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    Remote limb ischemic postconditioning protects against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury by activating AMPK-dependent autophagy.
    Brain Res Bull 2018 Feb 13;139:105-113. Epub 2018 Feb 13.
    Department of Neurosurgery, Tangdu Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an 710038, China. Electronic address:
    Remote limb ischemic postconditioning (RIPoC) is a promising adjunct treatment for cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. However, the underlying mechanisms have not been fully elucidated yet. The present study aims to investigate potential involvement and regulatory mechanisms of autophagy in RIPoC treatment against cerebral IR injury in mice. Read More

    Estradiol effect on short-term object memory under hypocholinergic condition.
    Brain Res Bull 2018 Feb 12. Epub 2018 Feb 12.
    Núcleo de Neurociências, Departamento de Fisiologia e Biofísica, Brazil. Electronic address:
    Estrogens positively affect object recognition memory (ORM). However, whether this effect rely on acetylcholine is unknown. Here we investigated if 17β-estradiol (E2) would be able to recover ORM deficits in animals with decreased expression of the Vesicular Acetylcholine Transporter (VAChT KD). Read More

    Modulation of central endocannabinoid system results in gastric mucosal protection in the rat.
    Brain Res Bull 2018 Feb 10. Epub 2018 Feb 10.
    Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapy, Faculty of Medicine, Semmelweis University, Nagyvárad tér 4., 1089 Budapest, Hungary. Electronic address:
    Previous findings showed that inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), degrading enzymes of anandamide (2-AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), reduced the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced gastric lesions. The present study aimed to investigate: i./whether central or peripheral mechanism play a major role in the gastroprotective effect of inhibitors of FAAH, MAGL and AEA uptake, ii. Read More

    Down-regulation of miRNA-320c promotes Tumor growth and Metastasis and Predicts Poor Prognosis in Human Glioma.
    Brain Res Bull 2018 Feb 10. Epub 2018 Feb 10.
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Jiangxi Cancer Hospital, Nanchang, Jiangxi,330029, PR China. Electronic address:
    Emerging studies show that dysregulated miRNAs are implicated in tumorigenesis and progression of various cancers. MiRNA-320c, an important member of miRNA-320 family, was characterized as a new candidate miRNA that suppressed the development of colorectal cancer and bladder cancer. However, the function of miRNA-320c in human glioma remained unclear. Read More

    Opioid and αadrenergic mechanisms are activated by GABA agonists in the lateral parabrachial nucleus to induce sodium intake.
    Brain Res Bull 2018 Feb 9. Epub 2018 Feb 9.
    Department of Physiology and Pathology, School of Dentistry, São Paulo State University, UNESP, Araraquara, SP, Brazil.
    The activation of GABA, opioid or αadrenergic mechanisms in the lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPBN) facilitates hypertonic NaCl intake in rats. In the present study, we combined opioid or αadrenergic antagonists with GABA agonists into the LPBN in order to investigate if NaCl intake caused by GABAergic activation in normohydrated rats depends on opioid or α-adrenergic mechanisms in this area. Male Holtzman rats with stainless steel cannulas implanted bilaterally in the LPBN were used. Read More

    Growth differentiation factor 11 improves neurobehavioral recovery and stimulates angiogenesis in rats subjected to cerebral ischemia/reperfusion.
    Brain Res Bull 2018 Feb 9;139:38-47. Epub 2018 Feb 9.
    Department of Neurology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China. Electronic address:
    The recent suggestion that growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) acts as a rejuvenation factor has remained controversial. However, in addition to its role in aging, the relationship between GDF11 and cerebral ischemia is still an important area that needs more investigation. Here we examined effects of GDF11 on angiogenesis and recovery of neurological function in a rat model of stroke. Read More

    Effects of palmatine on rats with comorbidity of diabetic neuropathic pain and depression.
    Brain Res Bull 2018 Feb 7;139:56-66. Epub 2018 Feb 7.
    Department of Physiology, Basic Medical College, Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330006, PR China; Jiangxi Provincial Key Laboratory of Autonomic Nervous Function and Disease, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330006, PR China. Electronic address:
    Diabetic neuropathic pain (DNP) is one of the common complications of diabetes. Depression (DP) is also one of the common complications of diabetes. P2Xreceptors play an important role in the transmission of nociceptive signal and are associated with depressive illness. Read More

    Antinociceptive effects of the endogenous cannabinoid peptide agonist VD-hemopressin(β) in mice.
    Brain Res Bull 2018 Feb 6;139:48-55. Epub 2018 Feb 6.
    Key Laboratory of Preclinical Study for New Drugs of Gansu Province, and Institute of Physiology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Lanzhou University, 199 Donggang West Road, Lanzhou, 730000, China. Electronic address:
    Cannabinoids (CBs) play important roles in pain modulation. Recently, VD-hemopressin(β) [VD-Hpβ], a 12-residue β-hemoglobin-derived peptide, was reported to activate both CBand CBreceptors in vitro. To further characterize in vivo actions of VD-Hpβ, its antinociceptive activity and site(s) were evaluated in the mouse tail-flick test, and supraspinal antinociception of VD-Hpβ was further assessed in the writhing test. Read More

    Doxycycline prevents and reverses schizophrenic-like behaviors induced by ketamine in mice via modulation of oxidative, nitrergic and cholinergic pathways.
    Brain Res Bull 2018 Feb 6. Epub 2018 Feb 6.
    Neuropharmacology Unit, Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, PMB 5017, Oyo State, Nigeria.
    The involvement of oxidative/nitrosative stress, cholinergic and inflammatory pathways have been reported to contribute to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, a debilitating neuropsychiatric disorder. Our previous studies have shown that doxycycline (DOX), a notable member of tetracyclines with proven antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, attenuated psychotic-like behaviors induced by apomophine and ketamine (KET) in mice. This present study was designed to further evaluate in detail the ability of DOX and its combination with risperidone (RIS) to prevent and reverse KET-induced schizophrenic-like behaviors and the role of oxidative/nitrosative and cholinergic pathways in mice. Read More

    Postconditioning with repeated mild hypoxia protects neonatal hypoxia-ischemic rats against brain damage and promotes rehabilitation of brain function.
    Brain Res Bull 2018 Feb 6;139:31-37. Epub 2018 Feb 6.
    Department of Respiratory, The First affiliated Hospitial of Gannan Medical University, 23 Young Road, Ganzhou 341000, Jiangxi, PR China.
    Rationale: Mild hypoxia conditioning induced by repeated episodes of transient ischemia is a clinically applicable method for protecting the brain against injury after hypoxia-ischemic brain damage.

    Objective: To assess the effect of repeated mild hypoxia postconditioning on brain damage and long-term neural functional recovery after hypoxia-ischemic brain damage.

    Methods And Results: Rats received different protocols of repeated mild hypoxia postconditioning. Read More

    Phosphorylation and SUMOylation of CRMP2 regulate the formation and maturation of dendritic spines.
    Brain Res Bull 2018 Feb 6;139:21-30. Epub 2018 Feb 6.
    Department of Anatomy, Medical College of Jinan University, Guangzhou 510630, China. Electronic address:
    The posttranslational modifications of CRMP2 play an important role in axon outgrowth, cell polarization and dendritic morphogenesis. However, whether CRMP2 and its posttranslational modifications are involved in dendritic spine development specifically is not completely clear. Here, we show that CRMP2 can promote the formation and maturation of dendritic spines in cultured hippocampal neurons. Read More

    Repeated restraint stress reduces the acquisition and relapse of methamphetamine-conditioned place preference but not behavioral sensitization.
    Brain Res Bull 2018 Feb 5;139:99-104. Epub 2018 Feb 5.
    Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, 16419, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:
    The studies for the effects of stress on drug addiction were mostly obtained using sequential exposure to stress and drugs. However, few studies have been conducted on the effects of simultaneous exposure to stress and methamphetamine (METH) on METH-induced reward effects and behavioral sensitization. Thus, we examined the effects of simultaneous exposure to restraint stress and METH on METH-induced addictive behaviors using conditioned place preference (CPP) in mice. Read More

    Effect of glucagon-like peptide-1 analogue; Exendin-4, on cognitive functions in type 2 diabetes mellitus; possible modulation of brain derived neurotrophic factor and brain Visfatin.
    Brain Res Bull 2018 Feb 5;139:67-80. Epub 2018 Feb 5.
    Department of Medical Histology and Cell Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.
    Background: Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is one of the most essential neurotrophic factors in the brain. BDNF is involved in learning, memory and locomotion suggesting it as a target in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) associated cognitive changes. Visfatin; an adipokine discovered to be expressed in the brain; was found to have multiple effects including its participation in keeping energy supply to the cell and is consequentially involved in cell survival. Read More

    Principles of diffusion kurtosis imaging and its role in early diagnosis of neurodegenerative disorders.
    Brain Res Bull 2018 Jan 31;139:91-98. Epub 2018 Jan 31.
    Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Pathology of neurodegenerative diseases can be correlated with intra-neuronal as well as extracellular changes which lead to neuronal degeneration. The central nervous system (CNS) is a complex structure comprising of many biological barriers. These microstructural barriers might be affected by a variety of pathological processes. Read More

    Carvacrol prevents impairments in motor and neurochemical parameters in a model of progressive parkinsonism induced by reserpine.
    Brain Res Bull 2018 Jan 30;139:9-15. Epub 2018 Jan 30.
    Department of Physiology, Federal University of Sergipe, São Cristóvão, SE, Brazil.
    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by a progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compact (SNpc), with consequent depletion of dopamine in the striatum, which gives rise to the characteristic motor symptoms of PD. Although its etiology is unknown, several studies have suggested that oxidative stress plays a critical function in the pathophysiology of PD, and antioxidant agents could be helpful to slown down the dopaminergic neurodegeneration. Carvacrol (CA) is a phenolic monoterpene found in essential oils of many aromatic plants that presents antioxidant and neuroprotective effects. Read More

    Confocal calcium imaging analysis of respiratory-related burst activity in the parafacial region.
    Brain Res Bull 2018 Jan 30;139:16-20. Epub 2018 Jan 30.
    Department of Oral Physiology, Showa University School of Dentistry, 1-5-8 Hatanodai, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 142-8555, Japan.
    The parafacial respiratory group (pFRG) surrounding the ventrolateral part of the facial motor nucleus is one of respiratory rhythm generators that consists of pre-inspiratory (Pre-I) neurons. Previous studies showed that most of the Pre-I neurons locating in the Phox2b cluster of the rostral ventral medulla were also Phox2b positive and intrinsically COsensitive. However, it is not clear what percentage of Phox2b-expressing cells in the pFRG of the ventral medulla are Pre-I neurons. Read More

    Novel insights into mitochondrial molecular targets of iron-induced neurodegeneration: Reversal by cannabidiol.
    Brain Res Bull 2018 Jan 29;139:1-8. Epub 2018 Jan 29.
    Neurobiology and Developmental Biology Laboratory, Faculty of Biosciences, Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul, 90619-900 Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil; National Institute of Science and Technology for Translational Medicine (INCT-TM), Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico (CNPq), Brasília, Brazil. Electronic address:
    Evidence has demonstrated iron accumulation in specific brain regions of patients suffering from neurodegenerative disorders, and this metal has been recognized as a contributing factor for neurodegeneration. Using an experimental model of brain iron accumulation, we have shown that iron induces severe memory deficits that are accompanied by oxidative stress, increased apoptotic markers, and decreased synaptophysin in the hippocampus of rats. The present study aims to characterize iron loading effects as well as to determine the molecular targets of cannabidiol (CBD), the main non-psychomimetic compound of Cannabis sativa, on mitochondria. Read More

    Reduction in endogenous cardiac steroids protects the brain from oxidative stress in a mouse model of mania induced by amphetamine.
    Brain Res Bull 2018 Jan 31;137:356-362. Epub 2018 Jan 31.
    Department of Medical Neurobiology, Institute for Medical Research Israel-Canada, The Hebrew University-Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem, Israel. Electronic address:
    Objectives: Bipolar disorder (BD) is a severe mental illness characterized by episodes of mania and depression. Numerous studies have implicated the involvement of endogenous cardiac steroids (CS), and their receptor, Na, K-ATPase, in BD. The aim of the present study was to examine the role of brain oxidative stress in the CS-induced behavioral effects in mice. Read More

    Electrodiagnostic applications of somatosensory evoked high-frequency EEG oscillations: Technical considerations.
    Brain Res Bull 2018 Feb 1;137:351-355. Epub 2018 Feb 1.
    Institute of Neuroscience, The Medical School, Newcastle University, NE2 4HH, UK; Department of Neurology, Royal Victoria Infirmary, Newcastle upon Tyne Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 4LP, UK; Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Royal Victoria Infirmary, Newcastle upon Tyne Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 4LP, UK. Electronic address:
    Introduction: High frequency oscillations (HFOs) embedded within the somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) are not routinely recorded/measured as part of standard clinical SEPs. However, HFOs could provide important additional diagnostic/prognostic information in various patient groups in whom SEPs are tested routinely. One area is the management of patients with hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) in the intensive care unit (ICU). Read More

    iTRAQ-based differential proteomic analysis of the brains in a rat model of delayedcarbon monoxide encephalopathy.
    Brain Res Bull 2018 Jan 20;137:329-337. Epub 2018 Jan 20.
    Department of Forensic Medicine, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016, China. Electronic address:
    Delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning (DEACMP) is a difficult-to-manage neurological complication that can severely affect the life quality of patients. Although the central nervous system (CNS) injuries have been reported, the underlying molecular mechanisms are still unclear. Therefore, we established a rat model of DEACMP, applying isobaric tags for a relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ)-based proteomics approach to identify differentially expressed proteins in cerebral tissue. Read More

    Effects of thymol on amyloid-β-induced impairments in hippocampal synaptic plasticity in rats fed a high-fat diet.
    Brain Res Bull 2018 Jan 13;137:338-350. Epub 2018 Jan 13.
    Neurophysiology Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran.
    Obesity and a high-fat diet (HFD) are known to increase the incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Oxidative stress, a major risk factor for AD, is increased with HFD consumption. Thymol (Thy) has antioxidant properties. Read More

    Normative distribution of substance P and its tachykinin neurokinin-1 receptor in the medullary serotonergic network of the human infant during postnatal development.
    Brain Res Bull 2018 Jan 11;137:319-328. Epub 2018 Jan 11.
    Department of Pathology, Boston Children's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.
    Substance P (SP) and its tachykinin NK1 receptor (NK1R) function within key medullary nuclei to regulate cardiorespiratory and autonomic control. We examined the normative distribution of SP and NK1R in the serotonergic (5-Hydroxytryptamine, [5-HT]) network of the human infant medulla during postnatal development, to provide a baseline to facilitate future analysis of the SP/NK1R system and its interaction with 5-HT within pediatric brainstem disorders in early life. [I] labelled Bolton Hunter SP (BH-SP) tissue receptor autoradiography (n = 15), single label immunohistochemistry (IHC) and double label immunofluorescence (IF) (n = 10) were used to characterize the normative distribution profile of SP and NK1R in the 5-HT network of the human infant medulla during postnatal development. Read More

    Harmine enhances GABAergic transmission onto basoamygdala projection neurons in mice.
    Brain Res Bull 2018 Jan 9;137:294-300. Epub 2018 Jan 9.
    Laboratory of Fear Anxiety Disorders, Institute of Life Science, Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330031, China. Electronic address:
    Emerging evidence indicates that loss of inhibitory tone in amygdala with its subsequent overactivation contributes to the development of multiple mental disorders such as anxiety disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Harmine is a member of natural β-carboline alkaloids which can readily cross the blood brain barrier and displays significant antidepressant and anxiolytic effects in rodents. However, the underlying neurobiological mechanisms are largely unknown. Read More

    Acetylshikonin from Zicao attenuates cognitive impairment and hippocampus senescence in d-galactose-induced aging mouse model via upregulating the expression of SIRT1.
    Brain Res Bull 2018 Jan 9;137:311-318. Epub 2018 Jan 9.
    Department of Pharmacology, Cardiac and Cerebral Vascular Research Center, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address:
    Zicao acts as a pleiotropic medicine in various diseases due to its particular pharmacological properties, including anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, anti-oxidative, and wound healing effects. However, few studies have focused on the function in neurodegenerative diseases of Zicao. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective effect of Acetylshikonin (AS) from Zicao on the hippocampus of the d-galactose (d-gal)-induced sub-acute aging mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Read More

    The effects of melatonin and curcumin on the expression of SIRT2, Bcl-2 and Bax in the hippocampus of adult rats.
    Brain Res Bull 2018 Jan 8;137:306-310. Epub 2018 Jan 8.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Ankara University School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey. Electronic address:
    Objective: Though the mechanisms are not clearly understood, melatonin and curcumin have been reported to have neuroprotective effects. However, the mechanisms of neuroprotective effects of melatonin and curcumin in the brain are not clearly understood. In the current study, we investigated the effects of melatonin and curcumin treatments on oxidative stress parameters, the expression of SIRT2, Bcl-2 and Bax in the hippocampus. Read More

    Serum haptoglobin in Chinese patients with Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment: A case-control study.
    Brain Res Bull 2018 Jan 9;137:301-305. Epub 2018 Jan 9.
    Department of Neurology, Ruijin Hospital affiliated with the School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 197 Ruijin No. 2 Road, Shanghai, 200025, China; School of Public Health, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 227 Chong Qing Nan Road, Shanghai, 200025, China. Electronic address:
    Background: Serum level of Haptoglobin (Hp) maybe associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI).

    Objective: To investigate associations between serum Hp and AD, as well as between Hp and MCI.

    Methods: Serum levels of Hp were measured and analyzed for 51 patients with AD, 139 patients with MCI and their healthy controls matched with sex and age. Read More

    Quantitative analysis of lipid debris accumulation caused by cuprizone induced myelin degradation in different CNS areas.
    Brain Res Bull 2018 Jan 8;137:277-284. Epub 2018 Jan 8.
    MTA-SZTE Research Group for Cortical Microcircuits, Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Neuroscience, University of Szeged, Közép fasor 52, Szeged H-6726, Hungary. Electronic address:
    Degradation of myelin sheath is thought to be the cause of neurodegenerative diseases, such as multiple sclerosis (MS), but definitive agreement on the mechanism of how myelin is lost is currently lacking. Autoimmune initiation of MS has been recently questioned by proposing that the immune response is a consequence of oligodendrocyte degeneration. To study the process of myelin breakdown, we induced demyelination with cuprizone and applied coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy, a non-destructive label-free method to image lipid structures in living tissue. Read More

    ATP-sensitive potassium-channel inhibitor glibenclamide attenuates HPA axis hyperactivity, depression- and anxiety-related symptoms in a rat model of Alzheimer's disease.
    Brain Res Bull 2018 Jan 4;137:265-276. Epub 2018 Jan 4.
    Drug Applied Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; Salari Institute of Cognitive and Behavioral Disorders (SICBD), Alborz, Iran. Electronic address:
    Affective disorders including depression and anxiety are among the most prevalent behavioral abnormalities in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), which affect the quality of life and progression of the disease. Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-(HPA) axis has been reported in affective disorders and AD. Recent studies revealed that current antidepressant drugs are not completely effective for treating anxiety- and depression-related disorders in people with dementia. Read More

    Involvement of α7nAChR in electroacupuncture relieving neuropathic pain in the spinal cord of rat with spared nerve injury.
    Brain Res Bull 2018 Jan 4;137:257-264. Epub 2018 Jan 4.
    Department of Physiology, Gannan Medical University, Ganzhou, 341000, PR China; Pain Medicine Research Insititute, Gannan Medical University, Ganzhou, 341000, PR China. Electronic address:
    Alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) was reported to be involved in the modulation of neuropathic pain. Electroacupuncture (EA) has therapeutic effects on neuropathic pain induced by nerve injury, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The present study was designed to investigate whether α7nAChR participates in the relieving effects of 2 Hz EA on neuropathic pain. Read More

    Myelin changes at the early stage of 5XFAD mice.
    Brain Res Bull 2017 Dec 28;137:285-293. Epub 2017 Dec 28.
    Department of Neurology, Affiliated ZhongDa Hospital, School of Medicine, Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China. Electronic address:
    Previous studies have demonstrated myelin deficits in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, it is still unclear whether myelin deficits occur at early stage of AD. Our study aimed to investigate myelin deficits in 5XFAD mice dynamically in different cognition-associated brain regions at early stage of AD. Read More

    17β-estradiol (E2) promotes growth and stability of new dendritic spines via estrogen receptor β pathway in intact mouse cortex.
    Brain Res Bull 2017 Dec 27;137:241-248. Epub 2017 Dec 27.
    Britton Chance Center for Biomedical Photonics, Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics-Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074, China; MOE Key Laboratory for Biomedical Photonics, Collaborative Innovation Center for Biomedical Engineering, School of Engineering Sciences, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074, China. Electronic address:
    The steroid hormone 17β-estradiol (E2) remodels neural circuits at the synaptic level in the mammalian hippocampus and cortex. However, the underlying mechanism of synapse dynamics remains unclear. To elucidate the mechanism, we traced individual dendritic spines on layer V pyramidal neurons of the primary sensory cortex in adult female mice under E2 intervention using two-photon in vivo imaging microscopy. Read More

    The protective effect of 20(S)-protopanaxadiol (PPD) against chronic sleep deprivation (CSD)-induced memory impairments in mice.
    Brain Res Bull 2017 Dec 27;137:249-256. Epub 2017 Dec 27.
    Research Center for Pharmacology & Toxicology, Institute of Medicinal Plant Development (IMPLAD), Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China; Hunan Laboratory Animal Center, Hunan Provincial Research Center for Safety Evaluation of Drugs, Changsha, China. Electronic address:
    Sleep deprivation (SD) is associated with oxidative stress that causes learning and memory impairment. 20(S)-Protopanaxadiol (PPD), one of the protopanaxadiol-type saponins, has antioxidant and neuroprotective effect. This study was designed to research the protective effect of PPD against cognitive deficits induced by chronic sleep deprivation (CSD) in mice. Read More

    Brain activity-induced neuronal glucose uptake/glycolysis: Is the lactate shuttle not required?
    Brain Res Bull 2017 Dec 19;137:225-228. Epub 2017 Dec 19.
    Department of Biochemistry, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, Singapore; NUS Graduate School for Integrative Sciences and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore,. Electronic address:
    The astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttle (ANLS) hypothesis posits that during neuronal activation, astrocytic glycolysis consumes glucose and generates lactate, with the latter then imported by neurons as a preferred fuel. The hypothesis has been controversial, with multiple theoretical postulates for and against, and with empirical evidence that were either supportive or otherwise. Recent findings using direct in vivo imaging of lactate and glucose uptake as well as associated metabolic changes in neurons have now placed important constraints on the hypothesis. Read More

    The dynamic nature of fear engrams in the basolateral amygdala.
    Brain Res Bull 2017 Dec 18. Epub 2017 Dec 18.
    Department of Neuroscience, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, United States. Electronic address:
    Great progress has been made in our understanding of how so-called memory engrams in the brain enable the storage and retrieval of memories. This has led to the realization that across the lifetime of an animal, the spatial and temporal properties of a memory engram are not fixed, but instead are subjected to dynamic modifications that can be both dependent and independent on additional experiences. The dynamic nature of engrams is especially relevant in the case of fear memories, whose contributions to an animal's evolutionary fitness depend on a delicate balance of stability and flexibility. Read More

    Suppression of NLRP3 attenuates hemorrhagic transformation after delayed rtPA treatment in thromboembolic stroke rats: Involvement of neutrophil recruitment.
    Brain Res Bull 2017 Dec 16;137:229-240. Epub 2017 Dec 16.
    Department of Neurology, Jinling Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing 210002, China. Electronic address:
    Background: Inflammation and neutrophils play pivotal roles in hemorrhagic transformation (HT) after recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) treatment in stroke; however, the contribution of Nod-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3), a key component of the innate immune system, is not yet known. This study aimed to explore the role of NLRP3 in the delayed rtPA-induced HT and its association with the neutrophil recruitment.

    Methods: Rats were subjected to thromboembolic focal cerebral ischemia and delayed rtPA treatment at 4 h after ischemia to mimic HT. Read More

    Role of the orexin receptors within the nucleus accumbens in the drug priming-induced reinstatement of morphine seeking in the food deprived rats.
    Brain Res Bull 2017 Dec 16;137:217-224. Epub 2017 Dec 16.
    Neuroscience Research Center, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:
    Orexin plays a key role in mediating stress-induced drug relapse. However, the role of different types of orexinergic receptors that modulate stress-induced drug seeking remains unknown. The nucleus accumbens (NAc) has an important role in the reward system and receives orexinergic projections of the lateral hypothalamus. Read More

    Effects of Xiao Yao San on Interferon-α-Induced Depression in Mice.
    Brain Res Bull 2017 Dec 15. Epub 2017 Dec 15.
    School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 510515, China. Electronic address:
    Background And Objective: Xiao Yao San (XYS) is a traditional Chinese medicine used to treat depression; however, the mechanism underlying its antidepressant properties remains unclear. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects and action mechanisms of XYS on interferon-α-induced depression in mice.

    Method: Mice were divided into six groups: control; model; low-, medium-, and high-dose XYS; and escitalopram-treated group. Read More

    Acute treatment with ketamine and chronic treatment with minocycline exert antidepressant-like effects and antioxidant properties in rats subjected different stressful events.
    Brain Res Bull 2017 Dec 15;137:204-216. Epub 2017 Dec 15.
    Laboratório de Neurociências, Unidade Acadêmica em Ciências da Saúde, Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense, Criciúma, SC, Brazil. Electronic address:
    Despite decades of research, the fundamental neurochemical and molecular mechanisms underlying the major depressive disorder (MDD) are still poorly understood, and current antidepressant treatments have limited clinical efficacy. In clinical conditions, the rapprochement between the disease and the corrective actions of drugs in laboratory animals is essential for developing effective therapies. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antidepressant effects of ketamine (N-metil-d-asparte (NMDA) receptor antagonist), minocycline (tetracycline antibiotic), and amitriptyline (classical antidepressant), on behavior and oxidative stress parameters in animals submitted to the chronic mild stress (CMS) and maternal deprivation protocols. Read More

    Similar effect of CRFand CRFreceptor in the basolateral or central nuclei of the amygdala on tonic immobility behavior.
    Brain Res Bull 2017 Dec 12;137:187-196. Epub 2017 Dec 12.
    Psychobiology Graduation Program, School of Philosophy, Science and Literature of Ribeirão Preto of the University of São Paulo, 14040-901 Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil; Department of Morphology, Physiology and Basic Pathology, Ribeirão Preto Dentistry School of the University of São Paulo, 14040-904 Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:
    Studies have used paradigms based on animal models to understand human emotional behavior because they appear to be correlated with fear- and anxiety-related defensive patterns in non-human mammals. In this context, tonic immobility (TI) behavior is an innate response associated with extreme threat situations, such as predator attack. Some reports have demonstrated the involvement of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) in regulation of the endocrine system, defensive behaviors and behavioral responses to stress. Read More

    Chronic adolescent morphine exposure alters the responses of lateral paragigantocellular neurons to acute morphine administration in adulthood.
    Brain Res Bull 2017 Dec 12;137:178-186. Epub 2017 Dec 12.
    Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.
    Accumulating evidence support the growing non-medical use of morphine during adolescence. Despite this concern which has recently been addressed in some studies, cellular mechanisms underlying the long-term neurobiological and behavioral effects of opiate exposure during this critical period have still remained largely unexplored. Several reports have proposed that subtle long-lasting neurobiological alterations might be triggered by exposure to opiate derivatives or drugs of abuse particularly when this occurs during a critical phase of brain maturation such as adolescence. Read More

    Sleep deprivation decreases neuronal excitability and responsiveness in rats both in vivo and ex vivo.
    Brain Res Bull 2017 Dec 11;137:166-177. Epub 2017 Dec 11.
    Department of Physiology and Neurobiology, Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, Hungary.
    Sleep deprivation has severe consequences for higher nervous functions. Its effects on neuronal excitability may be one of the most important factors underlying functional deterioration caused by sleep loss. In the present work, excitability changes were studied using two complementary in vivo and ex vivo models. Read More

    Anxiolytic effect of CPEB1 knockdown on the amygdala of a mouse model of inflammatory pain.
    Brain Res Bull 2017 Dec 11;137:156-165. Epub 2017 Dec 11.
    Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an 710032, China. Electronic address:
    Anxiety disorders are a category of mental disorders characterized by feelings of anxiety, stress, and fear attached to various sources. However, their pathogenesis is complicated and has not been fully elucidated. The amygdala is a vital brain region that regulates anxiety and mental disorders. Read More

    Dorsal hippocampal cannabinergic and GABAergic systems modulate memory consolidation in passive avoidance task.
    Brain Res Bull 2017 Dec 7;137:197-203. Epub 2017 Dec 7.
    Department of Pharmacology School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Iranian National Center for Addiction Studies, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:
    In the present research, we examined the possible interaction between the hippocampal CB2 and GABAreceptors on modulation of memory consolidation. In this research, step-down passive a . voidance task was used to evaluate memory consolidation in adult male NMRI mice. Read More

    Comparative of transcranial magnetic stimulation and other treatments in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.
    Brain Res Bull 2017 Dec 1;137:140-145. Epub 2017 Dec 1.
    Departamento de Bioquimica y Biologia Molecular, Facultad de Medicina y Enfermeria, Universidad de Cordoba Cordoba, Spain; Instituto Maimonides de Investigacion Biomedica de Cordoba (IMIBIC), Cordoba, Spain. Electronic address:
    The effects of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), natalizumab (nata), dimethyl fumarate (DMF) and dexamethasone (DEX) on clinical score and oxidative stress produced by a single dose of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) in tail of Dark Agouti rats was studied. TMS (60Hz and 0.7 mT), nata (5mg/kg), DMF (15mg/kg) and DEX (300μg/kg) was applied for 21 after the administration of MOG (150μg). Read More

    GABAergic interneurons: The orchestra or the conductor in fear learning and memory?
    Brain Res Bull 2017 Dec 2. Epub 2017 Dec 2.
    Fishberg Department of Neuroscience and the Friedman Brain Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, United States; Department of Psychiatry, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, United States. Electronic address:
    Fear conditioning is a form of associative learning that is fundamental to survival and involves potentiation of activity in excitatory projection neurons (PNs). Current models stipulate that the mechanisms underlying this process involve plasticity of PN synapses, which exhibit strengthening in response to fear conditioning. However, excitatory PNs are extensively modulated by a diverse array of GABAergic interneurons whose contributions to acquisition, storage, and expression of fear memory remain poorly understood. Read More

    Glutathione depletion: Starting point of brain metabolic stress, neuroinflammation and cognitive impairment in rats.
    Brain Res Bull 2017 Nov 26;137:120-131. Epub 2017 Nov 26.
    Neurology at the Medico-Surgical Research Center. 3rd student of Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences Victoria de Giron, Playa, Havana CP 11300, Cuba.
    Glutathione provides protection from oxidative stress-induced damage through the reduction of reactive oxygen species for the maintenance of oxidant homeostasis. Our purpose was to test the effects of depleting tissue GSH by buthionine sulfoximine on brain oxidative metabolism and cognitive performance in rats. Glutathione depletion induced a compensatory response on antioxidant enzymes and increase of cell damage indicators in all the examined cerebral areas at 24h. Read More

    Cortical morphometric changes after spinal cord injury.
    Brain Res Bull 2017 Nov 23;137:107-119. Epub 2017 Nov 23.
    Department of Neurology, Christian Doppler Medical Centre and Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Paracelsus Medical University, Salzburg, Austria; Spinal Cord Injury and Tissue Regeneration Center, Salzburg, Austria; University for Medical Informatics and Health Technology, UMIT, Hall in Tirol, Austria.
    Neuroimaging studies suggest that spinal cord injury (SCI) may lead to significant anatomical alterations in the human sensorimotor system. In particular, voxel-based morphometry (VBM) of cortical volume has revealed a significant gray and white matter atrophy bilaterally in the primary sensory cortex (S1). By contrast, some structural studies failed to detect changes in gray matter volume (GMV) in the primary motor cortex (M1) following SCI, whereas others have reported a substantial decrease of GMV also in M1. Read More

    Disinhibition in learning and memory circuits: New vistas for somatostatin interneurons and long-term synaptic plasticity.
    Brain Res Bull 2017 Nov 23. Epub 2017 Nov 23.
    Department of Neurosciences and GRSNC, Université de Montréal, P.O. Box 6128, Station Downton, Montreal, QC H3C 3J7, Canada. Electronic address:
    Neural circuit functions involve finely controlled excitation/inhibition interactions that allow complex neuronal computations and support high order brain functions such as learning and memory. Disinhibition, defined as a transient brake on inhibition that favors excitation, recently appeared to be a conserved circuit mechanism implicated in various functions such as sensory processing, learning and memory. Although vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) interneurons are considered to be the main disinhibitory cells, recent studies highlighted a pivotal role of somatostatin (SOM) interneurons in inhibiting GABAergic interneurons and promoting principal cell activation. Read More

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