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    1056 results match your criteria Brain Stimulation [Journal]

    1 OF 22

    Clinical and electrophysiological outcomes of deep TMS over the medial prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices in OCD patients.
    Brain Stimul 2017 Sep 6. Epub 2017 Sep 6.
    Department of Life Sciences and the Zlotowski Center for Neuroscience, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105, Israel. Electronic address:
    Background: Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a chronic and disabling disorder with poor response to pharmacological treatments. Converging evidences suggest that OCD patients suffer from dysfunction of the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) circuit, including in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC).

    Objective: To examine whether modulation of mPFC-ACC activity by deep transcranial magnetic stimulation (DTMS) affects OCD symptoms. Read More

    Modulation of hippocampal activity with fornix Deep Brain Stimulation.
    Brain Stimul 2017 Sep 6. Epub 2017 Sep 6.
    Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN, USA.
    Background: Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) within the Papez circuit is under investigation as a treatment for epilepsy and Alzheimer's disease. We previously reported the effects of stimulation at nodes within this network (anterior thalamic nucleus and hippocampus) on hippocampal activity in a large animal model, using a chronic implantable, clinical-grade system that permits concurrent stimulation and recording.

    Objective: In this study we extended earlier work to compare the effects of fornix DBS on evoked potentials (EPs) and local field potential (LFP) activity within the hippocampus, and to assess closed-loop stimulation. Read More

    Cranial nerve non-invasive neuromodulation improves gait and balance in stroke survivors: A pilot randomised controlled trial.
    Brain Stimul 2017 Sep 8. Epub 2017 Sep 8.
    Department of Medicine (Royal Melbourne Hospital), University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC, Australia; Australian Rehabilitation Research Centre (ARRC), Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville, VIC, Australia; Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville, VIC, Australia.

    Vagus nerve stimulation improves locomotion and neuronal populations in a model of Parkinson's disease.
    Brain Stimul 2017 Aug 24. Epub 2017 Aug 24.
    Dept of Neuroscience and Center on Aging, Medical University of South Carolina, 173 Ashley Ave, BSB403, MSC510, Charleston, SC 29425, USA. Electronic address:
    Background: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive, neurodegenerative disorder with no disease-modifying therapies, and symptomatic treatments are often limited by debilitating side effects. In PD, locus coeruleus noradrenergic (LC-NE) neurons degenerate prior to substantia nigra dopaminergic (SN-DA) neurons. Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) activates LC neurons, and decreases pro-inflammatory markers, allowing improvement of LC targets, making it a potential PD therapeutic. Read More

    Prefrontal versus motor cortex transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) effects on post-surgical opioid use.
    Brain Stimul 2017 Sep 6. Epub 2017 Sep 6.
    Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA.
    Background: Pain is often a complaint that precedes total knee arthroplasty (TKA), however the procedure itself is associated with considerable post-operative pain lasting days to weeks which can predict longer-term surgical outcomes. Previously, we reported significant opioid-sparing effects of motor cortex transcranial direct current stimulation from a single-blind trial. In the present study, we used double-blind methodology to compare motor cortex tDCS and prefrontal cortex tDCS to both sham and active-control (active electrodes over non-pain modulating brain areas) tDCS. Read More

    Increased left prefrontal brain perfusion after MRI compatible tDCS attenuates momentary ruminative self-referential thoughts.
    Brain Stimul 2017 Sep 6. Epub 2017 Sep 6.
    Key Laboratory of Cognition and Personality, Faculty of Psychology, Southwest University, Chongqing, China.
    Background: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive electrical stimulation technique, assumed to influence cognition and emotional processing.

    Objective: However, it is unclear how tDCS influences spontaneous cognitive processes such as momentary self-referential thoughts on the neuronal level.

    Methods: Forty healthy female volunteers participated in a single session sham-controlled crossover tDCS study while being in the MRI scanner. Read More

    Repeated transcranial direct current stimulation improves cognitive dysfunction and synaptic plasticity deficit in the prefrontal cortex of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.
    Brain Stimul 2017 Aug 24. Epub 2017 Aug 24.
    Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan; Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan. Electronic address:
    Background: Cognitive dysfunction is commonly observed in diabetic patients. We have previously reported that anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex can facilitate visuospatial working memory in diabetic patients with concomitant diabetic peripheral neuropathy and mild cognitive impairment, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear.

    Objective: We investigated the cellular mechanisms underlying the effect of tDCS on cognitive decline in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Read More

    Transcranial direct current stimulation versus caffeine as a fatigue countermeasure.
    Brain Stimul 2017 Aug 18. Epub 2017 Aug 18.
    Infoscitex, Inc., 2510 Fifth Street, Building 840, Dayton, OH 45433, United States.
    Background: To assess the efficacy of using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to remediate the deleterious effects of fatigue induced by sleep deprivation and compare these results to caffeine, a commonly used fatigue countermeasure.

    Objective/hypothesis: Based on previous research, tDCS of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) can modulate attention and arousal. The authors hypothesize that tDCS can be an effective fatigue countermeasure. Read More

    Polarity-independent effects of tDCS on paired associative stimulation-induced plasticity.
    Brain Stimul 2017 Jul 27. Epub 2017 Jul 27.
    Department of Neurology & Stroke, and Hertie Institute for Clinical Brain Research, University of Tübingen, Germany. Electronic address:
    Background: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can polarize the cortex of the human brain.

    Objective/hypothesis: We sought to verify the hypothesis that posterior-anterior (PA) but not anterior-posterior (AP) tDCS of primary motor cortex (M1) produces cooperative effects with corticospinal plasticity induced by paired associative stimulation of the supplementary motor area (SMA) to M1 projection (PASSMA→M1) in a highly controlled experimental design.

    Methods: Three experimental conditions were tested in a double-blinded, randomized crossover design in 15 healthy adults: Navigated PASSMA→M1 during PA-tDCS (35 cm(2) electrodes, anode 3 cm posterior to M1 hand area, cathode over contralateral frontopolar cortex, 1 mA, 2 × 5 min) or AP-tDCS (reversed polarity), or sham-tDCS. Read More

    The reliability of commonly used electrophysiology measures.
    Brain Stimul 2017 Jul 31. Epub 2017 Jul 31.
    Department of Neurology, Ulm University Hospital, Ulm, Germany. Electronic address:
    Background: Electrophysiological measures can help understand brain function both in healthy individuals and in the context of a disease. Given the amount of information that can be extracted from these measures and their frequent use, it is essential to know more about their inherent reliability.

    Objective/hypothesis: To understand the reliability of electrophysiology measures in healthy individuals. Read More

    1-Hz rTMS in the treatment of tinnitus: A sham-controlled, randomized multicenter trial.
    Brain Stimul 2017 Aug 5. Epub 2017 Aug 5.
    Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Regensburg, Universitaetsstr. 84, 93053 Regensburg, Germany. Electronic address:
    Background: Chronic tinnitus is a frequent, difficult to treat disease with high morbidity.

    Objective: This multicenter randomized, sham-controlled trial investigated the efficacy and safety of 1-Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) applied to the left temporal cortex in patients with chronic tinnitus.

    Methods: Tinnitus patients were randomized to receive 10 sessions of either real or sham 1-Hz-rTMS (2000 stimuli, 110% motor threshold) to the left temporal cortex. Read More

    Transcutaneous auricular vagal nerve stimulation (taVNS) might be a mechanism behind the analgesic effects of auricular acupuncture.
    Brain Stimul 2017 Aug 2. Epub 2017 Aug 2.
    Functional Imaging Unit, Diagnostic Radiology, University Medicine Greifswald, Germany.
    Background: Randomized clinical trials (RCT) demonstrated that auricular acupuncture (AA) is effective in treatment of acute and chronic pain, although the mechanisms behind AA are not elucidated.

    Methods: The data concerning the localization of AA points, which are commonly used to treat pain, were extracted from the meta-analysis of 17 RCTs and evaluated using the anatomical map of auricular afferent nerve supply.

    Results: Fifteen out of 20 specific AA points, used in the treatment of pain, are situated in areas innervated mostly by the auricular branch of the vagal nerve (ABVN), whereas sham stimulation was applied at the helix of the auricle, innervated by cervical nerves. Read More


    Transcranial ultrasonic stimulation modulates single-neuron discharge in macaques performing an antisaccade task.
    Brain Stimul 2017 Jul 26. Epub 2017 Jul 26.
    Institut du Cerveau et de la Moelle épinière, UMRS 975 INSERM, CNRS 7225, UMPC, Paris, France. Electronic address:
    Background: Low intensity transcranial ultrasonic stimulation (TUS) has been demonstrated to non-invasively and transiently stimulate the nervous system. Although US neuromodulation has appeared robust in rodent studies, the effects of US in large mammals and humans have been modest at best. In addition, there is a lack of direct recordings from the stimulated neurons in response to US. Read More

    Cumulative effects of single TMS pulses during beta-tACS are stimulation intensity-dependent.
    Brain Stimul 2017 Jul 27. Epub 2017 Jul 27.
    Division of Functional and Restorative Neurosurgery, Centre for Integrative Neuroscience, Eberhard Karls University, Tuebingen, Germany. Electronic address:
    Background: Single transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) pulses activate different components of the motor cortex neural circuitry in a stimulation intensity-dependent way and may lead to a cumulative increase of corticospinal excitability (CSE) during the same stimulation session. Furthermore, transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) has been shown to increase in a frequency-specific way the level of CSE probed by single-pulse TMS. The interaction of these two phenomena, i. Read More

    Episodic memory following deep brain stimulation of the ventral anterior limb of the internal capsule and electroconvulsive therapy.
    Brain Stimul 2017 Sep - Oct;10(5):959-966. Epub 2017 Jul 19.
    Department of Psychiatry, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Amsterdam Brain and Cognition, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Netherlands Institute for Neuroscience, An Institute of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Background: Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) and Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) are effective treatments for patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD). However, a common side effect of ECT is autobiographical memory loss (e.g. Read More

    BDNF Val66Met but not transcranial direct current stimulation affects motor learning after stroke.
    Brain Stimul 2017 Sep - Oct;10(5):882-892. Epub 2017 Jul 13.
    Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands; Rijndam Rehabilitation Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands; Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Background: tDCS is a non-invasive neuromodulation technique that has been reported to improve motor skill learning after stroke. However, the contribution of tDCS to motor skill learning has only been investigated in a small number of studies. In addition, it is unclear if tDCS effects are mediated by activity-dependent BDNF release and dependent on timing of tDCS relative to training. Read More

    Functional connectivity of the left DLPFC to striatum predicts treatment response of depression to TMS.
    Brain Stimul 2017 Sep - Oct;10(5):919-925. Epub 2017 Jul 13.
    Department of Psychiatry, Weill Cornell Medical College-New York Presbyterian Hospital, 525 East 68th Street, New York, NY 10065, USA; Feil Family Brain and Mind Research Institute, Weill Cornell Medical College-New York Presbyterian Hospital, 525 East 68th Street, New York, NY 10065, USA. Electronic address:
    Background: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive, safe, and efficacious treatment for depression. TMS has been shown to normalize abnormal functional connectivity of cortico-cortical circuits in depression and baseline functional connectivity of these circuits predicts treatment response. Less is known about the relationship between functional connectivity of frontostriatal circuits and treatment response. Read More

    Systematic review of hardware-related complications of Deep Brain Stimulation: Do new indications pose an increased risk?
    Brain Stimul 2017 Sep - Oct;10(5):967-976. Epub 2017 Jul 13.
    Morton and Gloria Shulman Movement Disorders Centre and the Edmond J. Safra Program in Parkinson's Disease, Toronto Western Hospital, UHN, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Krembil Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Division of Neurology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:
    Introduction: Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) is an effective treatment extended broadly to many neurological and psychiatric disorders. Nevertheless, complications may arise during DBS procedures or following implantation due to implanted hardware. This may result in both minor and major adverse events that may necessitate hardware removal and/or compromise maximal therapeutic benefit for the patient. Read More


    Topographical projections from the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (Meynert) to the frontal cortex: A voltage-sensitive dye imaging study in rats.
    Brain Stimul 2017 Sep - Oct;10(5):977-980. Epub 2017 Jul 3.
    Human Informatics Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba 305-8568, Japan; Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba 305-9577, Japan. Electronic address:
    Background: The nucleus basalis magnocellularis/Meynert (NBM) has been explored as a new target for deep brain stimulation for neurological disorders. Although anatomical studies suggest the existence of cholinergic topographical projections of the NBM, it is still unknown whether NBM subregions differentially activate the frontal cortex.

    Objective: To investigate the topography between the NBM and frontal cortex. Read More

    Effects of transcranial direct current stimulation on pain, mood and serum endorphin level in the treatment of fibromyalgia: A double blinded, randomized clinical trial.
    Brain Stimul 2017 Sep - Oct;10(5):893-901. Epub 2017 Jun 23.
    Department of Rheumatology and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Medicine, Sohag University, Sohag, Egypt.
    Background: Recent studies have shown that novel neuro-modulating techniques can have pain-relieving effects in the treatment of chronic pain. The aim of this work is to evaluate the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in relieving fibromyalgia pain and its relation with beta-endorphin changes.

    Material And Methods: Forty eligible patients with primary fibromyalgia were randomized to receive real anodal tDCS or sham tDCS of the left motor cortex (M1) daily for 10 days. Read More

    rTMS with a two-coil array: Safety and efficacy for treatment resistant major depressive disorder.
    Brain Stimul 2017 Sep - Oct;10(5):926-933. Epub 2017 Jun 9.
    Rio Grande Neurosciences, Inc. (Formerly Cervel Neurotech, Inc.), 600 Central SE, Ste 221, Albequerque, NM 87102, United States; Stanford University, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, 401 Quarry Road, Stanford, CA 94305-5717, United States; Stanford University Department of Neurosurgery, 213 Quarry Road, Palo Alto, CA 94304-5979, United States. Electronic address:
    Background: Therapeutic repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) has emerged as a standard of care for individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) who do not benefit from, or are unable to tolerate, antidepressant pharmacotherapy. Depth of stimulation is limited with currently approved figure-eight coils and larger coils capable of deeper penetration may be associated with loss of stimulation focality and undesired recruitment of motor cortex. A second generation 2-coil array rTMS system was designed to target converging brain pathways for potentially deeper prefrontal cortex stimulation. Read More

    Neural activity during attentional conflict predicts reduction in tinnitus perception following rTMS.
    Brain Stimul 2017 Sep - Oct;10(5):934-943. Epub 2017 Jun 2.
    University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, 4301 W. Markham St #554, Little Rock, AR 72205-7199, United States.
    Background: Subjective idiopathic tinnitus is an intrusive, distracting, and potentially disabling disorder characterized by phantom perception of sounds. Although tinnitus has no approved pharmacologic treatment, recent evidence supports the use of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to alleviate tinnitus symptoms.

    Objective/hypothesis: Repetitive TMS delivered over the middle superior temporal gyrus (STG) may alter ratings of tinnitus awareness and annoyance more than loudness due to change in attentional processing. Read More

    Theta burst magnetic stimulation over the pre-supplementary motor area improves motor inhibition.
    Brain Stimul 2017 Sep - Oct;10(5):944-951. Epub 2017 May 22.
    Sobell Department of Motor Neuroscience and Movement Disorders, UCL Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London, WC1N3BG, United Kingdom. Electronic address:
    Background: Stopping an ongoing motor response or resolving conflict induced by conflicting stimuli are associated with activation of a right-lateralized network of inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA) and subthalamic nucleus (STN). However, the roles of the right IFG and pre-SMA in stopping a movement and in conflict resolution remain unclear. We used continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) to examine the involvement of the right IFG and pre-SMA in inhibition and conflict resolution using the conditional stop signal task. Read More

    Non-invasive vagus nerve stimulation acutely improves spontaneous cardiac baroreflex sensitivity in healthy young men: A randomized placebo-controlled trial.
    Brain Stimul 2017 Sep - Oct;10(5):875-881. Epub 2017 May 19.
    Faculty of Physical Education, University of Brasília, Brasília, DF, Brazil. Electronic address:
    Background: Despite positive outcomes of transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (tVNS) via the auricular branch of the vagus nerve (ABVN), the mechanisms underlying these outcomes remain unclear. Additionally, previous studies have not been controlled the possible placebo effects of tVNS.

    Objective: To test the hypothesis that tVNS acutely improves spontaneous cardiac baroreflex sensitivity (cBRS) and autonomic modulation, and that these effects are specific to stimulation of ABVN. Read More

    Efficacy of transcranial direct current stimulation over primary motor cortex (anode) and contralateral supraorbital area (cathode) on clinical pain severity and mobility performance in persons with knee osteoarthritis: An experimenter- and participant-blinded, randomized, sham-controlled pilot clinical study.
    Brain Stimul 2017 Sep - Oct;10(5):902-909. Epub 2017 May 19.
    University of Florida Pain Research and Intervention Center of Excellence, Gainesville, FL, United States.
    Background: Previous studies indicate that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) with anode over motor cortex (M1) and cathode over contralateral supraorbital region (SO) may be effective in reducing pain, but these studies are limited in number and have not focused on older adults with osteoarthritis (OA).

    Objective: To evaluate the preliminary efficacy and safety of M1-SO applied tDCS on clinical pain severity and mobility performance in adults with knee OA pain.

    Methods: Forty 50- to 70-year-old community-dwelling participants with knee OA were randomly assigned to receive five daily sessions of 2 mA tDCS for 20 min (n = 20) or sham tDCS (n = 20). Read More

    Effects of chronic abdominal vagal stimulation of small-diameter neurons on brain metabolism and food intake.
    Brain Stimul 2017 Jul - Aug;10(4):735-743. Epub 2017 Apr 26.
    LIVANOVA, Clamart, France.
    Background: Abdominal bilateral vagal stimulation reduces food intake in animals. However, the classical square wave, mA range current generator is poorly effective to evoke action potentials on A∂ and C neurons that represent the majority of vagal neurons at the abdominal level.

    Objective/hypothesis: METHODS: The current thresholds for pulsons (S2 & S3) and millisecond pulses (S1) required to trigger action potentials were calculated in 5 anaesthetized pigs using single fibre recording. Read More

    Long term effects of prefrontal tDCS on multiple sclerosis fatigue: A case study.
    Brain Stimul 2017 Sep - Oct;10(5):1001-1002. Epub 2017 May 16.
    EA 4391, Excitabilité Nerveuse et Thérapeutique, Université Paris-Est-Créteil, Créteil, France; Service de Physiologie - Explorations Fonctionnelles, Hôpital Henri Mondor, Assistance Publique - Hôpitaux de Paris, Créteil, France. Electronic address:

    Anatomical and functional correlates of cortical motor threshold of the dominant hand.
    Brain Stimul 2017 Sep - Oct;10(5):952-958. Epub 2017 May 17.
    Inserm U 1127, CNRS UMR 7225, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR S 1127, Institut du Cerveau et de la Moelle épinière, ICM, F-75013, Paris, France; Centre de Neuro-imagerie de Recherche, CENIR, F-75013, Paris, France.
    Background: Resting Motor threshold (rMT) provides information about cortical motor excitability. Interestingly, the influences of the structural or functional variability of the motor system on the rMT inter-individual variability have been poorly investigated.

    Objective/hypothesis: To investigate relationships between rMT and measures of brain structures and function of the motor system. Read More

    Neuro-Cardiac-Guided TMS (NCG-TMS): Probing DLPFC-sgACC-vagus nerve connectivity using heart rate - First results.
    Brain Stimul 2017 Sep - Oct;10(5):1006-1008. Epub 2017 May 12.
    Dept. of Experimental Psychology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands; Research Institute Brainclinics, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; neuroCare Group, Munich, Germany.
    Background: Given that many studies suggest a role of DLPFC-sgACC connectivity in depression and prior research demonstrating that neuromodulation of either of these nodes modulates parasympathetic activity and results in a heart rate deceleration, a new method is proposed to individualize localization of the DLPFC. This can, among others, be useful for rTMS treatment of depression.

    Methods: Ten healthy subjects received three trains of 10Hz rTMS randomly over 7 target regions (10-20 system). Read More

    Effects of repetitive TMS of the motor cortex on disease progression and on glutamate and GABA levels in ALS: A proof of principle study.
    Brain Stimul 2017 Sep - Oct;10(5):1003-1005. Epub 2017 May 17.
    Unit of Neurology, Neurophysiology, Neurobiology, Department of Medicine, Università Campus Bio-Medico di Roma, Via Álvaro del Portillo 21, 00128 Rome, Italy; Fondazione Alberto Sordi - Research Institute for Ageing, Rome, Italy.

    On the effectiveness of event-related beta tACS on episodic memory formation and motor cortex excitability.
    Brain Stimul 2017 Sep - Oct;10(5):910-918. Epub 2017 Apr 30.
    School of Psychology, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, B15 2TT, Birmingham, United Kingdom. Electronic address:
    Background: Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) is widely used to entrain or modulate brain oscillations in order to investigate causal relationships between oscillations and cognition.

    Objective: In a series of experiments we here addressed the question of whether event-related, transient tACS in the beta frequency range can be used to entrain beta oscillations in two different domains: episodic memory formation and motor cortex excitability.

    Methods: In experiments 1 and 2, 72 healthy human participants engaged in an incidental encoding task of verbal and non-verbal material while receiving tACS to the left and right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) at 6. Read More

    Seeing in the dark: Phosphene thresholds with eyes open versus closed in the absence of visual inputs.
    Brain Stimul 2017 Jul - Aug;10(4):828-835. Epub 2017 May 3.
    Department of Cognitive Neuroscience, Faculty of Psychology and Neuroscience, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands; Maastricht Brain Imaging Centre, Maastricht, The Netherlands.
    Background: Voluntarily opening or closing our eyes results in fundamentally different input patterns and expectancies. Yet it remains unclear how our brains and visual systems adapt to these ocular states.

    Objective/hypothesis: We here used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to probe the excitability of the human visual system with eyes open or closed, in the complete absence of visual inputs. Read More

    Pain-motor integration in the primary motor cortex in Parkinson's disease.
    Brain Stimul 2017 Jul - Aug;10(4):806-816. Epub 2017 Apr 30.
    Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy; IRCCS Neuromed Institute, Pozzilli IS, Italy. Electronic address:
    Background: In Parkinson's disease (PD), the influence of chronic pain on motor features has never been investigated. We have recently designed a technique that combines nociceptive system activation by laser stimuli and primary motor cortex (M1) activation through transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), in a laser-paired associative stimulation design (Laser-PAS). In controls, Laser-PAS induces long-term changes in motor evoked potentials reflecting M1 long-term potentiation-like plasticity, arising from pain-motor integration. Read More

    A role for NMDAR-dependent cerebellar plasticity in adaptive control of saccades in humans.
    Brain Stimul 2017 Jul - Aug;10(4):817-827. Epub 2017 May 5.
    Department of Electrical, Computer and Biomedical Engineering, University of Pavia, via Ferrata 5, 27100 Pavia, Italy.
    Background: Saccade pulse amplitude adaptation is mediated by the dorsal cerebellar vermis and fastigial nucleus. Long-term depression at the parallel fibre-Purkinjie cell synapses has been suggested to provide a cellular mechanism for the corresponding learning process. The mechanisms and sites of this plasticity, however, are still debated. Read More

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