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    Consequences of tuning network function by tonic and phasic locus coeruleus output and stress: Regulating detection and discrimination of peripheral stimuli.
    Brain Res 2018 Jun 13. Epub 2018 Jun 13.
    Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, Rowan University School of Osteopathic Medicine, Stratford, NJ 08084, United States. Electronic address:
    Flexible and adaptive behaviors have evolved with increasing complexity and numbers of neuromodulator systems. The neuromodulatory locus coeruleus-norepinephrine (LC-NE) system is central to regulating cognitive function in a behaviorally-relevant and arousal-dependent manner. Through its nearly ubiquitous efferent projections, the LC-NE system acts to modulate neuron function on a cell-by-cell basis and exert a spectrum of actions across different brain regions to optimize target circuit function. Read More

    Bilateral cortical representation of tactile roughness.
    Brain Res 2018 Jun 13. Epub 2018 Jun 13.
    The BioRobotics Institute, Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna, Pisa, Italy; Translational Neural Engineering Laboratory, Center for Neuroprosthetics, École Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Switzerland. Electronic address:
    Roughness is the most important feature for texture discrimination. Here we investigate how the bilateral cortical representation of touch is modulated by tactile roughness by analyzing the neural responses elicited by stimuli with various coarseness levels ranging from fine to medium. A prolonged stimulation was delivered to 10 healthy subjects by passively sliding a tactile stimuli under the fingertip while recording the EEG to study the modulation of Somatosensory Evoked Potentials (SEPs) as well as activity in the theta and alpha bands. Read More

    The touchy business of gastrointestinal (GI) mechanosensitivity.
    Brain Res 2018 Aug;1693(Pt B):197-200
    Enteric Neuroscience Program, Division of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, Department of Physiology & Biomedical Engineering, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN, USA. Electronic address:
    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract's normal function depends on its ability to propel, mix, and store contents in a highly coordinated fashion. An ability to sense mechanical forces is therefore fundamental to normal GI tract operation. There are several mechanosensory circuits distributed throughout the GI tract. Read More

    Challenges in quantifying food intake in rodents.
    Brain Res 2018 Aug;1693(Pt B):188-191
    National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Bethesda, MD, USA; National Institute on Drug Abuse, Baltimore, MD, USA. Electronic address:
    Feeding is a critical behavior that animals depend on for survival, and pathological alterations in food intake underlie disorders such as obesity and anorexia nervosa. To understand these disorders and their development in animal models, researchers must quantify food intake. Although conceptually straightforward, it remains a challenge to obtain accurate records of food intake in rodents. Read More

    Computational motility models of neurogastroenterology and neuromodulation.
    Brain Res 2018 Aug;1693(Pt B):174-179
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Room 2167, CIEMAS, 101 Science Drive, Durham, NC, USA. Electronic address:
    The success of neuromodulation therapies, particularly in the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves, has been greatly aided by computational, biophysical models. However, treating gastrointestinal disorders with electrical stimulation has been much less explored, partly because the mode of action of such treatments is unclear, and selection of stimulation parameters is often empirical. Progress in gut neuromodulation is limited by the comparative lack of biophysical models capable of simulating neuromodulation of gastrointestinal function. Read More

    Bioelectronics for mapping gut activity.
    Brain Res 2018 Aug;1693(Pt B):169-173
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, New York Institute of Technology, Room 226B, Schure Hall, Northern Blvd, Old Westbury, NY 11568-8000, USA. Electronic address:
    Gastric peristalsis is initiated and coordinated by an underlying bioelectrical activity, termed slow waves. High-resolution (HR) mapping of the slow waves has become a fundamental tool for accurately defining electrophysiological properties in gastroenterology, including dysrhythmias in gastric disorders such as gastroparesis and functional dyspepsia. Currently, HR mapping is achieved via acquisition of slow waves taken directly from the serosa of fasted subjects undergoing invasive abdominal surgery. Read More

    Engineering a second brain in a dish.
    Brain Res 2018 Aug;1693(Pt B):165-168
    Department of Pediatric General and Thoracic Surgery, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, S6.609, Building, 3333 Burnet Avenue, Cincinnati, OH, USA; Inserm UMR 1235 - TENS, INSERM, University of Nantes, Rm427, Faculty of Medicine, 1 Rue Gaston Veil, Nantes, France. Electronic address:
    The utilization of human pluripotent stem cells holds great promise in elucidating principles of developmental biology and applications in personalized and regenerative medicine. Breakthroughs from the last decade have allowed the scientific community to better understand and successfully manipulate human pluripotent stem cells using distinct differentiation strategies into a variety of target tissues. This manipulation relies solely on our understanding of developmental processes occurring in model organisms. Read More

    Roles for gut vagal sensory signals in determining energy availability and energy expenditure.
    Brain Res 2018 Aug;1693(Pt B):151-153
    Department of Medicine & Neuroscience, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, Golding 501, Bronx, NY 10461 USA. Electronic address:
    The gut sensory vagus transmits a wide range of meal-related mechanical, chemical and gut peptide signals from gastrointestinal and hepatic tissues to the central nervous system at the level of the caudal brainstem. Results from studies using neurophysiological, behavioral physiological and metabolic approaches that challenge the integrity of this gut-brain axis support an important role for these gut signals in the negative feedback control of energy availability by limiting food intake during a meal. These experimental approaches have now been applied to identify important and unanticipated contributions of the vagal sensory gut-brain axis to the control of two additional effectors of overall energy balance: the feedback control of endogenous energy availability through hepatic glucose production and metabolism, and the control of energy expenditure through brown adipose tissue thermogenesis. Read More

    Mechanisms of vagal plasticity influencing feeding behavior.
    Brain Res 2018 Aug;1693(Pt B):146-150
    Department Cellular and Molecular Physiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.
    Sensory neurons of the vagus nerve receive many different peripheral signals that can change rapidly and frequently throughout the day. The ability of these neurons to convey the vast array of nuanced information to the brain requires neuronal adaptability. In this review we discuss evidence for neural plasticity in vagal afferent neurons as a mechanism for conveying nuanced information to the brain important for the control of feeding behavior. Read More

    Neurotransmitter modulation by the gut microbiota.
    Brain Res 2018 Aug;1693(Pt B):128-133
    Antimicrobial Discovery Center, Department of Biology, Northeastern University, 134 Mugar Hall, 360 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:
    The gut microbiota - the trillions of bacteria that reside within the gastrointestinal tract - has been found to not only be an essential component immune and metabolic health, but also seems to influence development and diseases of the enteric and central nervous system, including motility disorders, behavioral disorders, neurodegenerative disease, cerebrovascular accidents, and neuroimmune-mediated disorders. By leveraging animal models, several different pathways of communication have been identified along the "gut-brain-axis" including those driven by the immune system, the vagus nerve, or by modulation of neuroactive compounds by the microbiota. Of the latter, bacteria have been shown to produce and/or consume a wide range of mammalian neurotransmitters, including dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin, or gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Read More

    Intravenous immunoglobulin ameliorates motor and cognitive deficits and neuropathology in R6/2 mouse model of Huntington's disease by decreasing mutant huntingtin protein level and normalizing NF-κB signaling pathway.
    Brain Res 2018 Jun 11. Epub 2018 Jun 11.
    State Key Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China. Electronic address:
    Huntington's disease (HD) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive movement disorders and cognitive deficits, which is caused by a CAG-repeat expansion encoding an extended polyglutamine (polyQ) tract in the huntingtin protein (HTT). Reduction of mutant HTT levels and inhibition of neuroinflammation has been proposed as a major therapeutic strategy in treating HD. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) therapy has been firmly established for the treatment of several autoimmune or inflammatory neurological diseases, either as adjunctive treatment or as first-line therapy. Read More

    Correcting deregulated Fxyd1 expression rescues deficits in neuronal arborization and potassium homeostasis in MeCP2 deficient male mice.
    Brain Res 2018 Jun 11. Epub 2018 Jun 11.
    Division of Neuroscience, Oregon National Primate Research Center/Oregon Health & Science University, Beaverton, OR 97006, USA. Electronic address:
    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by mutations in the MECP2 gene. In the absence of MeCP2/MECP2, expression of FXYD domain-containing transport regulator 1 (FXYD1) is deregulated in the frontal cortex (FC) of mice and humans. Because FXYD1 is a membrane protein that controls cell excitability by modulating Na, K-ATPase activity (NKA), an excess of FXYD1 may reduce NKA activity and contribute to the neuronal phenotype of Mecp2 deficient (KO) mice. Read More

    Amniotic-fluid ingestion enhances central δ-opioid-induced hypoalgesia in rats in the cold-water tail-flick assay in a repeated-measures design.
    Brain Res 2018 Jun 11. Epub 2018 Jun 11.
    Department of Psychology, University at Buffalo, Park Hall, Buffalo, NY 14260-4110, United States.
    Placental Opioid Enhancing Factor (POEF) is found in amniotic fluid (AF) and placenta. When ingested, it enhances opioid-mediated pain relief. Our laboratory has shown that ingestion of AF specifically enhances the hypoalgesia associated with δ-opioid receptor activation in the brain. Read More

    LRRK2 and mitochondria: Recent advances and current views.
    Brain Res 2018 Jun 9. Epub 2018 Jun 9.
    Department of Neuroscience, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, United States of America. Electronic address:
    Mutations in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene account for most common causes of familial and sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD) and are one of the strongest genetic risk factors in sporadic PD. Pathways implicated in LRRK2-dependent neurodegeneration include cytoskeletal dynamics, vesicular trafficking, autophagy, mitochondria, and calcium homeostasis. However, the exact molecular mechanisms still need to be elucidated. Read More

    The pathological role of NLRs and AIM2 inflammasome-mediated pyroptosis in damaged blood-brain barrier after traumatic brain injury.
    Brain Res 2018 Jun 7. Epub 2018 Jun 7.
    Laboratory of Neuro-Trauma and Neurodegenerative Disorders, Tianjin Geriatrics Institute, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin 300052, China; Department of Geriatrics, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin 300052, China. Electronic address:
    Pyroptosis is a highly specific type of inflammatory programmed cell death that different from necrosis or apoptosis. It is initiated by cellular detection of acute damage via recognizing pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by NOD-like receptors (NLRs) or AIM2-like receptor (AIM2). NLRs and AIM2 could trigger the formation of a multi-protein complex, known as inflammasome. Read More

    A cannabinoid receptor 2 agonist reduces blood-brain barrier damage via induction of MKP-1 after intracerebral hemorrhage in rats.
    Brain Res 2018 Jun 7. Epub 2018 Jun 7.
    Department of Emergency, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zunyi Medical College, Guizhou , 563003, China. Electronic address:
    Background And Purpose: The blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption and the following development of brain edema, is the most life-threatening secondary injury after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). This study is to investigate a potential role and mechanism of JWH133, a selected cannabinoid receptor type2 (CB2R) agonist, on protecting blood-brain barrier integrity after ICH.

    Methods: 192 adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into Sham; ICH+Vehicle; ICH+JWH 1. Read More

    Characterization of dural afferent neurons innervating cranial blood vessels within the dura in rats.
    Brain Res 2018 Jun 7. Epub 2018 Jun 7.
    Department of Pharmacology, School of Dentistry, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41940, Republic of Korea; Brain Science & Engineering Institute, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41940, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:
    Dural afferent neurons are implicated in primary headaches including migraine. Although a significant portion of primary afferent neurons innervating the dura are myelinated A-type neurons, previous electrophysiological studies have primarily characterized the functional properties of small-sized C-type sensory neurons. Here we show the functional characterization of dural afferent neurons identified with the fluorescent dye DiI. Read More

    Metabolism and epilepsy: Ketogenic diets as a homeostatic link.
    Brain Res 2018 Jun 5. Epub 2018 Jun 5.
    Departments of Pediatrics, Clinical Neurosciences, Physiology & Pharmacology, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Alberta Children's Hospital Research Institute, HMRB 231, 2500 University Drive, NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 Canada. Electronic address:
    Metabolic dysfunction can underlie seizure disorders, and metabolism-based treatments can afford seizure control and promote homeostasis. This relationship between metabolism and the risk of sporadic seizures was observed historically with the clinical success of a low-carbohydrate, high-fat, ketosis-inducing ketogenic diet - a treatment that remains relevant today, and one that has been shown to be effective against medically refractory epilepsy. Mechanisms underlying the success of the ketogenic diet are a topic of intense research efforts - not only because of proven success in arresting treatment-resistant seizures, but also because recent evidence suggests that altering metabolism with a ketogenic diet enables a homeostatic state in the brain that is less excitable, and hence raises the threshold for seizure genesis. Read More

    Transplantation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells that Overexpress NT-3 Produce Motor Improvements without Axonal Regeneration following Complete Spinal Cord Transections in Rats.
    Brain Res 2018 Jun 5. Epub 2018 Jun 5.
    Field Neurosciences Institute Laboratory for Restorative Neurology, Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, Michigan 48859, USA; Program in Neurosciences, Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, Michigan 48859, USA; Department of Psychology, Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, Michigan 48859, USA; Field Neurosciences Institute, 4677 Towne Centre Rd. Suite 101, Saginaw, Michigan 48604, USA. Electronic address:
    Transplanting stem cells engineered to overexpress trophic factors can improve motor abilities and facilitate axon regeneration following spinal cord injury. This study compared several transplantation paradigms using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that overexpress the multi-neurotrophin, NT-3/D15A (NT-3-MSCs), to determine if different grafting strategies can elicit improved axon regeneration and/or behavioral outcomes following a complete T9 spinal transection. At one week post-transection, NT-3-MSCs were transplanted above, and at several locations below, the lesion site. Read More

    Rapid syntactic pre-activation in Broca's area: Concurrent electrophysiological and haemodynamic recordings.
    Brain Res 2018 Jun 5. Epub 2018 Jun 5.
    Department of Linguistics, Centre for Languages and Literature, Lund University, Box 201, 221 00 Lund, Sweden. Electronic address:
    Listeners are constantly trying to predict what the speaker will say next. We concurrently measured the electrophysiological and haemodynamic correlates of syntactic pre-activation, investigating when and where the brain processes speech melody cues to upcoming word order structure. Pre-activation of syntactic structure was reflected in a left-lateralised pre-activation negativity (PrAN), which was subserved by Broca's area in the left inferior frontal gyrus, as well as the contiguous left anterior insula. Read More

    Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion accelerates Alzheimer's disease pathology with the change of mitochondrial fission and fusion proteins expression in a novel mouse model.
    Brain Res 2018 Jun 4. Epub 2018 Jun 4.
    Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University, 2-5-1 Shikatacho, Kitaku, Okayama 700-8558, Japan. Electronic address:
    Mitochondrial dynamically undergo massive fusion and fission events to continuously maintain their function in cells. Although an impaired balance of mitochondrial fission and fusion was reported in in-vitro and in-vivo Alzheimer's disease (AD) model, changes of mitochondrial fission and fusion proteins have not been reported in AD with chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (HP) as an etiological factor related to the development of elder AD. To clarify the impacts of HP on mitochondrial fission and fusion, related oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of AD, and protective effect of galantamine, the novel AD with HP mouse model (APP23 + HP) was applied in this project. Read More

    Postconditioning with sevoflurane ameliorates spatial learning and memory deficit via attenuating endoplasmic reticulum stress induced neuron apoptosis in a rat model of hemorrhage shock and resuscitation.
    Brain Res 2018 Jun 2. Epub 2018 Jun 2.
    Department of Anesthesiology, the second affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, China. Electronic address:
    Hemorrhage shock could initiate endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) and then induce neuronal apoptosis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether sevoflurane postconditioning could attenuate brain injury via suppressing apoptosis induced by ERS. Seventy male rats were randomized into five groups: sham, shock, low concentration (sevo1, 1. Read More

    Blockade of anoctamin-1 in injured and uninjured nerves reduces neuropathic pain.
    Brain Res 2018 Jun 2. Epub 2018 Jun 2.
    Departamento de Farmacobiología, Cinvestav, Sede Sur. Ciudad de México, Mexico. Electronic address:
    The aim of this study was to determine the participation of anoctamin-1 in 2 models of neuropathic pain in rats (L5/L6 spinal nerve ligation [SNL] and L5 spinal nerve transection [SNT]). SNL and SNT diminished withdrawal threshold in rats. Moreover, SNL up-regulated anoctamin-1 protein expression in injured L5 and uninjured L4 DRG whereas that it enhanced activating transcription factor 3 (ATF-3) and caspase-3 expression only in injured L5 DRG. Read More

    Role of glutamate and its receptors in migraine with reference to amitriptyline and transcranial magnetic stimulation therapy.
    Brain Res 2018 May 31. Epub 2018 May 31.
    Department of Neurology, Sanjay Gandhi Post graduate Institutes of Medical sciences, Lucknow 226014, Uttar Pradesh, India. Electronic address:
    Glutamate plays an important role in migraine pathogenesis but there is paucity of studies on glutamate in migraine subtypes, effect of treatment on glutamate levels and the changes in glutamate receptors. In this study we report the glutamate levels and changes in glutamate receptors following amitriptyline (AMT) or repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) therapy. One hundred and fifty migraine patients having more than 4 migraine attacks per month were included. Read More

    Fasting or systemic des-acyl ghrelin administration to rats facilitates thermoregulatory behavior in a cold environment.
    Brain Res 2018 May 31. Epub 2018 May 31.
    Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, Kochi Medical School, Kochi University, Kochi, Japan.
    Fasted rats place their tails underneath their body trunks in the cold (tail-hiding behavior), which is a thermoregulatory behavior. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of fasting and des-acyl ghrelin, a hormone related to fasting, on tail-hiding behavior and neural activity in the cold. Wistar rats were divided into 'fed', '42-h fasting' and des-acyl ghrelin groups. Read More

    Locus coeruleus activation accelerates perceptual learning.
    Brain Res 2018 May 31. Epub 2018 May 31.
    Skirball Institute for Biomolecular Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA; Neuroscience Institute, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA; Department of Otolaryngology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA; Department of Neuroscience and Physiology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA; Howard Hughes Medical Institute Faculty Scholar, USA. Electronic address:
    Neural representations of the external world are constructed and updated in a manner that depends on behavioral context. For neocortical networks, this contextual information is relayed by a diverse range of neuromodulatory systems, which govern attention and signal the value of internal state variables such as arousal, motivation, and stress. Neuromodulators enable cortical circuits to differentially process specific stimuli and modify synaptic strengths in order to maintain short- or long-term memory traces of significant perceptual events and behavioral episodes. Read More

    Altered levels of α-melanocyte stimulating hormone in cerebrospinal fluid and plasma of patients with traumatic brain injury.
    Brain Res 2018 May 30. Epub 2018 May 30.
    Molecular Biology Laboratories, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, Shanxi, China.
    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is closely associated with marked inflammation. Although alpha-Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone (α-MSH) exerts powerful anti-inflammatory effects, changes in endogenous α-MSH levels following TBI remain poorly understood. We investigated the changes of α-MSH levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma of post-TBI patients and the association of these changes with the severity of TBI and inflammation TBI severity was assessed by the GCS coma scale from which, patients were separated into three groups. Read More

    N-terminal and central domains of APC function to regulate branch number, length and angle in developing optic axonal arbors in vivo.
    Brain Res 2018 May 29. Epub 2018 May 29.
    Touro University California, Vallejo, California, United States. Electronic address:
    During formation of neuronal circuits, axons navigate long distances to reach their target locations in the brain. When axons arrive at their target tissues, in many cases, they extend collateral branches and/or terminal arbors that serve to increase the number of synaptic connections they make with target neurons. Here, we investigated how Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) regulates terminal arborization of optic axons in living Xenopus laevis tadpoles. Read More

    Differential effects of left and right neuropathy on opioid gene expression in lumbar spinal cord.
    Brain Res 2018 May 28. Epub 2018 May 28.
    Division of Biological Research on Drug Dependence, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden. Electronic address:
    The endogenous opioid system (EOS) controls the processing of nociceptive stimuli and is a pharmacological target for opioids. Alterations in expression of the EOS genes under neuropathic pain condition may account for low efficacy of opioid drugs. We here examined whether EOS expression patterns are altered in the lumbar spinal cord of the rats with spinal nerve ligation (SNL) as a neuropathic pain model. Read More

    Fear of Pain and Event-Related Potentials During Exposure to Image-Cued Somatosensory Stimulation.
    Brain Res 2018 May 28. Epub 2018 May 28.
    Key Laboratory of Cognition and Personality, China Education Ministry, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China; Department of Psychology, University of Macau, Macau, S.A.R 999078, China. Electronic address:
    Numerous behavior studies have assessed links of pain-related fear with biases in attention towards pain stimuli but considerably less is known about neural processes underlying such biases. To address this gap, event-related potentials (ERPs) were examined as 39 high pain-fearful (Hi-FOP) and 36 low pain-fearful (Lo-FOP) adults (1) viewed non-painful versus painful images and (2) subsequently received non-painful versus possibly painful somatosensory stimulation, respectively. The Hi-FOP group judged both non-painful and painful somatosensory stimulation to be more intense than Lo-FOP group members did. Read More

    An ERP Study on Metacognitive Monitoring Processes in Children.
    Brain Res 2018 May 28. Epub 2018 May 28.
    Ludwig Maximilian University, Department for Psychology, Leopoldstrasse 13, 80802 München, Germany.
    Little is known about what exactly differentiates metacognitive processes from ordinary cognitive processes particularly early in development, and the underlying developmental aspects. To examine the time-course of metacognition, the present study investigated the neural underpinnings of judgments of learning (JoLs) and compared them with control judgments, using an event-related potentials (ERP) design. During ERP recording, children age seven to eight were presented with cue-target picture pairs and instructed to learn these pairs. Read More

    Neuroprotective effect of acute prior inflammation with lipopolysaccharide for adult male rat facial motoneurones.
    Brain Res 2018 May 26. Epub 2018 May 26.
    Discipline of Anatomy and Pathology, The University of Adelaide SA5005, Australia. Electronic address:
    Increases in inflammatory cytokines are reported to have both neuroprotective and neurotoxic effects depending on the type and age of neurones studied. This study aimed to determine the effect of experimental inflammation induced by Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on the survival of injured male adult rat facial motoneurones. Time- and dose- response studies were done to optimise the LPS administration time and dose, to best correlate with inflammatory levels previously reported for aged rats. Read More

    Dexmedetomidine attenuated early brain injury in rats with subarachnoid haemorrhage by suppressing the inflammatory response: The TLR4/NF-κB pathway and the NLRP3 inflammasome may be involved in the mechanism.
    Brain Res 2018 May 26. Epub 2018 May 26.
    Department of Neurosurgery, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, 154 Anshan Road, Tianjin, China; Tianjin Neurological Institute, Key Laboratory of Post-Neurotrauma Neuro-repair and Regeneration in Central Nervous System, Ministry of Education and Tianjin City, 154 Anshan Road, Tianjin, China. Electronic address:
    Early brain injury (EBI) plays a pivotal role in the prognosis of patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). Dexmedetomidine (DEX), a highly selective α receptor agonist, is reported to exert multiple protective effects in many neurological diseases. This study was designed to investigate whether DEX had neuroprotective functions in EBI after SAH, and to explore the possible mechanisms. Read More

    Lipopolysaccharide Preconditioning Increased the Level of Regulatory B cells in the Spleen after Acute Ischaemia/Reperfusion in Mice.
    Brain Res 2018 May 24. Epub 2018 May 24.
    Institute of Reproductive and Stem Cell Research, School of Basic Medical Science, Central South University, ChangSha 410000, China; National Engineering Research Center for human stem cell, ChangSha 410000, China. Electronic address:
    Background: The inflammatory reaction of the spleen is an important component in the pathophysiology of cerebral ischaemia (CI). Regulatory B cells (Bregs) derived from the spleen can inhibit the expansion of inflammation and reduce the damage caused by CI.

    Aim: The aim of the present study was to explore changes in spleen function and Bregs production due to lipopolysaccharide preconditioning (LPS PC) in ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) and to uncover potential protective effect of LPS PC on stroke. Read More

    Monoaminergic and aminoacidergic receptors are involved in the antidepressant-like effect of ginsenoside Rb1 in mouse hippocampus (CA3) and prefrontal cortex.
    Brain Res 2018 May 23. Epub 2018 May 23.
    College of Chinese Medicinal Materials, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun 130118, China. Electronic address:
    Ginsenoside Rb1 (Rb1), as the major bioactive ingredient of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer, elicited a novel antidepressant-like effect in the forced swim test (FST) in chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) rats in our previous study. Read More

    Preservation of interhemispheric cortical connections through corpus callosum following intravenous infusion of mesenchymal stem cells in a rat model of cerebral infarction.
    Brain Res 2018 May 23. Epub 2018 May 23.
    Department of Neural Regenerative Medicine, Research Institute for Frontier Medicine, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, Sapporo, 060-8556, Japan; Department of Neurology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, 06510, USA; Center for Neuroscience and Regeneration Research, VA Connecticut Healthcare System, West Haven, Connecticut, 06516, USA.
    Systemic administration of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) following cerebral infarction exerts functional improvements. Previous research has suggested potential therapeutic mechanisms that promote neuroprotection and synaptogenesis. These include secretion of neurotrophic factors, remodeling of neural circuits, restoration of the blood brain barrier, reduction of inflammatory infiltration and demyelination, and elevation of trophic factors. Read More

    Oxytocin receptor antagonist atosiban impairs consolidation, but not reconsolidation of contextual fear memory in rats.
    Brain Res 2018 May 23. Epub 2018 May 23.
    Laboratory of Learning and Memory, Research Center of Physiology, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, Iran.; Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, Iran.. Electronic address:
    There is increasing evidence that oxytocin is involved in learning and memory process. This study investigated the effects of blockade of oxytocin receptors using the selective oxytocin receptor antagonist atosiban (ATO) on contextual fear memory consolidation and reconsolidation in male rats. Post-training injections of different doses of ATO (1, 10, 100 or 1000 µg/kg) impaired the 48 h retention performance in a dose-dependent manner. Read More

    The cerebral protective effect and mechanism of action of vitamin B6 adjuvant ceftriaxone in experimental pneumococcal meningitis.
    Brain Res 2018 May 22. Epub 2018 May 22.
    The pediatric department of the People's hospital in Zoucheng, P.R.china. Electronic address:
    Background: Pneumococcal meningitis is one of the most common infectious diseases with a high-mortality rate and long-term neurological sequelae, affecting up to 50% of survivors. Pneumococcal compounds are pro-inflammatory mediators that induce an innate immune response and tryptophan degradation through the kynurenine pathway. Vitamin B6 (vitB6) is an important vitamin which acts as a cofactor at the active sites of enzymes that catalyze a great number of reactions involved in the metabolism of tryptophan through the kynurenine pathway and may thus limit the accumulation of neurotoxic metabolites and preserve the cellular energy status. Read More

    Exercise related anxiety-like behaviours are mediated by TNF receptor signaling, but not depression-like behaviours.
    Brain Res 2018 May 22. Epub 2018 May 22.
    The University of Adelaide, School of Medicine, Discipline of Psychiatry, Adelaide, Australia; Adelaide Health and Medical Sciences Building, North Terrace, Adelaide 5005, South Australia, Australia. Electronic address:
    Depression can involve disrupted pro-inflammatory TNF signaling via the TNF receptors TNFR1 and TNFR2, or the soluble TNF receptors sTNFR1 and sTNFR2. However, exercise might attenuate pro-inflammatory signaling in depression and related anxiety. We hypothesized that six months voluntary wheel running exercise would improve depression-like and anxiety-like behaviours in WT and TNFR1 mice, but not in TNF and TNFR2 mice compared to their respective control mice. Read More

    Preferential Inputs from Cholecystokinin-Positive Neurons to the Somatic Compartment of Parvalbumin-Expressing Neurons in the Mouse Primary Somatosensory Cortex.
    Brain Res 2018 May 21. Epub 2018 May 21.
    Department of Physiology, Teikyo University School of Medicine, 2-11-1 Kaga, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-8605, Japan.
    Parvalbumin-positive (PV+) neurons in the cerebral cortex, mostly corresponding to fast-spiking basket cells, have been implicated in higher-order brain functions and psychiatric disorders. We previously demonstrated that the somatic compartment of PV+ neurons received inhibitory inputs mainly from vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP)+ neurons, whereas inhibitory inputs to the dendritic compartment were derived mostly from PV+ and somatostatin (SOM)+ neurons. However, a substantial number of the axosomatic inputs have remained unidentified. Read More

    AH6809 decreases production of inflammatory mediators by PGE - EP2 - cAMP signaling pathway in an experimentally induced pure cerebral concussion in rats.
    Brain Res 2018 May 21. Epub 2018 May 21.
    College of Forensic Science, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Key Laboratory of Ministry of Public Health for Forensic Science, Xi'an 710061, Shaanxi, P.R. China. Electronic address:
    Increasing evidence suggests that PGE metabolic pathway is involved in pathological changes of the secondary brain injury after traumatic brain injury. However, the underlying mechanisms, in particular, the correlation between various key enzymes and the brain injury, has remained to be fully explored. More specifically, it remains to be ascertained whether AH6809 (an EP2 receptor antagonist) would interfere with the downstream of the PGE, regulate the inflammatory mediators and improve neuronal damage in the hippocampus by PGE - EP2 - cAMP signaling pathway. Read More

    Effects of amphetamine exposure during adolescence on behavior and prelimbic cortex neuron activity in adulthood.
    Brain Res 2018 May 21. Epub 2018 May 21.
    Department of Psychology, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, United States; Neuroscience Program, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, United States; Carl R. Woese Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, United States. Electronic address:
    Repeated exposure to psychostimulants during adolescence produces long-lasting changes in behavior that may be mediated by disrupted development of the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system. Here, we tested this hypothesis by assessing the effects of amphetamine (AMPH) and dopamine receptor-selective drugs on behavior and neuron activity in the prelimbic region of the medial prefrontal cortex (PFC). Adolescent male, Sprague-Dawley rats were given saline or 3 mg/kg AMPH between postnatal day (P) 27 and P45. Read More

    Inhibition of PTEN protects PC12 cells against oxygen-glucose deprivation induced cell death through mitoprotection.
    Brain Res 2018 Aug 19;1692:100-109. Epub 2018 May 19.
    Neurosciences Research Center (NSRC), Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. Electronic address:
    Mitochondria involve in the determination of ischemic neuronal cell fate through regulation of apoptotic and necrotic cell death. Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) protein negatively regulates Akt/PKB signaling which is the major cell survival pathway. The current study aimed to examine the impact of SF1670, a potent PTEN inhibitor, on mitochondria-mediated cell survival pathways in an in vitro stroke-like model. Read More

    Lateral hypothalamic orexin glucose-inhibited neurons may regulate reward-based feeding by modulating glutamate transmission in the ventral tegmental area.
    Brain Res 2018 May 19. Epub 2018 May 19.
    Department of Pharmacology, Physiology and Neuroscience, Rutgers - New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ 07103, United States. Electronic address:
    Glucose inhibits ∼60% of lateral hypothalamic (LH) orexin neurons. Fasting increases the activation of LH orexin glucose-inhibited (GI) neurons in low glucose. Increases in spontaneous glutamate excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) onto putative VTA DA neurons in low glucose are orexin dependent (Sheng et al. Read More

    Elevating Integrin-linked Kinase Expression has Rescued Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Memory Deficits in an AD animal Model.
    Brain Res 2018 May 19. Epub 2018 May 19.
    Qilu hospital, School of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250012, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:
    Alterations in adult neurogenesis have been regarded as a major cause of cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The underlying mechanism of neurogenesis deficiency in AD remains unclear. In this study, we reported that Integrin-linked Kinase (ILK) protein levels and phosphorylation were significantly decreased in the hippocampus of APP/PS1 mice. Read More

    The angiotensin II type I receptor antagonist losartan retards amygdala kindling-induced epileptogenesis.
    Brain Res 2018 May 19. Epub 2018 May 19.
    Department of Neurosurgery, Nippon Medical School Hospital, Tokyo 113-8603, Japan.
    Blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown and the subsequent exposure of the cerebral cortex to serum albumin are known to activate transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signaling in astrocytes and to play key roles in epileptogenesis after brain injury. It was recently reported that the angiotensin II type I receptor antagonist losartan suppresses activation of TGF-β signaling and prevents epileptogenesis in a rat vascular injury model. Here, we investigated the effects of losartan on epileptogenesis following amygdala kindling in rats. Read More

    Glycosylation of Cblns attenuates their receptor binding.
    Brain Res 2018 May 18. Epub 2018 May 18.
    Department of Developmental Neurobiology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN 38105, USA. Electronic address:
    Cbln1 is the prototype of a family (Cbln1-Cbln4) of secreted glycoproteins and is essential for normal synapse structure and function in cerebellum by bridging presynaptic Nrxn to postsynaptic Grid2. Here we report the effects of glycosylation on the in vitro receptor binding properties of Cblns. Cbln1, 2 and 4 harbor two N-linked glycosylation sites, one at the N-terminus is in a region implicated in Nrxn binding and the second is in the C1q domain, a region involved in Grid2 binding. Read More

    Histone deacetylase 1 promotes glioblastoma cell proliferation and invasion via activation of PI3K/AKT and MEK/ERK signaling pathways.
    Brain Res 2018 Aug 18;1692:154-162. Epub 2018 May 18.
    Graduate School of Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515, Guangdong, China; Department of Neurosurgery, Wuhan General Hospital of PLA, Wuhan 430070, Hubei, China. Electronic address:
    Histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) plays a crucial role in cancer progression and development. This enzyme has been confirmed to be a key regulator of tumor biology functions, such as tumor cell proliferation, migration and invasion. However, HDAC1 expression in glioma remains controversial, and its specific function and molecular mechanism in glioblastoma is poorly understood. Read More

    Seizure modulation by sleep and sleep state.
    Brain Res 2018 May 18. Epub 2018 May 18.
    Comprehensive Epilepsy Center, Columbia University, 710 West 168th Street, New York, NY 10032, USA. Electronic address:
    Sleep is a dynamic process, during which the electrical rhythms of the brain orchestrate a complicated progression of changing frequencies, patterns and connectivity. Each stage of sleep is different electrophysiologically from wakefulness, and from other sleep stages. It should be no surprise, then, that the various sleep states influence the origin, suppression, and spread of seizures, and that different seizure types are affected in individual (and sometimes contradictory) ways. Read More

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