1,221 results match your criteria Brain Stimulation [Journal]


Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation affects auditory cortex plasticity in normal-hearing and noise-exposed rats.

Brain Stimul 2018 May 31. Epub 2018 May 31.

Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Largo F. Vito 1, 00168, Rome, Italy; Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS, Largo F. Vito 1, 00168, Rome, Italy.

Background: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive tool capable to modulate cortical functions by affecting neuronal excitability and synaptic plasticity.

Objective: Here we investigated the effects of anodal tDCS on auditory cortex (ACx) in normal-hearing rats and following a paradigm of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL), that causes morphological alterations in ACx pyramidal neurons.

Methods: Male rats exposed to intense pure tone (10 kHz) were subsequently subjected to unilateral anodal tDCS of ACx and changes in dendritic morphology and spines were assessed by Golgi-Cox staining 30 days after the onset of the acoustic trauma. Read More

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Modulation of cortical responses by transcranial direct current stimulation of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex: A resting-state EEG and TMS-EEG study.

Brain Stimul 2018 Jun 16. Epub 2018 Jun 16.

Department of Neurology & Stroke, Hertie Institute for Clinical Brain Research, University of Tübingen, Hoppe-Seyler-Straße 3, 72076, Tübingen, Germany. Electronic address:

Background: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation technique with potential for cost-effective therapeutic neuromodulation. Although positive therapeutic effects were found by stimulating the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), few studies have investigated physiological effects of DLPFC-tDCS.

Objectives: To investigate effects of tDCS with different parameter settings applied to the left DLPFC on cortical responses, measured by resting-state electroencephalography (rs-EEG) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)-evoked/induced EEG responses. Read More

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June 2018
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Tragus or cymba conchae? Investigating the anatomical foundation of transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation (taVNS).

Brain Stimul 2018 Jun 6. Epub 2018 Jun 6.

Brain Stimulation Lab, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA; Department of Neurology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA; Ralph H. Johnson VA Medical Center, Charleston, SC, USA.

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June 2018
2 Reads

Efficacy of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for Tourette syndrome: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Brain Stimul 2018 Jun 5. Epub 2018 Jun 5.

Department of Psychiatry, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; Institute for Translational Research in Biomedical Sciences, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Background: While previous studies have investigated the effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in treating Tourette syndrome (TS), the results remain inconclusive.

Objective: We aim to systematically review the existing literature related to the efficacy of rTMS in TS and synthesize the results through meta-analysis.

Methods: We searched for PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and ClinicalTrials. Read More

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June 2018
2 Reads

Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex may improve symptoms of anhedonia in individuals with cocaine use disorder: A pilot study.

Brain Stimul 2018 Jun 5. Epub 2018 Jun 5.

"La Promessa" Onlus, Rome, Italy; Departement of Neuroscience, Imaging and Clinical Sciences, "G. D'Annunzio" University, Chieti, Italy; University of Hertfordshire, Department of Pharmacy, Pharmacology and Clinical Sciences, Herts, UK.

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June 2018
2 Reads

MAGIC: An open-source MATLAB toolbox for external control of transcranial magnetic stimulation devices.

Brain Stimul 2018 May 26. Epub 2018 May 26.

Department of Neurology & Stroke, and Hertie Institute for Clinical Brain Research, Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen, Hoppe-Seyler-Str. 3, 72076, Tübingen, Germany; Institute for Medical Psychology and Behavioral Neurobiology, Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen, Otfried-Müller-Straße 25, 72076, Tübingen, Germany.

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May 2018
2 Reads

Transcranial direct current brain stimulation decreases impulsivity in ADHD.

Brain Stimul 2018 Apr 23. Epub 2018 Apr 23.

Center for Interdisciplinary Research on Nicotine Addiction, Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Impulsivity is a core deficit in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) has been shown to modulate cognitive control circuits and could enhance DLPFC activity, leading to improved impulse control in ADHD.

Objective: Hypothesis: We predicted 2. Read More

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April 2018
1 Read

Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the right parietal cortex for comorbid generalized anxiety disorder and insomnia: A randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled pilot study.

Brain Stimul 2018 May 29. Epub 2018 May 29.

Department of Neurology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China; Beijing Key Laboratory of Neuromodulation, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Background: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been considered to be a promising technique for the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, little is known about the effectiveness of rTMS in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Moreover, treatment data on comorbid GAD and insomnia remain lacking. Read More

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May 2018
3 Reads

Whole-brain low-intensity pulsed ultrasound therapy markedly improves cognitive dysfunctions in mouse models of dementia - Crucial roles of endothelial nitric oxide synthase.

Brain Stimul 2018 May 22. Epub 2018 May 22.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan. Electronic address:

Background: Therapeutic focused-ultrasound to the hippocampus has been reported to exert neuroprotective effects on dementia. In the present study, we examined whether the whole-brain LIPUS (low-intensity pulsed ultrasound) therapy is effective and safe in 2 mouse models of dementia (vascular dementia, VaD and Alzheimer's disease, AD), and if so, to elucidate the common underlying mechanism(s) involved.

Methods: We used bilateral carotid artery stenosis (BCAS) model with micro-coils in male C57BL/6 mice as a VaD model and 5XFAD transgenic mice as an AD model. Read More

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May 2018
2 Reads

Electrical stimulation of the midbrain excites the auditory cortex asymmetrically.

Brain Stimul 2018 May 17. Epub 2018 May 17.

Institute of AudioNeuroTechnology (VIANNA), Dept. of Experimental Otology, ENT Clinics, Hannover Medical School, 30625 Hannover, Germany; Cluster of Excellence "Hearing4all", Germany.

Background: Auditory midbrain implant users cannot achieve open speech perception and have limited frequency resolution. It remains unclear whether the spread of excitation contributes to this issue and how much it can be compensated by current-focusing, which is an effective approach in cochlear implants.

Objective: The present study examined the spread of excitation in the cortex elicited by electric midbrain stimulation. Read More

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May 2018
1 Read

Potentiating paired corticospinal-motoneuronal plasticity after spinal cord injury.

Brain Stimul 2018 May 9. Epub 2018 May 9.

Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Systems Neuroscience Institute, University of Pittsburgh, USA; Department of Neurological Surgery, The Miami Project to Cure Paralysis, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA; Bruce W. Carter Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Miami, FL, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Paired corticospinal-motoneuronal stimulation (PCMS) increases corticospinal transmission in humans with chronic incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI).

Objective/hypothesis: Here, we examine whether increases in the excitability of spinal motoneurons, by performing voluntary activity, could potentiate PCMS effects on corticospinal transmission.

Methods: During PCMS, we used 100 pairs of stimuli where corticospinal volleys evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the hand representation of the primary motor cortex were timed to arrive at corticospinal-motoneuronal synapses of the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle ∼1-2 ms before antidromic potentials were elicited in motoneurons by electrical stimulation of the ulnar nerve. Read More

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May 2018
1 Read

Report of one confirmed generalized seizure and one suspected partial seizure induced by deep continuous theta burst stimulation of the right operculo-insular cortex.

Brain Stimul 2018 May 8. Epub 2018 May 8.

Institute of Neuroscience, Université catholique de Louvain, Avenue Mounier 53, B-1200, Brussels, Belgium. Electronic address:

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May 2018
1 Read

Early relapse (ER) transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in treatment resistant major depression.

Brain Stimul 2018 May 22. Epub 2018 May 22.

School of Psychology, Deakin University, Burwood, Victoria, Australia. Electronic address:

Background: There is interest in using TMS to keep patients with severe relapsing depression as well as possible, once remission has been achieved. This has been conceptualized as 'maintaining' the remission. One protocol employs series of 5 TMS sessions over 3 or 5 days, at about monthly intervals. Read More

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May 2018
1 Read

Predictive value of dorso-lateral prefrontal connectivity for rTMS response in treatment-resistant depression: A brain perfusion SPECT study.

Brain Stimul 2018 May 18. Epub 2018 May 18.

Service Central de Biophysique et Médecine Nucléaire, Hôpital de la Timone, APHM, 13005 Marseille, France; Aix-Marseille University, INT, CNRS UMR 7289, 13005 Marseille, France; Aix-Marseille University, CERIMED, 13005 Marseille, France.

Background: Previous clinical trials have suggested that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has a significant antidepressant effect in patients with treatment resistant depression (TRD). However, results remain heterogeneous with many patients without effective response.

Objective: The aim of this SPECT study was to determine before treatment the predictive value of the connectivity of the stimulated area on further rTMS response in patients with TRD. Read More

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May 2018
2 Reads

BDNF plasma levels and genotype in depression and the response to electroconvulsive therapy.

Brain Stimul 2018 May 18. Epub 2018 May 18.

Trinity College Institute of Neuroscience, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland; Department of Psychiatry, St. Patrick's University Hospital, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland. Electronic address:

Background: Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of depression and the antidepressant response. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is reported to increase BDNF levels in blood, though only a small number of studies have been conducted to date.

Objective: Our objectives were to: 1) compare plasma BDNF levels in medicated patients with depression and controls; 2) assess the effect of ECT on plasma BDNF levels in medicated patients with depression; 3) explore the relationship between plasma BDNF levels and the Val66Met (rs6265) BDNF polymorphism; and 4) examine the relationship between plasma BDNF levels and clinical symptoms and outcomes with ECT. Read More

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May 2018
1 Read

Tolerability and blinding of 4x1 high-definition transcranial direct current stimulation (HD-tDCS) at two and three milliamps.

Brain Stimul 2018 May 4. Epub 2018 May 4.

Veterans Affairs Ann Arbor Healthcare System, Mental Health Service (116B), Ann Arbor, MI, USA; University of Michigan, Department of Psychiatry, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; Michigan Alzheimer's Disease Center, Ann Arbor, MI, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is an in-demand form of neuromodulation generally regarded as safe and well tolerated. However, few studies have examined the safety, tolerability, or blinding of High Definition (HD-) tDCS, especially in older adults and at stimulation intensities of 2 milliamps (mA) or greater.

Objective: We examined the rates of serious adverse events and common side effects to establish safety and tolerability, respectively, in HD-tDCS. Read More

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May 2018
2 Reads

Brain stimulation patterns emulating endogenous thalamocortical input to parvalbumin-expressing interneurons reduce nociception in mice.

Brain Stimul 2018 May 18. Epub 2018 May 18.

Translational Brain Research Center, Catholic Kwandong University International St. Mary's Hospital, Incheon, South Korea; Dept. of Medical Science, College of Medicine, Catholic Kwandong University, Gangneung-si, Gangwon-do, South Korea. Electronic address:

Background: The bursting pattern of thalamocortical (TC) pathway dampens nociception. Whether brain stimulation mimicking endogenous patterns can engage similar sensory gating processes in the cortex and reduce nociceptive behaviors remains uninvestigated.

Objective: We investigated the role of cortical parvalbumin expressing (PV) interneurons within the TC circuit in gating nociception and their selective response to TC burst patterns. Read More

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May 2018
1 Read

Action potential initiation, propagation, and cortical invasion in the hyperdirect pathway during subthalamic deep brain stimulation.

Brain Stimul 2018 May 12. Epub 2018 May 12.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, 44106, USA. Electronic address:

Background: High frequency (∼130 Hz) deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic region is an established clinical therapy for the treatment of late stage Parkinson's disease (PD). Direct modulation of the hyperdirect pathway, defined as cortical layer V pyramidal neurons that send an axon collateral to the subthalamic nucleus (STN), has emerged as a possible component of the therapeutic mechanisms. However, numerous questions remain to be addressed on the basic biophysics of hyperdirect pathway stimulation. Read More

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May 2018
2 Reads

Subthreshold stochastic vestibular stimulation induces complex multi-planar effects during standing in Parkinson's disease.

Brain Stimul 2018 Apr 27. Epub 2018 Apr 27.

Pacific Parkinson's Research Centre, University of British Columbia, M36-2221 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2B5, Canada. Electronic address:

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April 2018
1 Read

Increased short-interval intracortical inhibition in un-medicated patients with schizophrenia.

Brain Stimul 2018 May 4. Epub 2018 May 4.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Regensburg, Germany.

Background: Schizophrenia is associated with changes in inhibitory and facilitatory brain networks which can be assessed by motor cortex excitability.

Objective: Here, we investigate differences between large cross-sectional samples of un-medicated and medicated patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls in single- and double-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation parameters.

Methods: We measured right abductor digiti minimi muscle activity in 71 un-medicated, 43 medicated patients and 131 healthy controls. Read More

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Histopathology after microelectrode recording and twelve years of deep brain stimulation.

Brain Stimul 2018 May 9. Epub 2018 May 9.

Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospitals Leuven, Herestraat 49, 3000, Leuven, Belgium; Laboratory for Experimental Neurosurgery and Neuroanatomy, KU Leuven, Herestraat 49, 3000, Leuven, Belgium. Electronic address:

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May 2018
1 Read

Testing assumptions on prefrontal transcranial direct current stimulation: Comparison of electrode montages using multimodal fMRI.

Brain Stimul 2018 May 4. Epub 2018 May 4.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Hospital, LMU, Nussbaumstrasse 7, 80336 Munich, Germany; Department of Radiology, LMU, Marchioninistrasse 15, 81377 Munich, Germany.

Background: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) has been widely applied in cognitive neurosciences and advocated as a therapeutic intervention, e.g. in major depressive disorder. Read More

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May 2018
2 Reads

Randomized controlled trial of home-based 4-week tDCS in chronic minimally conscious state.

Brain Stimul 2018 May 2. Epub 2018 May 2.

Coma Science Group, GIGA Research, GIGA-Consciousness & Neurology Department, University and University Hospital of Liege, Liege, Belgium; Neuromodulation Center, Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: Patients with chronic disorders of consciousness face a significant lack of treatment options.

Objective: We aimed at investigating the feasibility and the behavioral effects of home-based transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), applied by relatives or caregivers, in chronic patients in minimally conscious state (MCS).

Methods: Each participant received, in a randomized order, 20 sessions of active and 20 sessions of sham tDCS applied over the prefrontal cortex for 4 weeks; separated by 8 weeks of washout. Read More

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May 2018
1 Read

TMS evoked N100 reflects local GABA and glutamate balance.

Brain Stimul 2018 May 4. Epub 2018 May 4.

Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, Department of Psychiatry, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Background: Animal studies suggest that synchronized electrical activities in the brain are regulated by the primary inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmitters gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate, respectively. Identifying direct evidence that this same basic chemical-electrical neuroscience principle operates in the human brains is critical for translation of neuroscience to pathological research.

Objective/hypothesis: We hypothesize that the background neurochemical concentrations may affect the cortical excitability probed by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Read More

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May 2018
1 Read

A pilot study of bed nucleus of the stria terminalis deep brain stimulation in treatment-resistant depression.

Brain Stimul 2018 Apr 23. Epub 2018 Apr 23.

Precision Brain Spine and Pain Centre, Victoria, Australia; Deakin University, Victoria, Melbourne, Australia.

Background: Studies are increasingly investigating the therapeutic effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS) applied to a variety of brain regions in the treatment of patients with highly treatment refractory depression. Limited research to date has investigated the therapeutic potential of DBS applied to the Bed Nucleus Of Stria Terminalis (BNST).

Objective: The aim of this study was to explore the therapeutic potential of DBS applied to the BNST. Read More

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April 2018
1 Read

Less is more - Pulse width dependent therapeutic window in deep brain stimulation for essential tremor.

Brain Stimul 2018 Apr 26. Epub 2018 Apr 26.

Department of Neurology, Center for Movement Disorders and Neuromodulation, Medical Faculty, Heinrich-Heine University, Düsseldorf, Germany; Institute of Clinical Neuroscience and Medical Psychology, Medical Faculty, Heinrich-Heine University, Düsseldorf, Germany. Electronic address:

Background: Shorter pulse widths than conventional pulse width settings may lead to reduction of side effects and therefore be a valuable therapeutic option for deep brain stimulation (DBS) in patients with essential tremor (ET).

Objective: To compare the DBS effect of shorter pulse width at 40 μs (DBS-40 μs) to conventional pulse width at 60 μs (DBS-60 μs) on the therapeutic window in ET patients.

Methods: For this prospective, randomized, double-blind, crossover study 9 ET patients with chronic DBS of the ventral intermediate nucleus (VIM)/posterior subthalamic area (PSA) were recruited. Read More

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April 2018
6 Reads

Cerebellum as a possible target for neuromodulation after stroke.

Brain Stimul 2018 Apr 23. Epub 2018 Apr 23.

Movement Disorders Center, Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

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Prefrontal and auditory tRNS in sequence for treating chronic tinnitus: a modified multisite protocol.

Brain Stimul 2018 Apr 25. Epub 2018 Apr 25.

Department of Audiology, School of Rehabilitation Sciences, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

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April 2018
2 Reads

Effects of prefrontal theta-burst stimulation on brain function in treatment-resistant depression: A randomized sham-controlled neuroimaging study.

Brain Stimul 2018 Apr 23. Epub 2018 Apr 23.

Department of Psychiatry, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; Institute of Brain Science, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan; Division of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan; Department of Psychiatry, Cheng-Hsin General Hospital, Taiwan.

Background: Theta-burst transcranial magnetic stimulation (TBS) can quickly modulate brain activity and can be used to treat treatment-resistant depression (TRD). Whole-brain analytical research has revealed that left high-frequency PFC rTMS modulates brain activity in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the fronto-cingulo-temporal circuit. We aimed to investigate whether the prefrontal TBS's antidepressant mechanisms involve these regions. Read More

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April 2018
2 Reads

Bilateral neuronavigated 20Hz theta burst TMS for treatment refractory depression: An open label study.

Brain Stimul 2018 Apr 21. Epub 2018 Apr 21.

Stubbeman Brain Stimulation Institute, 11500 W Olympic Blvd. Suite 441, Los Angeles, CA, 90064, USA.

Background: Current medication and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) treatments for depression bring only approximately one-third of patients to remission. Newer TMS techniques such as bilateral treatment, neuronavigation, and theta burst stimulation (TBS) show promise in improving remission rates. However, it is unclear whether newer off-label techniques improve outcomes enough to justify widespread implementation. Read More

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April 2018
1 Read

Short trains of transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation (taVNS) have parameter-specific effects on heart rate.

Brain Stimul 2018 Apr 6. Epub 2018 Apr 6.

Department of Neuroscience, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston SC 29425, United States; Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston SC 29425, United States; Ralph H. Johnson VA Medical Center, Charleston SC 29401, United States.

Background: Optimal parameters of transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation (taVNS) are still undetermined. Given the vagus nerve's role in regulating heart rate (HR), it is important to determine safety and HR effects of various taVNS parameters.

Objective: We conducted two sequential trials to systematically test the effects of various taVNS parameters on HR. Read More

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April 2018
4 Reads

Effects of pulse width, waveform and current direction in the cortex: A combined cTMS-EEG study.

Brain Stimul 2018 Apr 24. Epub 2018 Apr 24.

Sobell Department of Motor Neuroscience and Movement Disorders, University College London, London, United Kingdom.

Background: the influence of pulse width, pulse waveform and current direction on transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) outcomes is of critical importance. However, their effects have only been investigated indirectly with motor-evoked potentials (MEP). By combining TMS and EEG it is possible to examine how these factors affect evoked activity from the cortex and compare that with the effects on MEP. Read More

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April 2018
1 Read

Stimulation-induced reversed plus-minus syndrome: Insights into eyelid physiology.

Brain Stimul 2018 Apr 13. Epub 2018 Apr 13.

Edmond J. Safra Program in Parkinson's Disease, Morton and Gloria Shulman Movement Disorders Clinic, Toronto Western Hospital, UHN, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Krembil Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:

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April 2018
1 Read

Atlas of optimal coil orientation and position for TMS: A computational study.

Brain Stimul 2018 Apr 17. Epub 2018 Apr 17.

Fukushima Medical University, Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, Fukushima, 960-1295, Japan; Aizu Chuo Hospital, Department of Neurology, Aizuwakamatsu City, Fukushima, 965-8611, Japan.

Background: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) activates target brain structures in a non-invasive manner. The optimal orientation of the TMS coil for the motor cortex is well known and can be estimated using motor evoked potentials. However, there are no easily measurable responses for activation of other cortical areas and the optimal orientation for these areas is currently unknown. Read More

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April 2018
1 Read

Psychophysical measurement of the effects and non-effects of TMS on contrast perception.

Brain Stimul 2018 Apr 7. Epub 2018 Apr 7.

Department of Psychology, University of York, York, YO10 5DD, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

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April 2018
1 Read

Cerebellar transcranial direct current stimulation interacts with BDNF Val66Met in motor learning.

Brain Stimul 2018 Apr 11. Epub 2018 Apr 11.

Department of Neuroscience, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands; Erasmus University College, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Cerebellar transcranial direct current stimulation has been reported to enhance motor associative learning and motor adaptation, holding promise for clinical application in patients with movement disorders. However, behavioral benefits from cerebellar tDCS have been inconsistent.

Objective: Identifying determinants of treatment success is necessary. Read More

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April 2018
2 Reads

High-frequency stimulation of the infralimbic cortex, following behavioral suppression of PTSD-like symptoms, prevents symptom relapse in mice.

Brain Stimul 2018 Apr 10. Epub 2018 Apr 10.

Laboratoire de Pharmacologie, Neurobiologie et Comportement, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique, URAC 37, Université Cadi Ayyad, Marrakech, Morocco.

Background: We have previously demonstrated, in mice, that antidepressant treatment can prevent relapse of PTSD-like behaviors (avoidance, hyperarousal, and anxiety) through increased activation in the infralimbic cortex (IL) of the medial prefrontal cortex.

Objective: Here, we examined whether direct high-frequency stimulation (HFS) of the IL, provoking its heightened activation (i.e. Read More

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April 2018
4 Reads

Overlap of large-scale brain networks may explain the similar cognitive improvement of single-site vs multi-site rTMS in Alzheimer's disease.

Brain Stimul 2018 Apr 6. Epub 2018 Apr 6.

Subdirección de Investigaciones Clínicas, Instituto Nacional de Psiquiatría "Ramón de la Fuente Muñiz", Mexico City, Mexico; Department of Clinical Medicine & Center of Functionally Integrative Neuroscience/MINDLAB, University of Aarhus, Denmark. Electronic address:

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April 2018
2 Reads

Electroconvulsive seizures influence dendritic spine morphology and BDNF expression in a neuroendocrine model of depression.

Brain Stimul 2018 Apr 6. Epub 2018 Apr 6.

Lieber Institute for Brain Development, Johns Hopkins Medical Campus, Baltimore, MD, 21205, United States; Departments of Neuroscience, Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Johns Hopkins Medical School, Baltimore, MD, 21205, United States. Electronic address:

Background: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a rapid and effective treatment for major depressive disorder. Chronic stress-induced depression causes dendrite atrophy and deficiencies in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which are reversed by anti-depressant drugs. Electroconvulsive seizures (ECS), an animal model of ECT, robustly increase BDNF expression and stimulate dendritic outgrowth. Read More

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April 2018
3 Reads

Directional Deep Brain Stimulation: First experiences in centers across the globe.

Brain Stimul 2018 Apr 10. Epub 2018 Apr 10.

Department of Neurology, Academic Medical Center Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

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April 2018
2 Reads

Transcutaneous nerve stimulation via the tragus: are we really stimulating the vagus nerve?

Brain Stimul 2018 Apr 5. Epub 2018 Apr 5.

Clinical Psychology, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands.

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April 2018
2 Reads

Opposite effects of lateralised transcranial alpha versus gamma stimulation on auditory spatial attention.

Brain Stimul 2018 Apr 6. Epub 2018 Apr 6.

Experimental Psychology Lab, Center for Excellence "Hearing4all", European Medical School, University of Oldenburg, Oldenburg, Germany.

Background: Spatial attention relatively increases the power of neural 10-Hz alpha oscillations in the hemisphere ipsilateral to attention, and decreases alpha power in the contralateral hemisphere. For gamma oscillations (>40 Hz), the opposite effect has been observed. The functional roles of lateralised oscillations for attention are currently unclear. Read More

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April 2018
3 Reads

Exhibition of stochastic resonance in vestibular tilt motion perception.

Brain Stimul 2018 Apr 3. Epub 2018 Apr 3.

Man Vehicle Laboratory, Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA, 02139, USA.

Background: Stochastic Resonance (SR) is a phenomenon broadly described as "noise benefit". The application of subsensory electrical Stochastic Vestibular Stimulation (SVS) via electrodes behind each ear has been used to improve human balance and gait, but its effect on motion perception thresholds has not been examined.

Objective: This study investigated the capability of subsensory SVS to reduce vestibular motion perception thresholds in a manner consistent with a characteristic bell-shaped SR curve. Read More

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April 2018
2 Reads

Transcranial direct current stimulation improves long-term memory deficits in an animal model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and modulates oxidative and inflammatory parameters.

Brain Stimul 2018 Apr 5. Epub 2018 Apr 5.

Post-Graduate Program in Medicine: Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil; Animal Experimentation Unit and Graduate Research Group, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, Brazil; Laboratory of Pain Pharmacology and Neuromodulation: Pre Clinical Studies - Pharmacology Department, Institute of Basic Health Sciences, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil. Electronic address:

Background: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a technique that modulates neuronal activity and has been proposed as a potential therapeutic tool for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. Although pilot studies have shown evidence of efficacy, its mechanism of action remains unclear.

Objective/hypothesis: We evaluated the effects of tDCS on behavioral (working and long-term memory) and neurochemical (oxidative and inflammatory parameters) outcomes related to ADHD pathophysiology. Read More

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April 2018
4 Reads

Short-term quality of life after subthalamic stimulation depends on non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease.

Brain Stimul 2018 Feb 24. Epub 2018 Feb 24.

Department of Neurology, University Hospital Giessen and Marburg, Campus Marburg, Germany.

Background: Subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) improves quality of life (QoL), motor, and non-motor symptoms (NMS) in advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). However, considerable inter-individual variability has been observed for QoL outcome.

Hypothesis: We hypothesized that demographic and preoperative NMS characteristics can predict postoperative QoL outcome. Read More

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February 2018
3 Reads

Non-motor outcomes of subthalamic stimulation in Parkinson's disease depend on location of active contacts.

Brain Stimul 2018 Mar 16. Epub 2018 Mar 16.

Department of Neurology, University Hospital Cologne, Cologne, Germany; Department of Neurology, University Hospital Giessen and Marburg, Campus Marburg, Germany.

Background: Subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) improves quality of life (QoL), motor, and non-motor symptoms (NMS) in Parkinson's disease (PD). Few studies have investigated the influence of the location of neurostimulation on NMS.

Objective: To investigate the impact of active contact location on NMS in STN-DBS in PD. Read More

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March 2018
4 Reads

Involuntary and voluntary electroconvulsive therapy: A case-control study.

Brain Stimul 2018 Apr 5. Epub 2018 Apr 5.

Department of Psychiatry, Trinity College Institute of Neuroscience, Trinity College Dublin, St. Patrick's University Hospital, James's St., Dublin 8, Ireland. Electronic address:

Background: It is not known whether results of clinical research in ECT can be used to guide treatment decisions for those having involuntary ECT, who are not represented in trial populations.

Objective: We aimed to compare courses of involuntary ECT with matched voluntary ECT courses in terms of clinical and demographic factors, treatment requirements, and outcomes.

Method: We performed a retrospective case-control study examining a five-year sample of involuntary ECT courses and an age-, gender- and time-matched voluntary ECT control sample. Read More

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April 2018
2 Reads

Novel application of virtual reality in patient engagement for deep brain stimulation: A pilot study.

Brain Stimul 2018 Mar 15. Epub 2018 Mar 15.

Department of Neurosurgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA.

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March 2018
2 Reads

Multi-locus transcranial magnetic stimulation-theory and implementation.

Brain Stimul 2018 Mar 23. Epub 2018 Mar 23.

Department of Neuroscience and Biomedical Engineering, Aalto University School of Science, Espoo, Finland; BioMag Laboratory, HUS Medical Imaging Center, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.

Background: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation method: a magnetic field pulse from a TMS coil can excite neurons in a desired location of the cortex. Conventional TMS coils cause focal stimulation underneath the coil centre; to change the location of the stimulated spot, the coil must be moved over the new target. This physical movement is inherently slow, which limits, for example, feedback-controlled stimulation. Read More

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March 2018
2 Reads