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    3198 results match your criteria Brain and Cognition[Journal]

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    Sex differences in humor processing: An event-related potential study.
    Brain Cogn 2017 Nov 15. Epub 2017 Nov 15.
    Department of Educational Psychology and Counseling, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei, Taiwan. Electronic address:
    Numerous behavioral studies and a handful of functional neuroimaging studies have reported sex differences in humor. However, no study to date has examined differences in the time-course of brain activity during multistage humor processing between the sexes. The purpose of this study was to compare real-time dynamics related to humor processing between women and men, with reference to a proposed three-stage model (involving incongruity detection, incongruity resolution, and elaboration stages). Read More

    Functional connectivity of the vigilant-attention network in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
    Brain Cogn 2017 Nov 14. Epub 2017 Nov 14.
    Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-1, INM-7), Research Centre Jülich, Jülich, Germany; Institute of Clinical Neuroscience & Medical Psychology, Medical Faculty, Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany; Institute of Systems Neuroscience, Medical Faculty, Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany. Electronic address:
    The ability to maintain attention to simple tasks (i.e., vigilant attention, VA) is often impaired in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms at the brain network level are not clear yet. Read More

    Preserved metacognitive ability despite unilateral or bilateral anterior prefrontal resection.
    Brain Cogn 2017 Nov 6. Epub 2017 Nov 6.
    Laboratoire Cognition, Santé, Socialisation, C2S, EA 6291, Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, Reims, France. Electronic address:
    Brodmann area 10 (BA10) is thought to be at the summit of the prefrontal cortex's hierarchical organization. It is widely accepted that metacognitive abilities depend on the structural and functional properties of BA10. Our objective was to assess whether metacognition can be maintained after low-grade glioma surgery with BA10 resection. Read More

    The parietal opercular auditory-sensorimotor network in musicians: A resting-state fMRI study.
    Brain Cogn 2017 Nov 6. Epub 2017 Nov 6.
    Department of Psychiatry, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo 113-8431, Japan; Juntendo Shizuoka Hospital, Shizuoka 410-2211, Japan.
    Auditory-sensorimotor coupling is critical for musical performance, during which auditory and somatosensory feedback signals are used to ensure desired outputs. Previous studies reported opercular activation in subjects performing or listening to music. A functional connectivity analysis suggested the parietal operculum (PO) as a connector hub that links auditory, somatosensory, and motor cortical areas. Read More

    Mental flexibility: An MEG investigation in typically developing children.
    Brain Cogn 2017 Oct 20. Epub 2017 Oct 20.
    Institute of Medical Science, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Canada; Neurosciences and Mental Health, SickKids Research Institute, Toronto, Canada; Division of Neurology, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada. Electronic address:
    Mental flexibility is a core property of cognitive executive functions, relying on an extended frontoparietal network in the brain. fMRI research comparing typically developing children and adults has found that children from an early age recruit the same "classic" brain areas associated with mental flexibility as adults; however, there is evidence that the timing of activation may be different. To investigate the temporal dynamics of brain activity associated with mental flexibility in children, we recruited 22 typically developing children (8-15 years) to complete a set-shifting task in the MEG. Read More

    Cortical-hippocampal functional connectivity during covert consolidation sub-serves associative learning: Evidence for an active "rest" state.
    Brain Cogn 2017 Oct 18. Epub 2017 Oct 18.
    Dept of Psychiatry & Behavioral Neurosciences, Wayne State University School of Medicine, USA. Electronic address:
    We studied modulation of undirected functional connectivity (uFC) in cortical-hippocampal sub-networks during associative learning. Nineteen healthy individuals were studied (fMRI acquired on a Siemens Verio 3T), and uFC was studied between nodes in a network of regions identified by standard activation models based on bivariate correlational analyses of time series data. The paradigm alternated between Memory Encoding, Rest and Retrieval. Read More

    Sex differences and menstrual cycle effects in cognitive and sensory resting state networks.
    Brain Cogn 2017 Oct 10. Epub 2017 Oct 10.
    Department of Psychology, Durham University, UK; Durham University Neuroimaging Centre (DUNIC), UK.
    It has not yet been established if resting state (RS) connectivity reflects stable characteristics of the brain, or if it is modulated by the psychological and/or physiological state of the participant. Based on research demonstrating sex hormonal effects in task-related brain activity, the present study aimed to investigate corresponding differences in RS networks. RS functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (RS fMRI) was conducted in women during three different menstrual cycle phases, while men underwent three repeated RS fMRI testing sessions. Read More

    Jazz musicians reveal role of expectancy in human creativity.
    Brain Cogn 2017 Dec 11;119:45-53. Epub 2017 Oct 11.
    Wesleyan University, USA. Electronic address:
    Creativity has been defined as the ability to produce work that is novel, high in quality, and appropriate to an audience. While the nature of the creative process is under debate, many believe that creativity relies on real-time combinations of known neural and cognitive processes. One useful model of creativity comes from musical improvisation, such as in jazz, in which musicians spontaneously create novel sound sequences. Read More

    Associations between immunological function and memory recall in healthy adults.
    Brain Cogn 2017 Dec 8;119:39-44. Epub 2017 Oct 8.
    Department of Psychology, School of Public Health and Psychosocial Studies, Auckland University of Technology, New Zealand. Electronic address:
    Studies in clinical and aging populations support associations between immunological function, cognition and mood, although these are not always in line with animal models. Moreover, very little is known about the relationship between immunological measures and cognition in healthy young adults. The present study tested associations between the state of immune system and memory recall in a group of relatively healthy adults. Read More

    Common framework for "virtual lesion" and state-dependent TMS: The facilitatory/suppressive range model of online TMS effects on behavior.
    Brain Cogn 2017 Dec 28;119:32-38. Epub 2017 Sep 28.
    Department of Psychology, University of Milano-Bicocca, 20126 Milan, Italy; Brain Connectivity Center, National Neurological Institute C. Mondino, 27100 Pavia, Italy.
    The behavioral effects of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) are often nonlinear; factors such as stimulation intensity and brain state can modulate the impact of TMS on observable behavior in qualitatively different manner. Here we propose a theoretical framework to account for these effects. In this model, there are distinct intensity ranges for facilitatory and suppressive effects of TMS - low intensities facilitate neural activity and behavior whereas high intensities induce suppression. Read More

    Unpredictability increases the error-related negativity in children and adolescents.
    Brain Cogn 2017 Dec 23;119:25-31. Epub 2017 Sep 23.
    Florida State University, United States.
    The error-related negativity (ERN) is a response-locked component in the event-related potential observed asa negative deflection 50-100ms following the commission of an error. An unpredictable context has been shown to potentiate amygdala activity, attentional bias toward threat, and the ERN in adults. However, it is unclear whether the impact of unpredictability on the ERN is also observed in children and adolescents. Read More

    Response bias and response monitoring: Evidence from healthy older adults and patients with mild Alzheimer's disease.
    Brain Cogn 2017 Dec 17;119:17-24. Epub 2017 Sep 17.
    Center for Translational Cognitive Neuroscience, VA Boston Healthcare System, Boston, MA, United States; Boston University Alzheimer's Disease Center, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, United States.
    Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) often exhibit an abnormally liberal response bias in recognition memory tests, responding "old" more frequently than "new." Investigations have shown patients can to shift to a more conservative response bias when given instructions. We examined if patients with mild AD could alter their response patterns when the ratio of old items is manipulated without explicit instruction. Read More

    Hemispheric specialization for global and local processing: A direct comparison of linguistic and non-linguistic stimuli.
    Brain Cogn 2017 Dec 15;119:10-16. Epub 2017 Sep 15.
    Neuroimaging Center Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, The Netherlands; Laboratory of Experimental Ophthalmology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, The Netherlands; Research School Behavioural and Cognitive Neurosciences, University of Groningen, The Netherlands.
    It is often assumed that the human brain processes the global and local properties of visual stimuli in a lateralized fashion, with a left hemisphere (LH) specialization for local detail, and a right hemisphere (RH) specialization for global form. However, the evidence for such global-local lateralization stems predominantly from studies using linguistic stimuli, the processing of which has shown to be LH lateralized in itself. In addition, some studies have reported a reversal of global-local lateralization when using non-linguistic stimuli. Read More

    Neuroscience and everyday life: Facing the translation problem.
    Brain Cogn 2017 Sep 10. Epub 2017 Sep 10.
    Faculty of Philosophy, Theology and Religious Studies, Radboud University Nijmegen, P.O. Box 9103, 6500 HD Nijmegen, Netherlands. Electronic address:
    To enable the impact of neuroscientific insights on our daily lives, careful translation of research findings is required. However, neuroscientific terminology and common-sense concepts are often hard to square. For example, when neuroscientists study lying to allow the use of brain scans for lie-detection purposes, the concept of lying in the scientific case differs considerably from the concept in court. Read More

    Not so secret agents: Event-related potentials to semantic roles in visual event comprehension.
    Brain Cogn 2017 Dec 9;119:1-9. Epub 2017 Sep 9.
    Department of Cognitive Science, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA.
    Research across domains has suggested that agents, the doers of actions, have a processing advantage over patients, the receivers of actions. We hypothesized that agents as "event builders" for discrete actions (e.g. Read More

    Social risky decision-making reveals gender differences in the TPJ: A hyperscanning study using functional near-infrared spectroscopy.
    Brain Cogn 2017 Dec 8;119:54-63. Epub 2017 Sep 8.
    Key Laboratory of Child Development and Learning Science, Ministry of Education, Southeast University, Nanjing, China; Research Center for Learning Science, School of Biological Science & Medical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing, China. Electronic address:
    Previous neuroscience studies have investigated neural correlates of risky decision-making in a single-brain frame during pseudo social (predominantly non face-to-face) contexts. To fully understand the risky decision-making behavior in more natural social interactions, the present study employed a functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) hyperscanning technique to simultaneously measure pairs of participants' fronto-temporal activations in a face-to-face gambling card-game. The intra-brain results revealed that both those who identified as males and as females showed higher activations in their mPFC and in the inferior parts of the frontopolar area, as well as in the tempo-parietal junction (TPJ) in cases involving higher versus lower risk. Read More

    Resting-state functional connectivity: An emerging method for the study of language networks in post-stroke aphasia.
    Brain Cogn 2017 Aug 30. Epub 2017 Aug 30.
    Language and Aphasia Laboratory, Department of Neurology, University of Leipzig, Liebigstraße 20, Leipzig, Germany.
    Aphasia results both from direct effects of focal damage to eloquent cortical areas as well as dysfunction of interconnected remote areas within the language network. Resting-state functional MRI (rsfMRI) can be used to examine functional connectivity (FC) within these networks. Herein we review publications, which applied rsfMRI to understand network pathology in post stroke aphasia. Read More

    Dynamic range of frontoparietal functional modulation is associated with working memory capacity limitations in older adults.
    Brain Cogn 2017 Nov 31;118:128-136. Epub 2017 Aug 31.
    Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, Division of Physical Therapy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536, USA.
    Older adults tend to over-activate regions throughout frontoparietal cortices and exhibit a reduced range of functional modulation during WM task performance compared to younger adults. While recent evidence suggests that reduced functional modulation is associated with poorer task performance, it remains unclear whether reduced range of modulation is indicative of general WM capacity-limitations. In the current study, we examined whether the range of functional modulation observed over multiple levels of WM task difficulty (N-Back) predicts in-scanner task performance and out-of-scanner psychometric estimates of WM capacity. Read More

    Using resting-state fMRI to assess the effect of aerobic exercise on functional connectivity of the DLPFC in older overweight adults.
    Brain Cogn 2017 Aug 23. Epub 2017 Aug 23.
    Department of Neurology & NeuroCure Clinical Research Center, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany; Center for Stroke Research, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany; Department of Neurology, University of Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany. Electronic address:
    Cardiovascular fitness is thought to exert beneficial effects on brain function and might delay the onset of cognitive decline. Empirical evidence of exercise-induced cognitive enhancement, however, has not been conclusive, possibly due to short intervention times in clinical trials. Resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) has been proposed asan early indicator for intervention-induced changes. Read More

    Language for action: Motor resonance during the processing of human and robotic voices.
    Brain Cogn 2017 Nov 19;118:118-127. Epub 2017 Aug 19.
    University of Parma, Department of Humanities, Social Sciences and Cultural Industries, via Massimo D'Azeglio 85, 43125 Parma, Italy. Electronic address:
    In this fMRI study we evaluated whether the auditory processing of action verbs pronounced by a human or a robotic voice in the imperative mood differently modulates the activation of the mirror neuron system (MNs). The study produced three results. First, the activation pattern found during listening to action verbs was very similar in both the robot and human conditions. Read More

    Executive function and cardiac autonomic regulation in depressive disorders.
    Brain Cogn 2017 Nov 18;118:108-117. Epub 2017 Aug 18.
    UMIT - University of Health Sciences Medical Informatics and Technology, Institute of Psychology, Eduard-Wallnöfer-Zentrum 1, 6060 Hall in Tirol, Austria. Electronic address:
    Executive function impairments have been frequently observed in depressive disorders. Moreover, reduced heart rate variability (HRV) has repeatedly been described, especially in the high frequency band (i.e. Read More

    Avoiding math on a rapid timescale: Emotional responsivity and anxious attention in math anxiety.
    Brain Cogn 2017 Nov 18;118:100-107. Epub 2017 Aug 18.
    Department of Education and Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Dartmouth College, USA.
    Math anxiety (MA) is characterized by negative feelings towards mathematics, resulting in avoidance of math classes and of careers that rely on mathematical skills. Focused on a long timescale, this research may miss important cognitive and affective processes that operate moment-to-moment, changing rapid reactions even when a student simply sees a math problem. Here, using fMRI with an attentional deployment paradigm, we show that MA influences rapid spontaneous emotional and attentional responses to mathematical stimuli upon brief presentation. Read More

    Functional neural bases of numerosity judgments in healthy adults born preterm.
    Brain Cogn 2017 Nov 9;118:90-99. Epub 2017 Aug 9.
    Department of Psychology, University of Arizona, United States.
    High rates of mathematics learning disabilities among individuals born preterm (<37weeksGA) have spurred calls for a greater understanding of the nature of these weaknesses and their neural underpinnings. Groups of healthy, high functioning young adults born preterm and full term (n=20) completed a symbolic and non-symbolic magnitude comparison task while undergoing functional MRI scanning. Collectively, participants showed activation in superior and inferior frontal and parietal regions previously linked to numeric processing when comparing non-symbolic magnitude arrays separated by small numeric distances. Read More

    Very low birth weight is associated with brain structure abnormalities and cognitive function impairments: A systematic review.
    Brain Cogn 2017 Nov 9;118:80-89. Epub 2017 Aug 9.
    Neurosciences Research Center (NSRC), Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. Electronic address:
    Very low birth weight (VLBW) children are at risk of structural brain abnormalities and neurocognitive deficits. Since survival rate of the very low birth weight infants has increased over the past decade, a better understanding of the long-term neurocognitive outcomes is needed. The present systematic review investigated the association between VLBW and cognitive function as well as brain structure. Read More

    Bimanual coordination positively predicts episodic memory: A combined behavioral and MRI investigation.
    Brain Cogn 2017 Nov 9;118:71-79. Epub 2017 Aug 9.
    Department of Anatomical Sciences and Neurobiology, University of Louisville, United States; Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, University of Louisville, United States.
    Some people remember events more completely and accurately than other people, but the origins of individual differences in episodic memory are poorly understood. One way to advance understanding is by identifying characteristics of individuals that reliably covary with memory performance. Recent research suggests motor behavior is related to memory performance, with individuals who consistently use a single preferred hand for unimanual actions performing worse than individuals who make greater use of both hands. Read More

    Socially anxious tendencies affect neural processing of gaze perception.
    Brain Cogn 2017 Nov 8;118:63-70. Epub 2017 Aug 8.
    Department of Electronics and Bioinformatics, School of Science and Technology, Meiji University, 1-1-1 Higashi-Mita, Tama-ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 214-8571, Japan. Electronic address:
    The gaze of others is known to be a particularly common cause of social anxiety. In the current study, we measured event-related potentials (ERPs) during gaze perception among people with or without high socially anxious tendencies (HSA). The experimental stimuli were grayscale images of the eye region of a face, showing direct or averted eye gaze (leftward gaze or rightward gaze) or closed eyes. Read More

    Lateralization of spatial rather than temporal attention underlies the left hemifield advantage in rapid serial visual presentation.
    Brain Cogn 2017 Nov 8;118:54-62. Epub 2017 Aug 8.
    Department of Neurology, University of Lübeck, Germany; Institute of Psychology II, University of Lübeck, Germany.
    In bilateral rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP), the second of two targets, T1 and T2, is better identified in the left visual field (LVF) than in the right visual field (RVF). This LVF advantage may reflect hemispheric asymmetry in temporal attention or/and in spatial orienting of attention. Participants performed two tasks: the "standard" bilateral RSVP task (Exp. Read More

    Neural correlates of evaluating self and close-other in physical, academic and prosocial domains.
    Brain Cogn 2017 Nov 28;118:45-53. Epub 2017 Jul 28.
    Department of Developmental Psychology, Leiden University, The Netherlands; Leiden Institute for Brain and Cognition, The Netherlands. Electronic address:
    Behavioral studies showed that self-concept can be distinguished into different domains, but few neuroimaging studies have investigated either domain-specific or valence-specific activity. Here, we investigated whether evaluating self- and mother-traits in three domains (physical, academic, prosocial) relies on similar or distinct brain regions. Additionally, we explored the topical discussion in the literature on whether vmPFC activity during self-evaluations is induced by valence or importance of traits. Read More

    Bilingual language intrusions and other speech errors in Alzheimer's disease.
    Brain Cogn 2017 Nov 25;118:27-44. Epub 2017 Jul 25.
    University of California, San Diego, United States.
    The current study investigated how Alzheimer's disease (AD) affects production of speech errors in reading-aloud. Twelve Spanish-English bilinguals with AD and 19 matched controls read-aloud 8 paragraphs in four conditions (a) English-only, (b) Spanish-only, (c) English-mixed (mostly English with 6 Spanish words), and (d) Spanish-mixed (mostly Spanish with 6 English words). Reading elicited language intrusions (e. Read More

    Neural activity and emotional processing following military deployment: Effects of mild traumatic brain injury and posttraumatic stress disorder.
    Brain Cogn 2017 Nov 21;118:19-26. Epub 2017 Jul 21.
    Centre for Traumatic Stress Studies, School of Medicine, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia.
    Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) are common comorbidities during military deployment that affect emotional brain processing, yet few studies have examined the independent effects of mTBI and PTSD. The purpose of this study was to examine distinct differences in neural responses to emotional faces in mTBI and PTSD. Twenty-one soldiers reporting high PTSD symptoms were compared to 21 soldiers with low symptoms, and 16 soldiers who reported mTBI-consistent injury and symptoms were compared with 16 soldiers who did not sustain an mTBI. Read More

    Cognitive strategies in the mental rotation task revealed by EEG spectral power.
    Brain Cogn 2017 Nov 19;118:1-18. Epub 2017 Jul 19.
    Center for Applied Brain & Cognitive Sciences, Medford, MA, United States; Department of Psychology, Tufts University, Medford, MA, United States.
    The classic mental rotation task (MRT; Shepard & Metzler, 1971) is commonly thought to measure mental rotation, a cognitive process involving covert simulation of motor rotation. Yet much research suggests that the MRT recruits both motor simulation and other analytic cognitive strategies that depend on visuospatial representation and visual working memory (WM). In the present study, we investigated cognitive strategies in the MRT using time-frequency analysis of EEG and independent component analysis. Read More

    Procedural learning in Parkinson's disease, specific language impairment, dyslexia, schizophrenia, developmental coordination disorder, and autism spectrum disorders: A second-order meta-analysis.
    Brain Cogn 2017 Oct 12;117:41-48. Epub 2017 Jul 12.
    Cognitive Neuroscience Unit, School of Psychology, Deakin University, Australia.
    The serial reaction time task (SRTT) has been used to study procedural learning in clinical populations. In this report, second-order meta-analysis was used to investigate whether disorder type moderates performance on the SRTT. Using this approach to quantitatively summarise past research, it was tested whether autism spectrum disorder, developmental coordination disorder, dyslexia, Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, and specific language impairment differentially affect procedural learning on the SRTT. Read More

    Procedural learning in Tourette syndrome, ADHD, and comorbid Tourette-ADHD: Evidence from a probabilistic sequence learning task.
    Brain Cogn 2017 Oct 12;117:33-40. Epub 2017 Jul 12.
    Department of Neuroscience, Georgetown University, Box 571464, Washington, DC 20057-1464, United States. Electronic address:
    Procedural memory, which is rooted in the basal ganglia, plays an important role in the implicit learning of motor and cognitive skills. Few studies have examined procedural learning in either Tourette syndrome (TS) or Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), despite basal ganglia abnormalities in both of these neurodevelopmental disorders. We aimed to assess procedural learning in children with TS (n=13), ADHD (n=22), and comorbid TS-ADHD (n=20), as well as in typically developing children (n=21). Read More

    Cognitive and motor reaction times in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: A study based on computerized measures.
    Brain Cogn 2017 Oct 9;117:26-32. Epub 2017 Jul 9.
    Department of General Psychology, University of Padua, Italy; Human Inspired Technology Research Centre, University of Padua, Italy. Electronic address:
    Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS) is mainly associated with executive dysfunction. Although delayed reaction times (RTs) in patients with OSAS have been reported, sensitivity of processing speed has not been adequately assessed. This study suggests sensitive and reliable measures to clarify whether different components of information processing speed, i. Read More

    ERPs and oscillations during encoding predict retrieval of digit memory in superior mnemonists.
    Brain Cogn 2017 Oct 8;117:17-25. Epub 2017 Jul 8.
    School of Psychological and Cognitive Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China; Beijing Key Laboratory of Behavior and Mental Health and PKU-IDG/McGovern Institute for Brain Research, Peking University, Beijing 10071, China. Electronic address:
    Previous studies have consistently demonstrated that superior mnemonists (SMs) outperform normal individuals in domain-specific memory tasks. However, the neural correlates of memory-related processes remain unclear. In the current EEG study, SMs and control participants performed a digit memory task during which their brain activity was recorded. Read More

    Interhemispheric cortical connections and time perception: A case study with agenesis of the corpus callosum.
    Brain Cogn 2017 Oct 8;117:12-16. Epub 2017 Jul 8.
    Department of Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 3-8-1, Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8092, Japan. Electronic address:
    In daily life, we sometimes select temporal cues of one sort while suppressing others. This study investigated the mechanism of suppression by examining a split-brain patient's perception of target intervals while ignoring distractor intervals. A patient with agenesis of corpus callosum and five age- and sex-matched control subjects participated in reproduction of target intervals while ignoring distractors displayed in the visual field either ipsilateral or contralateral to target. Read More

    Encoding focus alters diagnostic recollection and event-related potentials (ERPs).
    Brain Cogn 2017 Oct 3;117:1-11. Epub 2017 Jul 3.
    The College of New Jersey, United States.
    The influence of encoding focus on source memory was investigated using event-related potentials (ERPs). Encoding was focused on the self (self-focus) or on the speaker (other-focus) while hearing words spoken in a male or female voice. Examination of the behavioral and ERP evidence suggests that encoding focus alters the amount of diagnostic recollection. Read More

    Force related hemodynamic responses during execution and imagery of a hand grip task: A functional near infrared spectroscopy study.
    Brain Cogn 2017 Oct 30;117:108-116. Epub 2017 Jun 30.
    Institute of Neural Engineering, Graz University of Technology, Stremayrgasse 16/IV, 8010 Graz, Austria.
    We examined force related hemodynamic changes during the performance of a motor execution (ME) and motor imagery (MI) task by means of multichannel functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). The hemodynamic responses of fourteen healthy participants were measured while they performed a hand grip execution or imagery task with low and high grip forces. We found an overall higher increase of [oxy-Hb] concentration changes during ME for both grip forces but with a delayed peak maximum for the lower grip force. Read More

    Slower resting alpha frequency is associated with superior localisation of moving targets.
    Brain Cogn 2017 Oct 29;117:97-107. Epub 2017 Jun 29.
    Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, UK; The Com DEALL Trust, Bangalore, India; Centre for Autism, School of Psychology and Clinical Language Sciences, University of Reading, UK.
    We examined the neurophysiological underpinnings of individual differences in the ability to maintain up-to-date representations of the positions of moving objects. In two experiments similar to the multiple object tracking (MOT) task, we asked observers to monitor continuously one or several targets as they moved unpredictably for a semi-random period. After all objects disappeared, observers were immediately prompted to report the perceived final position of one queried target. Read More

    Binocular rivalry after right-hemisphere stroke: Effects of attention impairment on perceptual dominance patterns.
    Brain Cogn 2017 Oct 27;117:84-96. Epub 2017 Jun 27.
    Department of Psychology, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Binocular rivalry is when perception fluctuates while the stimuli, consisting of different images presented to each eye, remain unchanged. The fluctuation rate and predominance ratio of these images are regarded as information source for understanding properties of consciousness and perception. We administered a binocular rivalry task to 26 right-hemisphere stroke patients and 26 healthy control participants, using stimuli such as simple Gabor anaglyphs. Read More

    Simultaneous learning of two languages from birth positively impacts intrinsic functional connectivity and cognitive control.
    Brain Cogn 2017 Oct 22;117:49-56. Epub 2017 Jun 22.
    Cognitive Neuroscience Unit, Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2B4, Canada; Centre for Research on Brain, Language, and Music, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2B4, Canada; Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2B4, Canada.
    This study explores the effect of individual differences in the age of acquisition of a second language using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) to examine functional connectivity and its relation with cognitive control within bilinguals. We compared simultaneous bilinguals, who learned two languages from birth, to sequential bilinguals, who learned a second language following mastery of their first language. Results show an effect of language experience on the strength of anticorrelation between the default mode network and the task-positive attention network and on cognitive control, with simultaneous bilinguals demonstrating stronger anticorrelations between the two networks, as well as superior cognitive control compared to sequential bilinguals. Read More

    When noise is beneficial for sensory encoding: Noise adaptation can improve face processing.
    Brain Cogn 2017 Oct 21;117:73-83. Epub 2017 Jun 21.
    Person Perception Research Unit, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Leutragraben 1, D-07743 Jena, Germany; Institute of Psychology, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Am Steiger 3, Haus 1, D-07743 Jena, Germany.
    The presence of noise usually impairs the processing of a stimulus. Here, we studied the effects of noise on face processing and show, for the first time, that adaptation to noise patterns has beneficial effects on face perception. We used noiseless faces that were either surrounded by random noise or presented on a uniform background as stimuli. Read More

    Memory and time: Backward and forward telescoping in Alzheimer's disease.
    Brain Cogn 2017 Oct 16;117:65-72. Epub 2017 Jun 16.
    Univ. Lille, CNRS, CHU Lille, UMR 9193 - SCALab - Sciences Cognitives et Sciences Affectives, F-59000 Lille, France.
    Backward and forward telescoping are opposite timing biases. The former refers to misattributing events to earlier dates, whereas the latter refers to misattributing events to later dates. The present study investigated both biases in participants with Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and healthy older adults, matched on age, sex, and education level. Read More

    Atypical activation of action-semantic network in adolescents with autism spectrum disorder.
    Brain Cogn 2017 Oct 16;117:57-64. Epub 2017 Jun 16.
    Brain and Behavior Program at Children's Hospital, Department of Neurology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center - New Orleans, 1542 Tulane Avenue, 7th Floor, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA.
    In typical adults, fMRI studies have shown activation of primary and pre-motor regions during action word processing. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by social and communication impairments. ASD studies have shown atypical semantic processing and motor deficits. Read More

    Diffusion tensor MRI tractography reveals increased fractional anisotropy (FA) in arcuate fasciculus following music-cued motor training.
    Brain Cogn 2017 Aug 12;116:40-46. Epub 2017 Jun 12.
    Institute for Music in Human and Social Development (IMHSD), Reid School of Music, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK; Department of Music Education, Don Wright Faculty of Music, University of Western Ontario, London, Canada. Electronic address:
    Auditory cues are frequently used to support movement learning and rehabilitation, but the neural basis of this behavioural effect is not yet clear. We investigated the microstructural neuroplasticity effects of adding musical cues to a motor learning task. We hypothesised that music-cued, left-handed motor training would increase fractional anisotropy (FA) in the contralateral arcuate fasciculus, a fibre tract connecting auditory, pre-motor and motor regions. Read More

    The role of dorsal premotor cortex in mental rotation: A transcranial magnetic stimulation study.
    Brain Cogn 2017 Aug 9;116:71-78. Epub 2017 Jun 9.
    Department of Neuroscience, University of Padua, Via Giustiniani, 5, 35128 Padova, Italy; IRCCS San Camillo Hospital Foundation, Neuropsychology Unit, Via Alberoni 70, 30126 Lido-Venice, Italy. Electronic address:
    Although activation of dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) has been consistently observed in the neuroimaging studies of mental rotation, the functional meaning of PMd activation is still unclear and multiple alternative explanations have been suggested. The present study used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to investigate the role of PMd in mental rotation. Two tasks were used, involving mental rotation of hands and abstract objects, with either matching (same stimuli) or mirror stimuli. Read More

    The effect of integration masking on visual processing in perceptual categorization.
    Brain Cogn 2017 Aug 9;116:63-70. Epub 2017 Jun 9.
    Department of Psychological Sciences, Purdue University, United States. Electronic address:
    Learning to recognize and categorize objects is an essential cognitive skill allowing animals to function in the world. However, animals rarely have access to a canonical view of an object in an uncluttered environment. Hence, it is essential to study categorization under noisy, degraded conditions. Read More

    Integration of identity and emotion information in faces: fMRI evidence.
    Brain Cogn 2017 Aug 6;116:29-39. Epub 2017 Jun 6.
    Department of Experimental Psychology, Oxford University, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3UD, UK.
    Separate neural systems have been implicated in the recognition of facial identity and emotional expression. A growing number of studies now provide evidence against this modular view by demonstrating that integration of identity and emotion information enhances face processing. Yet, the neural mechanisms that shape this integration remain largely unknown. Read More

    The influence of CHRNA4, COMT, and maternal sensitivity on orienting and executive attention in 6-month-old infants.
    Brain Cogn 2017 Aug 3;116:17-28. Epub 2017 Jun 3.
    Singapore Institute for Clinical Sciences, 30 Medical Drive, Singapore 117609, Singapore. Electronic address:
    Despite claims concerning biological mechanisms sub-serving infant attention, little experimental work examines its underpinnings. This study examines how candidate polymorphisms from the cholinergic (CHRNA4 rs1044396) and dopaminergic (COMT rs4680) systems, respectively indicative of parietal and prefrontal/anterior cingulate involvement, are related to 6-month-olds' (n=217) performance during a visual expectation eye-tracking paradigm. As previous studies suggest that both cholinergic and dopaminergic genes may influence susceptibility to the influence of other genetic and environmental factors, we further examined whether these candidate genes interact with one another and/or with early caregiving experience in predicting infants' visual attention. Read More

    The role of affective evaluation in conflict adaptation: An LRP study.
    Brain Cogn 2017 Aug 29;116:9-16. Epub 2017 May 29.
    University of Regensburg, Department of Psychology, Universitätsstraße 31, 93053 Regensburg, Germany.
    Conflict between incompatible response tendencies is typically followed by control adjustments aimed at diminishing subsequent conflicts, a phenomenon often called conflict adaptation. Dreisbach and Fischer (2015, 2016) recently proposed that it is not the conflict per se but the aversive quality of a conflict that originally motivates this kind of sequential control adjustment. With the present study we tested the causal role of aversive signals in conflict adaptation in a more direct way. Read More

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