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    1091 results match your criteria Brain Stimulation [Journal]

    1 OF 22

    tDCS changes in motor excitability are specific to orientation of current flow.
    Brain Stimul 2017 Nov 7. Epub 2017 Nov 7.
    Sobell Department of Motor Neuroscience and Movement Disorders, UCL Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, UK.
    Background: Measurements and models of current flow in the brain during transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) indicate stimulation of regions in-between electrodes. Moreover, the folded cortex results in local fluctuations in current flow intensity and direction, and animal studies suggest current flow direction relative to cortical columns determines response to tDCS.

    Methods: Here we test this idea by using Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Motor Evoked Potentials (TMS-MEP) to measure changes in corticospinal excitability following tDCS applied with electrodes aligned orthogonal (across) or parallel to M1 in the central sulcus. Read More

    Responders to rTMS for depression show increased fronto-midline theta and theta connectivity compared to non-responders.
    Brain Stimul 2017 Oct 27. Epub 2017 Oct 27.
    Monash Alfred Psychiatry Research Centre, Monash University Central Clinical School, Commercial Rd, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; Epworth Healthcare, The Epworth Clinic, Camberwell, 3004, Victoria, Australia.
    Background: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is an effective treatment for depression, but only some individuals respond. Predicting response could reduce patient and clinical burden. Neural activity related to working memory (WM) has been related to mood improvements, so may represent a biomarker for response prediction. Read More

    Sensory percepts induced by microwire array and DBS microstimulation in human sensory thalamus.
    Brain Stimul 2017 Oct 27. Epub 2017 Oct 27.
    Department of Neurosurgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, United States; Department of Neurobiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, United States; Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC 27710, United States. Electronic address:
    Background: Microstimulation in human sensory thalamus (ventrocaudal, VC) results in focal sensory percepts in the hand and arm which may provide an alternative target site (to somatosensory cortex) for the input of prosthetic sensory information. Sensory feedback to facilitate motor function may require simultaneous or timed responses across separate digits to recreate perceptions of slip as well as encoding of intensity variations in pressure or touch.

    Objectives: To determine the feasibility of evoking sensory percepts on separate digits with variable intensity through either a microwire array or deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrode, recreating "natural" and scalable percepts relating to the arm and hand. Read More

    Limited output transcranial electrical stimulation (LOTES-2017): Engineering principles, regulatory statutes, and industry standards for wellness, over-the-counter, or prescription devices with low risk.
    Brain Stimul 2017 Oct 17. Epub 2017 Oct 17.
    Arizona State University, School of Biological and Health Systems Engineering, Tempe, AZ 85287, USA.
    We present device standards for low-power non-invasive electrical brain stimulation devices classified as limited output transcranial electrical stimulation (tES). Emerging applications of limited output tES to modulate brain function span techniques to stimulate brain or nerve structures, including transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS), and transcranial pulsed current stimulation (tPCS), have engendered discussion on how access to technology should be regulated. In regards to legal regulations and manufacturing standards for comparable technologies, a comprehensive framework already exists, including quality systems (QS), risk management, and (inter)national electrotechnical standards (IEC). Read More

    Electroconvulsive therapy, depression, the immune system and inflammation: A systematic review.
    Brain Stimul 2017 Oct 19. Epub 2017 Oct 19.
    CHU Nantes, Addictology and Liaison Psychiatry Department, Neuromodulation Unit in Psychiatry, Nantes, France.
    Background: The management and treatment of major depressive disorder are major public health challenges, the lifetime prevalence of this illness being 4.4%-20% in the general population. Major depressive disorder and treatment resistant depression appear to be, in part, related to a dysfunction of the immune response. Read More

    International randomized-controlled trial of transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in depression.
    Brain Stimul 2017 Oct 27. Epub 2017 Oct 27.
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University School of Medicine, Duke South 5th Floor Red Zone, DUMC Box 3620, Durham, NC 27710, USA.
    Background: Evidence suggests that transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) has antidepressant effects in unipolar depression, but there is limited information for patients with bipolar depression. Additionally, prior research suggests that brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met genotype may moderate response to tDCS.

    Objective: To examine tDCS efficacy in unipolar and bipolar depression and assess if BDNF genotype is associated with antidepressant response to tDCS. Read More

    Electroconvulsive therapy for depression with comorbid borderline personality disorder or post-traumatic stress disorder: A matched retrospective cohort study.
    Brain Stimul 2017 Oct 19. Epub 2017 Oct 19.
    Temerty Centre for Therapeutic Brain Intervention, Campbell Family Research Institute, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Canada; Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:
    Background: The impact of comorbid borderline personality disorder (BPD) or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on clinical and cognitive outcomes of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in patients with major depressive episodes (MDE) is unknown.

    Objective: Compare clinical response and adverse cognitive effects for MDE patients with comorbid BPD or PTSD to MDE only.

    Methods: In a matched retrospective cohort study of 75 patients treated with ECT at an academic psychiatric hospital with DSM-IV MDE and either comorbid BPD, PTSD or both (MDE + BPD/PTSD), 75 MDE patients without BPD or PTSD (MDE-only) were matched. Read More

    Early symptom improvement at 10 sessions as a predictor of rTMS treatment outcome in major depression.
    Brain Stimul 2017 Oct 19. Epub 2017 Oct 19.
    MRI-Guided rTMS Clinic, University Health Network, Toronto, Canada; Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada; Institute of Medical Science, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada; Krembil Research Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Canada. Electronic address:
    Background: Predicting rTMS nonresponse could be helpful in sparing patients from futile treatment, and in improving use of limited rTMS resources. While several predictive biomarkers have been proposed, few are accurate for individual-level prediction; none have entered routine use. An alternative approach in pharmacotherapy predicts outcome from early response; patients showing minimal (e. Read More

    Stochastic resonance in the human vestibular system - Noise-induced facilitation of vestibulospinal reflexes.
    Brain Stimul 2017 Oct 31. Epub 2017 Oct 31.
    German Center for Vertigo and Balance Disorders, University of Munich, Germany; Department of Neurology, University of Munich, Germany.
    Background: There is strong evidence that the presence of noise can enhance information processing in sensory systems via stochastic resonance (SR).

    Objectives: To examine the presence of SR in human vestibulospinal reflex function.

    Methods: Healthy subjects were stimulated with 1 Hz sinusoidal GVS of varying amplitudes (0-1. Read More

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation modulation of corticospinal excitability by targeting cortical I-waves with biphasic paired-pulses.
    Brain Stimul 2017 Oct 20. Epub 2017 Oct 20.
    Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio, Finland; Department of Applied Physics, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland. Electronic address:
    Background: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) induced I-wave behavior can be demonstrated at neuronal population level using paired-pulses and by observing short-interval cortical facilitation (SICF). Advancements in stimulator technology have made it possible to apply biphasic paired-pulses to induce SICF.

    Objective: Our aim was to characterize the SICF I-wave interaction by biphasic paired-pulses with the ultimate objective to enhance TMS effects via SICF in various TMS-applications. Read More

    Deep brain stimulation for stroke: Current uses and future directions.
    Brain Stimul 2017 Oct 12. Epub 2017 Oct 12.
    Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Surgery, Toronto Western Hospital, Krembil Neuroscience Center, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5T 2S8, Canada. Electronic address:
    Background: Survivors of stroke often experience significant disability and impaired quality of life related to ongoing maladaptive responses and persistent neurologic deficits. Novel therapeutic options are urgently needed to augment current approaches. One way to promote recovery and ameliorate symptoms may be to electrically stimulate the surviving brain. Read More

    Optimized auditory transcranial alternating current stimulation improves individual auditory temporal resolution.
    Brain Stimul 2017 Oct 17. Epub 2017 Oct 17.
    Experimental Psychology Lab, Cluster of Excellence "Hearing4all", European Medical School, Carl von Ossietzky University, Oldenburg, Germany; Research Center Neurosensory Science, Carl von Ossietzky University, Oldenburg, Germany. Electronic address:
    Background: Temporal resolution of cortical, auditory processing mechanisms is suggested to be linked to peak frequency of neuronal gamma oscillations in auditory cortex areas (individual gamma frequency, IGF): Individuals with higher IGF tend to have better temporal resolution.

    Hypothesis: Modulating ongoing gamma activity with transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) is expected to improve performance in gap detection (GD) tasks (shorter GD thresholds) if the frequency is higher and to decrease GD performance (longer GD thresholds) if the frequency is lower than IGF.

    Methods: For 26 healthy participants the IGF and temporal resolution were identified using an auditory steady state response (ASSR) paradigm and a between-channel GD task. Read More

    Effect of noisy galvanic vestibular stimulation on center of pressure sway of static standing posture.
    Brain Stimul 2017 Oct 17. Epub 2017 Oct 17.
    Department of Physical Therapy, Niigata University of Health and Welfare, 1398 Shimami-cho, Kita-ku, Niigata City, Niigata, Japan; Institute for Human Movement and Medical Sciences, Niigata University of Health and Welfare, 1398 Shimami-cho, Kita-ku, Niigata City, Niigata, Japan.
    Background: The vestibular system is involved in the control of standing balance. Galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) is a noninvasive technique that can stimulate the vestibular system. In recent years, noisy GVS (nGVS) using noise current stimulation has been attempted, but it has not been clarified whether it affects postural sway in open-eye standing. Read More

    Bilateral extracephalic transcranial direct current stimulation improves endurance performance in healthy individuals.
    Brain Stimul 2017 Oct 5. Epub 2017 Oct 5.
    Endurance Research Group, School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, University of Kent, Chatham Maritime, UK.
    Background: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been used to enhance endurance performance but its precise mechanisms and effects remain unknown.

    Objective: To investigate the effect of bilateral tDCS on neuromuscular function and performance during a cycling time to task failure (TTF) test.

    Methods: Twelve participants in randomized order received a placebo tDCS (SHAM) or real tDCS with two cathodes (CATHODAL) or two anodes (ANODAL) over bilateral motor cortices and the opposite electrode pair over the ipsilateral shoulders. Read More

    Effect of Deep Brain Stimulation of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex on the noradrenergic system in rats.
    Brain Stimul 2017 Oct 13. Epub 2017 Oct 13.
    CIBER of Mental Health (CIBERSAM), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain; Instituto de Investigación e Innovación en Ciencias Biomédicas de Cádiz, INiBICA, Hospital Universitario Puerta del Mar, Cádiz, Spain; Neuropsychopharmacology & Psychobiology Research Group, Department of Psychology, Area of Psychobiology, University of Cádiz, Puerto Real, Cádiz, Spain. Electronic address:
    Background: Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) of the subgenual cingulate cortex (SCC) is a promising therapeutic alternative to treat resistant major depressive disorder. In preclinical studies, DBS of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC, the rodent SCC correlate) provokes an antidepressant-like effect, along with changes in noradrenaline levels at the site of stimulation. Hence, DBS appears to activate the noradrenergic-locus coeruleus (LC) system. Read More

    The effects of medication use in transcranial direct current stimulation: A brief review.
    Brain Stimul 2017 Oct 12. Epub 2017 Oct 12.
    Center for Cognitive Aging and Memory, Department of Clinical and Health Psychology, University of Florida, PO Box 100165, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA; Department of Neuroscience, University of Florida, PO Box 100244, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA. Electronic address:
    Background: There has been increased interest in the potential use of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) as treatment for multiple conditions including depression, pain, and cognitive impairment. However, few studies account for the possible influence of comorbid medications when conducting tDCS research.

    Objective/hypothesis: This literature review was conducted to examine what is currently known about the impact of medications on tDCS, provide recommendations for future research practices, and highlight areas where more research is needed. Read More

    Computational human head models of tDCS: Influence of brain atrophy on current density distribution.
    Brain Stimul 2017 Sep 28. Epub 2017 Sep 28.
    Biomedical Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.
    Despite increasing attention to the application of transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) for enhancing cognitive functions in subjects exposing to varying degree of cerebral atrophy such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), aging, and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), there is no general information for customizing stimulation protocol.

    Objective: The objective of this study is to examine how cerebral shrinkage associated with cognitive impairment and aging can perturb current density distribution through the brain.

    Methods: We constructed three high-resolution human head models representing young, elder, and MCI subjects and modeled two electrode configurations using rectangular electrodes. Read More

    Theta-phase closed-loop stimulation induces motor paradoxical responses in the rat model of Parkinson disease.
    Brain Stimul 2017 Oct 13. Epub 2017 Oct 13.
    Neuroscience Program, Center for Applied Medical Research, University of Navarra, 31008 Pamplona, Spain; Navarra Institute for Health Research, 31008 Pamplona, Spain. Electronic address:
    Background: High-frequency deep brain stimulation (DBS) has become a widespread therapy used in the treatment of Parkinson's Disease (PD) and other diseases. Although it has proved beneficial, much recent attention has been centered around the potential of new closed-loop DBS implementations.

    Objective: Here we present a new closed-loop DBS scheme based on the phase of the theta activity recorded from the motor cortex. Read More

    Network-based brain stimulation selectively impairs spatial retrieval.
    Brain Stimul 2017 Oct 5. Epub 2017 Oct 5.
    Department of Neurosurgery, University of Texas Health Science Center, 6431 Fannin Street, Houston, TX, 77030, USA. Electronic address:
    Background: Direct brain stimulation via electrodes implanted for intracranial electroencephalography (iEEG) permits the modulation of endogenous electrical signals with significantly greater spatial and temporal specificity than non-invasive approaches. It also allows for the stimulation of deep brain structures important to memory, such as the hippocampus, that are difficult, if not impossible, to target non-invasively. Direct stimulation studies of these deep memory structures, though, have produced mixed results, with some reporting improvement, some impairment, and others, no consistent changes. Read More

    Beyond variability: Subjective timing and the neurophysiology of motor cognition.
    Brain Stimul 2017 Oct 3. Epub 2017 Oct 3.
    Laboratory for Investigative Neurophysiology (The LINE), Department of Radiology and Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University Hospital Center (CHUV) and University of Lausanne (UNIL), Lausanne, Switzerland; Rehabilitation Engineering Laboratory, Institute of Robotics and Intelligent Systems, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETHZ), Zurich, Switzerland; Sensory-Motor Laboratory (SeMoLa), Jules-Gonin Eye Hospital, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland. Electronic address:
    Background: Movement simulation helps increasing the chances to reach goals. A cognitive task used to study the neuro-behavioral aspects of movement simulation is mental rotation: people mentally re-orient rotated pictures of hands. However, the involvement of the primary motor cortex (M1) in mental rotation is largely controversial. Read More

    Double-blind, proof-of-concept (POC) trial of Low-Field Magnetic Stimulation (LFMS) augmentation of antidepressant therapy in treatment-resistant depression (TRD).
    Brain Stimul 2017 Sep 23. Epub 2017 Sep 23.
    Massachusetts General Hospital, United States.
    Background: Low-Field Magnetic Stimulation (LFMS) is a novel, non-invasive, sub-threshold neuromodulation technique, shown in preliminary studies to have immediate mood elevating effects in both unipolar and bipolar depressed patients.

    Objective: We aimed to assess the antidepressant augmentation effects at 48 h of LFMS administered on two consecutive days compared to sham treatment in treatment resistant depression (TRD) subjects, using the Sequential Parallel Comparison Design (SPCD).

    Methods: Eighty-four eligible subjects with TRD were randomly assigned to double-blind treatment with LFMS 20 min/day for four days, sham treatment 20 min/day for four days, or sham treatment 20 min/day for 2 days followed by LFMS treatment 20 min/day for two days, using the pre-randomization version of the SPCD (randomization 1:1:1). Read More

    Where and what TMS activates: Experiments and modeling.
    Brain Stimul 2017 Sep 27. Epub 2017 Sep 27.
    Department of Neurology, Fukushima Medical University, Fukushima, Japan; Fukushima Global Medical Science Center, Advanced Clinical Research Center, Fukushima Medical University, Fukushima, Japan.
    Background: Despite recent developments in navigation and modeling techniques, the type and location of the structures that are activated by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) remain unknown.

    Objective: We studied the relationships between electrophysiological measurements and electric fields induced in the brain to locate the TMS activation site.

    Methods: The active and resting motor thresholds of the first dorsal interosseous muscle were recorded in 19 subjects (7 female, 12 male, age 22 ± 4 years) using anteromedially oriented monophasic TMS at multiple locations over the left primary motor cortex (M1). Read More

    Deep brain stimulation for disorders of consciousness: Systematic review of cases and ethics.
    Brain Stimul 2017 Nov - Dec;10(6):1013-1023. Epub 2017 Aug 24.
    Unit of Functional Neurosurgery, Institute of Neurology, University College London, Queen Square, WC1N 3BG, London, UK; Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Umeå University, SE-901 87, Umeå, Sweden. Electronic address:
    Background: A treatment for patients suffering from prolonged severely altered consciousness is not available. The success of Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) in diseases such as Parkinson's, dystonia and essential tremor provided a renewed impetus for its application in Disorders of Consciousness (DoC).

    Objective: To evaluate the rationale for DBS in patients with DoC, through systematic review of literature containing clinical data and ethical considerations. Read More

    Short- and long-latency afferent inhibition; uses, mechanisms and influencing factors.
    Brain Stimul 2017 Sep 20. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    Department of Kinesiology, McMaster University, Canada. Electronic address:
    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is an ideal technique for non-invasively stimulating the brain and assessing intracortical processes. By delivering electrical stimuli to a peripheral nerve prior to a TMS pulse directed to the motor cortex, the excitability and integrity of the sensorimotor system can be probed at short and long time intervals (short latency afferent inhibition, long latency afferent inhibition). The goal of this review is to detail the experimental factors that influence the magnitude and timing of afferent inhibition in the upper limb and these include the intensity of nerve and TMS delivery, and the nerve composition. Read More

    Changes in spectroscopic biomarkers after transcranial direct current stimulation in children with perinatal stroke.
    Brain Stimul 2017 Sep 13. Epub 2017 Sep 13.
    Calgary Pediatric Stroke Program, Alberta Children's Hospital, Calgary, AB, Canada; Alberta Children's Hospital Research Institute (ACHRI), Calgary, AB, Canada; Neurosciences, Alberta Children's Hospital, Calgary, AB, Canada; Department of Pediatrics, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada; Hotchkiss Brain Institute, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada.
    Background: Perinatal stroke causes lifelong motor disability, affecting independence and quality of life. Non-invasive neuromodulation interventions such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) combined with intensive therapy may improve motor function in adult stroke hemiparesis but is under-explored in children. Measuring cortical metabolites with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) can inform cortical neurobiology in perinatal stroke but how these change with neuromodulation is yet to be explored. Read More

    Transcranial ultrasound stimulation promotes brain-derived neurotrophic factor and reduces apoptosis in a mouse model of traumatic brain injury.
    Brain Stimul 2017 Nov - Dec;10(6):1032-1041. Epub 2017 Sep 7.
    Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan; Biophotonics and Molecular Imaging Research Center, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan. Electronic address:
    Background: The protein expressions of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) can be elevated by transcranial ultrasound stimulation in the rat brain.

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects and underlying mechanisms of BDNF enhancement by low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) on traumatic brain injury (TBI).

    Methods: Mice subjected to controlled cortical impact injury were treated with LIPUS in the injured region daily for a period of 4 days. Read More

    Clinical and electrophysiological outcomes of deep TMS over the medial prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices in OCD patients.
    Brain Stimul 2017 Sep 6. Epub 2017 Sep 6.
    Department of Life Sciences and the Zlotowski Center for Neuroscience, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105, Israel. Electronic address:
    Background: Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a chronic and disabling disorder with poor response to pharmacological treatments. Converging evidences suggest that OCD patients suffer from dysfunction of the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) circuit, including in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC).

    Objective: To examine whether modulation of mPFC-ACC activity by deep transcranial magnetic stimulation (DTMS) affects OCD symptoms. Read More

    Modulation of hippocampal activity with fornix Deep Brain Stimulation.
    Brain Stimul 2017 Nov - Dec;10(6):1125-1132. Epub 2017 Sep 6.
    Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN, USA.
    Background: Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) within the Papez circuit is under investigation as a treatment for epilepsy and Alzheimer's disease. We previously reported the effects of stimulation at nodes within this network (anterior thalamic nucleus and hippocampus) on hippocampal activity in a large animal model, using a chronic implantable, clinical-grade system that permits concurrent stimulation and recording.

    Objective: In this study we extended earlier work to compare the effects of fornix DBS on evoked potentials (EPs) and local field potential (LFP) activity within the hippocampus, and to assess closed-loop stimulation. Read More

    Cranial nerve non-invasive neuromodulation improves gait and balance in stroke survivors: A pilot randomised controlled trial.
    Brain Stimul 2017 Nov - Dec;10(6):1133-1135. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    Department of Medicine (Royal Melbourne Hospital), University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC, Australia; Australian Rehabilitation Research Centre (ARRC), Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville, VIC, Australia; Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville, VIC, Australia.

    Vagus nerve stimulation improves locomotion and neuronal populations in a model of Parkinson's disease.
    Brain Stimul 2017 Nov - Dec;10(6):1045-1054. Epub 2017 Aug 24.
    Dept of Neuroscience and Center on Aging, Medical University of South Carolina, 173 Ashley Ave, BSB403, MSC510, Charleston, SC 29425, USA. Electronic address:
    Background: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive, neurodegenerative disorder with no disease-modifying therapies, and symptomatic treatments are often limited by debilitating side effects. In PD, locus coeruleus noradrenergic (LC-NE) neurons degenerate prior to substantia nigra dopaminergic (SN-DA) neurons. Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) activates LC neurons, and decreases pro-inflammatory markers, allowing improvement of LC targets, making it a potential PD therapeutic. Read More

    Prefrontal versus motor cortex transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) effects on post-surgical opioid use.
    Brain Stimul 2017 Nov - Dec;10(6):1096-1101. Epub 2017 Sep 6.
    Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA.
    Background: Pain is often a complaint that precedes total knee arthroplasty (TKA), however the procedure itself is associated with considerable post-operative pain lasting days to weeks which can predict longer-term surgical outcomes. Previously, we reported significant opioid-sparing effects of motor cortex transcranial direct current stimulation from a single-blind trial. In the present study, we used double-blind methodology to compare motor cortex tDCS and prefrontal cortex tDCS to both sham and active-control (active electrodes over non-pain modulating brain areas) tDCS. Read More

    Increased left prefrontal brain perfusion after MRI compatible tDCS attenuates momentary ruminative self-referential thoughts.
    Brain Stimul 2017 Nov - Dec;10(6):1088-1095. Epub 2017 Sep 6.
    Key Laboratory of Cognition and Personality, Faculty of Psychology, Southwest University, Chongqing, China.
    Background: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive electrical stimulation technique, assumed to influence cognition and emotional processing.

    Objective: However, it is unclear how tDCS influences spontaneous cognitive processes such as momentary self-referential thoughts on the neuronal level.

    Methods: Forty healthy female volunteers participated in a single session sham-controlled crossover tDCS study while being in the MRI scanner. Read More

    Blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during transcranial near-infrared laser irradiation.
    Brain Stimul 2017 Nov - Dec;10(6):1136-1138. Epub 2017 Aug 30.
    Department of Radiology, National Defense Medical College, 3-2 Namiki, Tokorozawa, Saitama 359-8513, Japan. Electronic address:

    Repeated transcranial direct current stimulation improves cognitive dysfunction and synaptic plasticity deficit in the prefrontal cortex of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.
    Brain Stimul 2017 Nov - Dec;10(6):1079-1087. Epub 2017 Aug 24.
    Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan; Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan. Electronic address:
    Background: Cognitive dysfunction is commonly observed in diabetic patients. We have previously reported that anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex can facilitate visuospatial working memory in diabetic patients with concomitant diabetic peripheral neuropathy and mild cognitive impairment, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear.

    Objective: We investigated the cellular mechanisms underlying the effect of tDCS on cognitive decline in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Read More

    Transcranial direct current stimulation versus caffeine as a fatigue countermeasure.
    Brain Stimul 2017 Nov - Dec;10(6):1070-1078. Epub 2017 Aug 18.
    Infoscitex, Inc., 2510 Fifth Street, Building 840, Dayton, OH 45433, United States.
    Background: To assess the efficacy of using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to remediate the deleterious effects of fatigue induced by sleep deprivation and compare these results to caffeine, a commonly used fatigue countermeasure.

    Objective/hypothesis: Based on previous research, tDCS of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) can modulate attention and arousal. The authors hypothesize that tDCS can be an effective fatigue countermeasure. Read More

    Polarity-independent effects of tDCS on paired associative stimulation-induced plasticity.
    Brain Stimul 2017 Nov - Dec;10(6):1061-1069. Epub 2017 Jul 27.
    Department of Neurology & Stroke, and Hertie Institute for Clinical Brain Research, University of Tübingen, Germany. Electronic address:
    Background: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can polarize the cortex of the human brain.

    Objective/hypothesis: We sought to verify the hypothesis that posterior-anterior (PA) but not anterior-posterior (AP) tDCS of primary motor cortex (M1) produces cooperative effects with corticospinal plasticity induced by paired associative stimulation of the supplementary motor area (SMA) to M1 projection (PASSMA→M1) in a highly controlled experimental design.

    Methods: Three experimental conditions were tested in a double-blinded, randomized crossover design in 15 healthy adults: Navigated PASSMA→M1 during PA-tDCS (35 cm(2) electrodes, anode 3 cm posterior to M1 hand area, cathode over contralateral frontopolar cortex, 1 mA, 2 × 5 min) or AP-tDCS (reversed polarity), or sham-tDCS. Read More

    The reliability of commonly used electrophysiology measures.
    Brain Stimul 2017 Nov - Dec;10(6):1102-1111. Epub 2017 Jul 31.
    Department of Neurology, Ulm University Hospital, Ulm, Germany. Electronic address:
    Background: Electrophysiological measures can help understand brain function both in healthy individuals and in the context of a disease. Given the amount of information that can be extracted from these measures and their frequent use, it is essential to know more about their inherent reliability.

    Objective/hypothesis: To understand the reliability of electrophysiology measures in healthy individuals. Read More

    1-Hz rTMS in the treatment of tinnitus: A sham-controlled, randomized multicenter trial.
    Brain Stimul 2017 Nov - Dec;10(6):1112-1120. Epub 2017 Aug 5.
    Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Regensburg, Universitaetsstr. 84, 93053 Regensburg, Germany. Electronic address:
    Background: Chronic tinnitus is a frequent, difficult to treat disease with high morbidity.

    Objective: This multicenter randomized, sham-controlled trial investigated the efficacy and safety of 1-Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) applied to the left temporal cortex in patients with chronic tinnitus.

    Methods: Tinnitus patients were randomized to receive 10 sessions of either real or sham 1-Hz-rTMS (2000 stimuli, 110% motor threshold) to the left temporal cortex. Read More

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