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    Repeated olanzapine treatment mitigates PTSD like symptoms in rats with changes in cell signaling factors.
    Brain Res Bull 2018 Jun 11. Epub 2018 Jun 11.
    Neurotherapeutics Laboratory, Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering and Technology, Indian Institute of Technology (B enhance the sensitizaanaras Hindu University), Varanasi, U.P., 221 005, India. Electronic address:
    Post Traumatic Stress Disorder is an anxiety disorder with prolonged distortion of rational behavior. In this study, we report the preclinical potential of olanzapine (OLZ) in the treatment of PTSD. Since the atypical antipsychotics have modulating effects on cell protective and destructive factors, we tested the effects of OLZ in PTSD regarding these cell modulating factors. Read More

    Prion-like Propagation of α-synuclein in the gut-brain axis.
    Brain Res Bull 2018 Jun 9. Epub 2018 Jun 9.
    (a)State Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substances and Functions of Natural Medicines, Institute of Materia Medica& Neuroscience Center, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100050, China; (b)College of Pharmacy, Hunan University of Chinese Medicine, Changsha, Hunan, 410208, China. Electronic address:
    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive degenerative disease of the nervous system, which is characterized by movement disorders, such as static tremor, rigidity, and bradykinesia in advanced patients. Gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction, such as gastric dysmotility, constipation, and anorectic dysfunction, is common non-motor symptom in the early stage of PD. The progression of PD includes the degenerative loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons and aggregation of α-synuclein in the substantia nigra (SN). Read More

    Unilateral right and bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex transcranial magnetic stimulation in treatment post-traumatic stress disorder: A randomized controlled study.
    Brain Res Bull 2018 Jun 5;140:334-340. Epub 2018 Jun 5.
    Department of Psychology, Lorestan University, Khoramabad, Iran. Electronic address:
    Background: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a potential non-invasive treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the treatment parameters of rTMS required to optimize therapeutic efficacy remains unclear.

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of bilateral rTMS and unilateral right rTMS and compare the efficacy of bilateral rTMS and unilateral rTMS on PTSD symptoms. Read More

    Driven to decay: Excitability and synaptic abnormalities in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
    Brain Res Bull 2018 Jun 2;140:318-333. Epub 2018 Jun 2.
    Department of Physiology and Biomedical Engineering, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA; School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Australia. Electronic address:
    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common motor neuron (MN) disease and is clinically characterised by the death of corticospinal motor neurons (CSMNs), spinal and brainstem MNs and the degeneration of the corticospinal tract. Degeneration of CSMNs and MNs leads inexorably to muscle wastage and weakness, progressing to eventual death within 3-5 years of diagnosis. The CSMNs, located within layer V of the primary motor cortex, project axons constituting the corticospinal tract, forming synaptic connections with brainstem and spinal cord interneurons and MNs. Read More

    Human African trypanosomiasis: How do the parasites enter and cause dysfunctions of the nervous system in murine models?
    Brain Res Bull 2018 Jun 2. Epub 2018 Jun 2.
    Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    In this review we describe how Trypanosoma brucei brucei, a rodent pathogenic strain of African trypanosomes, can invade the nervous system, first by localization to the choroid plexus, the circumventricular organs (CVOs) and peripheral ganglia, which have fenestrated vessels, followed by crossing of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) into the white matter, hypothalamus, thalamus and basal ganglia. White blood cells (WBCs) pave the way for the trypanosome neuroinvasion. Experiments with immune deficient mice show that the invasion of WBCs is initiated by the toll-like receptor 9, followed by an augmentation phase that depends on the cytokine IFN-γ and the chemokine CXCL10. Read More

    Locomotor activity, emotionality, sensori-motor gating, learning and memory in the APPswe/PS1dE9 mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.
    Brain Res Bull 2018 Jun 2. Epub 2018 Jun 2.
    Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H 4R2, Canada. Electronic address:
    The APPswe/PS1dE9 mouse (line 85) is a double transgenic model of Alzheimer's disease (AD) with familial amyloid precursor protein and presenilin-1 mutations. These mice develop age-related behavioral changes reflective of the neuro-psychiatric symptoms (altered anxiety-like behaviour, hyperactivity) and cognitive dysfunction (impaired learning and memory) observed in AD. The APPswe/PS1dE9 mouse has been used to examine the efficacy of therapeutic interventions on behaviour, despite previous difficulties in replicating behavioural phenotypes. Read More

    Central fractalkine stimulates central prostaglandin E production and induces systemic inflammatory responses.
    Brain Res Bull 2018 Jun 2;140:311-317. Epub 2018 Jun 2.
    Department of Physiology, Medical School of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil; Department of Morphology, Physiology and Basic Pathology, Dental School of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:
    Fractalkine (FKN; CX3CL1) belongs to gamma-chemokine family and binds to CX3CR1 receptors. Currently, the mechanisms involving FKN-induced inflammatory mediators are research targets in an attempt to study immune diseases mechanisms. Besides, FKN seems to modulate inflammation in the nervous system by inducing the secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators such as prostaglandin E (PGE). Read More

    Role of autophagy in sevoflurane-induced neurotoxicity in neonatal rat hippocampal cells.
    Brain Res Bull 2018 May 29;140:291-298. Epub 2018 May 29.
    Department of Anesthesiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, China. Electronic address:
    Background: Sevoflurane has been extensively employed for induction and maintenance of general anesthesia. The effect of sevoflurane-induced apoptosis in developmental neurotoxicity has been appreciated for some time now, but the underlying mechanism of developmental neurotoxicity has not been established. The aim of our study is to evaluate the role of autophagy in sevoflurane-induced neurotoxicity through observing changes in the levels of autophagy in hippocampal neurons after exposure to sevoflurane. Read More

    α-Lipoic acid attenuates oxidative stress and neurotoxicity via the ERK/Akt-dependent pathway in the mutant hSOD1 related Drosophila model and the NSC34 cell line of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
    Brain Res Bull 2018 May 26;140:299-310. Epub 2018 May 26.
    Department of Neurology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150001, PR China. Electronic address:
    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a degenerative disease with a progressive loss of motor neurons in the central nervous system (CNS). However, there are unsolved problems with the therapies for this disease. α-Lipoic acid (LA) is a natural, universal antioxidant capable of scavenging hydroxyl radicals as well as regenerating a series of antioxidant enzymes that has been widely used in clinical settings. Read More

    Stroke, cerebrovascular diseases and vascular cognitive impairment in Africa.
    Brain Res Bull 2018 May 25. Epub 2018 May 25.
    Institute of Neuroscience, Newcastle University, Campus for Ageing & Vitality, Newcastle upon Tyne NE4 5PL, United Kingdom. Electronic address:
    With increased numbers of older people a higher burden of neurological disorders worldwide is predicted. Stroke and other cerebrovascular diseases do not necessarily present with different phenotypes in Africa but their incidence is rising in tandem with the demographic change in the population. Age remains the strongest irreversible risk factor for stroke and cognitive impairment. Read More

    Raloxifene, a promising estrogen replacement, limits TDP-25 cell death by enhancing autophagy and suppressing apoptosis.
    Brain Res Bull 2018 May 25;140:281-290. Epub 2018 May 25.
    Department of Neurology, The Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei, 050000, People's Republic of China; Neurological Laboratory of Hebei Province, Shijiazhuang, Hebei, 050000, People's Republic of China.
    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal adult-onset neurodegenerative disease, and at present, therapies for ALS are limited. Estrogen is a potential therapeutic agent for ALS but has undesirable effects that might increase the risk of breast and uterine cancers or stroke. Raloxifene (Ral) has estrogenic properties but does not exhibit these adverse effects. Read More

    Neuroprotective Effects of Isosteviol Sodium through Increasing CYLD by the Downregulation miRNA-181b.
    Brain Res Bull 2018 May 25. Epub 2018 May 25.
    Institute of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address:
    NF-κB signaling pathway plays a critical role in cerebral ischemic stroke. MicroRNA-181b (miR-181b) induces the expression of NF-κB signaling pathways indirectly, and isosteviol sodium (STVNa) protects against ischemic injury via the inhibition of NF-κB-mediated inflammatory and apoptotic responses. However, the function of miR-181b and the actual relationship between STVNa and miR-181b in the ischemia-induced activation of NF-κB signaling pathways remains unclear. Read More

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation in myoclonus of different aetiologies.
    Brain Res Bull 2018 May 24;140:258-269. Epub 2018 May 24.
    Department of Neurology, Christian Doppler Klinik, Paracelsus Medical University, Salzburg, Austria; Centre for Cognitive Neurosciences Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria; University for Medical Informatics and Health Technology, UMIT, Hall in Tirol, Austria.
    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) may represent a valuable tool for investigating important neurophysiological and pathophysiological aspects of myoclonus. Moreover, repetitive TMS (rTMS) can influence neural activity. In this review we performed a systematic search of all studies using TMS in order to explore cortical excitability/plasticity and rTMS for the treatment of myoclonus due to different aetiologies. Read More

    Autophagy is involved in sevoflurane-induced developmental neurotoxicity in the developing rat brain.
    Brain Res Bull 2018 May 24;140:226-232. Epub 2018 May 24.
    Department of Anesthesiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, China. Electronic address:
    Background: Sevoflurane can induce neonatal wide neurodegenerative and serious deficit to space learning tasks in rodents, however, the specific mechanism is still unclear. At present, the study tried to explore the possible role of autophagy in sevoflurane-induced neurotoxicity through observing the changes in the levels of autophagy in the newborn SD rat hippocampus tissue after sevoflurane exposure.

    Methods: We used seventy-two SD rats of seven days receiving sevoflurane exposure to explore hippocampus neuron autophagy and apoptosis. Read More

    Deficits in temporal order memory induced by interferon-alpha (IFN-α) treatment are rescued by aerobic exercise.
    Brain Res Bull 2018 May 18;140:212-219. Epub 2018 May 18.
    Trinity College Institute of Neuroscience, Trinity College Dublin, the University of Dublin, Ireland.
    Patients receiving cytokine immunotherapy with IFN-α frequently present with neuropsychiatric consequences and cognitive impairments, including a profound depressive-like symptomatology. While the neurobiological substrates of the dysfunction that leads to adverse events in IFN-α-treated patients remains ill-defined, dysfunctions of the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC) are strong possibilities. To date, hippocampal deficits have been well-characterised; there does however remain a lack of insight into the nature of prefrontal participation. Read More

    Analgesic effect of intrathecal baclofen bolus on neuropathic pain in spinal cord injury patients.
    Brain Res Bull 2018 May 18;140:205-211. Epub 2018 May 18.
    Spinal Cord Unit of Fundación Institut Guttmann, Institut Universitari de Neurorehabilitació adscrit a la UAB, 08916 Badalona, Barcelona, Spain; Univ Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Spain; Fundació Institut d'Investigació en Ciències de la Salut Germans Trias i Pujol, Badalona, Spain.
    Background: GABA-ergic neurons are widely distributed throughout the central nervous system, including the spinal cord which is important for the transmission of pain impulses to the brain. Here we hypothesized that intrathecal baclofen (ITB) which is a GABA analogue might exert analgesic effects on neuropathic pain, which could be related to subtypes of pain in spinal cord injury (SCI).

    Methods: SCI patients with a cervical or thoracic lesion and neuropathic pain were randomized to receive either a single ITB bolus or placebo. Read More

    α Receptors in the lateral parabrachial nucleus generates the pressor response of the cardiovascular chemoreflex, effects of GABA receptor.
    Brain Res Bull 2018 May 21;140:190-196. Epub 2018 May 21.
    Dept. of Physiology, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. Electronic address:
    The lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPBN) is a pontine area involved in cardiovascular chemoreflex. This study was performed to find the effects of reversible synaptic blockade of the LPBN on the chemoreflex responses, and to find the roles of GABA receptor and α-adenoreceptor (α-AR) in chemoreflex. It also aimed to seek possible interaction between GABA and noradrenergic systems of the LPBN in urethane-anesthetized male rats. Read More

    Hydroxysafflor yellow a protects brain microvascular endothelial cells against oxygen glucose deprivation/reoxygenation injury: Involvement of inhibiting autophagy via class I PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway.
    Brain Res Bull 2018 May 15;140:243-257. Epub 2018 May 15.
    School of Medical, Western Sydney University, Penrith, NSW 2751, Australia.
    The present study aimed to test whether Hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA) protects the brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) injury induced by oxygen glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) via the PI3K/Akt/mTOR autophagy signaling pathway. Primary rat BMECs were cultured and identified by the expression of factor VIII-related antigen before being exposed to OGD/R to imitate ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) damage in vitro. The protective effect of HSYA was evaluated by assessing (1) cellular morphologic and ultrastructural changes; (2) cell viability and cytotoxicity; (3) transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) of monolayer BMECs; (4) cell apoptosis; (5) fluorescence intensity of LC3B; (6) LC3 mRNA expression; (7) protein expressions of LC3, Beclin-1, Zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), phospho-Akt (p-Akt), Akt, phospho-mTOR (p-mTOR) and mTOR. Read More

    GDNF family receptor α-1 in the catfish: Possible implication to brain dopaminergic activity.
    Brain Res Bull 2018 May 31;140:270-280. Epub 2018 May 31.
    Department of Animal Biology, School of Life Sciences, University of Hyderabad, P.O. Central University, Hyderabad, 500046, Telangana, India. Electronic address:
    Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF)is a potent trophic factor that preferentially binds to GDNF family receptor α-1 (GFRα-1)by regulating dopaminergic (DA-ergic) neuronsin brain. Present study aimed to evaluate the significance of GFRα-1 expression during early brain development in catfish. Initially, the full-length cDNA of GFRα-1 was cloned from adult brain which showed high homology with other vertebrate counterparts. Read More

    Radiosurgery reduces plasma levels of angiogenic factors in brain arteriovenous malformation patients.
    Brain Res Bull 2018 May 9;140:220-225. Epub 2018 May 9.
    Department of Neurosurgery, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200040, China. Electronic address:
    Purpose: Aberrant expression of angiogenic factors has been anecdotally documented in brain arteriovenous malformation (AVM) nidus vessels; however, no data is available on the effect of radiosurgery on the levels of angiogenic factors in AVM patients. We sought to determine the plasma contents of VEGF, TGF-β, Ang-2 and bFGF in 28 brain AVM patients at baseline and post radiosurgery and further analyzed the relationship between plasma contents of these angiogenic factors with clinicopathologic variables of these patients.

    Methods: We enrolled brain AVM patients who underwent Cyberknife radiosurgery at our hospital between January 2014 and December 2015. Read More

    Cerebrolysin attenuates hyperalgesia, photophobia, and neuroinflammation in a nitroglycerin-induced migraine model in rats.
    Brain Res Bull 2018 May 9;140:197-204. Epub 2018 May 9.
    Neurosciences Research Center (NSRC), Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. Electronic address:
    Chronic migraine dramatically affects the quality of life in the migraineurs. This study examined the effect of chronic cerebrolysin (CBL) treatment on the migraine-associated symptoms in a rat model of migraine. Experiments were carried out on 8 weeks, male Wistar rats. Read More

    scAAV9-VEGF-165 inhibits neuroinflammatory responses and invasion of macrophages into the peripheral nervous system of ALS transgenic mice.
    Brain Res Bull 2018 May 8;140:233-242. Epub 2018 May 8.
    Department of Neurology, The Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei, 050000, People's Republic of China; Institute of Cardiocerebrovascular Disease, West Heping Road 215, Shijiazhuang, Hebei, 050000, People's Republic of China; Neurological Laboratory of Hebei Province, Shijiazhuang, Hebei, 050000, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:
    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that leads to paralysis and death within 3-5 years. Although the vast majority of studies have focused on vulnerable neurons, growing evidence has shown that non-neuronal cells contribute to the pathogenesis and disease progression. Here, we showed that intrathecal injection of scAAV9-VEGF at 60 days of age significantly reduced the number of microglia and inhibited the neuroinflammatory response in the CNS. Read More

    Some technical issues of vagal nerve stimulation. An approach using a hippocampal formation theta rhythm.
    Brain Res Bull 2018 May 6. Epub 2018 May 6.
    Department of Neurobiology, Faculty of Biology and Environmental Protection, The University of Lodz, Pomorska St. No 141/143, 90-236 Łódź, Poland. Electronic address:
    Previously, we have demonstrated that hippocampal (HPC) theta rhythm can be produced, depending on current intensity, directly during vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) or with a time delay following stimulation. This suggests that theta EEG pattern can also be used as a bio-indicator of the efficiency of VNS. In the present study, we focused on three specific, technical issues related to the stimulation procedure of the vagal nerve: i/does the type of the electrode used for VNS and the technique of its implantation affect the parameters of the HPC theta rhythm? ii/does the type of electrode used determine the current intensity threshold of VNS-induced HPC theta? iii/is the repeatability of the VNS effect determined by the type of electrode used? We demonstrated that a platinum-iridium cuff electrode offers some important advantages over a tungsten electrode. Read More

    Magnetic resonance imaging relaxation time in Alzheimer's disease.
    Brain Res Bull 2018 May 5;140:176-189. Epub 2018 May 5.
    Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, No. 899, Pinghai Road, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215006, China. Electronic address:
    The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) relaxation time constants, T1 and T2, are sensitive to changes in brain tissue microstructure integrity. Quantitative T1 and T2 relaxation times have been proposed to serve as non-invasive biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease (AD), in which alterations are believed to not only reflect AD-related neuropathology but also cognitive impairment. In this review, we summarize the applications and key findings of MRI techniques in the context of both AD subjects and AD transgenic mouse models. Read More

    Effects of pregabalin on brain edema, neurologic and histologic outcomes in experimental traumatic brain injury.
    Brain Res Bull 2018 May 3;140:169-175. Epub 2018 May 3.
    Stem Cell Research Center, Kerman School of Medical, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.
    Brain edema and increased intracranial pressure (ICP) are among the main causes of neurological disturbance and mortality following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Since pregabalin neuroprotective effects have been shown, this study was performed to evaluate the possible neuroprotective effects of pregabalin in experimental TBI of male rats. Adult male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: sham, vehicle, pregabalin 30 mg/kg and pregabalin 60 mg/kg. Read More

    Myelin injury in the central nervous system and Alzheimer's disease.
    Brain Res Bull 2018 May 3;140:162-168. Epub 2018 May 3.
    School of Basic Medicine, Shanxi University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Taiyuan 030619, China; State Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substances and Functions of Natural Medicines, Institute of Materia Medica & Neuroscience Center, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100050, China. Electronic address:
    Myelin is a membrane wrapped around the axon of the nerve cell, which is composed of the mature oligodendrocytes. The role of myelin is to insulate and prevent the nerve electrical impulses from the axon of the neurons to the axons of the other neurons, which is essential for the proper functioning of the nervous system. Minor changes in myelin thickness could lead to substantial changes in conduction speed and may thus alter neural circuit function. Read More

    The delayed protective effect of GK-2, а dipeptide mimetic of Nerve Growth Factor, in a model of rat traumatic brain injury.
    Brain Res Bull 2018 May 3;140:148-153. Epub 2018 May 3.
    Research Center of Neurology, Volokolamskoe Shosse 80, 125367 Moscow, Russia.
    The delayed protective effect of GK-2, a dipeptide mimetic of Nerve Growth Factor, was investigated on the model of focal one-sided traumatic brain injury (TBI) of the sensorimotor cortex region on the 180th day after the injury. TBI caused a reliably disruption of the functions of the limbs contralateral to injury focus. The intraperitoneal administration of GK-2 (1 mg/kg) from 1st to 4th and from 7th to 10th days after TBI reduced the impairment of the motor functions of the limbs. Read More

    Pistacia lentiscus oil attenuates memory dysfunction and decreases levels of biomarkers of oxidative stress induced by lipopolysaccharide in rats.
    Brain Res Bull 2018 Apr 30;140:140-147. Epub 2018 Apr 30.
    University of Carthage, Faculty of Sciences of Bizerte, Laboratory of Integrative Physiology, Jarzouna 7021, Tunisia.
    Pistacia lentiscus L. is a well-known medicinal plant that has been used for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, and hepatoprotective effects. However, the neuroprotective effect of Pistacia lentiscus oil (PLo) of has not been reported. Read More

    ERK activation is required for the antiepileptogenic effect of low frequency electrical stimulation in kindled rats.
    Brain Res Bull 2018 Apr 26;140:132-139. Epub 2018 Apr 26.
    Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.
    Introduction: The signaling pathways involved in the antiepileptogenic effect of low frequency electrical stimulation (LFS) have not been fully understood. In the present study the role of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling cascade was investigated in mediating the inhibitory effects of LFS on kindled seizures.

    Methods: Animals received kindling stimulations for seven days (the mean number of stimulation days for achieving stage 5 seizure) according to semi-rapid perforant path kindling protocol (12 stimulations per day at 10 min intervals). Read More

    The effect of the anodal transcranial direct current stimulation over the cerebellum on the motor cortex excitability.
    Brain Res Bull 2018 Apr 25;140:114-119. Epub 2018 Apr 25.
    Department of Neurology, Gazi University Faculty of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey; Motor Control Laboratory, The Clinical Neurophysiology Division of the Department of Neurology, Gazi University Faculty of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey.
    This study was designed to investigate whether the cerebellum has an inhibitory effect on motor cortical excitability. Sixteen healthy adults (age range, 25-50 years, five female) participated in the study. Anodal cerebellar transcranial direct current stimulation (a-cTDCS) was used to modulate cerebellar excitability. Read More

    Neuroprotective effects of metformin on traumatic brain injury in rats associated with NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathway.
    Brain Res Bull 2018 Apr 24;140:154-161. Epub 2018 Apr 24.
    Department of Neurosurgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, China.
    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) triggers a complex sequence of inflammatory responses that contribute to secondary injury. Metformin, a first-line drug used to treat type 2 diabetes, is reported to exhibit potent anti-inflammatory activity on diseases associated with the central nervous system (CNS). The aim of this study is to investigate the potential neuroprotective effects of metformin on acute brain injury after TBI and explore the underlying mechanisms. Read More

    Neonatal whisker trimming in WAG/Rij rat pups causes developmental delay, encourages maternal care and affects exploratory activity in adulthood.
    Brain Res Bull 2018 Apr 21;140:120-131. Epub 2018 Apr 21.
    Institute of Higher Nervous Activity and Neurophysiology of Russian Academy of Sciences, Butlerova str., 5A, Moscow, 117485, Russia.
    WAG/Rij rats are genetically predisposed to absence epilepsy. Maternal behavior in WAG/Rij female rats is known to differ from that in non-epileptic females. We hypothesize that (1) mother's behavior may be changed as response to changes in pup's conditions; (2) sensory deprivation at the neonatal age affect learning and behavior in adulthood. Read More

    β-Adrenergic signaling is required for the induction of a labile state during memory reconsolidation.
    Brain Res Bull 2018 Apr 20. Epub 2018 Apr 20.
    Department of Biological Sciences, College of Natural Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, South Korea. Electronic address:
    Memory reconsolidation is the process by which previously consolidated memories reenter a labile state through reactivation of the memory trace and are actively consolidated through de novo protein synthesis. Although extensive studies have shown that β-adrenergic signaling plays a critical role in the restabilization of reactivated memory, its role in the destabilization of long-term memory is not well-studied. In this study, we found that membrane excitability increased in hippocampal CA1 neurons immediately after the retrieval of contextual fear memory. Read More

    Involvement of gap junctions in astrocyte impairment induced by manganese exposure.
    Brain Res Bull 2018 Apr 17;140:107-113. Epub 2018 Apr 17.
    School of Public Health, Guangxi Medical University, No.22 Shuangyong Road, Nanning, Guangxi, 530021, PR China. Electronic address:
    Glutamate excitotoxicity, characterized as excessive glutamate stress, is considered to be involved in cerebral ischaemia, brain trauma, and neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. Glutamate homeostasis disruption was highlighted in Mn neurotoxicity caused by high levels of Mn. Astrocytes, accounting for approximately 50% of the neuronal cells in the central nervous system and maintain glutamate homeostasis, are sensitive to neurotoxicity induced by Mn exposure. Read More

    Glial cells modulate hippocampal synaptic plasticity in morphine dependent rats.
    Brain Res Bull 2018 Apr 17;140:97-106. Epub 2018 Apr 17.
    Department of Neuroscience, University of Florida, Gainesville, 323611, FL, United States.
    Drugs of abuse mediate adaptive mechanisms leading to alterations in the synaptic plasticity that has been shown to underlie addictive behaviors. Glial cells play a critical role in modulation of synaptic strength and are potentially involved in drug addiction. Chronic administration of morphine has been shown to increase glial cell activation; therefore, it is possible that altered neuroplasticity induced by drugs of abuse is in part mediated by the activity of glial cells. Read More

    MicroRNA-132 is associated with the cognition improvement following voluntary exercise in SAMP8 mice.
    Brain Res Bull 2018 Apr 17;140:80-87. Epub 2018 Apr 17.
    Department of Neurology, Nanjing Brain Hospital Affiliated to Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China. Electronic address:
    The senescence-accelerated SAMP8 mouse is characterized by progressive cognitive decline and is considered to be a specific model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). A growing body of evidence indicates that physical exercise suppresses age-related cognitive decline. In the current study, we investigated the influence of voluntary wheel running on cognitive function in SAMP8 mice. Read More

    Mice deficient in AKAP13 (BRX) develop compulsive-like behavior and increased body weight.
    Brain Res Bull 2018 Apr 10;140:72-79. Epub 2018 Apr 10.
    Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, 21205, United States. Electronic address:
    Objective: Hormonal contributions to the sex-dependent development of both obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and obesity have been described, but the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. A-kinase anchoring protein 13 (AKAP13) significantly augments ligand-dependent activation of estrogen receptors alpha and beta. The hypothalamus and pituitary gland are implicated in the development and exacerbation of OCD and obesity and have strong AKAP13 expression. Read More

    RNAi-mediated SYT14 knockdown inhibits the growth of human glioma cell line U87MG.
    Brain Res Bull 2018 Apr 7;140:60-64. Epub 2018 Apr 7.
    Department of Neurosurgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Wannan Medical College, Wuhu City, Anhui, 241001, China. Electronic address:
    SYT14 (Synaptotagmin 14) participates in pathomechanical neurodegeneration and contributes to abnormal neurodevelopment. However, the functional mechanism of SYT14 in human glioma tumorigenesis remains unclear. In the present study, we measured the expression levels of SYT14 mRNA in human glioma cell lines, U373MG, U178, and U87MG and neural stem cells (NSC) cell line by RT-PCR, and used lentivirus-mediated small hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) to knock down SYT14 expression in U87MG cells. Read More

    Neurocognitive testing in West African children 3-6 years of age: Challenges and implications for data analyses.
    Brain Res Bull 2018 Apr 6. Epub 2018 Apr 6.
    Departments of Psychiatry and Neurology & Ophthalmology, Michigan State University, 909 fee Road, Rm 321, West Fee Hall, East Lansing, MI, 48824, USA; Department of Psychiatry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA. Electronic address:
    Objective: When testing African children with developmental and cognitive standardized tests from high-income countries (HIC), investigators are uncertain as to whether to apply the HIC norms for these tests when standardizing a child's raw-score performance on the basis of age. The present study compared the construct validity of both raw and HIC-based standardized scores for the Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL) and the Kaufman Assessment Battery in Children - 2nd edition (KABC-II) for Beninese children in a rural setting from three to six years of age.

    Methods: Seventy-four children 3-4 yrs of age were assessed with the MSEL, and 61 eligible older children (5-6 yrs of age) were assessed with the KABC-II. Read More

    Excessive endoplasmic reticulum stress and decreased neuroplasticity-associated proteins in prefrontal cortex of obese rats and the regulatory effects of aerobic exercise.
    Brain Res Bull 2018 Apr 6;140:52-59. Epub 2018 Apr 6.
    Key Laboratory of Exercise and Health Sciences of Ministry of Education, Shanghai University of Sport, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:
    Studies have shown high fat diet induced obesity may cause cognition impairment and down-regulation of neuroplasticity-associated proteins, while aerobic exercise could improve that damage. Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) has been reported to play a key role in regulating neuroplasticity-associated proteins expression, folding and post-translational modification in hippocampus of obese rodent models, however, the effects of ERS on neuroplasticity-associated proteins and possible underlying mechanisms in prefrontal cortex are not fully clear. In order to clarify changes of neuroplasticity-associated proteins and ERS in the prefrontal cortex of obese rats, male SD rats were fed on high fat diet for 8 weeks to establish the obese model. Read More

    Curcumin provides neuroprotection in model of traumatic brain injury via the Nrf2-ARE signaling pathway.
    Brain Res Bull 2018 Apr 4;140:65-71. Epub 2018 Apr 4.
    Department of Neurosurgery, Jinling Hospital, School of Medicine, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, China.
    Curcumin has been found to play the protective role in many neurological disorders, however, its roles and the underlying molecular mechanisms in traumatic brain injury (TBI) are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential neuroprotection of curcumin and the possible role of Nrf2-ARE pathway in the weight-drop model of TBI. The administration of curcumin (100 mg/kg, i. Read More

    1 mA cathodal tDCS shows excitatory effects in children and adolescents: Insights from TMS evoked N100 potential.
    Brain Res Bull 2018 Apr 3;140:43-51. Epub 2018 Apr 3.
    Institute of Medical Psychology and Medical Sociology, University Hospital of Schleswig-Holstein (UKSH), Campus Kiel, Christian-Albrechts-University Kiel, Preußerstrasse 1-9, 24105, Kiel, Germany; Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Psychosomatics and Psychotherapy Goethe-University, Deutschordenstr, 50, D-60528, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.
    In children and adolescents, 1 mA transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) may cause "paradoxical" effects compared with adults: both 1 mA anodal and cathodal tDCS increase amplitude of the motor evoked potential (MEP) as revealed by a single pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the motor cortex. Here, EEG based evoked potentials induced by a single pulse TMS, particularly the N100 component as marker of motor cortex inhibition, were investigated in order to explain effects of tDCS on the developing brain. In nineteen children and adolescents (11-16 years old), 1 mA anodal, cathodal, or sham tDCS was applied over the left primary motor cortex for 10 min. Read More

    Nimodipine represses AMPK phosphorylation and excessive autophagy after chronic cerebral hypoperfusion in rats.
    Brain Res Bull 2018 Apr 3;140:88-96. Epub 2018 Apr 3.
    Hubei Provincial Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Wuhan, Hubei 430061, China; Hubei Province Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Wuhan, Hubei 430074, China. Electronic address:
    Chronic cerebral hypofusion (CCH) after bilateral carotid artery occlusion (2VO) causes cognitive damage and neuronal degeneration in the cortex and hippocampal CA1 area, and influences the oxygen and glucose supply in the brain which often results in metabolic alterations and oxidative stress. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation, a sensor of cellular energy status, directs metabolic adaptation to support cellular growth and survival after CCH. Autophagy is also likely to be involved in metabolic adaptation and plays an important role in neuronal deterioration and cognitive decline after CCH. Read More

    The combined impact of IgLON family proteins Lsamp and Neurotrimin on developing neurons and behavioral profiles in mouse.
    Brain Res Bull 2018 Mar 29;140:5-18. Epub 2018 Mar 29.
    Department of Physiology, Institute of Biomedicine and Translational Medicine, University of Tartu, 19 Ravila Street, 50411, Tartu, Estonia; Centre of Excellence in Genomics and Translational Medicine, University of Tartu, 19 Ravila Street, 50411, Tartu, Estonia. Electronic address:
    Cell surface neural adhesion proteins are critical components in the complex orchestration of cell proliferation, apoptosis, and neuritogenesis essential for proper brain construction and behavior. We focused on the impact of two plasticity-associated IgLON family neural adhesion molecules, Neurotrimin (Ntm) and Limbic system associated membrane protein (Lsamp), on mouse behavior and its underlying neural development. Phenotyping neurons derived from the hippocampi of Lsamp, Ntm and LsampNtm mice was performed in parallel with behavioral testing. Read More

    Association between ABCA1 gene polymorphisms and the therapeutic response to donepezil therapy in Han Chinese patients with Alzheimer's disease.
    Brain Res Bull 2018 Mar 29;140:1-4. Epub 2018 Mar 29.
    Department of Pharmacy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital, Shanghai 200233, PR China; School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200025, PR China. Electronic address:
    Aim: It is reported that ABCA1, which plays a key role in cholesterol transport and apolipoprotein E (APOE) metabolism in the brain, is related to Alzheimer's disease. However, few studies have focused on the relationship between the ABCA1 gene and the therapeutic response to donepezil (DNP), which has been shown to be related to reduced sAPP production.This study evaluated the association between the ABCA1 gene polymorphism and the clinical response to donepezil therapy in Han Chinese patients with Alzheimer's disease. Read More

    Integration of H NMR- and UPLC-Q-TOF/MS-based plasma metabonomics study to identify diffuse axonal injury biomarkers in rat.
    Brain Res Bull 2018 Mar 29;140:19-27. Epub 2018 Mar 29.
    Department of Forensic Medicine, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016, China. Electronic address:
    Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is much common during traumatic brain injury (TBI) and is associated with high mortality and poor neurological outcome. Although many studies have been examined, there are still no reliable objective diagnostic modalities available for clinicians to make an early diagnosis of DAI. Therefore, we established a rat model of DAI, applying an integrated H NMR- and UPLC-Q-TOF/MS-based metabonomics approach to identify differentially changed metabolites in plasma. Read More

    A cAMP analog attenuates beta-amyloid (1-42)-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and spatial learning and memory deficits.
    Brain Res Bull 2018 Mar 29;140:34-42. Epub 2018 Mar 29.
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:
    Alzheimer's disease (AD), a neurodegenerative disorder in elderly, is indicated with deposition of Amyloid β (Aβ) in the brain and accompanied with cognitive impairment. Bucladesine, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, may ameliorate AD's cognitive dysfunctions through mimicking the action of cAMP and raising its intracellular level. Here, we investigated the effects of bucladesine on Aβ-induced memory and learning impairment in a Morris water maze (MWM) model. Read More

    AMN082-a metabotropic glutamate receptor type 7 allosteric agonist in the NAc facilitates extinction and inhibits the reinstatement of morphine-induced conditioned place preference in male rats.
    Brain Res Bull 2018 Mar 29;140:28-33. Epub 2018 Mar 29.
    Neuroscience Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 19615, 1178 Tehran, Iran.
    Nucleus accumbens (NAc) plays a primary role in opioid reward. The actions of glutamate (which is the most extensive excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system) are mediated through the activation of the ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs). Previous studies have shown the extensive distributions of the different types of mGluRs, including mGluR7, in regions that are involved in opioid reward, such as NAc. Read More

    Muscarinic modulation of the Xenopus laevis tadpole spinal mechanosensory pathway.
    Brain Res Bull 2018 May 27;139:278-284. Epub 2018 Mar 27.
    School of Psychology and Neuroscience, the University of St Andrews, St Mary's Quad,South Street, St Andrews, Fife, KY16 9JP, UK. Electronic address:
    Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) mediate effects of acetylcholine (ACh) in many systems, including those involved in spinal functions like locomotion. In Xenopus laevis tadpoles at two days old, a model vertebrate for motor control research, we investigated the role of mAChRs in the skin mechanosensory pathway. We found that mAChR activation by carbachol did not affect the sensory Rohon-Beard neuron properties. Read More

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