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    1142 results match your criteria Brain Stimulation [Journal]

    1 OF 23

    Modulation of human corticospinal excitability by paired associative stimulation in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and effects of Riluzole.
    Brain Stimul 2018 Feb 7. Epub 2018 Feb 7.
    Rare Neuromuscular Diseases Centre, Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, Sapienza University, Rome, Italy. Electronic address:
    Background: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease that causes an impairment in both the upper and lower motor neurons. The recent description of numerous non-motor signs points to an involvement of the neocortex networks that is more complex than was previously believed. Paired associative stimulation (PAS), a combination of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and peripheral nerve stimulation, can enhance motor output in the contralateral hand through an NMDA-mediated sensorimotor mechanism. Read More

    Rostral anterior cingulate cortex is a structural correlate of repetitive TMS treatment response in depression.
    Brain Stimul 2018 Jan 31. Epub 2018 Jan 31.
    Berenson-Allen Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation, Division of Cognitive Neurology, Department of Neurology, Harvard Medical School and Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 330 Brookline Ave, Boston, MA 02215, USA; Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, 149 13th Street, Charlestown, MA 02129, USA; Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, 55 Fruit Street, Boston, MA 02214, USA.
    Background: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is an effective treatment for medication-refractory major depression, yet the mechanisms of action for this intervention are poorly understood. Here we investigate cerebral cortex thickness as a possible biomarker of rTMS treatment response.

    Methods: Longitudinal change in cortical thickness is evaluated relative to clinical outcomes across 48 participants in 2 cohorts undergoing left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex rTMS as a treatment for depression. Read More

    Non-replication of neurophysiological predictors of non-response to rTMS in depression and neurophysiological data-sharing proposal.
    Brain Stimul 2018 Feb 2. Epub 2018 Feb 2.
    Research Institute Brainclinics, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; Dept. of Experimental Psychology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands; neuroCare Group Netherlands, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

    Post-operative deep brain stimulation assessment: Automatic data integration and report generation.
    Brain Stimul 2018 Feb 1. Epub 2018 Feb 1.
    National Department of Neurosurgery, Centre Hospitalier de Luxembourg, Luxembourg (City), Luxembourg; Systems Control Group, Luxembourg Centre for Systems Biomedicine, University of Luxembourg, Belvaux, Luxembourg.
    Background: The gold standard for post-operative deep brain stimulation (DBS) parameter tuning is a monopolar review of all stimulation contacts, a strategy being challenged by recent developments of more complex electrode leads.

    Objective: Providing a method to guide clinicians on DBS assessment and parameter tuning by automatically integrating patient individual data.

    Methods: We present a fully automatic method for visualization of individual deep brain structures in relation to a DBS lead by combining precise electrode recovery from post-operative imaging with individual estimates of deep brain morphology utilizing a 7T-MRI deep brain atlas. Read More

    Decreased short-interval intracortical inhibition correlates with better pinch strength in patients with stroke and good motor recovery.
    Brain Stimul 2018 Feb 6. Epub 2018 Feb 6.
    Neurostimulation Laboratory, Neurology Clinical Division, Hospital das Clínicas/São Paulo University and Fundação Faculdade de Medicina, São Paulo, Brazil; NAPNA-USP (Núcleo de Apoio à Pequisa em Neurociência Aplicada), São Paulo University, São Paulo, Brazil; Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, São Paulo, Brazil.
    Background: Deeper short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI), a marker of GABAactivity, correlates with better motor performance in patients with moderate to severe hand impairments in the chronic phase after stroke.

    Objectives: We evaluated the correlation between SICI in the affected hemisphere and pinch force of the paretic hand in well-recovered patients. We also investigated the correlation between SICI and pinch force in controls. Read More

    Pallidal deep brain stimulation modulates excessive cortical high β phase amplitude coupling in Parkinson disease.
    Brain Stimul 2018 Jan 31. Epub 2018 Jan 31.
    Department of Neurosurgery, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA; Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA; Neuroscience Interdepartmental Program, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA; Brain Research Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
    Objective: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and globus pallidus internus (GPi) are equally efficacious in the management of Parkinson disease (PD). Studies of STN-DBS have revealed a therapeutic reduction in excessive cortical β-γ phase-amplitude coupling (PAC). It is unclear whether this is specific to STN-DBS and potentially mediated by modulation of the hyperdirect pathway or if it is a generalizable mechanism seen with DBS of other targets. Read More

    A distinct biomarker of continuous transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation treatment in major depressive disorder.
    Brain Stimul 2018 Jan 31. Epub 2018 Jan 31.
    Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA, USA. Electronic address:
    Background: Major depression is the fourth leading cause of disability worldwide and poses a socioeconomic burden worldwide. Transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (tVNS) is a promising noninvasive clinical device that may reduce the severity of major depression. However, the neural mechanism underlying continuous tVNS has not yet been elucidated. Read More

    Rigor and reproducibility in research with transcranial electrical stimulation: An NIMH-sponsored workshop.
    Brain Stimul 2017 Dec 29. Epub 2017 Dec 29.
    Division of Translational Research, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD, United States.
    Background: Neuropsychiatric disorders are a leading source of disability and require novel treatments that target mechanisms of disease. As such disorders are thought to result from aberrant neuronal circuit activity, neuromodulation approaches are of increasing interest given their potential for manipulating circuits directly. Low intensity transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) with direct currents (transcranial direct current stimulation, tDCS) or alternating currents (transcranial alternating current stimulation, tACS) represent novel, safe, well-tolerated, and relatively inexpensive putative treatment modalities. Read More

    Thalamic Directional Deep Brain Stimulation for tremor: Spend less, get more.
    Brain Stimul 2018 Jan 6. Epub 2018 Jan 6.
    John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, UK; Molecular and Clinical Sciences Research Institute, St George's University of London, London, UK. Electronic address:
    Background: Directional Deep Brain Stimulation (D-DBS) allows axially asymmetric electrical field shaping, away from structures causing side-effects. However, concerns regarding the impact on device lifespan and complexity of the monopolar survey have contributed to sparing use of these features.

    Objective: To investigate whether chronically implanted D-DBS systems can improve the therapeutic window, without a negative impact on device lifespan, in thalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS). Read More

    Effects of TDCS dosage on working memory in healthy participants.
    Brain Stimul 2018 Jan 8. Epub 2018 Jan 8.
    School of Psychiatry, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia; Black Dog Institute, Sydney, Australia; Systems Neuroscience Group, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Brisbane, Australia.
    Background: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been found to improve working memory (WM) performance in healthy participants following a single session. However, results are mixed and the overall effect size is small. Interpretation of these results is confounded by heterogeneous study designs, including differences in tDCS dose (current intensity) and sham conditions used. Read More

    Neurophysiologic effects of transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation (taVNS) via electrical stimulation of the tragus: A concurrent taVNS/fMRI study and review.
    Brain Stimul 2017 Dec 29. Epub 2017 Dec 29.
    Department of Neuroscience, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, 29425, United States; Department of Psychiatry, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, 29425, United States; Center for Biomedical Imaging, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, 29425, United States; Department of Neurology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, 29425, United States; Ralph H. Johnson VA Medical Center, Charleston, SC, 29401, United States.
    Background: Electrical stimulation of the auricular branch of the vagus nerve (ABVN) via transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation (taVNS) may influence afferent vagal networks. There have been 5 prior taVNS/fMRI studies, with inconsistent findings due to variability in stimulation targets and parameters.

    Objective: We developed a taVNS/fMRI system to enable concurrent electrical stimulation and fMRI acquisition to compare the effects of taVNS in relation to control stimulation. Read More

    TMS of primary motor cortex with a biphasic pulse activates two independent sets of excitable neurones.
    Brain Stimul 2018 Jan 5. Epub 2018 Jan 5.
    Sobell Department of Motor Neuroscience and Movement Disorders, UCL Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, United Kingdom. Electronic address:
    Background: Biphasic pulses produced by most commercially available TMS machines have a cosine waveform, which makes it difficult to study the interaction between the two phases of stimulation.

    Objective: We used a controllable pulse TMS (cTMS) device delivering quasi-rectangular pulse outputs to investigate whether monophasic are more effective than biphasic pulses.

    Methods: Temporally symmetric ("biphasic") or highly asymmetric ("monophasic") charge-balanced biphasic stimuli were used to target the hand area of motor cortex in the anterior-posterior (AP) or posterior-anterior (PA) initial current direction. Read More

    The effect of single and repeated prefrontal intermittent theta burst stimulation on cortical reactivity and working memory.
    Brain Stimul 2018 Jan 8. Epub 2018 Jan 8.
    Monash Alfred Psychiatry Research Centre, Monash University, Central Clinical School and The Alfred, Melbourne, Australia; Epworth Clinic, Epworth Healthcare, Camberwell VIC, Australia.
    Background: With an increasing interest in the use of theta burst stimulation (TBS) as a cognitive enhancer and a potential therapeutic tool for psychiatric disorders, there is a need to identify optimal parameters of TBS in the prefrontal cortex.

    Objective/hypothesis: This study examined the effect of two blocks of prefrontal intermittent TBS (iTBS) on cortical reactivity and working memory performance, compared to one block of iTBS and sham stimulation. We hypothesized that greater cortical effects would be obtained with two blocks of iTBS. Read More

    Test-retest reliability of transcranial magnetic stimulation EEG evoked potentials.
    Brain Stimul 2017 Dec 29. Epub 2017 Dec 29.
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA; Stanford Neuroscience Institute, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA; The Sierra Pacific Mental Illness, Research, Education, and Clinical Center (MIRECC), Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Healthcare System, Palo Alto, CA 94394, USA. Electronic address:
    Background: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)-evoked potentials (TEPs), recorded using electroencephalography (TMS-EEG), offer a powerful tool for measuring causal interactions in the human brain. However, the test-retest reliability of TEPs, critical to their use in clinical biomarker and interventional studies, remains poorly understood.

    Objective/hypothesis: We quantified TEP reliability to: (i) determine the minimal TEP amplitude change which significantly exceeds that associated with simply re-testing, (ii) locate the most reliable scalp regions of interest (ROIs) and TEP peaks, and (iii) determine the minimal number of TEP pulses for achieving reliability. Read More

    Characterizing the effects of deep brain stimulation with magnetoencephalography: A review.
    Brain Stimul 2018 Jan 4. Epub 2018 Jan 4.
    Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Surgery, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Toronto Western Research Institute, Krembil Discovery Tower, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
    Background: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an important form of neuromodulation that is being applied to patients with motor, mood, or cognitive circuit disorders. Despite the efficacy and widespread use of DBS, the precise mechanisms by which it works remain unknown. Over the last decade, magnetoencephalography (MEG) has become an important functional neuroimaging technique used to study DBS. Read More

    Predictors of deep brain stimulation outcome in tremor patients.
    Brain Stimul 2018 Jan 2. Epub 2018 Jan 2.
    Edmond J. Safra Program in Parkinson's Disease and Morton, Gloria Shulman Movement Disorders Clinic, Toronto Western Hospital and Division of Neurology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Krembil Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:
    Background: Deep brain stimulation of the ventro-intermedius nucleus of the thalamus is an established treatment for tremor of differing etiologies but factors that may predict the short- and especially long-term outcome of surgery are still largely unknown.

    Methods: We retrospectively investigated the clinical, pharmacological, electrophysiological and anatomical features that might predict the initial response and preservation of benefit in all patients who underwent deep brain stimulation for tremor. Data were collected at the following time points: baseline (preoperative), one-year post-surgery, and most recent visit. Read More

    The effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on eating behaviors and body weight in obesity: A randomized controlled study.
    Brain Stimul 2017 Dec 1. Epub 2017 Dec 1.
    Department of Family Medicine, St. Vincent's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, 93-6 Ji-dong, Paldal-gu, Suwon, Kyonggi-do 442-723, Republic of Korea.
    Background: Although some studies have reported significant reductions in food cravings following repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), none have examined changes in body weight.

    Objective: We conducted 2-week randomized, sham-controlled, single-blind, parallel-group trial to examine the effect of rTMS on body weight in obese patients.

    Methods: Sixty obese patients (body mass index [BMI] ≥25 kg/m) aged between 18 and 65 years were recruited. Read More

    Similar clinical improvement and maintenance after rTMS at 5 Hz using a simple vs. complex protocol in Alzheimer's disease.
    Brain Stimul 2017 Dec 29. Epub 2017 Dec 29.
    Subdirección de Investigaciones Clínicas, Instituto Nacional de Psiquiatría "Ramón de la Fuente Muñiz", Mexico City, Mexico.
    Brackground: Current treatments for Alzheimer's disease (AD) have a limited clinical response and methods, such as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), are being studied as possible treatments for the clinical symptoms with positive results. However, there is still seldom information on the type of rTMS protocols that deliver the best clinical improvement in AD. Objetive: To compare the clinical response between a simple stimulation protocol on the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (lDLPFC) against a complex protocol using six regions of interest. Read More

    Perturbation of theta-gamma coupling at the temporal lobe hinders verbal declarative memory.
    Brain Stimul 2017 Dec 25. Epub 2017 Dec 25.
    Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, University Medical Center Goettingen, University of Goettingen, Robert-Koch-Straße 40, 37075 Göttingen, Germany.
    Background: Phase-amplitude cross-frequency coupling (PAC) is characterized by the modulation of the power of a fast brain oscillation (e.g., gamma) by the phase of a slow rhythm (e. Read More

    Cortical inhibition assessed using paired-pulse TMS-EEG is increased in older adults.
    Brain Stimul 2017 Dec 30. Epub 2017 Dec 30.
    Discipline of Physiology, Adelaide Medical School, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia.
    Background: Alterations in inhibitory processes mediated by gamma-aminobutyric acid type B (GABA) receptors may contribute to age-related functional impairments. However, investigation of these circuits using conventional paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) at long interstimulus intervals (∼100-200ms) have produced conflicting results in older adults, possibly due to the indirect nature of the TMS motor evoked potential (MEP).

    Objective: To utilise electroencephalography and TMS coregistration (TMS-EEG) to more directly assess age-related changes in GABA-mediated long-interval intracortical inhibition (LICI). Read More

    Early use of 80 Hz subthalamic stimulation in Parkinson's disease as an alternative for High-frequency stimulation induced gait changes and postural instability.
    Brain Stimul 2017 Dec 20. Epub 2017 Dec 20.
    Neurology Department, Hospital Egas Moniz, Centro Hospitalar de Lisboa Ocidental, Lisbon, Portugal; CEDOC, Nova Medical School / Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal.

    Artifactual hyperpolarization during extracellular electrical stimulation: Proposed mechanism of high-rate neuromodulation disproved.
    Brain Stimul 2017 Dec 15. Epub 2017 Dec 15.
    Neurosciences and Mental Health, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada; Department of Physiology and the Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada. Electronic address:
    Background: Kilohertz-frequency electric field stimulation (kEFS) applied to the spinal cord can reduce chronic pain without causing the buzzing sensation (paresthesia) associated with activation of dorsal column fibers. This suggests that high-rate spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has a mode of action distinct from conventional, parasthesia-based SCS. A recent study reported that kEFS hyperpolarizes spinal neurons, yet this potentially transformative mode of action contradicts previous evidence that kEFS induces depolarization and was based on patch clamp recordings whose accuracy in the presence of kEFS has not been verified. Read More

    Incomplete evidence that increasing current intensity of tDCS boosts outcomes.
    Brain Stimul 2018 Mar - Apr;11(2):310-321. Epub 2017 Dec 13.
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, The City College of New York of CUNY, New York, NY 10031, USA.
    Background: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is investigated to modulate neuronal function by applying a fixed low-intensity direct current to scalp.

    Objectives: We critically discuss evidence for a monotonic response in effect size with increasing current intensity, with a specific focus on a question if increasing applied current enhance the efficacy of tDCS.

    Methods: We analyzed tDCS intensity does-response from different perspectives including biophysical modeling, animal modeling, human neurophysiology, neuroimaging and behavioral/clinical measures. Read More

    The intensity of continuous theta burst stimulation, but not the waveform used to elicit motor evoked potentials, influences its outcome in the human motor cortex.
    Brain Stimul 2018 Mar - Apr;11(2):400-410. Epub 2017 Dec 15.
    Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan. Electronic address:
    Background: Responses to continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) applied to the human primary motor cortex are highly variable between individuals. However, little is known about how to improve the after-effects of cTBS by adjusting the protocol characteristics.

    Objective: We examined whether current directions adopted in the measurement of cortical motor excitability indexed as motor evoked potentials (MEPs) affect the responses to cTBS. Read More

    Impact of brain shift on subcallosal cingulate deep brain stimulation.
    Brain Stimul 2018 Mar - Apr;11(2):445-453. Epub 2017 Dec 6.
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, United States. Electronic address:
    Background: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subcallosal cingulate (SCC) is an emerging experimental therapy for treatment-resistant depression. New developments in SCC DBS surgical targeting are focused on identifying specific axonal pathways for stimulation that are estimated from preoperatively collected diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) data. However, brain shift induced by opening burr holes in the skull may alter the position of the target pathways. Read More

    TMS over posterior parietal cortex disrupts trans-saccadic visual stability.
    Brain Stimul 2018 Mar - Apr;11(2):390-399. Epub 2017 Nov 29.
    Laboratoire Psychologie de la Perception, Université Paris Descartes & CNRS, 45 rue des Saints-Pères 75006 Paris, France; Laboratoire de Neurosciences Cognitives (LNC), Département d'Etudes Cognitives, INSERM U960, Ecole Normale Supérieure, PSL Research University, 75005 Paris, France; Institut Jean Nicod, Département d'Etudes Cognitives, CNRS UMR8129, Ecole Normale Supérieure, PSL Research University, 75005 Paris, France.
    Background: Saccadic eye movements change the retinal location of visual objects, but we do not experience the visual world as constantly moving, we perceive it as seamless and stable. This visual stability may be achieved by an internal or efference copy of each saccade that, combined with the retinal information, allows the visual system to cancel out or ignore the self-caused retinal motion.

    Objective: The current study investigated the underlying brain mechanisms responsible for visual stability in humans with online transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Read More

    Chronic deep brain stimulation in an Alzheimer's disease mouse model enhances memory and reduces pathological hallmarks.
    Brain Stimul 2018 Mar - Apr;11(2):435-444. Epub 2017 Nov 23.
    Krembil Research Institute, Toronto Western Hospital, Toronto, ON, M5T 2S8, Canada; Department of Surgery, Division of Neurosurgery, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, M5S 1A8, Canada. Electronic address:
    Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive degenerative disorder that currently remains extremely disabling. Recent work has shown that deep brain stimulation (DBS) has promising effects in AD patients. In parallel to the clinical trials, we investigated the impact of chronic DBS in 3xTg mice, a well-established animal model of AD. Read More

    Differential release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens evoked by low-versus high-frequency medial prefrontal cortex stimulation.
    Brain Stimul 2018 Mar - Apr;11(2):426-434. Epub 2017 Nov 15.
    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA. Electronic address:
    The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) coordinates goal-directed behaviors, which may be mediated through mPFC regulation of dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Furthermore, frequency-specific oscillatory activity between the frontal cortex and downstream structures may facilitate inter-region communication. Although high-frequency (e. Read More

    Motor cortex Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) improves acute stroke visuo-spatial neglect: A series of four case reports.
    Brain Stimul 2018 Mar - Apr;11(2):459-461. Epub 2017 Nov 29.
    Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Liege University Hospital Center, Liege, Belgium; Department of Sport and Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Liege, Liege, Belgium.

    Electroconvulsive therapy and subsequent epilepsy in patients with affective disorders: A register-based Danish cohort study.
    Brain Stimul 2018 Mar - Apr;11(2):411-415. Epub 2017 Nov 26.
    Research Center for Prevention and Health, Rigshospitalet-Glostrup, Nordre Ringvej 57, Glostrup 2600, Denmark; Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Øster Farimagsgade 5, Copenhagen K 1014, Denmark. Electronic address:
    Objective: It has been suggested that Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) might increase the risk of epilepsy but the few patient studies with retrospective data from medical records do not support the hypothesis. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between ECT and subsequent incident epilepsy in patients with affective disorder. We also explored whether any association varied with number of ECTs and time since last treatment. Read More

    Discrimination of atypical parkinsonisms with transcranial magnetic stimulation.
    Brain Stimul 2018 Mar - Apr;11(2):366-373. Epub 2017 Nov 22.
    Neurology Unit, Department of Clinical and Experimental Sciences, University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy. Electronic address:
    Background: Differential diagnosis of atypical parkinsonian disorders, i.e. dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) or corticobasal syndrome (CBS) still remains problematic. Read More

    Effects of cerebellar neuromodulation in movement disorders: A systematic review.
    Brain Stimul 2018 Mar - Apr;11(2):249-260. Epub 2017 Nov 23.
    Movement Disorders Center, Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:
    Background: The cerebellum is involved in the pathophysiology of many movement disorders and its importance in the field of neuromodulation is growing.

    Objectives: To review the current evidence for cerebellar modulation in movement disorders and its safety profile.

    Methods: Eligible studies were identified after a systematic literature review of the effects of cerebellar modulation in cerebellar ataxia, Parkinson's disease (PD), essential tremor (ET), dystonia and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). Read More

    Real-time EEG-defined excitability states determine efficacy of TMS-induced plasticity in human motor cortex.
    Brain Stimul 2018 Mar - Apr;11(2):374-389. Epub 2017 Nov 24.
    Department of Neurology & Stroke, Hertie Institute for Clinical Brain Research, University of Tübingen, Hoppe-Seyler-Str. 3, 72076, Tübingen, Germany. Electronic address:
    Background: Rapidly changing excitability states in an oscillating neuronal network can explain response variability to external stimulation, but if repetitive stimulation of always the same high- or low-excitability state results in long-term plasticity of opposite direction has never been explored in vivo.

    Objective/hypothesis: Different phases of the endogenous sensorimotor μ-rhythm represent different states of corticospinal excitability, and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of always the same high- vs. low-excitability state results in long-term plasticity of different direction. Read More

    Progressive practice promotes motor learning and repeated transient increases in corticospinal excitability across multiple days.
    Brain Stimul 2018 Mar - Apr;11(2):346-357. Epub 2017 Nov 13.
    Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; Department of Neuroscience, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Background: A session of motor skill learning is accompanied by transient increases in corticospinal excitability(CSE), which are thought to reflect acute changes in neuronal connectivity associated with improvements in sensorimotor performance. Factors influencing changes in excitability and motor skill with continued practice remain however to be elucidated.

    Objective/hypothesis: Here we investigate the hypothesis that progressive motor practice during consecutive days can induce repeated transient increases in corticospinal excitability and promote motor skill learning. Read More

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) prevents chronic stress-induced hyperalgesia in rats.
    Brain Stimul 2018 Mar - Apr;11(2):299-301. Epub 2017 Nov 16.
    Pain Pharmacology and Neuromodulation Laboratory: Animal Models, Department of Pharmacology, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Institute of Basic Health Sciences, Porto Alegre, RS 90050-170, Brazil; Postgraduate Program in Biological Sciences - Physiology, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Institute of Basic Health Sciences, Porto Alegre, RS 90050-170, Brazil; Postgraduate Program in Medicine, Medical Sciences, Medicine School, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS 90035-003, Brazil; Unidade de Experimentação Animal, Grupo de Pesquisa e Pós-Graduação do Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, 90035-003, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. Electronic address:
    Background: Chronic stress (CS) is associated with a decrease in pain threshold caused by the changes in neural pain circuits. It can be associated to glucocorticoid imbalance with alterations in neural circuitry. Inhibition of stress-induced pain-related neural changes by using techniques that safely induce neuroplasticity such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) may prevent hyperalgesia triggered by CS. Read More

    Deep brain stimulation induces antidepressant-like effects in serotonin transporter knockout mice.
    Brain Stimul 2018 Mar - Apr;11(2):423-425. Epub 2017 Nov 15.
    Behavioural Neurobiology Laboratory, Research Imaging Centre, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, 250 College Street, Toronto, ON, M5T 1R8, Canada; Campbell Family Mental Health Research Institute, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, Canada; Centre of Neuromodulation, Hurvitz Brain Science Program, Sunnybrook Research Institute, University of Toronto, 2075 Bayview Ave, Toronto, ON, M4N 3M5, Canada. Electronic address:
    Background: Some of the antidepressant-like effects of ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) deep brain stimulation (DBS) in rodents have been attributed to the modulation of prefrontal-raphe pathways. This is largely different from selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), which increase serotonin (5-HT) levels by inhibiting the serotonin transporter (SERT). SSRIs have limited efficacy when given to SERT knockout (KO) mice, or patients with mutations in the serotonin transporter promoter gene (5-HTTLPR). Read More

    Simultaneous rTMS and psychotherapy in major depressive disorder: Clinical outcomes and predictors from a large naturalistic study.
    Brain Stimul 2018 Mar - Apr;11(2):337-345. Epub 2017 Nov 11.
    Research Institute Brainclinics, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; Dept. of Experimental Psychology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands; neuroCare Group, Munich, Germany. Electronic address:
    Background: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is considered an efficacious non-invasive neuromodulation treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD). However, little is known about the clinical outcome of combined rTMS and psychotherapy (rTMS + PT). Through common neurobiological brain mechanisms, rTMS + PT may exert enhanced antidepressant effects compared to the respective monotherapies. Read More

    Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) paired with a decision-making task reduces risk-taking in a clinically impulsive sample.
    Brain Stimul 2018 Mar - Apr;11(2):302-309. Epub 2017 Nov 22.
    Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center, 1 Veterans Dr., Minneapolis, MN 55417, United States; Minneapolis VA Health Care System, 1 Veterans Dr., Minneapolis, MN 55417, United States; Dept. of Psychiatry, University of Minnesota, 2450 Riverside Ave., Minneapolis, MN 55454, United States.
    Background: Impulsivity is a multidimensional personality trait observed across a variety of psychiatric disorders. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) applied over dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) has shown promise as an intervention to reduce impulsivity.

    Objective: To investigate the effects of tDCS paired with a decision-making task on risk-taking in Veterans with a clinical history of impulsive behavior. Read More

    The interaction of pulse width and current intensity on the extent of cortical plasticity evoked by vagus nerve stimulation.
    Brain Stimul 2018 Mar - Apr;11(2):271-277. Epub 2017 Nov 15.
    Texas Biomedical Device Center, Richardson, TX 75080, United States; The University of Texas at Dallas, School of Behavioral Brain Sciences, 800 West Campbell Road, GR 41, Richardson, TX 75080-3021, United States.
    Background: Repeatedly pairing a tone with a brief burst of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) results in a reorganization of primary auditory cortex (A1). The plasticity-enhancing and memory-enhancing effects of VNS follow an inverted-U response to stimulation intensity, in which moderate intensity currents yield greater effects than low or high intensity currents. It is not known how other stimulation parameters effect the plasticity-enhancing effects of VNS. Read More

    Safety of repeated sessions of transcranial direct current stimulation: A systematic review.
    Brain Stimul 2018 Mar - Apr;11(2):278-288. Epub 2017 Oct 31.
    School of Psychiatry, University of New South Wales, Black Dog Institute, Sydney, Australia.
    Background: Repeated sessions of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) are increasingly used for therapeutic applications. However, adverse events (AEs) associated with repeated sessions have not been comprehensively evaluated.

    Objective: The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate the safety of repeated sessions of tDCS, examining AE risk relative to tDCS exposure. Read More

    Global structural integrity and effective connectivity in patients with disorders of consciousness.
    Brain Stimul 2018 Mar - Apr;11(2):358-365. Epub 2017 Nov 11.
    Giga-Consciousness, Coma Science Group and Neurology Department, University and University Hospital of Liege, Belgium, Avenue de l'Hôpital 1, Liège, Belgium. Electronic address:
    Background: Previous studies have separately reported impaired functional, structural, and effective connectivity in patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC). The perturbational complexity index (PCI) is a transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) derived marker of effective connectivity. The global fractional anisotropy (FA) is a marker of structural integrity. Read More

    Vagus nerve magnetic modulation facilitates dysphagia recovery in patients with stroke involving the brainstem - A proof of concept study.
    Brain Stimul 2018 Mar - Apr;11(2):264-270. Epub 2017 Nov 7.
    Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; National Yang-Ming University, School of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan. Electronic address:
    Background & Aims: Stroke involving the brainstem (SBS) causes severe oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD). Research on the therapeutic efficacy of vagus nerve modulation (VNM) by using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in SBS patients with OD has been limited thus far. We aimed to assess the effect of VNM by using rTMS in improving swallowing function after SBS. Read More

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