1,682 results match your criteria Brain Stimulation [Journal]


Efficacy of Repetitive Dual-site Paired Associative Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in the Treatment of Generalized Anxiety Disorder.

Brain Stimul 2020 Jun 1. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Department of Neurology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China; Beijing Key Laboratory of Neuromodulation, Beijing, China; Center of Epilepsy, Beijing Institute for Brain Disorders, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brs.2020.05.002DOI Listing

Transorbital Electrical Stimulation in Retinitis Pigmentosa. Better results joining Visual Pattern Stimulation?

Brain Stimul 2020 Jun 1. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

National Centre of Services and Research for the Prevention of Blindness and Rehabilitation of the Visually Impaired, IAPB-Italia Onlus, Largo A. Gemelli 8, Building C, 2 Floor, 00168, Rome, Italy. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brs.2020.05.014DOI Listing

Response to significant influence of static magnetic stimulation applied for 30 minutes over the human M1 on corticospinal excitability.

Brain Stimul 2020 Feb 26;13(5):1157-1158. Epub 2020 Feb 26.

Département de pédiatrie, Faculté de médecine et des sciences de la santé, Université de Sherbrooke, Canada; Centre de Recherche du Centre Hospitalier de l'Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Canada. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brs.2020.02.030DOI Listing
February 2020

LTP-like cortical plasticity predicts conversion to dementia in patients with memory impairment.

Brain Stimul 2020 May 30. Epub 2020 May 30.

Non Invasive Brain Stimulation Unit/Department of Behavioral and Clinical Neurology, Santa Lucia Foundation IRCCS, Rome, Italy; Section of Human Physiology, ECampus University, Novedrate, Italy. Electronic address:

Background: New diagnostic criteria consider Alzheimer's disease (AD) as a clinico-biological entity identifiable in vivo on the presence of specific patterns of CSF biomarkers.

Objective: Here we used transcranial magnetic stimulation to investigate the mechanisms of cortical plasticity and sensory-motor integration in patients with hippocampal-type memory impairment admitted for the first time in the memory clinic stratified according to CSF biomarkers profile.

Methods: Seventy-three patients were recruited and divided in three groups according to the new diagnostic criteria: 1) Mild Cognitive Impaired (MCI) patients (n=21); Prodromal AD (PROAD) patients (n=24); AD with manifest dementia (ADD) patients (n=28). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brs.2020.05.013DOI Listing

Identification of vagus nerve stimulation parameters affecting rat hippocampal electrophysiology without temperature effects.

Brain Stimul 2020 May 23. Epub 2020 May 23.

Laboratory for Clinical and Experimental Neurophysiology, Neurobiology and Neuropsychology, Ghent University, 9000, Ghent, Belgium.

Background: Recent experiments in rats have demonstrated significant effects of VNS on hippocampal excitability but were partially attributed to hypothermia, induced by the applied VNS parameters.

Objective: To allow meaningful preclinical research on the mechanisms of VNS and translation of rodent results to clinical VNS trials, we aimed to identify non-hypothermia inducing VNS parameters that significantly affect hippocampal excitability.

Methods: VNS was administered in cycles of 30 seconds including either 0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brs.2020.05.011DOI Listing

The effects of direct brain stimulation in humans depend on frequency, amplitude, and white-matter proximity.

Brain Stimul 2020 May 21. Epub 2020 May 21.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, 10027. Electronic address:

Background: Researchers have used direct electrical brain stimulation to treat a range of neurological and psychiatric disorders. However, for brain stimulation to be maximally effective, clinicians and researchers should optimize stimulation parameters according to desired outcomes.

Objective: The goal of our large-scale study was to comprehensively evaluate the effects of stimulation at different parameters and locations on neuronal activity across the human brain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brs.2020.05.009DOI Listing

The Impact of Electroconvulsive Therapy on Brain Grey Matter Volume: What Does It Mean?

Authors:
Harold A Sackeim

Brain Stimul 2020 May 19. Epub 2020 May 19.

Departments of Psychiatry and Radiology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, 2124 Moselem Springs Road, Fleetwood, PA, 19522, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brs.2020.04.014DOI Listing

Meta-Analysis Of The Effects Of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation On Inhibitory Control.

Brain Stimul 2020 May 19. Epub 2020 May 19.

Department of Psychology, Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, University of Tübingen, Schleichstr. 4, 72076 Tübingen, Germany.

Background: Inhibitory control refers to a central cognitive capacity involved in the interruption and correction of actions. Dysfunctions in these cognitive control processes have been identified as major maintaining mechanisms in a range of mental disorders such as ADHD, binge eating disorder, obesity, and addiction. Improving inhibitory control by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) could ameliorate symptoms in a broad range of mental disorders. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brs.2020.05.006DOI Listing

Can transcranial electrical stimulation motor threshold estimate individualized tDCS doses over the prefrontal cortex? Evidence from reverse-calculation electric field modeling.

Brain Stimul 2020 May 19;13(4):1150-1152. Epub 2020 May 19.

Brain Stimulation Laboratory, Department of Psychiatry, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA; Ralph H. Johnson VA Medical Center, Charleston, SC, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brs.2020.05.012DOI Listing

Potential role for rTMS in treating Primary Orthostatic Tremor.

Brain Stimul 2020 May 8;13(4):1105-1107. Epub 2020 May 8.

Department of Neurology, Fixel Institute for Neurological Diseases, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brs.2020.05.004DOI Listing

Detecting poststroke cortical motor maps with biphasic single- and monophasic paired-pulse TMS.

Brain Stimul 2020 May 8;13(4):1102-1104. Epub 2020 May 8.

Division of Functional and Restorative Neurosurgery, Department of Neurosurgery, And Tuebingen NeuroCampus, University of Tuebingen, Germany. Electronic address:

Background: Residual corticospinal connections are the precondition for poststroke motor recovery and necessary for targeted interventions. In severely affected patients, standard transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) may lead to false negative findings.

Objective: Detecting the cortical representation of paralyzed forearm muscles by applying different stimulation techniques and maps beyond the hotspot. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brs.2020.05.005DOI Listing

Tract-based analysis of target engagement by subcallosal cingulate deep brain stimulation for treatment resistant depression.

Brain Stimul 2020 Mar 19;13(4):1094-1101. Epub 2020 Mar 19.

Department of Clinical Neuroscience, University of Calgary, AB, Canada; Mathison Centre for Mental Health Research and Education, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada; Hotchkiss Brain Institute, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of subcallosal cingulate cortex (SCC) is a promising investigational therapy for treatment-resistant depression (TRD). However, outcomes vary, likely due to suboptimal DBS placement. Ideal placement is proposed to stimulate 4 SCC white matter bundles; however, no quantitative data have linked activation of these target tracts to response. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brs.2020.03.006DOI Listing

Transcranial direct current stimulation over the tongue motor cortex reduces appetite in healthy humans.

Brain Stimul 2020 May 12;13(4):1121-1123. Epub 2020 May 12.

Department of Psychology and Neurosciences, Leibniz Research Center for Working Environment and Human Factors, Ardeystr. 67, 44139, Dortmund, Germany.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brs.2020.05.008DOI Listing

Guidelines for TMS/tES clinical services and research through the COVID-19 pandemic.

Brain Stimul 2020 May 12;13(4):1124-1149. Epub 2020 May 12.

Laureate Institute for Brain Research, Tulsa, OK, USA. Electronic address:

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has broadly disrupted biomedical treatment and research including non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS). Moreover, the rapid onset of societal disruption and evolving regulatory restrictions may not have allowed for systematic planning of how clinical and research work may continue throughout the pandemic or be restarted as restrictions are abated. The urgency to provide and develop NIBS as an intervention for diverse neurological and mental health indications, and as a catalyst of fundamental brain research, is not dampened by the parallel efforts to address the most life-threatening aspects of COVID-19; rather in many cases the need for NIBS is heightened including the potential to mitigate mental health consequences related to COVID-19. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brs.2020.05.010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7217075PMC

Transcranial direct current stimulation for compulsivity in adolescent fraternal twins with neurodevelopmental disorders.

Brain Stimul 2020 May 12;13(4):1153-1155. Epub 2020 May 12.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brs.2020.05.007DOI Listing

Activation of NMDA receptor ion channels by deep brain stimulation in the pig visualised with [F]GE-179 PET.

Brain Stimul 2020 Apr 3;13(4):1071-1078. Epub 2020 Apr 3.

Dept. of Nuclear Medicine & PET Centre, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University and University Hospital, Denmark; Translational and Clinical Research Institute, Newcastle University, UK. Electronic address:

Background: No PET radioligand has yet demonstrated the capacity to map glutamate N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor ion channel (NMDAR-IC) function. [F]GE-179 binds to the phencyclidine (PCP) site in open NMDAR-ICs and potentially provides a use-dependent PET biomarker of these ion channels.

Objective: To show [F]GE-179 PET can detect increased NMDAR-IC activation during electrical deep brain stimulation (DBS) of pig hippocampus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brs.2020.03.019DOI Listing

Brain functional effects of electroconvulsive therapy during emotional processing in major depressive disorder.

Brain Stimul 2020 Apr 7;13(4):1051-1058. Epub 2020 Apr 7.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Münster, Germany. Electronic address:

Background: In treatment-resistant major depressive disorder (MDD), electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a treatment with high efficacy. While knowledge regarding changes in brain structure following ECT is growing, the effects of ECT on brain function during emotional processing are largely unknown.

Objective: We investigated the effects of ECT on the activity of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and amygdala during negative emotional stimuli processing and its association with clinical response. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brs.2020.03.018DOI Listing

Clinically-derived vagus nerve stimulation enhances cerebrospinal fluid penetrance.

Brain Stimul 2020 Mar 26;13(4):1024-1030. Epub 2020 Mar 26.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1550 Engineering Drive, Madison, WI, 53706, USA; Department of Neurological Surgery, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, WI, 53706, USA. Electronic address:

Introduction: Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is an FDA-approved neuromodulatory treatment used in the clinic today for epilepsy, depression, and cluster headaches. Moreover, evidence in the literature has led to a growing list of possible clinical indications, with several small clinical trials applying VNS to treat conditions ranging from neurodegenerative diseases to arthritis, anxiety disorders, and obesity. Despite the growing list of therapeutic applications, the fundamental mechanisms by which VNS achieves its beneficial effects are poorly understood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brs.2020.03.012DOI Listing

Transcranial focused ultrasound, pulsed at 40 Hz, activates microglia acutely and reduces Aβ load chronically, as demonstrated in vivo.

Brain Stimul 2020 Apr 1;13(4):1014-1023. Epub 2020 Apr 1.

Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA; Division of Engineering and Mathematics, University of Washington, Bothell, WA, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: Iaccarino et al. (2016) [1] exposed 1 h of light flickering at 40 Hz to awake 5XFAD Alzheimer's Disease (AD) mouse models, generating action potentials at 40 Hz, activating ∼54% of microglia to colocalize with Aβ plaque, acutely, and clearing ∼ 50% of Aβ plaque after seven days, but only in the visual cortex.

Hypothesis: Transcranially delivered, focused ultrasound (tFUS) can replicate the results of Iaccarino et al. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brs.2020.03.016DOI Listing

Stimulating the criminal brain: Different effects of prefrontal tDCS in criminal offenders and controls.

Brain Stimul 2020 May 6;13(4):1117-1120. Epub 2020 May 6.

Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, Medical Faculty, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brs.2020.03.022DOI Listing

Treating the brain at the speed of sound.

Brain Stimul 2020 May 6;13(4):1087-1088. Epub 2020 May 6.

Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Surgery, University of Toronto, Canada. Electronic address:

One of the most important public issues in our rapidly ageing society are brain disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. Effective therapies are limited and therefore costs for public health systems rapidly increase in this sector. However, recently the first clinical evidence for a new class of therapies has emerged - ultrasound for the brain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brs.2020.04.020DOI Listing

A genetic profile of refractory individuals with major depressive disorder and their responsiveness to transcranial magnetic stimulation.

Brain Stimul 2020 May 6;13(4):1091-1093. Epub 2020 May 6.

Epworth Centre for Innovation in Mental Health, Epworth HealthCare and Department of Psychiatry, Central Clinical School, Monash University, Camberwell, Victoria, Australia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brs.2020.04.019DOI Listing

Effects of high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over the contralesional motor cortex on motor recovery in severe hemiplegic stroke: A randomized clinical trial.

Brain Stimul 2020 Apr 2;13(4):979-986. Epub 2020 Apr 2.

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China. Electronic address:

Background: The contralesional hemisphere compensation may play a critical role in the recovery of stroke when there is extensive damage to one hemisphere. There is little research on the treatment of hemiplegia by high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) delivered to the contralesional cortex.

Objective: We conducted a 2-week randomized, sham-controlled, single-blind trial to determine whether high-frequency rTMS (HF-rTMS) over the contralesional motor cortex can improve motor function in severe stroke patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brs.2020.03.020DOI Listing

Stimulus frequency modulates brainstem response to respiratory-gated transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation.

Brain Stimul 2020 Mar 27;13(4):970-978. Epub 2020 Mar 27.

Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA, USA; Department of Radiology, Logan University, Chesterfield, MO, USA.

Background: The therapeutic potential of transcutaneous auricular VNS (taVNS) is currently being explored for numerous clinical applications. However, optimized response for different clinical indications may depend on specific neuromodulation parameters, and systematic assessments of their influence are still needed to optimize this promising approach.

Hypothesis: We proposed that stimulation frequency would have a significant effect on nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) functional MRI (fMRI) response to respiratory-gated taVNS (RAVANS). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brs.2020.03.011DOI Listing

Plasma neuropeptide as a prognostic marker of vagus nerve stimulation in the treatment of epilepsy.

Authors:
Jing-Bo Gao Min Bao

Brain Stimul 2020 Apr 1;13(4):959-960. Epub 2020 Apr 1.

Department of Neurosurgery, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, No. 36, Sao Hao Street, Shenyang, Liaoning, 110004, PR China. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brs.2020.03.021DOI Listing

Integrating tDCS into routine inpatient rehabilitation practice to boost post-stroke recovery.

Brain Stimul 2020 Apr 6;13(4):953-954. Epub 2020 Apr 6.

Department of Neurology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, 27710, USA. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brs.2020.04.002DOI Listing

Intermittent theta-burst stimulation moderates interaction between increment of N-Acetyl-Aspartate in anterior cingulate and improvement of unipolar depression.

Brain Stimul 2020 Mar 27;13(4):943-952. Epub 2020 Mar 27.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Marburg, Germany; Marburg Center for Mind, Brain and Behavior, MCMBB, University of Marburg, Germany.

Background: Intermittent theta-burst stimulation (iTBS), a novel repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) technique, appears to have antidepressant effects when applied over left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). However, its underlying neurobiological mechanisms are unclear. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (H-MRS) provides in vivo measurements of cerebral metabolites altered in major depressive disorder (MDD) like N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) and choline-containing compounds (Cho). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brs.2020.03.015DOI Listing

Transient aphasia induced by intermittent theta burst stimulation.

Brain Stimul 2020 Mar 25;13(4):941-942. Epub 2020 Mar 25.

VA RR&D Center for Neurorestoration and Neurotechnology, Providence VA Medical Center, Providence, RI, 02908, USA; Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Butler Hospital, Providence, RI, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brs.2020.03.013DOI Listing

The importance of model-driven approaches to set stimulation intensity for multi-channel transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS).

Brain Stimul 2020 Apr 6;13(4):1002-1004. Epub 2020 Apr 6.

Discipline of Psychology, College of Science, Health, Engineering and Education, Murdoch University, Perth, Australia. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brs.2020.04.001DOI Listing

Do comorbid OCD-MDD patients need two separate dTMS protocols?

Brain Stimul 2020 Mar 31;13(4):1000-1001. Epub 2020 Mar 31.

Department of Life Sciences and the Zlotowski Center for Neuroscience, Ben-Gurion University, Israel.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brs.2020.03.014DOI Listing

Vasogenic edema versus neuroplasticity as neural correlates of hippocampal volume increase following electroconvulsive therapy.

Brain Stimul 2020 Apr 29;13(4):1080-1086. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

University Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Biomedical Sciences of Cells and Systems, Groningen, the Netherlands.

Background: Volume increases of the hippocampus after electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) are a robust finding, pointing into the direction of neurogenesis. However, such volumetric increases could also be explained by edema and/or neuroplastic changes (such as angiogenesis).

Objectives: If edema explains the volume increase of the hippocampus we hypothesize it would lead to increased mean diffusivity (MD). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brs.2020.04.017DOI Listing

A randomized controlled trial of transcranial direct-current stimulation and cognitive training in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.

Brain Stimul 2020 Apr 28;13(4):1059-1068. Epub 2020 Apr 28.

University of Minnesota, Twin Cities, USA. Electronic address:

Background: This study was a randomized double-blind sham-controlled trial examining the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) augmented cognitive training (CT) in children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD). Prenatal alcohol exposure has profound detrimental effects on brain development and individuals with FASD commonly present with deficits in executive functions including attention and working memory. The most commonly studied treatment for executive deficits is CT, which involves repeated drilling of exercises targeting the impaired functions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brs.2020.04.015DOI Listing

The clinical utility of imaging-defined biotypes of depression and transcranial magnetic stimulation: A decision curve analysis.

Brain Stimul 2020 Apr 28;13(4):1069-1070. Epub 2020 Apr 28.

Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, Alpert Medical School of Brown University, USA; VA RR&D Center for Neurorestoration and Neurotechnology, Providence VA Medical Center, Providence, RI, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brs.2020.04.016DOI Listing

Shocking colours - ECT temporarily improves colour perception in a colour-blind patient.

Brain Stimul 2020 Apr 28;13(4):957-958. Epub 2020 Apr 28.

Psychiatric Centre Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, The University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brs.2020.04.018DOI Listing

Impact of transcranial direct current stimulation on sustained attention in breast cancer survivors: Evidence for feasibility, tolerability, and initial efficacy.

Brain Stimul 2020 Apr 27;13(4):1108-1116. Epub 2020 Apr 27.

Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, New York, NY, USA.

Background: A significant subset of breast cancer survivors experience cognitive difficulties in attention and memory, which persist for years following treatment. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been shown to be effective in improving working memory, attention, processing speed, and other cognitive functions in both healthy and clinical populations. To date, no studies have examined tDCS for rehabilitation of cancer-related cognitive dysfunction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brs.2020.04.013DOI Listing

Dual-site TMS demonstrates causal functional connectivity between the left and right posterior temporal sulci during facial expression recognition.

Brain Stimul 2020 Apr 23;13(4):1008-1013. Epub 2020 Apr 23.

Department of Psychology, University of York, Heslington, York, YO10 5DD, UK.

Background: Neuroimaging studies suggest that facial expression recognition is processed in the bilateral posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS). Our recent repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) study demonstrates that the bilateral pSTS is causally involved in expression recognition, although involvement of the right pSTS is greater than involvement of the left pSTS.

Objective: /Hypothesis: In this study, we used a dual-site TMS to investigate whether the left pSTS is functionally connected to the right pSTS during expression recognition. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brs.2020.04.011DOI Listing

Bilateral nucleus basalis of Meynert deep brain stimulation for dementia with Lewy bodies: A randomised clinical trial.

Brain Stimul 2020 Apr 22;13(4):1031-1039. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

Department of Clinical & Movement Neurosciences, UCL Institute of Neurology and the National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Queen Square, London, UK. Electronic address:

Background: Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is the second most common form of dementia. Current symptomatic treatment with medications remains inadequate. Deep brain stimulation of the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM DBS) has been proposed as a potential new treatment option in dementias. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brs.2020.04.010DOI Listing

Transcranial electrical stimulation motor threshold can estimate individualized tDCS dosage from reverse-calculation electric-field modeling.

Brain Stimul 2020 Apr 21;13(4):961-969. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Brain Stimulation Laboratory, Department of Psychiatry, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA; Ralph H. Johnson VA Medical Center, Charleston, SC, USA.

Background: Unique amongst brain stimulation tools, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) currently lacks an easy or widely implemented method for individualizing dosage.

Objective: We developed a method of reverse-calculating electric-field (E-field) models based on Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scans that can estimate individualized tDCS dose. We also evaluated an MRI-free method of individualizing tDCS dose by measuring transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) motor threshold (MT) and single pulse, suprathreshold transcranial electrical stimulation (TES) MT and regressing it against E-field modeling. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brs.2020.04.007DOI Listing

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) polymorphism may influence the efficacy of tACS to modulate neural oscillations.

Brain Stimul 2020 Apr 21;13(4):998-999. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Department of Psychiatry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; Carolina Center for Neurostimulation, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; Department of Neurology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; Department of Cell Biology and Physiology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; Neuroscience Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brs.2020.04.012DOI Listing

Induction of long-term potentiation-like plasticity in the primary motor cortex with repeated anodal transcranial direct current stimulation - Better effects with intensified protocols?

Brain Stimul 2020 Apr 21;13(4):987-997. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Department of Psychology and Neurosciences, Leibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human Factors, Dortmund, Germany; Department of Neurology, University Hospital Bergmannsheil, Bochum, Germany. Electronic address:

Background: A single session of anodal tDCS induces LTP-like plasticity which lasts for about 1 h, while repetition of stimulation within a time interval of 30 min results in late-phase effects lasting for at least 24 h with standard stimulation protocols.

Objective: In this pilot study, we explored if the after-effects of a recently developed intensified single session stimulation protocol are relevantly prolonged in the motor cortex by repetition of this intervention.

Methods: 16 healthy right-handed subjects participated in this study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brs.2020.04.009DOI Listing

Deep Brain Stimulation of Hypothalamus for Narcolepsy-Cataplexy in Mice.

Brain Stimul 2020 Apr 19. Epub 2020 Apr 19.

Department of Neurosurgery, Emory University; Department of Neurology, Emory University. Electronic address:

Background: Narcolepsy type 1 (NT1, narcolepsy with cataplexy) is a disabling neurological disorder caused by loss of excitatory orexin neurons from the hypothalamus and is characterized by decreased motivation, sleep-wake fragmentation, intrusion of rapid-eye-movement sleep (REMS) during wake, and abrupt loss of muscle tone, called cataplexy, in response to sudden emotions.

Objective: We investigated whether subcortical stimulation, analogous to clinical deep brain stimulation (DBS), would ameliorate NT1 using a validated transgenic mouse model with postnatal orexin neuron degeneration.

Methods: Using implanted electrodes in freely behaving mice, the immediate and prolonged effects of DBS were determined upon (1) behavior, using continuous video-electroencephalogram-electromyogram (video/EEG/EMG) and locomotor activity, and (2) neural activation in brain sections, using immunohistochemical labeling of the immediate early gene product c-Fos. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brs.2020.04.006DOI Listing

Reply to letter to the editor.

Brain Stimul 2020 Apr 18;13(4):1079. Epub 2020 Apr 18.

Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Liege University Hospital Center, Liege, Belgium; Department of Sport and Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Liege, Liege, Belgium.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brs.2020.04.008DOI Listing

Neurovascular coupling during deep brain stimulation.

Brain Stimul 2020 May - Jun;13(3):916-927. Epub 2020 Mar 13.

Hotchkiss Brain Institute, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada; Biomedical Engineering, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada; Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an effective treatment for movement disorders, yet its mechanisms of action remain unclear. One method used to study its circuit-wide neuromodulatory effects is functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) which measures hemodynamics as a proxy of neural activity. To interpret functional imaging data, we must understand the relationship between neural and vascular responses, which has never been studied with the high frequencies used for DBS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brs.2020.03.005DOI Listing

Transcranial magnetic stimulation and functional magnet resonance imaging evaluation of adductor spasmodic dysphonia during phonation.

Brain Stimul 2020 May - Jun;13(3):908-915. Epub 2020 Mar 13.

Divisions of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Science, Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Minnesota. 426 Church St. SE, Minneapolis, MN, 55455, USA; School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, Department of Physical Therapy, Massachusetts General Hospital, Institute of Health Professions, 36 First Ave, Boston, MA, 02129, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Reduced intracortical inhibition is a neurophysiologic finding in focal dystonia that suggests a broader problem of impaired cortical excitability within the brain. A robust understanding of the neurophysiology in dystonia is essential to elucidate the pathophysiology of the disorder and develop new treatments. The cortical silent period (cSP) is a reliable, non-invasive method to measure intracortical inhibition in the primary motor cortex associated with a muscle of interest. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brs.2020.03.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7213049PMC

Rotational field TMS: Comparison with conventional TMS based on motor evoked potentials and thresholds in the hand and leg motor cortices.

Brain Stimul 2020 May - Jun;13(3):900-907. Epub 2020 Mar 23.

Department of Life Sciences, Ben-Gurion University, Beer Sheva, Israel. Electronic address:

Background: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a rapidly expanding technology utilized in research and neuropsychiatric treatments. Yet, conventional TMS configurations affect primarily neurons that are aligned parallel to the induced electric field by a fixed coil, making the activation orientation-specific. A novel method termed rotational field TMS (rfTMS), where two orthogonal coils are operated with a 90° phase shift, produces rotation of the electric field vector over almost a complete cycle, and may stimulate larger portion of the neuronal population within a given brain area. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brs.2020.03.010DOI Listing

TMS brain mapping of the pharyngeal cortical representation in healthy subjects.

Brain Stimul 2020 May - Jun;13(3):891-899. Epub 2020 Mar 4.

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Beijing Tian Tan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China; China National Clinical Research Center for Neurological Diseases, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Background: Brain mapping is fundamental to understanding brain organization and function. However, a major drawback to the traditional Brodmann parcellation technique is the reliance on the use of postmortem specimens. It has therefore historically been difficult to make any comparison regarding functional data from different regions or hemispheres within the same individual. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brs.2020.02.031DOI Listing

Optogenetic translocation of protons out of penumbral neurons is protective in a rodent model of focal cerebral ischemia.

Brain Stimul 2020 May - Jun;13(3):881-890. Epub 2020 Mar 19.

School of Biomedical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200030, China; Institute of Medical Robotics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200240, China. Electronic address:

Background: Intracellular acidosis in the ischemic penumbra can contribute to further cell death, effectively enlarging the infarct core. Restoring the acid-base balance may enhance tissue survivability after cerebral ischemia.

Objective: This study investigated whether translocating protons out of penumbral neurons could mitigate tissue acidification and induce neuroprotection in a rodent model of acute cerebral ischemia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brs.2020.03.008DOI Listing

Sound comparison of seven TMS coils at matched stimulation strength.

Brain Stimul 2020 May - Jun;13(3):873-880. Epub 2020 Mar 12.

Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Duke University, Durham, NC, 27710, USA; Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC, 27708, USA; Department of Neurosurgery, Duke University, Durham, NC, 27710, USA; Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC, 27708, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Accurate data on the sound emitted by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) coils is lacking.

Methods: We recorded the sound waveforms of seven coils with high bandwidth. We estimated the neural stimulation strength by measuring the induced electric field and applying a strength-duration model to account for different waveforms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brs.2020.03.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7263763PMC