brain Cogn 2018 12 10;128:17-27. Epub 2018 Nov 10.

Research Center of Brain and Cognitive Neuroscience, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian 116029, China. Electronic address:

Characterized by involuntary disruptions in fluency speech, adults who stutter (AWS) are different from normally fluent speakers (NFS) in speech-language processing indices of phonological, semantic, and syntactic information coding. However, the neural base of the prosodic information (i.e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bandc.2018.10.009DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

Verbal long-term memory is enhanced by retrieval practice but impaired by prefrontal direct current stimulation.

Brain Cogn 2018 12 8;128:80-88. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Tufts University, Department of Psychology, Medford, MA 02155, USA.

Retrieval practice involves repeatedly testing a student during the learning experience, reliably conferring learning advantages relative to repeated study. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) has also been shown to confer learning advantages for verbal memory, though research is equivocal. The present study examined the effects of retrieval versus study practice with or without left dlPFC tDCS on verbal episodic memory. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bandc.2018.09.008DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Stress and executive control: Mechanisms, moderators, and malleability.

Brain Cogn 2018 Nov 2. Epub 2018 Nov 2.

University of California, Irvine, CA, United States. Electronic address:

Stress pervades everyday life and more importantly, affects prefrontal cortices that support executive control functions, processes that are critical to learning and memory as well as a range of life outcomes. The positive or negative effect of stress on cognition depends on an interaction of factors related to the situation and the individual. Research has shown that psychological characteristics related to self-relevance and the availability of resources may lead individuals to perceive a stressor as a threat or challenge, driving performance outcomes. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S02782626183017
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bandc.2018.10.004DOI Listing
November 2018
4 Reads

Attention and cognitive load modulate motor resonance during action observation.

Brain Cogn 2018 12 28;128:7-16. Epub 2018 Oct 28.

Department of Health Sciences, University of Milano, Medical School, Milan, Italy.

Observation of others' actions evokes a motor resonant (MR) response, in the parieto-frontal Action Observation Network (AON, comprising BA40, BA6, BA4). In order to investigate the effect of cognitive processes on the AON we manipulated attention and cognitive load during central and peripheral observation of hand grasping actions with three experiments. Motor Evoked Potentials (MEPs) were elicited in the opponent of the thumb (OP) and abductor of the little finger (ADM) by Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) of the primary motor cortex. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S02782626183011
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bandc.2018.10.006DOI Listing
December 2018
6 Reads

Modulation of resting-state network connectivity by verbal divergent thinking training.

Brain Cogn 2018 12 25;128:1-6. Epub 2018 Oct 25.

Institute of Psychology, University of Graz, Graz, Austria; BioTechMed, Graz, Austria.

A growing body of evidence suggests that creativity is associated with functional connectivity across widespread neural networks, including regions associated with executive processes and cognitive control, along with regions linked to the default mode network (DMN) of the brain. This study investigated whether a three-week verbal divergent thinking training modulates functional connectivity in networks that have been related to creativity. In a task-based functional imaging study (Fink et al. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S02782626183020
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bandc.2018.10.008DOI Listing
December 2018
4 Reads

Influence of age on the effects of lying on memory.

Brain Cogn 2018 Oct 22. Epub 2018 Oct 22.

Brandeis University, United States.

False memories are elicited from exposure to misleading information. It is possible that self-provided misinformation, or lying, has similar effects. We hypothesized that lying impairs memory for younger adults, as increased cognitive control, necessary to inhibit a truthful response, comes at the expense of retaining veridical information in memory. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bandc.2018.10.002DOI Listing
October 2018

Tactile enumeration: A case study of acalculia.

Brain Cogn 2018 11 16;127:60-71. Epub 2018 Oct 16.

Department of Psychology, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, POB 653, Beer-Sheva, Israel; Zlotowski Center for Neuroscience, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, POB 653, Beer-Sheva, Israel. Electronic address:

Enumeration is one of the building blocks of arithmetic and fingers are used as a counting tool in early steps. Subitizing-fast and accurate enumeration of small quantities-has been vastly studied in the visual modality, but less in the tactile modality. We explored tactile enumeration using fingers, and gray matter (GM) changes using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), in acalculia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bandc.2018.10.001DOI Listing
November 2018

The effect of mouth opening in emotional faces on subjective experience and the early posterior negativity amplitude.

Brain Cogn 2018 11 11;127:51-59. Epub 2018 Oct 11.

Department of Psychology, Education and Child Studies, Erasmus University Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

Previous studies have examined the role of the eye region in emotional expressions, but the mouth region is understudied. The main goal of this study was to examine how mouth opening in emotional faces affects subjective experience and early automatic attentional capture, as measured by the early posterior negativity (EPN) amplitude. Participants in two studies viewed angry, happy, and neutral faces with mouths open and closed while their electroencephalogram was recorded. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S02782626183023
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bandc.2018.10.003DOI Listing
November 2018
6 Reads

A network view on brain regions involved in experts' object and pattern recognition: Implications for the neural mechanisms of skilled visual perception.

Brain Cogn 2018 Oct 2. Epub 2018 Oct 2.

Department of Psychology, University of Northumbria at Newcastle, Newcastle, England, United Kingdom; Department of Neuroradiology, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.

Skilled visual object and pattern recognition form the basis of many everyday behaviours. The game of chess has often been used as a model case for studying how long-term experience aides in perceiving objects and their spatio-functional interrelations. Earlier research revealed two brain regions, posterior middle temporal gyrus (pMTG) and collateral sulcus (CoS), to be linked to chess experts' superior object and pattern recognition, respectively. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bandc.2018.09.007DOI Listing
October 2018
14 Reads

Stress impacts the fidelity but not strength of emotional memories.

Brain Cogn 2018 Sep 26. Epub 2018 Sep 26.

Department of Psychology, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA 19122, USA. Electronic address:

Psychological stress during memory encoding influences resulting memory representations. However, open questions remain regarding how stress interacts with emotional memory. This interaction has mainly been studied by characterizing the correct identification of previously observed material (memory "hits"), with few studies investigating how stress influences the endorsement of unobserved material as remembered (memory "false alarms"). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bandc.2018.09.001DOI Listing
September 2018

Event-related potential (ERP) evidence that encoding focus alters recollected features.

Brain Cogn 2018 11 22;127:42-50. Epub 2018 Sep 22.

The College of New Jersey, United States.

Event-related potential (ERP) evidence suggests that encoding focus alters the quality of information bound in memory, which can affect source memory. In the present study, participants studied product images with blue or and yellow filters while focusing either on the self (self-focus) or on the color of the filtered image (other-focus). Self-focus encoding produced more positive encoding ERPs, greater recognition for old/new judgments, and a greater Late Positive Component (LPC; the putative neural correlate for recollection). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bandc.2018.09.005DOI Listing
November 2018
1 Read

Transcranial direct current stimulation enhances retention of a second (but not first) order conditional visuo-motor sequence.

Brain Cogn 2018 11 22;127:34-41. Epub 2018 Sep 22.

Deakin University, Geelong, Australia, Cognitive Neuroscience Unit, School of Psychology, Australia.

This study examined the role of the left inferior frontal gyrus in the implicit learning and retention of a 'simple' first order conditional (FOC) sequence and a relatively 'complex' second order conditional (SOC) sequence, using anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (a-tDCS). Groups of healthy adults received either a-tDCS (n = 18) over the left inferior frontal gyrus or sham/placebo (n = 18) stimulation. On separate days, participants completed a serial reaction time (SRT) task whilst receiving stimulation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bandc.2018.09.006DOI Listing
November 2018

Impaired motor inhibition in developmental coordination disorder.

Brain Cogn 2018 11 20;127:23-33. Epub 2018 Sep 20.

Cognitive Neuroscience Unit, School of Psychology, Deakin University, Geelong, Australia.

This study aimed to evaluate the 'inhibitory deficit' hypothesis of developmental coordination disorder (DCD). We adopted a multifaceted approach, investigating two distinct, yet complimentary facets of motor inhibition: action restraint and action cancellation. This was achieved using carefully constructed versions of the 'Go/No-go' and 'Stop-signal' tasks, respectively. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bandc.2018.09.002DOI Listing
November 2018
1 Read

Anosognosia in degenerative brain diseases: The role of the right hemisphere and of its dominance for emotions.

Authors:
Guido Gainotti

Brain Cogn 2018 11 1;127:13-22. Epub 2018 Sep 1.

Institute of Neurology, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome, Italy; IRCCS Fondazione Santa Lucia, Department of Clinical and Behavioral Neurology, Rome, Italy. Electronic address:

Earlier studies, which suggested that anosognosia of hemiplegia might be related to right hemisphere (RH) lesions did not control for the influence of confounding variables, such as aphasia, in patients with left-hemisphere lesions and unilateral neglect in those with RH lesions. These confounding variables are absent in patients with degenerative brain disease, where a prevalence of right-sided lesions is often associated with emotional and behavioural disturbances. This review, which can be considered a 'qualitative synthesis', aimed, therefore, to determine whether the unawareness phenomena observed in degenerative brain diseases are linked to the RH dominance for emotions. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S02782626183003
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bandc.2018.08.002DOI Listing
November 2018
19 Reads

Cortical-subcortical production of formulaic language: A review of linguistic, brain disorder, and functional imaging studies leading to a production model.

Brain Cogn 2018 10 1;126:53-64. Epub 2018 Sep 1.

Brain and Behavior Laboratory, The Nathan Kline Institute for Psychiatric Research, Orangeburg, NY, USA; Department of Psychiatry, New York University Langone School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA.

Formulaic language forms about one-fourth of everyday talk. Formulaic (fixed expressions) and novel (grammatical language) differ in important characteristics. The features of idioms, slang, expletives, proverbs, aphorisms, conversational speech formulas, and other fixed expressions include ranges of length, flexible cohesion, memory storage, nonliteral and situation meaning, and affective content. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bandc.2018.08.003DOI Listing
October 2018

The temporal dynamics of perceptual and conceptual fluency on recognition memory.

Brain Cogn 2018 11 1;127:1-12. Epub 2018 Sep 1.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Learning and Cognition, School of Psychology, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048, PR China. Electronic address:

Recognition memory can be driven by both perceptual and conceptual fluency, but when and to what extent they contribute to recognition memory remains an open question. The present study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate the neural correlates of perceptual and conceptual fluency, when they gave rise to recognition. We manipulated the perceptual and conceptual fluency of retrieval cues in the recognition test independently to obtain the effects of different types of fluency. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bandc.2018.07.002DOI Listing
November 2018
2.480 Impact Factor

Developmental change in the resting state electroencephalogram: Insights into cognition and the brain.

Brain Cogn 2018 10 22;126:40-52. Epub 2018 Aug 22.

Department of Human Development, Washington State University, United States.

Resting state electroencephalography (RS-EEG) is a commonly used neurophysiological technique which provides a measure of brain activity when an individual is awake and not performing any assigned cognitive task. Because this relatively simple and non-invasive method is suitable for many ages and populations, a large and diverse literature has amassed. The focus of this review is to describe and synthesize RS-EEG literature across the lifespan while emphasizing the associations between RS-EEG and cognition. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bandc.2018.08.001DOI Listing
October 2018

On the sensitivity of event-related fields to recollection and familiarity.

Brain Cogn 2018 10 14;126:33-39. Epub 2018 Aug 14.

School of Psychology, Nottingham University, Nottingham, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

The sensitivity of event-related potentials (ERPs) to the processes of recollection and familiarity has been explored extensively, and ERPs have been used subsequently to infer the contributions these processes make to memory judgments under a range of different circumstances. It has also been shown that event-related fields (ERFs, the magnetic counterparts of ERPs) are sensitive to memory retrieval processes. The links between ERFs, recollection and familiarity are, however, established only weakly. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bandc.2018.07.007DOI Listing
October 2018

The processing of animacy in noun-classifier combinations in reading Korean: An ERP study.

Authors:
Liling Jin

Brain Cogn 2018 10 8;126:23-32. Epub 2018 Aug 8.

School of Psychological and Cognitive Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100080, China. Electronic address:

A key issue in the area of language processing is the mechanism underlying the processing of animacy information during sentence comprehension. In this ERP study, we investigated the temporal dynamics of animacy processing in Korean noun-classifier combinations that do not involve verb-noun thematic processing. We manipulated semantic and animacy relationships between nouns and their following classifiers, and there were three conditions in our experiment: (a) correct, (b) semantic mismatch, or (c) animacy mismatch. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bandc.2018.06.001DOI Listing
October 2018
1 Read

Imagine squeezing a cactus: Cortical activation during affective motor imagery measured by functional near-infrared spectroscopy.

Brain Cogn 2018 10 7;126:13-22. Epub 2018 Aug 7.

Institute of Neural Engineering, Graz University of Technology, Graz, Austria; BioTechMed-Graz, Graz, Austria.

The activation of different brain areas during kinaesthetic and visual motor imagery has been extensively studied, whereas little is known about affective motor imagery, i.e. the imagery of pleasant/unpleasant movements. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bandc.2018.07.006DOI Listing
October 2018

The effect of ageing on the neural substrates of incidental encoding leading to recollection or familiarity.

Brain Cogn 2018 10 18;126:1-12. Epub 2018 Jul 18.

GIGA Cyclotron Research Centre in Vivo Imaging, University of Liège, Belgium; Psychology and Cognitive Neuroscience Unit, University of Liège, Belgium. Electronic address:

It is well-known that the ageing process disrupts episodic memory. The aim of this study was to use an fMRI visual recognition task to characterize age-related changes in cerebral regions activated, during encoding, for images that would subsequently lead to a recollection-based or to a familiarity-based recognition. Results show that, for subsequent recollection, young adults activated regions related to semantic processing more extensively than older ones. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bandc.2018.07.004DOI Listing
October 2018
1 Read

Young children in different linguistic environments: A multimodal neuroimaging study of the inferior frontal gyrus.

Brain Cogn 2018 Jul 11. Epub 2018 Jul 11.

Department of Radiology, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, AB T2N 1N4, Canada; Alberta Children's Hospital Research Institute, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, AB T2N 1N4, Canada; Hotchkiss Brain Institute, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, AB T2N 1N4, Canada. Electronic address:

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies show that bilingual adults display structural and functional brain alterations, especially in the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), dependent on when they learned their second language. However, it is unclear whether these differences are due to early exposure to another language, or to lifelong adaptation. We studied 22 children aged 3-5 years growing up in a multilingual environment and 22 age- and sex-matched controls exposed to an English-only environment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bandc.2018.05.009DOI Listing
July 2018
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The neural bases of price estimation: Effects of size and precision of the estimate.

Brain Cogn 2018 08 11;125:157-164. Epub 2018 Jul 11.

Faculdade de Psicologia, Universidade de Lisboa, Alameda da Universidade, 1649-013 Lisboa, Portugal.

People are often confronted with the need of estimating the market price of goods. An important question is how people estimate prices, given the variability of products and prices available. Using event-related fMRI, we investigated how numerical processing modulates the neural bases of retail price estimation by focusing on two numerical dimensions: the size and precision of the estimates. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bandc.2018.07.005DOI Listing
August 2018
2 Reads

Telling a truth to deceive: Examining executive control and reward-related processes underlying interpersonal deception.

Brain Cogn 2018 08 7;125:149-156. Epub 2018 Jul 7.

Institute of Psychological Science, Zhejiang Key Laboratory for Research in Assessment of Cognitive Impairments, Center for Cognition and Brain Disorders, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Does deception necessarily involve false statements that are incompatible with the truth? In some cases, people choose truthful statements in order to mislead others. This type of deception has been investigated less. The current study employed event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to investigate the neurocognitive processes when both truthful and false statements were used to deceive others. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bandc.2018.06.009DOI Listing
August 2018
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The role of the cerebellum for feedback processing and behavioral switching in a reversal-learning task.

Brain Cogn 2018 08 4;125:142-148. Epub 2018 Jul 4.

Institute of Medical Psychology and Systems Neuroscience, University of Münster, Von-Esmarch-Str. 52, 48149 Münster, Germany.

Previous studies have reported cerebellar activations during error and reward processing. The present study investigated if the cerebellum differentially processes feedback depending on changes in response strategy during reversal learning, as is conceivable given its internal models for movement and thought. Negative relative to positive feedback in an fMRI-based reversal learning task was hypothesized to be associated with increased cerebellar activations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bandc.2018.07.001DOI Listing
August 2018
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Cerebral blood flow modulations during proactive control in chronic hypotension.

Brain Cogn 2018 08 2;125:135-141. Epub 2018 Jul 2.

UMIT - University of Health Sciences Medical Informatics and Technology, Institute of Psychology, Eduard-Wallnöfer-Zentrum 1, 6060 Hall in Tirol, Austria. Electronic address:

In addition to complaints including fatigue, mood disturbance, dizziness or cold limbs, chronic low blood pressure (hypotension) is associated with reduced cognitive performance. Deficiencies in cerebral blood flow regulation may contribute to this impairment. This study investigated cerebral blood flow modulations during proactive control in hypotension. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bandc.2018.06.008DOI Listing
August 2018
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Higher cardiovascular fitness level is associated to better cognitive dual-task performance in Master Athletes: Mediation by cardiac autonomic control.

Brain Cogn 2018 08 30;125:127-134. Epub 2018 Jun 30.

Laboratory LESCA, Research Center of Geriatric Institute of University of Montreal, Montreal, Qc, Canada; Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Montreal, Montreal, Canada; Montreal Heart Institute, Montreal, Canada.

Introduction/purpose: This study compared cognitive performances and cardiac autonomic measures of higher fit and lower fit middle-aged and older highly active adults. The working hypotheses were that higher fit (master athletes) would show cognitive benefits in executive control conditions due to a high level of fitness compared to lower fit people and that this effect would be mediated by better cardiac autonomic adaptations in athletes.

Methods: We recruited 39 highly active middle aged and older adults from Master Athletes' organizations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bandc.2018.06.003DOI Listing
August 2018
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Neuroplasticity across the lifespan and aging effects in bilinguals and monolinguals.

Brain Cogn 2018 08 30;125:118-126. Epub 2018 Jun 30.

Centre for Neurolinguistics and Psycholinguistics (CNPL), Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy; Department of Speech and Hearing Sciences, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong. Electronic address:

Evidence that bilingualism protects against age-related neurocognitive decline is mixed. One relatively consistent finding is that bilingual seniors have greater grey matter volume (GMV) in regions implicated in executive control (EC) and language processing. Here, we compare the neuroplastic effects of bilingual experience on the EC network of young and aging populations directly, and for the first time we evaluate the extent to which such effects may predict executive control performance across age. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bandc.2018.06.007DOI Listing
August 2018
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Spatial selective attention biases are shaped by long-term musical experience and short-term exposure to tones.

Brain Cogn 2018 08 29;125:106-117. Epub 2018 Jun 29.

Department of Psychology, Tulane University, 2700 Percival Stern Hall, 6400 Freret St., New Orleans, LA 70118, United States. Electronic address:

Selective attention is a dynamic process that rapidly shifts processing resources to information that is most relevant to our goals. Although individuals often show spatial biases in attention, these biases can be modified by both long-term factors, such as musical training, or by momentary changes in the auditory context. The present study used a visual search task to examine the influence of these factors on spatial attention biases while increasing demands on selective attention. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bandc.2018.06.006DOI Listing
August 2018
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Effect of meditation on psychological distress and brain functioning: A randomized controlled study.

Brain Cogn 2018 08 21;125:100-105. Epub 2018 Jun 21.

Center for Wellness & Achievement in Education, United States; Center for Social and Emotional Health, Maharishi University of Management, Fairfield, IA, United States.

Background: Psychological stability and brain integration are important factors related to physical and mental health and organization effectiveness. This study tested whether a mind-body technique, the Transcendental Meditation (TM) program could increase EEG brain integration and positive affect, and decrease psychological distress in government employees.

Method: Ninety-six central office administrators and staff at the San Francisco Unified School District were randomly assigned to either immediate start of the TM program or to a wait-list control group. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bandc.2018.03.011DOI Listing
August 2018
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Perception of direct vs. averted gaze in portrait paintings: An fMRI and eye-tracking study.

Brain Cogn 2018 08 15;125:88-99. Epub 2018 Jun 15.

National Institute of Mental Health, Topolová 748, 250 67 Klecany, Czech Republic.

In this study, we use separate eye-tracking measurements and functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the neuronal and behavioral response to painted portraits with direct versus averted gaze. We further explored modulatory effects of several painting characteristics (premodern vs modern period, influence of style and pictorial context). In the fMRI experiment, we show that the direct versus averted gaze elicited increased activation in lingual and inferior occipital and the fusiform face area, as well as in several areas involved in attentional and social cognitive processes, especially the theory of mind: angular gyrus/temporo-parietal junction, inferior frontal gyrus and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bandc.2018.06.004DOI Listing
August 2018
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Towards using fNIRS recordings of mental arithmetic for the detection of residual cognitive activity in patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC).

Brain Cogn 2018 08 14;125:78-87. Epub 2018 Jun 14.

Institute of Neural Engineering, Graz University of Technology, Graz, Austria; BioTechMed Graz, Graz, Austria; Department of Otolaryngology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany; Cluster of Excellence "Hearing4all", Hannover, Germany.

Background: Recently, fNIRS has been proposed as a promising approach for awareness detection, and a possible method to establish basic communication in patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC).

Aim: Using fNIRS, the present study evaluated the applicability of auditory presented mental-arithmetic tasks in this respect.

Methods: We investigated the applicability of active attention to serial subtractions for awareness detection in ten healthy controls (HC, 21-32 y/o), by comparing the measured patterns to patterns induced by self-performance of the same task. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bandc.2018.06.002DOI Listing
August 2018
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Do all visual deficits cause pure alexia? Dissociations between visual processing and reading suggest "no".

Brain Cogn 2018 08 11;125:69-77. Epub 2018 Jun 11.

Klinik für Neurologie, Universitätsklinikum Freiburg, Medizinische Fakultät, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg, Germany; Zentrum für Geriatrie und Gerontologie (ZGG), Universitätsklinikum Freiburg, Medizinische Fakultät, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg, Germany; Freiburg Brain Imaging, Universitätsklinikum Freiburg, Medizinische Fakultät, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg, Germany; "BrainLinks BrainTools" Exzellenzcluster, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg, Germany.

Pure alexia is a deficit of reading affecting the ability to process a word's letters in parallel. Instead, a slow, effortful letter-by-letter reading strategy is employed. It has been claimed that a visual impairment caused the reading impairment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bandc.2018.05.008DOI Listing
August 2018
1 Read