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    Repeat-associated non-AUG (RAN) translation and other molecular mechanisms in Fragile X Tremor Ataxia Syndrome.
    Brain Res 2018 Feb 14. Epub 2018 Feb 14.
    Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire (IGBMC), INSERM U964, CNRS UMR7104, University of Strasbourg, 67400 Illkirch, France.. Electronic address:
    Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) is a late-onset inherited neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive intention tremor, gait ataxia and dementia associated with mild brain atrophy. The cause of FXTAS is a premutation expansion, of 55 to 200 CGG repeats localized within the 5'UTR of FMR1. These repeats are transcribed in the sense and antisense directions into mutants RNAs, which have increased expression in FXTAS. Read More

    Synaptic dysfunction and altered excitability in C9ORF72 ALS/FTD.
    Brain Res 2018 Feb 14. Epub 2018 Feb 14.
    Division of Neurobiology, Barrow Neurological Institute, St. Joseph's Hospital and Medical Center, Phoenix, AZ 85013, United States. Electronic address:
    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is characterized by a progressive degeneration of upper and lower motor neurons, resulting in fatal paralysis due to denervation of the muscle. Due to genetic, pathological and symptomatic overlap, ALS is now considered a spectrum disease together with frontotemporal dementia (FTD), the second most common cause of dementia in individuals under the age of 65. Interestingly, in both diseases, there is a large prevalence of RNA binding proteins (RBPs) that are mutated and considered disease-causing, or whose dysfunction contribute to disease pathogenesis. Read More

    Indices of repetitive behaviour are correlated with patterns of intrinsic functional connectivity in youth with autism spectrum disorder.
    Brain Res 2018 Feb 14. Epub 2018 Feb 14.
    http://www.neurodevnet.ca/research/asd, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
    The purpose of the current study was to examine how repetitive behaviour in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is related to intrinsic functional connectivity patterns in a number of large-scale, neural networks. Resting-state fMRI scans from thirty subjects with ASD and thirty-two age-matched, typically developing control subjects were analysed. Seed-to-voxel and ROI-to-ROI functional connectivity analyses were used to examine resting-state connectivity in a number of cortical and subcortical neural networks. Read More

    Age-dependent effects of dimethyl fumarate on cognitive and neuropathological features in the streptozotocin-induced rat model of Alzheimer's disease.
    Brain Res 2018 Feb 14. Epub 2018 Feb 14.
    Department of Animal and Human Physiology, Faculty of Biology, University of Gdańsk, Wita Stwosza 59, 80-308 Gdańsk, Poland.
    We previously demonstrated that dimethyl fumarate (DMF), an anti-oxidative and immunosuppresive compound, prevents intracerebroventricular (ICV) streptozotocin-induced disruption of spatial memory and neurodegeneration in 4-month-old rats. The present study evaluated the influence of age on DMF's therapeutic effect. Aged rats (22-months-old, n=40) were provided rodent chow containing DMF (0. Read More

    Automatic detection of the duration of visual static and dynamic stimuli.
    Brain Res 2018 Feb 14. Epub 2018 Feb 14.
    Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Science, Hungary; Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, Hungary.
    The perception of the passing of time is fundamental to conscious experience. The duration of a sensory stimulus is one of its defining attributes, but it is not clear how this is encoded in the brain. This work explores whether the duration of a visual stimulus is an attribute that the brain can automatically adapt to and use to predict future stimulus durations. Read More

    CaMKII inhibition ameliorated levodopa-induced dyskinesia by downregulating tyrosine hydroxylase activity in an experimental model of Parkinson's disease.
    Brain Res 2018 Feb 14. Epub 2018 Feb 14.
    Department of Rehabilitation, The Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical University, Xuzhou, Jiangsu 221002, China. Electronic address:
    Levodopa (L-dopa) remains the best treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD). However, long-term L-dopa treatment induces dyskinesia. The mechanism of L-dopa-induced dyskinesia (LID) is not fully understood. Read More

    Intrauterine Inflammation Reduces Postnatal Neurogenesis in the Hippocampal Subgranular Zone and Leads to Accumulation of Hilar Ectopic Granule Cells.
    Brain Res 2018 Feb 12. Epub 2018 Feb 12.
    Maternal and Child Health Research Center, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.
    Prenatal inflammation is associated with poor neurobehavioral outcomes in exposed offspring. A common route of exposure for the fetus is intrauterine infection, which is often associated with preterm birth. Hippocampal development may be particularly vulnerable to an inflammatory insult during pregnancy as this region remains highly neurogenic both prenatally and postnatally. Read More

    DISTRIBUTION OF NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE IN THE ROCK CAVY (Kerodon rupestris) BRAIN I: THE DIENCEPHALON.
    Brain Res 2018 Feb 10. Epub 2018 Feb 10.
    Laboratory of Neuroanatomy, Department of Morphology, Biosciences Center, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, RN, Brazil. Electronic address:
    Nitric oxide (NO) is a highly soluble and membrane-permeable neurotransmitter, so it does not need to be packed in vesicles or have a membrane receptor. In the nervous system, NO is synthesized by the neuronal form of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) enzyme and has been considered as a local neurotransmitter. NOS distribution is widespread in the nervous system of various vertebrate species, which may explain its participation in many functions such as memory, blood pressure regulation and sexual behavior. Read More

    Possible involvement of tetrahydrobiopterin in the disturbance of redox homeostasis in sepsis - induced brain dysfunction.
    Brain Res 2018 Feb 8. Epub 2018 Feb 8.
    Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt; Cairo University Hospitals, Cairo, Egypt. Electronic address:
    Background And Aim: Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is an essential co-factor that regulates nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by nitric oxidesynthases (NOS). In this study, we evaluated the effects of sepsis on BHlevel and redox status in the brain by using the rat model of sepsis- induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) and examined whether BH4 and/or acetyl-L-carnitine(ALC) could prevent the neuronal apoptosis and neurological changes induced by sepsis.

    Material And Method: Male albino rats were randomly and blindly divided into 8 groups: sham, sham + BH, sham + ALC, sham +BH+ ALC, CLP, CLP + BH, CLP+ ALC, and CLP+BH+ ALC. Read More

    Hippocampal subfield volume changes in subtypes of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.
    Brain Res 2018 Feb 7. Epub 2018 Feb 7.
    Department of Psychology, unit of General and Experimental Psychology, Ludwig Maximilian University Munich, Germany.
    Objective: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is accompanied by reduction of total hippocampal volume. However, disorder-related fine-grained structural alterations of hippocampal subfields remain unclear.

    Method: Here we compared hippocampal subfield volumes in a large sample of patients with ADHD and healthy controls. Read More

    Perception of facial expressions of emotion in migraine.
    Brain Res 2018 Feb 7. Epub 2018 Feb 7.
    Center for Psychosocial Medicine, Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Both lower-level perceptual changes and especially higher-level cognitive alterations in individuals with migraine are poorly understood. Here, we behaviorally and electrophysiologically investigated the perception of emotional facial expressions in migraine. Individuals with migraine and healthy controls watching neutral faces gradually shifting to either happy, fearful, or angry expressions were asked to classify the facial expressions as quickly and accurately as possible by pressing a corresponding button, and to keep looking at the face until the last frame disappeared. Read More

    Neuroprotective effects of Tongxinluo on focal cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injury in rats associated with the activation of the MEK1/2/ERK1/2/p90RSK signaling pathway.
    Brain Res 2018 Feb 6. Epub 2018 Feb 6.
    Department of Integrative Medicine, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, China; Institute of Neurology, Academy of Integrative Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China. Electronic address:
    Ischemic stroke brings a huge family and social burden. Although the reperfusion of ischemic cerebral tissue is the most important way to rescue ischemic stroke, ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury further results in brain damage and even lead to death. Recent studies demonstrated that Tongxinluo (TXL) helps to protect the brain against focal cerebral I/R injury in rats by reducing neuronal apoptosis, and the MEK1/2/ERK1/2/90 ribosomal S6 kinase (p90RSK) pathway may be involved in this protective effect. Read More

    EEG activity during the spatial span task in young men: Differences between short-term and working memory.
    Brain Res 2018 Feb 6. Epub 2018 Feb 6.
    Instituto de Neurociencias, Universidad de Guadalajara, Francisco de Quevedo 180, Col. Arcos Vallarta, C.P. 44130 Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico.
    Short-term memory and working memory are two closely-related concepts that involve the prefrontal and parietal areas. These two types of memory have been evaluated by means of the spatial span task in its forward and backward conditions, respectively. To determine possible neurofunctional differences between them, this study recorded electroencephalographic activity (EEG) in the frontopolar (Fp1, Fp2), dorsolateral (F3, F4), and parietal (P3 and P4) areas during performance of the forward and backward conditions of this task in young men. Read More

    Enteric glia: Diversity or plasticity?
    Brain Res 2018 Feb 7. Epub 2018 Feb 7.
    Department of Molecular Biomedical Sciences, North Carolina State University, College of Veterinary Medicine, CVM Main Building, Campus Box #8401, 1060 William Moore Drive, Raleigh, NC 27607, USA. Electronic address:
    Glial cells of the enteric nervous system correspond to a unique glial lineage distinct from other central and peripheral glia, and form a vast and abundant network spreading throughout all the layers of the gastrointestinal wall. Research over the last two decades has demonstrated that enteric glia regulates all major gastrointestinal functions via multiple bi-directional crosstalk with enteric neurons and other neighboring cell types. Recent studies propose that enteric glia represents a heterogeneous population associated with distinct localization within the gut wall, phenotype and activity. Read More

    Visceral pain - Novel approaches for optogenetic control of spinal afferents.
    Brain Res 2018 Feb 7. Epub 2018 Feb 7.
    S A Biomedical Engineering, SA Health, Government of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia.
    Painful stimuli arising within visceral organs are detected by peripheral nerve endings of spinal afferents, whose cell bodies are located in dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Recent technical advances have made it possible to reliably expose and inject single DRG with neuronal tracers or viruses in vivo. This has facilitated, for the first time, unequivocal identification of different types of spinal afferent endings in visceral organs. Read More

    Effects of vagal neuromodulation on feeding behavior.
    Brain Res 2018 Feb 7. Epub 2018 Feb 7.
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Room 1427, Fitzpatrick CIEMAS, 101 Science Drive, Campus Box 90281, Durham, NC, USA; Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Room 130, Hudson Hall, Campus Box 90291, Durham, NC, USA; Department of Neurobiology, Duke University, Room 101B, Bryan Research Building, 311 Research Drive, Campus Box 3209, Durham, NC, USA; Department of Neurosurgery, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC, USA. Electronic address:
    Implanted vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) for obesity was recently approved by the FDA. However, its efficacy and mechanisms of action remain unclear. Herein, we synthesize clinical and preclinical effects of VNS on feeding behavior and energy balance and discuss engineering considerations for understanding and improving the therapy. Read More

    Activation of the subthalamic nucleus suppressed by high frequency stimulation: a c-Fos immunohistochemical study.
    Brain Res 2018 Feb 5. Epub 2018 Feb 5.
    Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, UAE University, Al-Ain, PO BOX 17666, United Arab Emirates.
    Deep Brain Stimulation applied at high frequency (HFS) to the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is used to ameliorate the symptoms of Parkinson's disease. The mechanism by which this is achieved remains controversial. In particular, it is uncertain whether HFS has a suppressive or excitatory action locally within the STN. Read More

    Gray matter deficits and altered resting-state connectivity in the superior temporal gyrus among individuals with problematic hypersexual behavior.
    Brain Res 2018 Feb 5. Epub 2018 Feb 5.
    Department of Psychology, Brain Research Institute, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, South Korea. Electronic address:
    Neuroimaging studies on the characteristics of hypersexual disorder have been accumulating, yet alternations in brain structures and functional connectivity in individuals with problematic hypersexual behavior (PHB) has only recently been studied. This study aimed to investigate gray matter deficits and resting-state abnormalities in individuals with PHB using voxel-based morphometry and resting-state connectivity analysis. Seventeen individuals with PHB and 19 age-matched healthy controls participated in this study. Read More

    Cognitive performance under motor demands - On the influence of task difficulty and postural control.
    Brain Res 2018 Jan 30. Epub 2018 Jan 30.
    University of Cologne, Department of German Language and Literature I, Cologne, Germany.
    We often walk around when we have to think about something, but suddenly stop when we are confronted with a demanding cognitive task, such as calculating 1540∗24. While previous neurophysiological research investigated cognitive and motor performance separately, findings that combine both are rare. To get a deeper understanding of the influence of motor demands as well as the difficulty of a simultaneously performed cognitive task, we investigated 20 healthy individuals. Read More

    Neurochemical changes in unilateral cerebralhemisphere during the subacute stage of focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion in rats: an ex vivoH magnetic resonance spectroscopy study.
    Brain Res 2018 Jan 31. Epub 2018 Jan 31.
    School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325035 China. Electronic address:
    Understanding the subacute may shed light on the mechanism of cerebral ischemia. The present study aimed to explore metabolic features underlying subacute stage of ischemia-reperfusion injury and developing effective treatments. Rats were divided into three groups: the permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO), transient cerebral focal ischemia (tMCAO) and sham group. Read More

    Housing environment influences stress-related hippocampal substrates and depression-like behavior.
    Brain Res 2018 Feb 1. Epub 2018 Feb 1.
    School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 60 Nanyang Drive - 637551, Singapore. Electronic address:
    Rats are widely used animal models for biological psychiatry and neuroscience. Laboratory rats are typically housed in impoverished sensory environments. The lack of species-typical sensory environment might radically change the response of individual animals to stressful and/or threatening episodes. Read More

    Axonal regeneration of different tracts following transplants of human glial restricted progenitors into the injured spinal cord in rats.
    Brain Res 2018 Jan 31. Epub 2018 Jan 31.
    Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19129, USA.
    The goal of this study was to compare the efficacy of human glial restricted progenitors (hGRPs) in promoting axonal growth of different tracts. We examined the potential of hGRPs grafted into a cervical (C4) dorsal column lesion to test sensory axons, and into a C4 hemisection to test motor tracts. The hGRPs, thawed from frozen stocks, were suspended in a PureCol matrix and grafted acutely into a C4 dorsal column or hemisection lesion. Read More

    Intrinsic Optical Imaging Study on Cortical Responses to Electrical Stimulation in Ventral Posterior Medial Nucleus of Thalamus.
    Brain Res 2018 Feb 2. Epub 2018 Feb 2.
    Qiushi Academy for Advanced Studies (QAAS), Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China; Department of Biomedical Engineering, Key Laboratory of Biomedical Engineering of Education Ministry, Zhejiang University, China; Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Cardio-Cerebral Vascular Detection Technology and Medicinal Effectiveness Appraisal, China. Electronic address:
    Intracortical electrical micro-stimulation has been applied widely for the attempts on reconstruction of sensory functions. More recently, thalamic electrical stimulation has been proposed as a promising target for somatosensory stimulation. However, the cortical activations and mechanisms evoked by VPM stimulation remained unclear. Read More

    MicroRNA let-7c-5p improves neurological outcomes in a murine model of traumatic brain injury by suppressing neuroinflammation and regulating microglial activation.
    Brain Res 2018 Feb 3. Epub 2018 Feb 3.
    Department of Neurosurgery, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin, China; Laboratory of Neuro-Trauma, Tianjin Neurological Institute, Tianjin, China, Key Laboratory of Post-trauma Neuro-repair and Regeneration in Central Nervous System, Ministry of Education, Tianjin, China; Tianjin Key Laboratory of Injuries, Variations and Regeneration of Nervous System, Tianjin, China. Electronic address:
    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of non-coding small RNAs that regulate the expression of target genes. They derive from pre-miRNAs that are enzymatically processed by dicer to ∼22 nucleotide mature miRNAs. Members of the pre-miRNA lethal-7 (let-7) are known to regulate cell proliferation and apoptosis. Read More

    Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) aggravated postoperative cognitive dysfunction and pathogenesis in aged rats.
    Brain Res 2018 Feb 3. Epub 2018 Feb 3.
    Department of Anesthesiology, the Third Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, PR China; Center for Experimental Medicine, the Third Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, PR China. Electronic address:
    The upstream signal molecule modulating neuro-inflammation and synaptic changes during the pathogenesis of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is still elusive. Here, we examined the effects and mechanisms of energy sensor AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) in the pathogenesis of POCD. Our data showed that surgery significantly increased the expression of p-AMPK in aged rats (p<0. Read More

    Lateralized asymmetries in distribution of muscular evoked responses: an evidence of specialized motor control over an intrinsic hand muscle.
    Brain Res 2018 Feb 3. Epub 2018 Feb 3.
    Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo. Av. Bandeirantes, 3900, CEP: 14040-901, Monte Alegre, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil.; Departamento de Biociências e Atividades Físicas, Escola de Educação Física e Desportos, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. Av. Carlos Chagas Filho, 540, CEP: 21941-599, Cidade Universitária, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.; Laboratório de Neurobiologia II, Instituto de Biofísica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. Av. Carlos Chagas Filho, 373, CEP: 21941-902, Cidade Universitária, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.. Electronic address:
    Lateralized neural control over hand muscles has been associated with anatomical and physiological asymmetries in the central nervous system. Some studies suggested that the dominant cerebral hemisphere exhibit larger cortical representation areas with lower excitability, while others reported higher cortical excitability in dominant side compared to the contralateral, or even could not find any differences. Thus, neurophysiological lateral asymmetries are still controversial. Read More

    From sublexical facilitation to lexical competition: ERP effects of masked neighbor priming.
    Brain Res 2018 Jan 30. Epub 2018 Jan 30.
    Department of Psychology, San Diego State University, United States.
    Interactive-activation models posit that visual word recognition involves co-activation of orthographic neighbors (e.g., note, node) and competition among them via lateral inhibitory connections. Read More

    Intestinal worms eating neuropsychiatric disorders? Apparently so.
    Brain Res 2018 Feb 2. Epub 2018 Feb 2.
    Department of Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA. Electronic address:
    A number of factors in Western society, including inflammatory diets, sedentary lifestyles, vitamin D deficiency and chronic psychological stress, are known to induce inflammation and to be associated with neuropsychiatric disorders. One factor that is emerging as a potential inflammation inducing factor is biota depletion, or loss of biodiversity from the ecosystem of the human body as a result of industrialization. Originally known as the "hygiene hypothesis", biota alteration theory describes the effects of biota alteration on the human immune system. Read More

    TDP43 and RNA instability in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
    Brain Res 2018 Jan 29. Epub 2018 Jan 29.
    Neuroscience Graduate Program and Department of Neurology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, MI, United States. Electronic address:
    The nuclear RNA-binding protein TDP43 is integrally involved in RNA processing. In accord with this central function, TDP43 levels are tightly regulated through a negative feedback loop, in which TDP43 recognizes its own RNA transcript, destabilizes it, and reduces new TDP43 protein production. In the neurodegenerative disorder amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), cytoplasmic mislocalization and accumulation of TDP43 disrupt autoregulation; conversely, inefficient TDP43 autoregulation can lead to cytoplasmic TDP43 deposition and subsequent neurodegeneration. Read More

    Distribution of Fos-immunoreactive neurons in the gustatory cortex elicited by intra-oral infusion of taste solutions in conscious rats.
    Brain Res 2018 Jan 22. Epub 2018 Jan 22.
    Biology Department, Stetson University, 421 N. Woodland Blvd., DeLand, FL 32723, United States. Electronic address:
    The location of neurons in the gustatory cortex (GC) activated by intra-oral infusion of solutions in conscious rats was mapped using Fos immunohistochemistry. Groups of adult male Wistar rats (N's=5) received an infusion of one of the following: dHO, 0.1 or 1. Read More

    Akt activation improves microregional oxygen supply/consumption balance after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion.
    Brain Res 2018 Jan 22. Epub 2018 Jan 22.
    Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ 08854, United States.
    There have been reports that activation of Akt may provide neuroprotection after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion. We tested the hypothesis that activation of Akt would decrease infarct size and improve microregional Osupply/consumption balance after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion. This hypothesis was tested in isoflurane-anesthetized rats with middle cerebral artery blockade for 1 hr and reperfusion for 2 hr with or without SC-79 (Akt activator, 0. Read More

    Hunger, ghrelin and the gut.
    Brain Res 2018 Jan 26. Epub 2018 Jan 26.
    Washington State University, College of Veterinary Medicine, USA. Electronic address:
    Hunger is defined as a craving or urgent need for food. Abundant evidence now indicates that homeostatic and cognitive mechanisms promote the sensation of hunger. Communication between the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and the central nervous system (CNS) regulate both homeostatic and cognitive mechanisms to control feeding behavior. Read More

    Involvement of mGluR I in EphB/ephrinB reverse signaling activation induced retinal ganglion cell apoptosis in a rat chronic hypertension model.
    Brain Res 2018 Jan 20. Epub 2018 Jan 20.
    Institutes of Brain Science, State Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China; Department of Ophthalmology at Eye & ENT Hospital, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Visual Impairment and Restoration, Fudan University, Shanghai 200031, China. Electronic address:
    EphB/ephrinB reverse signaling is involved in retinal ganglion cell (RGC) apoptosis in experimental glaucoma. Here, we further investigated the mechanisms underlying EphB/ephrinB reverse signaling activation induced RGC apoptosis in a rat chronic ocular hypertension (COH) model, using patch-clamp techniques in retinal slices. In COH retinas, RGCs showed higher spontaneous firing frequency and much more depolarized membrane potential as compared to control, which was mimicked by intravitreally injection of EphB2-Fc, an activator of ephrinB2. Read More

    Gut bacteria interaction with vagal afferents.
    Brain Res 2018 Jan 31. Epub 2018 Jan 31.
    Department of Foods and Nutrition, University of Georgia, 372 Dawson Hall, 305 Sanford Drive, Athens, GA 30602 USA. Electronic address:
    Contemporary techniques including the use of germ-free models and next generation sequencing have deepened our understanding of the gut microbiota dynamics and its influence on host physiology. There is accumulating evidence that the gut microbiota can communicate to the CNS and is involved in the development of metabolic and behavioral disorders. Vagal afferent terminals are positioned beneath the gut epithelium where they can receive, directly or indirectly, signals produced by the gut microbiota, to affect host behavior, including feeding behavior. Read More

    Gut-immune-brain dysfunction in Autism: Importance of sex.
    Brain Res 2018 Feb 2. Epub 2018 Feb 2.
    Department of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; Lurie Center for Autism, Massachusetts General Hospital for Children, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:
    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is characterized by social behavior deficits, stereotypies, cognitive rigidity, and in some cases severe intellectual impairment and developmental delay. Although ASD is most widely identified by its neurological deficits, gastrointestinal issues are common in ASD. An intimate and complex relationship exists between the gut, the immune system, and the brain, leading to the hypothesis that ASD may be a systems-level disease affecting the gut and immune systems, in addition to the brain. Read More

    Parkinson's disease from the gut.
    Brain Res 2018 Jan 31. Epub 2018 Jan 31.
    Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center and Department of Veterans Affairs Health Care System, Durham, NC 27710, United States. Electronic address:
    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a debilitating neurodegenerative condition associated with tremor, rigidity, dementia, and gastrointestinal symptoms such as constipation, nausea and vomiting. The pathological hallmarks of PD are Lewy bodies and neurites in the brain and peripheral nerves. The major constituent of Lewy bodies is the neuronal protein α-synuclein. Read More

    Enteric nervous system manifestations of neurodegenerative disease.
    Brain Res 2018 Jan 19. Epub 2018 Jan 19.
    Department of Pediatrics, Columbia University, 622 West 168thStreet, PH 17, New York, NY, USA. Electronic address:
    Neurological disorders cause gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms that are debilitating and markedly diminish quality of life in patients. The enteric nervous system (ENS), the intrinsic nervous system of the GI tract that is often referred to as "the second brain", shares many features with the central nervous system. The ENS plays an essential role in regulating many GI functions including motility and fluid secretion. Read More

    Neochamaejasmin A inhibits K1.4 channel activity via direct binding to the pore.
    Brain Res 2018 Jan 19. Epub 2018 Jan 19.
    Chinese Herb Medicine Division, Zhejiang Agriculture and Forestry University, 666 Wusu street, Lin'an 311300, PR China; The State Key Laboratory of Subtropical Silviculture, Zhejiang Agriculture and Forestry University, 88 North Circle Road, Lin'an 311300, PR China. Electronic address:
    Stellera chamaejasme L. (Thymelaeaceae) is a toxic perennial herb and widespread in Mongolia and the northern parts of China. Previous studies have revealed that Neochamaejasmin A (NCA), one of the main active ingredients in the plant roots, has many bioactivities such as inhibiting the P-gp-mediated efflux. Read More

    Increased dendritic length in CA1 and CA3 hippocampal neurons during the metestrus phase in Wistar rats.
    Brain Res 2018 03 11;1682:78-83. Epub 2018 Jan 11.
    Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas Laboratorio de Neurofisiología Experimental, Edificio BIO1, Ciudad Universitaria, CP 72570 Puebla, Puebla, Mexico. Electronic address:
    Studies have shown that changes in ovarian hormone concentrations promote natural fluctuations in the density of dendritic spines of hippocampal neurons in female Sprague-Dawley rats, without changes in dendritic length, throughout the estrous cycle. However, it is still unknown whether these fluctuations are present in other rat strains. Due to our interest in Wistar rats, the objective of the present study was to determine if there is natural dendritic remodeling in the female Wistar rat throughout the estrous cycle. Read More

    Infralimbic dopamine D2 receptors mediate glucocorticoid-induced facilitation of auditory fear memory extinction in rats.
    Brain Res 2018 03 9;1682:84-92. Epub 2018 Jan 9.
    Laboratory of Learning and Memory, Research Center of Physiology, Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, Iran. Electronic address:
    The infralimbic (IL) cortex of the medial prefrontal cortex plays an important role in the extinction of fear memory. Also, it has been showed that both brain glucocorticoid and dopamine receptors are involved in many processes such as fear extinction that drive learning and memory; however, the interaction of these receptors in the IL cortex remains unclear. We examined a putative interaction between the effects of glucocorticoid and dopamine receptors stimulation in the IL cortex on fear memory extinction in an auditory fear conditioning paradigm in male rats. Read More

    Attenuation of noise-induced hyperactivity in the dorsal cochlear nucleus by pre-treatment with MK-801.
    Brain Res 2018 03 9;1682:71-77. Epub 2018 Jan 9.
    Department of Neurosciences, The Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA. Electronic address:
    It has previously been hypothesized that hyperactivity of central auditory neurons following exposure to intense noise is a consequence of synaptic alterations. Recent studies suggest the involvement of NMDA receptors in the induction of this hyperactive state. NMDA receptors can mediate long term changes in the excitability of neurons through their involvement in excitotoxic injury and long term potentiation and depression. Read More

    Gating of Long-Term Potentiation (LTP) in the Thalamocortical Auditory System of Rats by Serotonergic (5-HT) Receptors.
    Brain Res 2018 Jan 8. Epub 2018 Jan 8.
    Department of Psychology, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, K7L 3N6, Canada; Centre for Neuroscience Studies, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, K7L 3N6, Canada. Electronic address:
    The neuromodulator serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) plays an important role in controlling the induction threshold and maintenance of long-term potentiation (LTP) in the visual cortex and hippocampus of rodents. Serotonergic fibers also innervate the rodent primary auditory cortex (A1), but the regulation of A1 plasticity by 5-HT receptors (5-HTRs) is largely uncharted. Thus, we examined the role of several, predominant 5-HT receptor classes (5-HTRs, 5-HTRs, and 5-HTRs) in gating in vivo LTP induction at A1 synapses of adult, urethane-anesthetized rats. Read More

    Running exercise protects against myelin breakdown in the absence of neurogenesis in the hippocampus of AD mice.
    Brain Res 2018 Jan 6. Epub 2018 Jan 6.
    Department of Histology and Embryology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016, PR China; Laboratory of Stem Cell and Tissue Engineering, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016, PR China. Electronic address:
    Neurogenesis might influence oligodendrogenesis and selectively instruct myelination in the mammalian brain. Running exercise could induce neurogenesis and protect the myelin sheaths in the dentate gyrus of AD mice. It is unclearwhether running exercise could protect the myelin sheaths in the absence of neurogenesis in the hippocampus of AD mice. Read More

    Baroreflex stimulation attenuates central but not peripheral inflammation in conscious endotoxemic rats.
    Brain Res 2018 03 6;1682:54-60. Epub 2018 Jan 6.
    Department of Physiology, Ribeirão Preto Medical School, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:
    We previously reported that activation of the baroreflex, a critical physiological mechanism controlling cardiovascular homeostasis, through electrical stimulation of the aortic depressor nerve attenuates joint inflammation in experimental arthritis. However, it is unknown whether baroreflex activation can control systemic inflammation. Here, we investigate whether baroreflex activation controls systemic inflammation in conscious endotoxemic rats. Read More

    Time-frequency analysis of event-related potentials associated with the origin of the motor interference effect from dangerous objects.
    Brain Res 2018 03 6;1682:44-53. Epub 2018 Jan 6.
    School of Public Management, Northwest University, Xi'an, China. Electronic address:
    Previous research has suggested that the motor interference effect of dangerous objects may originate from danger evaluations rather than direct response inhibition, as evidenced by a larger parietal P3 amplitude (which represents danger evaluations) under dangerous conditions than under safe conditions and an insignificant difference between dangerous and safe conditions in the frontal P3 component (which represents response inhibition). However, an alternative explanation exists for the null effect of the frontal P3 component. Specifically, this null effect may be attributed to cancellation between the theta and delta band oscillations, and only theta band oscillations represent response inhibition. Read More

    Transcranial near-infrared photobiomodulation attenuates memory impairment and hippocampal oxidative stress in sleep-deprived mice.
    Brain Res 2018 03 4;1682:36-43. Epub 2018 Jan 4.
    Neurosciences Research Center (NSRC), Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. Electronic address:
    Sleep deprivation (SD) causes oxidative stress in the hippocampus and subsequent memory impairment. In this study, the effect of near-infrared (NIR) photobiomodulation (PBM) on learning and memory impairment induced by acute SD was investigated. The mice were subjected to an acute SD protocol for 72 h. Read More

    Complex noradrenergic dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease: Low norepinephrine input is not always to blame.
    Brain Res 2018 Jan 4. Epub 2018 Jan 4.
    Department of Cell, Developmental and Integrative Biology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA. Electronic address:
    The locus coeruleus-noradrenergic (LC-NA) system supplies the cerebral cortex with norepinephrine, a key modulator of cognition. Neurodegeneration of the LC is an early hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this article, we analyze current literature to understand whether NA degeneration in AD simply leads to a loss of norepinephrine input to the cortex. Read More

    Differential response of hippocampal and prefrontal oscillations to systemic LPS application.
    Brain Res 2018 02 30;1681:64-74. Epub 2017 Dec 30.
    Trinity College Institute of Neuroscience, Trinity College Dublin, Ireland; School of Psychology, Trinity College Dublin, Ireland. Electronic address:
    The early electrophysiological phenomena linked to systemic inflammation are largely underexplored. We developed here local field analyses to detect prodromal oscillatory abnormalities. We identified early band-specific patterns in local field potential recorded from freely-moving rats injected intraperitoneally with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 1 mg/kg). Read More

    Free radical scavenger edaravone produces robust neuroprotection in a rat model of spinal cord injury.
    Brain Res 2018 03 30;1682:24-35. Epub 2017 Dec 30.
    Division of Anesthesiology, Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 1-757 Asahi-machi, Chuo-ku, Niigata 951-8510, Japan. Electronic address:
    We used a multimodal approach to evaluate the effects of edaravone in a rat model of spinal cord injury (SCI). SCI was induced by extradural compression of thoracic spinal cord. In experiment 1, 30 min prior to compression, rats received a 3 mg/kg intravenous bolus of edaravone followed by a maintenance infusion of 1 (low-dose), 3 (moderate-dose), or 10 (high-dose) mg/kg/h edaravone. Read More

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