Search our Database of Scientific Publications and Authors

I’m looking for a

    1156 results match your criteria Brain Research Reviews [Journal]

    1 OF 24

    The role of α oscillations in temporal attention.
    Brain Res Rev 2011 Jun 28;67(1-2):331-43. Epub 2011 Apr 28.
    University of Konstanz, Department of Psychology, Germany.
    Our brain does not process incoming sensory stimuli mechanistically. Instead the current brain state modulates our reaction to a stimulus. This modulation can be investigated by cognitive paradigms such as the attentional blink, which reveal that identical visual target stimuli are correctly reported only on about half the trials. Read More

    Late-life depression and Alzheimer's disease: the glutamatergic system inside of this mirror relationship.
    Brain Res Rev 2011 Jun 28;67(1-2):344-55. Epub 2011 Apr 28.
    Department of Geriatrics, Center for Aging Brain, Memory Unit, University of Bari, Bari, Italy.
    Late-life depressive syndromes often arise in the context of predementia, dementia syndromes, and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Conversely, patients with a history of mood disorders are at higher risk of developing cognitive impairment. The high rate of co-occurrence of these two disorders is becoming a major health problem in older subjects for both their epidemiological impact and the negative outcomes in terms of disability and increased mortality. Read More

    Friedreich's ataxia: past, present and future.
    Brain Res Rev 2011 Jun 17;67(1-2):311-30. Epub 2011 Apr 17.
    Laboratoire de Neurologie experimentale, Universite Libre de Bruxeles, Route de Lennik 808, Campus Erasme, 1070 Bruxelles, Belgium.
    Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) is an autosomal recessive inherited disorder characterized by progressive gait and limb ataxia, dysarthria, areflexia, loss of vibratory and position sense, and a progressive motor weakness of central origin. Additional features include hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and diabetes. Large GAA repeat expansions in the first intron of the FXN gene are the most common mutation underlying FRDA. Read More

    Cellular and molecular insights into neuropathy-induced pain hypersensitivity for mechanism-based treatment approaches.
    Brain Res Rev 2011 Jun 24;67(1-2):282-310. Epub 2011 Mar 24.
    Department of Anesthesiology, Maastricht University Medical Centre, Maastricht, The Netherlands.
    Neuropathic pain is currently being treated by a range of therapeutic interventions that above all act to lower neuronal activity in the somatosensory system (e.g. using local anesthetics, calcium channel blockers, and opioids). Read More

    Rabs, SNAREs and α-synuclein--membrane trafficking defects in synucleinopathies.
    Brain Res Rev 2011 Jun 22;67(1-2):268-81. Epub 2011 Mar 22.
    Department of Biochemistry, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University Health System, National University of Singapore, 8 Medical Drive, Singapore 117597, Singapore.
    Neuronal dysfunctions and neurodegeneration are often associated with defects in membrane transport. Synucleinopathies are a diverse group of neurodegenerative disorders that share a common pathological feature--insoluble aggregates composed largely of the protein α-synuclein in certain populations of neurons and glia. The actual physiological function of the brain-enriched α-synuclein is still not particularly clear. Read More

    Interpreting actions: the goal behind mirror neuron function.
    Brain Res Rev 2011 Jun 24;67(1-2):260-7. Epub 2011 Mar 24.
    School of Psychology, The University of Queensland, St. Lucia Qld 4072, Australia.
    Crucial to our everyday social functioning is an ability to interpret the behaviors of others. This process involves a rapid understanding of what a given action is not only in a physical sense (e.g. Read More

    Brain regions and genes affecting limb-clasping responses.
    Brain Res Rev 2011 Jun 25;67(1-2):252-9. Epub 2011 Feb 25.
    Université de Rouen, Faculté des Sciences, Dépt. Psychologie, 76821 Mont-Saint-Aignan Cedex, France.
    Adult rodents picked up by the tail and slowly descending towards a horizontal surface extend all four limbs in anticipation of contact. Mouse mutants with pathologies in various brain regions and the spinal cord display instead a flexion response, often characterized by paw-clasping and a bat-like posture. These phenotypes are observed in mice with lesions in cerebellum, basal ganglia, and neocortex, as well as transgenic models of Alzheimer's disease. Read More

    New and emerging imaging techniques for mapping brain circuitry.
    Brain Res Rev 2011 Jun 24;67(1-2):226-51. Epub 2011 Feb 24.
    Functional Neuroimaging Laboratory, Department of Psychiatry, Brigham and Women's Hospital/Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02467, USA.
    This article provides a survey of major methodological and analytic developments in the use of functional neuroimaging to study complex structural and functional brain activity and connectivity, including data analysis methods devised to distill network properties from high-dimensional and multimodal datasets. The goal of this survey is to provide those in the broader neuroscientific community with an understanding of these developments sufficient to facilitate an informed reading of the literature, and a thoughtful approach to their use in the investigation of questions in their own areas of interest. Practical methodological considerations for assessing and designing functional neuroimaging studies are provided, as are examples of the types of questions that can be addressed by various techniques. Read More

    The role of oxidative stress in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.
    Brain Res Rev 2011 Jun 3;67(1-2):209-25. Epub 2011 Apr 3.
    Division of Medical Sciences, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, V8W 2Y2, Canada.
    The ingestion of alcohol/ethanol during pregnancy can result in abnormal fetal development in both humans and a variety of experimental animal models. Depending on the pattern of consumption, the dose, and the period of exposure to ethanol, a myriad of structural and functional deficits can be observed. These teratogenic effects are thought to result from the ethanol-induced dysregulation of a variety of intracellular pathways ultimately culminating in toxicity and cell death. Read More

    The role of the central noradrenergic system in behavioral inhibition.
    Brain Res Rev 2011 Jun 5;67(1-2):193-208. Epub 2011 Mar 5.
    Department of Psychiatry, New York University Langone School of Medicine, 550 First Ave., New York, NY 10016, USA.
    Although the central noradrenergic system has been shown to be involved in a number of behavioral and neurophysiological processes, the relation of these to its role in depressive illness has been difficult to define. The present review discusses the hypothesis that one of its chief functions that may be related to affective illness is the inhibition of behavioral activation, a prominent symptom of the disorder. This hypothesis is found to be consistent with most previous neuropsychopharmacological and immunohistochemical experiments on active behavior in rodents in a variety of experimental conditions using manipulation of neurotransmission at both locus coeruleus and forebrain adrenergic receptors. Read More

    Impaired regulation of synaptic actin cytoskeleton in Alzheimer's disease.
    Brain Res Rev 2011 Jun 26;67(1-2):184-92. Epub 2011 Jan 26.
    Department of Physiology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, 303 E. Chicago Avenue, Ward 7-174, Chicago, IL 60611, USA.
    Representing the most common cause of dementia, Alzheimer's disease (AD) has dramatically impacted the neurological and economic health of our society. AD is a debilitating neurodegenerative disease that produces marked cognitive decline. Much evidence has accumulated over the past decade to suggest soluble oligomers of beta-amyloid (Aβ) have a critical role in mediating AD pathology early in the disease process by perturbing synaptic efficacy. Read More

    Interleukin-6, a mental cytokine.
    Brain Res Rev 2011 Jun 14;67(1-2):157-83. Epub 2011 Jan 14.
    Laboratory of Eukaryotic Signal Transduction and Gene Expression, University of Ghent, K.L. Ledeganckstraat 35, 9000 Gent, Belgium.
    Almost a quarter of a century ago, interleukin-6 (IL-6) was discovered as an inflammatory cytokine involved in B cell differentiation. Today, IL-6 is recognized to be a highly versatile cytokine, with pleiotropic actions not only in immune cells, but also in other cell types, such as cells of the central nervous system (CNS). The first evidence implicating IL-6 in brain-related processes originated from its dysregulated expression in several neurological disorders such as multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Read More

    Oligodendrogenesis in the subventricular zone and the role of epidermal growth factor.
    Brain Res Rev 2011 Jun 12;67(1-2):147-56. Epub 2011 Jan 12.
    Laboratory of Neuroscience, School of Psychology, University of Colima, Colima, Colima 28040, Mexico.
    Demyelinating diseases are characterized by an extensive loss of oligodendrocytes and myelin sheaths from axolemma. These neurological disorders are a common cause of disability in young adults, but so far, there is no effective treatment against them. It has been suggested that neural stem cells (NSCs) may play an important role in brain repair therapies. Read More

    The thalamocortical vestibular system in animals and humans.
    Brain Res Rev 2011 Jun 9;67(1-2):119-46. Epub 2011 Jan 9.
    Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience, Brain-Mind Institute, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Lausanne, Switzerland.
    The vestibular system provides the brain with sensory signals about three-dimensional head rotations and translations. These signals are important for postural and oculomotor control, as well as for spatial and bodily perception and cognition, and they are subtended by pathways running from the vestibular nuclei to the thalamus, cerebellum and the "vestibular cortex." The present review summarizes current knowledge on the anatomy of the thalamocortical vestibular system and discusses data from electrophysiology and neuroanatomy in animals by comparing them with data from neuroimagery and neurology in humans. Read More

    Dynamin-related protein 1 and mitochondrial fragmentation in neurodegenerative diseases.
    Brain Res Rev 2011 Jun 8;67(1-2):103-18. Epub 2010 Dec 8.
    Neurogenetics Laboratory, Division of Neuroscience, Oregon National Primate Research Center, Oregon Health & Science University, 505 NW 185th Avenue, Beaverton, OR 97006, USA.
    The purpose of this article is to review the recent developments of abnormal mitochondrial dynamics, mitochondrial fragmentation, and neuronal damage in neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Huntington's, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The GTPase family of proteins, including fission proteins, dynamin related protein 1 (Drp1), mitochondrial fission 1 (Fis1), and fusion proteins (Mfn1, Mfn2 and Opa1) are essential to maintain mitochondrial fission and fusion balance, and to provide necessary adenosine triphosphate to neurons. Among these, Drp1 is involved in several important aspects of mitochondria, including shape, size, distribution, remodeling, and maintenance of mitochondria in mammalian cells. Read More

    Automated reconstruction of neuronal morphology: an overview.
    Brain Res Rev 2011 Jun 27;67(1-2):94-102. Epub 2010 Nov 27.
    Center for Neural Informatics, Structure, & Plasticity and Molecular Neuroscience Department, Krasnow Institute for Advanced Study, George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, VA 22030-4422, USA.
    Digital reconstruction of neuronal morphology is a powerful technique for investigating the nervous system. This process consists of tracing the axonal and dendritic arbors of neurons imaged by optical microscopy into a geometrical format suitable for quantitative analysis and computational modeling. Algorithmic automation of neuronal tracing promises to increase the speed, accuracy, and reproducibility of morphological reconstructions. Read More

    A new taxonomy for perceptual filling-in.
    Brain Res Rev 2011 Jun 5;67(1-2):40-55. Epub 2010 Nov 5.
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Neuroimaging, University College London, 12 Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, UK.
    Perceptual filling-in occurs when structures of the visual system interpolate information across regions of visual space where that information is physically absent. It is a ubiquitous and heterogeneous phenomenon, which takes place in different forms almost every time we view the world around us, such as when objects are occluded by other objects or when they fall behind the blind spot. Yet, to date, there is no clear framework for relating these various forms of perceptual filling-in. Read More

    A review of lateralization of spatial functioning in nonhuman primates.
    Brain Res Rev 2011 Jun 6;67(1-2):56-72. Epub 2010 Nov 6.
    Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Division of Pharmacology, Utrecht University, Sorbonnelaan 16, 3584 CA Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    The majority of research on functional cerebral lateralization in primates revolves around vocal abilities, addressing the evolutionary origin of the human language faculty and its predominance in the left hemisphere of the brain. Right hemisphere specialization in spatial cognition is commonly reported in humans. This functional asymmetry is especially evident in the context of the unilateral neglect, a deficit in attention to and awareness of one side of space, that more frequently occurs after right-side rather than left-side brain damage. Read More

    Spinal cord repair in regeneration-competent vertebrates: adult teleost fish as a model system.
    Brain Res Rev 2011 Jun 6;67(1-2):73-93. Epub 2010 Nov 6.
    School of Engineering and Science, Jacobs University Bremen, P.O. BOX 750 561, D-28725 Bremen, Germany.
    Spinal cord injuries in mammals, including humans, have devastating long-term consequences. Despite substantial research, therapeutic approaches developed in mammalian model systems have had limited success to date. An alternative strategy in the search for treatment of spinal cord lesions is provided by regeneration-competent vertebrates. Read More

    Motor neuron trophic factors: therapeutic use in ALS?
    Brain Res Rev 2011 Jun 21;67(1-2):1-39. Epub 2010 Oct 21.
    Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC 27157-1010, USA.
    The modest effects of neurotrophic factor (NTF) treatment on lifespan in both animal models and clinical studies of Amyotropic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) may result from any one or combination of the four following explanations: 1.) NTFs block cell death in some physiological contexts but not in ALS; 2.) NTFs do not rescue motoneurons (MNs) from death in any physiological context; 3. Read More

    The cerebellar network: from structure to function and dynamics.
    Brain Res Rev 2011 Jan 13;66(1-2):5-15. Epub 2010 Oct 13.
    Department of Physiology, University of Pavia, I-27100 Pavia, Italy.
    Since the discoveries of Camillo Golgi and Ramón y Cajal, the precise cellular organization of the cerebellum has inspired major computational theories, which have then influenced the scientific thought not only on the cerebellar function but also on the brain as a whole. However, six major issues revealing a discrepancy between morphologically inspired hypothesis and function have emerged. (1) The cerebellar granular layer does not simply operate a simple combinatorial decorrelation of the inputs but performs more complex non-linear spatio-temporal transformations and is endowed with synaptic plasticity. Read More

    The first images of nerve cells: Golgi on the olfactory bulb 1875.
    Brain Res Rev 2011 Jan 13;66(1-2):92-105. Epub 2010 Nov 13.
    Department of Neurobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, 333 Cedar Street, New Haven, CT 06510, USA.
    The third paper by Camillo Golgi on his new method was on the olfactory bulb. This paper has never been translated into English, but is of special interest both for its pioneering description of olfactory bulb cells and for containing the first illustration by Golgi of cells stained with his new method. A translation into English is provided in this paper, together with commentaries on the significant points in his descriptions. Read More

    The unipolar brush cell: a remarkable neuron finally receiving deserved attention.
    Brain Res Rev 2011 Jan 5;66(1-2):220-45. Epub 2010 Nov 5.
    Department of Cellular and Molecular Biology, The Feinberg School of Medicine of Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA.
    Unipolar brush cells (UBC) are small, glutamatergic neurons residing in the granular layer of the cerebellar cortex and the granule cell domain of the cochlear nuclear complex. Recent studies indicate that this neuronal class consists of three or more subsets characterized by distinct chemical phenotypes, as well as by intrinsic properties that may shape their synaptic responses and firing patterns. Yet, all UBCs have a unique morphology, as both the dendritic brush and the large endings of the axonal branches participate in the formation of glomeruli. Read More

    Subverting the hegemony of the synapse: complicity of neurons, astrocytes, and vasculature in spreading depression and pathology of the cerebral cortex.
    Brain Res Rev 2011 Jan 1;66(1-2):123-32. Epub 2010 Oct 1.
    Department of Physiology & Biophysics, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY 10065, USA.
    Contrary to Golgi's "reticular" theory of nervous structure, it is clear that the synapse rules over communication among nerve cells. Spreading depression, however, does not follow synaptic pathways. It sweeps across gray matter like a political revolution, ignoring structural boundaries and carefully established regulatory mechanisms. Read More

    Neuroinflammation and brain infections: historical context and current perspectives.
    Brain Res Rev 2011 Jan 29;66(1-2):152-73. Epub 2010 Sep 29.
    Department of Neurological, Neuropsychological, Morphological and Motor Sciences, University of Verona, Verona, Italy.
    An overview of current concepts on neuroinflammation and on the dialogue between neurons and non-neuronal cells in three important infections of the central nervous systems (rabies, cerebral malaria, and human African trypanosomiasis or sleeping sickness) is here presented. Large numbers of cases affected by these diseases are currently reported. In the context of an issue dedicated to Camillo Golgi, historical notes on seminal discoveries on these diseases are also presented. Read More

    The retinohypothalamic tract: comparison of axonal projection patterns from four major targets.
    Brain Res Rev 2011 Jan 21;65(2):150-83. Epub 2010 Sep 21.
    Department of Anatomy, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, 05508-000, Brazil.
    The retinohypothalamic tract is one component of the optic nerve that transmits information about environmental luminance levels through medial and lateral branches to four major terminal fields in the hypothalamus. The spatial distribution and organization of axonal projections from each of these four terminal fields were analyzed and compared systematically with the anterograde pathway tracer PHAL in rats where the terminal fields had been labeled with intravitreal injections of a different anterograde pathway tracer, CTb. First, the well-known projections of two medial retinohypothalamic tract targets (the ventrolateral suprachiasmatic nucleus and perisuprachiasmatic region) were confirmed and extended. Read More

    The diffuse nervous network of Camillo Golgi: facts and fiction.
    Brain Res Rev 2011 Jan 16;66(1-2):75-82. Epub 2010 Sep 16.
    Department of Neurobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.
    The name of Camillo Golgi is inextricably associated, in the mind of most neuroscientists, with the theory that nerve cells communicate with one another by means of an intricate network of anastomosing axonal branches contained in the neuropil intervening between cell bodies in the gray matter of the brain and spinal cord. Examination, however, of Golgi's drawings in the papers published in the decade intervening between publication of his method (1873) and the beginning of his studies on malaria (1885) shows that axonal arborization in the cerebellar cortex and olfactory bulb are depicted as independent of one other. This is in striking contrast with the drawings included by Golgi in his 1906 Nobel lecture where the entire granular layer of the cerebellar cortex is occupied by a network of branching and anastomosing nerve processes. Read More

    Prefrontal cortex and drug abuse vulnerability: translation to prevention and treatment interventions.
    Brain Res Rev 2011 Jan 15;65(2):124-49. Epub 2010 Sep 15.
    Center for Drug Abuse Research Translation, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536-0509, USA.
    Vulnerability to drug abuse is related to both reward seeking and impulsivity, two constructs thought to have a biological basis in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). This review addresses similarities and differences in neuroanatomy, neurochemistry and behavior associated with PFC function in rodents and humans. Emphasis is placed on monoamine and amino acid neurotransmitter systems located in anatomically distinct subregions: medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC); lateral prefrontal cortex (lPFC); anterior cingulate cortex (ACC); and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Read More

    Role of glia in epilepsy-associated neuropathology, neuroinflammation and neurogenesis.
    Brain Res Rev 2011 Jan 15;66(1-2):115-22. Epub 2010 Sep 15.
    Scott & White Hospital, Temple, TX, USA.
    The black reaction allowed Golgi to describe with amazing detail the morphology of glial cells as well as their proximal location and intimate connections with neurons and blood vessels. Based on this location, Golgi hypothesized that glial cells were functional units in the nervous system and were not merely a structural support medium. Relatively recent advances have confirmed the importance of glial cells in nervous system function and disease. Read More

    Ethanol-enhanced GABA release: a focus on G protein-coupled receptors.
    Brain Res Rev 2011 Jan 15;65(2):113-23. Epub 2010 Sep 15.
    Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7178, USA.
    While research on the actions of ethanol at the GABAergic synapse has focused on postsynaptic mechanisms, recent data have demonstrated that ethanol also facilitates GABA release from presynaptic terminals in many, but not all, brain regions. The ability of ethanol to increase GABA release can be regulated by different G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), such as the cannabinoid-1 receptor, corticotropin-releasing factor 1 receptor, GABA(B) receptor, and the 5-hydroxytryptamine 2C receptor. The intracellular messengers linked to these GPCRs, including the calcium that is released from internal stores, also play a role in ethanol-enhanced GABA release. Read More

    Giuseppe Moruzzi: a tribute to a "formidable" scientist and a "formidable" man.
    Brain Res Rev 2011 Jan 15;66(1-2):256-69. Epub 2010 Sep 15.
    European Brain Research Institute, Rome, Italy.
    Giuseppe Moruzzi was born one century ago; he was an outstanding Italian neurophysiologist, who was particularly famous for his contributions to the study of the mechanisms underlying the control of the sleep-waking cycle in mammals. In 1990, Rita Levi-Montalcini, Moruzzi's great friend and admirer, used the occasion of an invitation by the University of Parma, where Moruzzi graduated in medicine in 1933, to celebrate Moruzzi's scientific achievements. She wished to pay a tribute to Moruzzi's human and ethical qualities by portraying him as a "perfect model" for the young generation wishing to pursue scientific research. Read More

    Recent insights into a new hydrodynamics of the cerebrospinal fluid.
    Brain Res Rev 2011 Jan 29;65(2):99-112. Epub 2010 Sep 29.
    University of Zagreb School of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Croatian Institute for Brain Research, 10 000 Zagreb, Croatia.
    According to the traditional hypothesis, the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is secreted inside the brain ventricles and flows unidirectionally along subarachnoid spaces to be absorbed into venous sinuses across arachnoid villi and/or via paraneural sheaths of nerves into lymphatics. However, according to recent investigations, it appears that interstitial fluid (ISF) and CSF are formed by water filtration across the walls of arterial capillaries in the central nervous system (CNS), while plasma osmolytes are sieved (retained) so that capillary osmotic counterpressure is generated, which is instrumental in ISF/CSF water absorption into venous capillaries and postcapillary venules. This hypothesis is supported by experiments showing that water, which constitutes 99% of CSF and ISF bulk, does not flow along CSF spaces since it is rapidly absorbed into adjacent CNS microvessels, while distribution of other substances along CSF spaces depends on the rate of their removal into microvessels: faster removal means more limited distribution. Read More

    Branched thalamic afferents: what are the messages that they relay to the cortex?
    Brain Res Rev 2011 Jan 7;66(1-2):205-19. Epub 2010 Aug 7.
    Marmara University, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Many of the axons that carry messages to the thalamus for relay to the cerebral cortex are branched in a pattern long known from Golgi preparations. They send one branch to the thalamus and the other to motor centers of the brainstem or spinal cord. Because the thalamic branches necessarily carry copies of the motor instructions their messages have the properties of efference copies. Read More

    Cognitive domains affected by histamine H(1)-antagonism in humans: a literature review.
    Brain Res Rev 2010 Sep 8;64(2):263-82. Epub 2010 Jun 8.
    Department of Neuropsychology and Psychopharmacology, Faculty of Psychology and Neuroscience, Maastricht University, The Netherlands, Maastricht, The Netherlands.
    The neurotransmitter histamine has been suggested to be involved in cognitive functioning. Generally, studies in animals have shown a decrease in performance after decreasing histamine neurotransmission and improved performance after increasing histamine neurotransmission. It is unclear, however, what role histamine plays in cognition in humans. Read More

    Neuroimaging for Lewy body disease: is the in vivo molecular imaging of α-synuclein neuropathology required and feasible?
    Brain Res Rev 2010 Oct 2;65(1):28-55. Epub 2010 Jun 2.
    Kings College London, Institute of Psychiatry, Department of Neuroscience, Denmark Hill campus, London, UK.
    Alpha-synuclein aggregation is a neuropathological hallmark of many neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson's disease (PD), Parkinson's disease with dementia (PDD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), collectively termed the α-synucleinopathies. Substantial advances in clinical criteria and neuroimaging technology over the last 20 years have allowed great strides in the detection and differential diagnosis of these disorders. Nevertheless, it is clear that whilst the array of different imaging modalities in clinical use allow for a robust diagnosis of α-synucleinopathy in comparison to healthy subjects, there is no clear diagnostic imaging marker that affords a reliable differential diagnosis between the different forms of Lewy body disease (LBD) or that could facilitate tracking of disease progression. Read More

    Looking at the blood-brain barrier: molecular anatomy and possible investigation approaches.
    Brain Res Rev 2010 Sep 26;64(2):328-63. Epub 2010 May 26.
    Research Institute for Medicines and Pharmaceutical Sciences (iMed.UL), Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal.
    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a dynamic and complex interface between blood and the central nervous system that strictly controls the exchanges between the blood and brain compartments, therefore playing a key role in brain homeostasis and providing protection against many toxic compounds and pathogens. In this review, the unique properties of brain microvascular endothelial cells and intercellular junctions are examined. The specific interactions between endothelial cells and basement membrane as well as neighboring perivascular pericytes, glial cells and neurons, which altogether constitute the neurovascular unit and play an essential role in both health and function of the central nervous system, are also explored. Read More

    Structure and function in the conceptual development of mammalian neuroendocrinology between 1920 and 1965.
    Brain Res Rev 2011 Jan 13;66(1-2):174-204. Epub 2010 Jul 13.
    Department of Biological Sciences, The USC College, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-2520, USA.
    With the growing realization in the 1930s that the brain played a crucial role in regulating the secretions of the pituitary gland, neuroendocrinology as we now know it developed from two rather separate directions. One approach relied heavily on morphological techniques to define neurosecretion; a novel, but for many years flawed model that was originally developed to explain the presence of gland-like cells in the diencephalon. During its first 20 years neurosecretion, as a concept, made no significant contribution to our understanding of how the pituitary was controlled. Read More

    Golgi in retrospect: a historiographic examination of contextual influence in tracing the constructs of neuronal organization.
    Brain Res Rev 2011 Jan 13;66(1-2):68-74. Epub 2010 Jul 13.
    Department of Neurobiology, UCLA David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.
    The concepts underlying the connectivity of neurons and the dynamics of interaction required to explain information processing have undergone significant change over the past century. A re-examination of the evolution of the modern view in historical context reveals that rules for connectivity have changed in a manner that might be expected from critical analysis enabled by technical advance. A retrospective examination of some germane issues that moved Camillo Golgi to question the widely held dogma of his era reveals network principles that could not have been recognized a century ago. Read More

    Camillo Golgi and Santiago Ramon y Cajal: the anatomical organization of the cortex of the cerebellum. Can the neuron doctrine still support our actual knowledge on the cerebellar structural arrangement?
    Brain Res Rev 2011 Jan 26;66(1-2):16-34. Epub 2010 May 26.
    Developmental Neurobiology, Neurociences Institute, Miguel Hernandez University and CSIC, Sant Joan d'Alacant, E-03550 Alicante, Spain.
    Camillo Golgi and Santiago Ramón y Cajal were the two main investigators that revealed the morphological organization of the cerebellar cortex, although they never shared the same basic concepts. While for Golgi all axons fused into a large syncytium (the diffuse nerve network), for Cajal they had free endings and communication between neurons was done by contiguity not by continuity. The classical diagrammatic representation of the cerebellar circuitry shown by Cajal in his Croonian lecture (1894), although still valid, has drastically change by the accumulation of the great amount of data generated from 1894 to our days. Read More

    Molecular and functional heterogeneity of neural circuits: an example from the olfactory bulb.
    Brain Res Rev 2011 Jan 19;66(1-2):35-42. Epub 2010 Jun 19.
    Department of Anatomy, Pharmacology and Forensic Medicine, and National Institute of Neuroscience, University of Torino, Torino, Italy.
    In 1875 Camillo Golgi published his classical description of the olfactory bulb, which contained the first images of neurons visualized with the "black reaction". This new staining method opened the way for structural investigations of the nervous tissue, that culminated in the extraordinary neuroanatomical work of Ramón y Cajal and the formulation of the neuron doctrine. Later developments in neurochemical techniques have revealed an astonishing diversity of neural circuits at the molecular level. Read More

    Neurite outgrowth: this process, first discovered by Santiago Ramon y Cajal, is sustained by the exocytosis of two distinct types of vesicles.
    Brain Res Rev 2011 Jan 19;66(1-2):246-55. Epub 2010 Jun 19.
    Department of Neuroscience, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University and San Raffaele Institute, IIT Section of Molecular Neuroscience, via Olgettina 58, 20132 Milano, Italy.
    Neurite outgrowth is a fundamental process in the differentiation of neurons. The first, seminal study documenting the generation of "appendages" (now known as filopodia and lamellipodia) on the "cones d'accroissement," the specialized growth cones at the tips of neurites, was reported by Cajal still in the XIXth century, investigating chicken neurons embryos stained by the Golgi's reazione nera. Since then, studies have continued using, in addition to brain tissues, powerful in vitro models, i. Read More

    The rise and fall of Golgi's school.
    Brain Res Rev 2011 Jan 25;66(1-2):54-67. Epub 2010 May 25.
    Museum for the History of the University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.
    The Camillo Golgi's school of Histology and General Pathology in Pavia played an important role in the development of medical-biological studies in Italy in the period after Unification of the state. Founded around 1880 when Golgi (1843-1926) began to wield power at the University of Pavia, the school soon became famous for the distinctive morphological basis of its studies. Many of its staff members made important discoveries and won international acclaim. Read More

    The cerebellum and pain: passive integrator or active participator?
    Brain Res Rev 2010 Oct 27;65(1):14-27. Epub 2010 May 27.
    P.A.I.N. Group, Brain Imaging Center, Department of Psychiatry, McLean Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Belmont, MA 02478, USA.
    The cerebellum is classically considered to be a brain region involved in motor processing, but it has also been implicated in non-motor, and even cognitive, functions. Though previous research suggests that the cerebellum responds to noxious stimuli, its specific role during pain is unclear. Pain is a multidimensional experience that encompasses sensory discriminative, affective motivational, and cognitive evaluative components. Read More

    Prenatal stress and brain development.
    Brain Res Rev 2010 Oct 13;65(1):56-79. Epub 2010 Jun 13.
    McGill University, Department of Psychiatry, Montreal, Québec, Canada.
    Prenatal stress (PS) has been linked to abnormal cognitive, behavioral and psychosocial outcomes in both animals and humans. Animal studies have clearly demonstrated PS effects on the offspring's brain, however, while it has been speculated that PS most likely affects the brains of exposed human fetuses as well, no study has to date examined this possibility prospectively using an independent stressor (i.e. Read More

    Electromagnetic fields and the blood-brain barrier.
    Brain Res Rev 2010 Oct 13;65(1):80-97. Epub 2010 Jun 13.
    Laboratory for Radiation Research, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, P.O. Box 1, 3720 BA Bilthoven, The Netherlands.
    The mammalian blood-brain barrier (BBB) consists of endothelial cells, linked by tight junctions, and the adjoining pericytes and extracellular matrix. It helps maintain a highly stable extracellular environment necessary for accurate synaptic transmission and protects nervous tissue from injury. An increase in its normally low permeability for hydrophilic and charged molecules could potentially be detrimental. Read More

    Where the thoughts dwell: the physiology of neuronal-glial "diffuse neural net".
    Brain Res Rev 2011 Jan 9;66(1-2):133-51. Epub 2010 Jun 9.
    Faculty of Life Sciences, The University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.
    The mechanisms underlying the production of thoughts by exceedingly complex cellular networks that construct the human brain constitute the most challenging problem of natural sciences. Our understanding of the brain function is very much shaped by the neuronal doctrine that assumes that neuronal networks represent the only substrate for cognition. These neuronal networks however are embedded into much larger and probably more complex network formed by neuroglia. Read More

    Hippocampal cell loss and neurogenesis after fetal alcohol exposure: insights from different rodent models.
    Brain Res Rev 2010 Sep 13;64(2):283-303. Epub 2010 May 13.
    Division of Medical Sciences and Department of Biology, University of Victoria, Victoria, B.C., Canada.
    Prenatal ethanol exposure is invariably detrimental to the developing central nervous system and the hippocampus is particularly sensitive to the teratogenic effects of ethanol. Prenatal ethanol exposure has been shown to result in hippocampal cell loss, altered neuronal morphology and impaired performance on hippocampal-dependent learning and memory tasks in rodents. The dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus is one of the few brain regions where neurogenesis continues into adulthood. Read More

    Mechanism(s) of deep brain stimulation and insights into cognitive outcomes in Parkinson's disease.
    Brain Res Rev 2010 Oct 10;65(1):1-13. Epub 2010 May 10.
    Department of Physiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi-29, India.
    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor, cognitive, neuropsychiatric, autonomic, and other nonmotor symptoms. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) at high frequency is now considered the most effective neurosurgical therapy for movement disorders, especially PD. An electrode is chronically implanted in a particular area of the brain and, when continuously stimulated, it significantly alleviates motor symptoms. Read More

    1 OF 24