74,940 results match your criteria Brain Research[Journal]


tiRNAs as a Novel Biomarker for Cell Damage Assessment in In Vitro Ischemia-Reperfusion Model in Rat Neuronal PC12 Cells.

Brain Res 2019 Feb 16. Epub 2019 Feb 16.

Department of Neurosurgery, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan.

The disruption of appropriate cellular stress responses is implicated in the pathogenesis of different neurological disorders including ischemic injury. Early diagnosis and treatment are often associated with better prognosis in ischemic stroke patients. Thus, there is an urgent need to improve the speed and accuracy of stroke diagnosis by developing highly sensitive stroke biomarkers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2019.02.019DOI Listing
February 2019

miR-1247-3p mediates apoptosis of cerebral neurons by targeting caspase-2 in stroke.

Brain Res 2019 Feb 16. Epub 2019 Feb 16.

New Drug Innovation and Development Institute, Department of Pharmacy, College of Medicine, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei Province, China; Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine and School of Engineering, The University of Alabama at Birmingham, USA; Hubei Province Key Laboratory of Occupational Hazard Identification and Control, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. Electronic address:

Brain stroke is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. We explored a potential stroke-related role for a newly found microRNA, miR-1247-3p, and one of its target genes, caspase-2, predicted by TargetScanVert. In the present study, we found that miR-1247-3p was downregulated during ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) and that LV-miR-1247-3p overexpression attenuated brain impairment induced by I/R. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2019.02.020DOI Listing
February 2019

Expression of progesterone receptor, estrogen receptors α and β, and kisspeptin in the hypothalamus during perinatal development of gonad-lacking steroidogenic factor-1 knockout mice.

Brain Res 2019 Feb 15. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Department of Anatomy, Aichi-Gakuin University School of Dentistry, Nagoya, Japan.

Gonadal hormones contribute to brain sexual differentiation. We analyzed expression of progesterone receptor (PR), estrogen receptor-α (ERα), ERβ, and kisspeptin, in the preoptic area (POA) and/or the arcuate nucleus (ARC), in gonad-lacking steroidogenic factor-1 knockout (KO) mice during perinatal development. At postnatal-day (P) 0-P7, POA PR levels were higher in wild-type (WT) males compared with WT females, while those in KO males were lower than in WT males and similar to those in WT and KO females. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2019.02.016DOI Listing
February 2019

Differential and temporal expression of cortocotropin releasing hormone and its receptors in the nucleus of the hippocampal commissure and paraventricular nucleus during the stress response in chickens (Gallus gallus).

Brain Res 2019 Feb 14. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Poultry Science Center, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701, United States. Electronic address:

Recently, in addition to the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), the nucleus of the hippocampal commissure (NHpC) have been proposed to regulate stress in birds due to the discovery of corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) neurons in the NHpC. Expression of CRH, CRHR1, CRHR2 and glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) were determined within the NHpC compared to the PVN. Additionally, two levels of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis: 1) anterior pituitary and 2) adrenal gland were examined following food deprivation (FD) stress including proopiomelanocortin (POMC) expression and plasma corticosterone (CORT), respectively. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2019.02.018DOI Listing
February 2019

Isorhamnetin Enhanced Cortico-Hippocampal Learning and Memory Capability in Mice with Scopolamine-Induced Amnesia: Role of Antioxidant Defense, Cholinergic and BDNF Signaling.

Brain Res 2019 Feb 14. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Department of Pharmacology, Therapeutics and Toxicology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, PMB 12003, Surulere, Lagos state, Nigeria.

Isorhamnetin (IRN), a 3'-O-methylated metabolite of quercetin has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties. In this study, we investigated the learning and memory enhancing effects of IRN on spatial and non-spatial learning and memory deficits induced by scopolamine (3 mg/kg, i.p; muscarinic antagonist) using the novel object recognition test (NORT) and Morris water maze (MWM) task. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2019.02.017DOI Listing
February 2019
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Heterogeneous network dynamics in an Excitatory-Inhibitory network model by distinct intrinsic mechanisms in the Fast spiking interneurons.

Brain Res 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Molecular Biophysics Unit, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012, India. Electronic address:

Fast spiking interneurons (FSINs) have an important role in neuronal network dynamics. Although plasticity of synaptic properties is known to affect network synchrony, the role of plasticity of FSINs' intrinsic excitability on network dynamics remain elusive. Using computational approaches in an excitatory-FSIN model network (EI) based on previously established hippocampal neuronal models we show that altered FSIN intrinsic excitability robustly affects the coherence and frequency of network firing monotonically in the connected excitatory network. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2019.02.013DOI Listing
February 2019

Transplantation of cultured olfactory mucosal cells rescues optic nerve axons in a rat glaucoma model.

Brain Res 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Spinal Repair Unit, Department of Brain Repair and Rehabilitation, UCL Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, UK. Electronic address:

Purpose: To determine whether transplantation of olfactory mucosal cells (OMCs) is able to rescue the loss of optic nerve axons after the intraocular pressure (IOP) is elevated in rats.

Methods: The IOP was raised by injection of magnetic microspheres into the anterior chamber of the eye. OMCs cultured from the adult olfactory mucosa were transplanted into the region of the optic disc. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2019.02.010DOI Listing
February 2019
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Slow shift of dead zone after an abrupt shift of the light-dark cycle.

Brain Res 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Kindai University Faculty of Medicine, Ohnohigashi, Osakasayama 589-8511, Japan. Electronic address:

The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is the center of the mammalian circadian system. Environmental photic signals shifts the phase of the circadian rhythm in the SCN except during the dead zone, when the photic signal is gated somewhere on the way from the retina to the neurons in the SCN. Here we examined the phase of the dead zone after an abrupt delay of the LD cycles for several days by observing the mc-Fos induction in the SCN by light pulses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2019.02.014DOI Listing
February 2019

Identification of mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid receptors on peripheral nociceptors: translation of experimental findings from animal to human biology.

Brain Res 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Charité University Berlin, Campus Virchow Klinikum, Berlin, Germany.

Evidence is accumulating that activation of mineralocorticoid (MR) and glucocorticoid (GR) receptors on peripheral sensory neurons modulates pain sensation. While the expression and exact anatomical localization of MR and GR in the various subpopulations of peripheral sensory neurons has been shown in animals, it is still unknown for the human skin. Therefore, we aimed to identify MR and GR mRNA and protein as well as the exact subpopulations of sensory neurons in human versus rat skin. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2019.02.015DOI Listing
February 2019

Development of social play in hamsters: sex differences and their possible functions.

Brain Res 2019 Feb 12. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Department of Psychology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, 37996, USA. Electronic address:

In several rodent species social play appears to be necessary for proper deployment of species-specific patterns of aggressive and reproductive behavior. Specifically, in male Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus), play has been linked to the development of adult aggression. We quantified several types of social play behavior in same-sex peer groups ofSyrian hamsters three times per week for three consecutiveweeksafter weaning, which included postnatal days 22-42 (PD22 to PD42). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2019.02.012DOI Listing
February 2019
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Chronic mild hypoxia promotes hippocampal neurogenesis involving Notch1 signaling in epileptic rats.

Brain Res 2019 Feb 12. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Department of Neurology, Key Laboratory of Neurology of Hebei Province, The Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050000, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Cognitive impairment is one of the most common and disabling co-morbidities of epilepsy. It is therefore imperative to find novel treatment approaches to rescue cognitive function among epilepsy patients. Adult neurogenesis is strongly implicated in cognitive function, and mild hypoxia is known to promote the proliferation and differentiation of both embryonic and adult neural stem cells (NSCs). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2019.02.011DOI Listing
February 2019
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Layer-specific involvement of endocannabinoid signaling in muscarinic-induced long-term depression in layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons of rat visual cortex.

Brain Res 2019 Feb 9. Epub 2019 Feb 9.

Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 06591, Republic of Korea; Catholic Neuroscience Institute, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 06591, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Neuromodulatory facilitation of long-term synaptic plasticity is important in learning, memory, and experience-dependent cortical plasticity. Although muscarinic-induced long-term depression (mLTD) in the visual cortex is well known, its cellular mechanisms are not fully understood yet. Since endocannabinoid signaling mediates presynaptic expression of LTD in various brain areas including the primary visual cortex of rats, we investigated the involvement of endocannabinoids in the induction of mLTD in different dendritic compartments of layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2019.02.007DOI Listing
February 2019

Older Adults Elicit a Single-Bout Post-Exercise Executive Benefit Across a Continuum of Aerobically Supported Metabolic Intensities.

Brain Res 2019 Feb 9. Epub 2019 Feb 9.

School of Kinesiology, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada; Graduate Program in Neuroscience, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada. Electronic address:

Ten minutes of aerobic or resistance training can 'boost' executive function in older adults. Here, we examined whether the magnitude of the exercise benefit is influenced by exercise intensity. Older adults (N=17: mean age=73 years) completed a volitional test to exhaustion (VO) via treadmill to determine participant-specific moderate (80% of lactate threshold (LT)), heavy (15% of the difference between LT and VO) and very-heavy (50% of the difference between LT and VO) exercise intensities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2019.02.009DOI Listing
February 2019
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Assessing retinal ganglion cell death and neuroprotective agents using real time imaging.

Brain Res 2019 Feb 9. Epub 2019 Feb 9.

Department of Ophthalmology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8574, Japan; Department of Retinal Disease Control, Ophthalmology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan; Department of Advanced Ophthalmic Medicine, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan. Electronic address:

The evaluation of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death is a key part of retinal disease care. Previously, we used a Sytox Orange (SO)-based real-time imaging method to assess the RGCs in mice that underwent optic nerve crush. Here, we used N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) injury in rats to confirm our model and assess the effect of neuroprotective agents on RGCs. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00068993193008
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2019.02.008DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Gastrodin pretreatment alleviates rat brain injury caused by cerebral ischemic-reperfusion.

Brain Res 2019 Feb 8. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

Technology Transfer Center, Kunming Medical University, Kunming, 650500, China. Electronic address:

Brain damage, including blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction, neurological behavior deficit, cerebral infarction and inflammation, is commonly caused by ischemic-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Prevention of the above biological process defects is considered beneficial for patient recovery after I/R injury. This study was aimed to assess the neuroprotective effect of Gastrodin (GAS), an herbal agent, in experimentally induced cerebral ischemia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2019.02.006DOI Listing
February 2019

Cerebral F-FDG metabolism alteration in a neuropathic pain model following brachial plexus avulsion: a PET/CT study in rats.

Brain Res 2019 Feb 6. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

School of Rehabilitation Science, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, China; Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Yueyang Hospital, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

The present study aimed to investigate cerebral metabolic changes in a neuropathic pain model following deafferentation. A total of 24 Sprague-Dawley rats were included for modeling of right brachial plexus avulsion (BPA) through the posterior approach. As nerve injury would cause central sensitization and facilitate pain sensitivity in other parts of the body, thermal withdrawal latency (TWL) of the intact forepaw was assessed to investigate the level of pain perception following BPA-induced neuropathic pain. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00068993193007
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2019.02.005DOI Listing
February 2019
5 Reads

Aerobic exercise regulates synaptic transmission and reactive oxygen species production in the paraventricular nucleus of spontaneously hypertensive rats.

Brain Res 2019 Feb 5. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Department of Exercise Physiology, Beijing Sport University, Beijing, China; Key Laboratory of Physical Fitness and Exercise, Ministry of Education, Beijing Sport University, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Aerobic exercise lowers blood pressure in patients with hypertension, but the underlying mechanisms remain incompletely understood. The hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) plays a key role in the control of sympathetic outflow and cardiovascular tone. We examined whether chronic aerobic exercise altered synaptic transmission and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in the PVN. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2019.02.004DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Bone-marrow mononuclear cell therapy in a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: Functional outcomes from different administration routes.

Brain Res 2019 Feb 5. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Instituto de Biofísica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Electronic address:

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a chronic degenerative disease that mainly affects motor neurons, leading to progressive paralysis and death. Recently, cell therapy has emerged as a therapeutic alternative for several neurological diseases, including ALS, and bone-marrow cells are one of the major cell sources. Considering the importance of pre-clinical trials to determine the best therapeutic protocol and the hope of translating this protocol to the clinical setting, we tested bone-marrow mononuclear cell (BMMC) therapy administered by different routes in the SOD1 model of ALS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2019.02.003DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Preface.

Prog Brain Res 2019 ;244:xxi-xxiii

Centre of Behavioural and Cognitive Sciences, University of Allahabad, Allahabad, India.

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00796123193001
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0079-6123(19)30016-0DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Meditation induces physical relaxation and enhances cognition: A perplexing paradox.

Authors:
Kishore K Deepak

Prog Brain Res 2019 3;244:85-99. Epub 2019 Jan 3.

Department of Physiology, AlIMS, New Delhi, India. Electronic address:

Meditation induces physical and mental relaxation. Experimental evidence has also suggested that meditation enhances cognition. The relaxation (physical and mental) and cognitive enhancement are quite opposite tasks. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.pbr.2018.10.030DOI Listing
January 2019

Yoga: Balancing the excitation-inhibition equilibrium in psychiatric disorders.

Prog Brain Res 2019 3;244:387-413. Epub 2019 Jan 3.

National Institute of Mental Health & Neurosciences (NIMHANS), Bengaluru, India.

Social behavioral disturbances are central to most psychiatric disorders. A disequilibrium within the cortical excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitter systems underlies these deficits. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate are the most abundant excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters in the brain that contribute to this equilibrium. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.pbr.2018.10.024DOI Listing
January 2019
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Contemplative neuroscience, self-awareness, and education.

Prog Brain Res 2019 3;244:355-385. Epub 2019 Jan 3.

Faculty of Education, University of Haifa, Haifa, Israel.

Accumulating research in education shows that contemplative practices contribute to and foster well-being of individuals in sustainable ways. This bears special importance for teachers, as it affects not only them but also their students. Based on accumulating behavioral and neuroscientific findings, it has been suggested that a key process by which mindfulness meditation enhances self-regulation is the altering of self-awareness. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.pbr.2018.10.015DOI Listing
January 2019

Mindfulness training as cognitive training in high-demand cohorts: An initial study in elite military servicemembers.

Prog Brain Res 2019 27;244:323-354. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Department of Psychology, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL, United States. Electronic address:

Cognitive ability is a key selection criterion for entry into many elite professions. Herein, we investigate whether mindfulness training (MT) can enhance cognitive performance in elite military forces. The cognitive effects of a short-form 8-h MT program contextualized for military cohorts, referred to as Mindfulness-Based Attention Training (MBAT), were assessed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.pbr.2018.10.001DOI Listing
November 2018

Evolution from four mental states to the highest state of consciousness: A neurophysiological basis of meditation as defined in yoga texts.

Prog Brain Res 2019 3;244:31-83. Epub 2019 Jan 3.

Department of Yoga and Life Sciences, Cognitive Neuroscience Lab, Swami Vivekananda Yoga University (S-VYASA), Bengaluru, India.

This chapter provides a theoretical introduction to states of consciousness and reviews neuroscientific investigations of meditation. The different states of consciousness consist of four mental states, i.e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.pbr.2018.10.029DOI Listing
January 2019

The contemplative exercise through the lenses of predictive processing: A promising approach.

Authors:
Giuseppe Pagnoni

Prog Brain Res 2019 3;244:299-322. Epub 2019 Jan 3.

Department of Biomedical, Metabolic and Neural Sciences, and Center for Neuroscience and Neurotechnology, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy. Electronic address:

The theory of predictive processing in the comprehensive articulation proposed by Karl Friston is a framework that boasts an impressively wide explanatory power in neurobiology, where processes apparently as diverse as perception, action, attention, and learning unfold, and are coherently orchestrated, according to the single general mandate of free-energy minimization. In the present opinion piece, I argue that the adoption of this theoretical perspective can provide a much needed unitary framework for contemplative research as well, whose explosive growth in terms of the number of published studies and amount of collected data has not been matched yet by a similarly extensive effort to theoretically organize the findings, so that a deeper understanding of meditation-related processes can be attained. After an introduction to the basic notions of predictive processing, a tentative application of the latter to the meditative exercise is discussed, taking as a paradigmatic example the Japanese Zen meditation practice of shikantaza. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.pbr.2018.10.022DOI Listing
January 2019

Nondual awareness: Consciousness-as-such as non-representational reflexivity.

Authors:
Zoran Josipovic

Prog Brain Res 2019 3;244:273-298. Epub 2019 Jan 3.

Psychology Department, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, New York University, New York, NY, United States; NYU Langone Medical Center, NYU School of Medicine, New York, NY, United States; Nonduality Institute, Woodstock, NY, United States. Electronic address:

I introduce arguments toward a non-representational reflexivity theory of consciousness-as-such to address one of the key issues in the science of consciousness today: lack of understanding of the nature of consciousness itself. An expanded map of consciousness is outlined, which includes, in addition to the well-known contents of awareness and levels of arousal, the indeterminate substrate and consciousness-as-such or nondual awareness. The central idea presented is that consciousness-as-such is a non-conceptual nondual awareness, whose essential property is non-representational reflexivity. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00796123183016
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.pbr.2018.10.021DOI Listing
January 2019
6 Reads

Training attention for conscious non-REM sleep: The yogic practice of yoga-nidrā and its implications for neuroscience research.

Authors:
Stephen Parker

Prog Brain Res 2019 3;244:255-272. Epub 2019 Jan 3.

Saint Mary's University of Minnesota, Winona, MN, United States. Electronic address:

The study of consciousness within cognitive neuroscience has been dominated in recent years by investigations originating from collaborations between neuroscientific investigators and Buddhist meditation practitioners. The results have been remarkable, particularly when quantitative and qualitative research methods have been combined as they are in the neurophenomenological methodology originated by Francisco Varela. The addition of qualitative data about the experience of the subject greatly enriches the interpretive potential of quantitative data and honors the ultimate subjectivity of all phenomena, if we accept consciousness as the universal first principle as some quantum physicists now do. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.pbr.2018.10.016DOI Listing
January 2019

Tibetan Buddhist monastic debate: Psychological and neuroscientific analysis of a reasoning-based analytical meditation practice.

Prog Brain Res 2019 3;244:233-253. Epub 2019 Jan 3.

Department of Psychological Sciences, Kent State University, Kent, OH, United States.

Analytical meditation and monastic debate are contemplative practices engaged in by Tibetan Buddhist monastics that have up to now been largely unexplored in Western contemplative science. The highly physical form of contemplative debating plays an important role in the monastic curriculum. Based on discussions and recorded interviews Tibetan monastic teachers and senior students at Sera Jey Monastic University and preliminary experiments, we outline an initial theory that elucidates the psychological mechanisms underlying this practice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.pbr.2018.10.018DOI Listing
January 2019

Toward a brain theory of meditation.

Prog Brain Res 2019 3;244:207-232. Epub 2019 Jan 3.

Department of Neuroscience, Imaging and Clinical Sciences, "Gabriele D'Annunzio" University of Chieti-Pescara, Chieti, Italy; Institute for Advanced Biomedical Technologies, "Gabriele D'Annunzio" University of Chieti-Pescara, Chieti, Italy.

The rapidly progressing science of meditation has led to insights about the neural correlates of focused attention meditation (FAM), open monitoring meditation (OMM), compassion meditation (CM) and loving kindness meditation (LKM), in terms of states and traits. However, a unified theoretical understanding of the brain mechanisms involved in meditation-related functions, including mindfulness, is lacking. After reviewing the main forms of meditation and their relationships, the major brain networks and brain states, as well as influential theoretical views of consciousness, we outline a Brain Theory of Meditation (BTM). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.pbr.2018.10.028DOI Listing
January 2019

Concentrative (Sahaj Samadhi) meditation training and visual awareness: An fMRI study on color afterimages.

Prog Brain Res 2019 3;244:185-206. Epub 2019 Jan 3.

Centre of Behavioural and Cognitive Sciences, University of Allahabad, Allahabad, India. Electronic address:

All of us consciously experience the world around us through our sensory modalities. Empirical studies on the relationship between attention and awareness have shown that attention does influence perceptual experience or appearance in addition to better performance in perceptual tasks. The practice of meditation also changes perceptual experience in addition to better perceptual performance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.pbr.2018.10.026DOI Listing
January 2019

Fully immersed: State absorption and electrophysiological effects of the OVO Whole-Body Perceptual Deprivation chamber.

Prog Brain Res 2019 12;244:165-184. Epub 2019 Jan 12.

Edmond J. Safra Brain Research Center for the Study of Learning Disabilities, Faculty of Education, University of Haifa, Haifa, Israel.

Absorption, the ability to highly focus attention, as well as openness to self-altering experiences, is an important psychological construct, closely related to deep-meditation states and other altered states of consciousness. Yet, little is known about the electrophysiological profile of states of absorption, possibly due to the difficulty to induce this state in the lab. While most studies have used a visual Ganzfeld (homogeneous perceptual field), here we use a novel technique of full immersion-the OVO Whole-Body Perceptual Deprivation (OVO-WBPD) chamber, which is an altered sensory environment in the form of a human-sized egg. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00796123183016
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.pbr.2018.10.023DOI Listing
January 2019
9 Reads

Short-term mindful breath awareness training improves inhibitory control and response monitoring.

Prog Brain Res 2019 17;244:137-163. Epub 2019 Jan 17.

Liverpool John Moores University, Research Centre for Brain and Behaviour, Liverpool, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Mindfulness meditation is thought to lead to positive changes in cognitive and affective functioning. However, the mechanisms underlying these changes are not well understood. One reason for this is that so far only very few studies considered the effects of specific meditation practices. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.pbr.2018.10.019DOI Listing
January 2019

State-trait influences of Vipassana meditation practice on P3 EEG dynamics.

Prog Brain Res 2019 22;244:115-136. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

Department of Neurophysiology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences (NIMHANS), Bengaluru, India. Electronic address:

Several studies have demonstrated that meditation naïve subjects can, in just a few weeks, become proficient enough in meditation to show cognitive improvements accompanied with functional and structural changes in the brain. Would long-term exposure to qualitatively different levels of meditative training bring about differences in cognitive processing? Would meditation prior to task performance help separate out these differences? Could the nature of the task influence the findings related to cognitive enhancements? To address these questions, we evaluated cognitive functions in three groups of experienced Vipassana practitioners (Novices: n=22, Mean±SD meditation experience=989±595h; Senior practitioners: 21, 10,510±5313; Teachers: 16, 14,648±9623) who differed in terms of duration and quality of meditative practice. Specifically, we employed "ANGEL" a gamified multilevel oddball paradigm, to assess P3 event-related potentials (ERPs) and associated EEG dynamics-power spectra, event related spectral perturbations (ERSP) and inter-trial coherence (ITC). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.pbr.2018.10.027DOI Listing
January 2019

Contingent negative variation and P3 modulations following mindful movement training.

Prog Brain Res 2019 3;244:101-114. Epub 2019 Jan 3.

Research Institute for Neuroscience, Education and Didactics, Patrizio Paoletti Foundation for Development and Communication, Assisi, Italy. Electronic address:

In the study of the electrophysiological correlates of attention, a phasic change in alertness has been classically related to a negative frontal-central shift called Contingent Negative Variation (CNV). Studies investigating the effects of meditation on the CNV in participants reporting frequent transcendental experiences (TE) reported reduced CNV in choice reaction time task (CRT), and increased CNV in simple reaction time task (SRT), suggesting that meditation can induce a more balanced attentional state. In the current study, we tested whether a similar effect could be obtained in healthy non-meditators using a single session of a specifically structured sensorimotor training (Quadrato Motor Training-QMT). Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00796123183015
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.pbr.2018.10.017DOI Listing
January 2019
3 Reads

The neuroscience of meditation: classification, phenomenology, correlates, and mechanisms.

Prog Brain Res 2019 16;244:1-29. Epub 2019 Jan 16.

Institute of Noetic Sciences (IONS), Petaluma, CA, United States; Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, United States.

Rising from its contemplative and spiritual traditions, the science of meditation has seen huge growth over the last 30 years. This chapter reviews the classifications, phenomenology, neural correlates, and mechanisms of meditation. Meditation classification types are still varied and largely subjective. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.pbr.2018.10.020DOI Listing
January 2019

Estrogen receptor beta and G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 are involved in the acute estrogenic regulation of arginine-vasopressin immunoreactive levels in the supraoptic and paraventricular hypothalamic nuclei of female rats.

Brain Res 2019 Feb 4. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia (UNED), Department of Psychobiology, Calle Juan del Rosal 10, 28040 Madrid, Spain; Instituto Cajal, CSIC, Avenida Doctor Arce 37, 28002 Madrid, Spain; Universidad Europea de Madrid, Department of Basic Biomedical Science, Calle Tajo s/n, 28670 Villaviciosa de Odon, Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:

The ovarian hormone 17β-estradiol is known to regulate the release, expression and immunoreactivity of arginine-vasopressin (AVP) in the supraoptic and paraventricular hypothalamic nuclei of rodents. Previous studies have shown that estrogen receptor α is involved in the effects of chronic estradiol administration on arginine-vasopressin immunoreactivity in the female rat hypothalamus. In this study we have examined the effect of an acute administration of estradiol or specific agonists for estrogen receptors α, β and G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 on the immunoreactivity of arginine-vasopressin in the hypothalamus of adult ovariectomized female rats. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2019.02.002DOI Listing
February 2019
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Effects of CPEB1 in the anterior cingulate cortex on visceral pain in mice.

Brain Res 2019 Feb 4. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, and Precision Pharmacy & Drug Development Center, Department of Pharmacy, Tangdu Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, 710032, China. Electronic address:

Patients with irritable bowel syndrome suffer from chronic visceral pain, and in some of them, this is accompanied by anxiety comorbidity. Cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein 1 (CPEB1) mediates the cytoplasmic polyadenylation of mRNAs and facilitates their translation. Our previous studies have shown that CPEB1 knockdown in the amygdala exerts anxiolytic but not analgesic effects in a mouse model of inflammatory pain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2019.02.001DOI Listing
February 2019
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Changes in striatal dopamine release and locomotor activity following acute withdrawal from chronic nicotine are mediated by CRF1, but not CRF2, receptors.

Brain Res 2019 Mar 26;1706:41-47. Epub 2018 Oct 26.

Department of Pathophysiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Szeged, Hungary. Electronic address:

The aim of the present study was to investigate the participation of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptors (CRF1 and CRF2) in the alterations of the dorsal and ventral striatal dopamine release and the vertical and horizontal locomotor activity observed in rats following chronic nicotine treatment and consequent acute withdrawal. In this purpose, male Wistar rats were exposed to repeated intraperitoneal (ip) injection with nicotine or saline solution for 7 days. On the 8th day or the 9th day the rats were injected intracerebroventricularly (icv) with selective CRF1 antagonist antalarmin or selective CRF2 antagonist astressin or saline solution. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2018.10.028DOI Listing

Phosphoinositol metabolism affects AMP kinase-dependent K-ATP currents in rat substantia nigra dopamine neurons.

Brain Res 2019 Mar 26;1706:32-40. Epub 2018 Oct 26.

Department of Neurology, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR 97239, USA; Veterans Affairs Portland Health Care System, Portland, OR 97239, USA. Electronic address:

We reported recently that ligand-gated ATP-sensitive K (K-ATP) current is potentiated by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in rat substantia nigra compacta (SNC) dopamine neurons. Because phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) regulates K-ATP current, we explored the hypothesis that changes in PI(4,5)P2 modify the ability of AMPK to augment K-ATP current. To influence PI(4,5)P2 levels, we superfused brain slices with phospholipase C (PLC) activators and inhibitors while recording whole-cell currents in SNC dopamine neurons. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2018.10.027DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6367704PMC
March 2019
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Adipose-derived stem cell therapy inhibits the deterioration of cerebral infarction by altering macrophage kinetics.

Brain Res 2019 Feb 2. Epub 2019 Feb 2.

Department of Neurosurgery, Hyogo College of Medicine, Nishinomiya, Hyogo, Japan. Electronic address:

Introduction: We previously established a method to isolate and culture human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) using fetal bovine serum and showed the therapeutic impact on cerebral infarction. Recently, we modified the culture method with the use of serum-free media for future clinical applications. This study aims to evaluate whether intravenous administration of hADSCs induced by the serum-free culture method would improve neurobehavioral deficits in mice with cerebral infarction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2019.01.037DOI Listing
February 2019
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Dynamic Interactions of Ceftriaxone and Environmental Variables Suppress Amphetamine Seeking.

Brain Res 2019 Feb 1. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

Department of Psychological Sciences, Kansas State University, 492 Bluemont Hall, Manhattan KS 66506-5302, United States.

Extrasynaptic glutamate within the nucleus accumbens is a driver of relapse. Cocaine, ethanol, and methamphetamine reduce the expression of cystine-glutamate antiporter (xCT) and primary glial glutamate transporter 1 (GLT1) leading to increased extrasynaptic glutamate. Ceftriaxone (CTX) restores xCT and GLT1 expression and effectively suppresses cocaine and ethanol reinstatement, however, the effects of CTX on amphetamine (AMP) reinstatement are not determined. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2019.01.044DOI Listing
February 2019

Effects of Local Activation and Blockade of Dopamine D4 Receptors in the Spiking Activity of the Reticular Thalamic Nucleus in Normal and in Ipsilateral Dopamine-Depleted Rats.

Brain Res 2019 Feb 1. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

Academia de Fisiología, Escuela Superior de Medicina, Instituto Politécnico, Nacional. Plan de San Luis y Díaz Mirón, Colonia Casco de Santo Tomás, CdMx, 11340, México; Sección de Investigación y Posgrado de la Escuela Superior de Medicina del IPN, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Plan de San Luis y Díaz Mirón, Colonia Casco de Santo Tomás, CdMx, 11340, México. Electronic address:

The reticular thalamic nucleus (RTn) controls the overall activity of thalamo-cortical neurons information processing. GABAergic RTn neurons have one of the highest densities of D4-type dopamine receptors in subcortical structures. The unitary electrical activity of RTn neurons was recorded in vivo in Wistar rats in order to study the effects of local activation and blockade of D4 receptors under both conditions, normal and ipsilateral lesion of the dopaminergic pathways. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2019.01.042DOI Listing
February 2019
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Post-stroke gastrodin treatment ameliorates ischemic injury and increases neurogenesis and restores the Wnt/β-Catenin signaling in focal cerebral ischemia in mice.

Brain Res 2019 Feb 1. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biology, Monash University, Clayton 3800, Australia. Electronic address:

Cerebral ischemic stroke is one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide, and the only available drug treatment is limited to a short window following the ischemic event. Gastrodin is the major bioactive constituent extracted from thetuberGastrodia elata, and is currently used to treat dizziness in the clinic. "Early" application of gastrodin (before modeling or immediately after ischemic injury) has shown antioxidative and neuroprotective effects in a transient focal brain ischemia model in rodents; however, it is not known whether the delayed administration of gastrodin after permanent focal cerebral ischemia ameliorates neural injury and increases neurogenesis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2019.01.043DOI Listing
February 2019
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2.843 Impact Factor

hDystrophin is Required for Normal Synaptic Gain in the Drosophila Olfactory Circuit.

Brain Res 2019 Jan 31. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Laboratory of Developmental Neurobiology, Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands; Department of Pharmacology, Chiang Mai University, Thailand. Electronic address:

The Drosophila olfactory system provides an excellent model to elucidate the neural circuits that control behaviors elicited by environmental stimuli. Despite significant progress in defining olfactory circuit components and their connectivity, little is known about the mechanisms that transfer the information from the primary antennal olfactory receptor neurons to the higher order brain centers. Here, we show that the Dystrophin Dp186 isoform is required in the olfactory system circuit for olfactory functions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2019.01.039DOI Listing
January 2019
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Altered expression of dopaminergic cell fate regulating genes prior to manifestation of symptoms in a transgenic rat model of Huntington's disease.

Brain Res 2019 Jan 31. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Department of Neurosurgery, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

Hyperactivity of the dopaminergic pathway is thought to contribute to clinical symptoms in the early stages of Huntington's disease (HD). It is suggested to be result of a reduced dopaminergic inhibition by degeneration of medium spiny neurons in the striatum. Previously, we have shown that the number of dopaminergic cells is increased in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) of HD patients and transgenic HD (tgHD) rats during the manifestation phase of the disease; as well as in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) and ventral tegmental area (VTA) of tgHD rats. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2019.01.041DOI Listing
January 2019

GSK3β overexpression driven by GFAP promoter improves rotarod performance.

Brain Res 2019 Jan 31. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Centro de Biología Molecular "Severo Ochoa", CSIC/UAM, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid, Spain; CIBERNED, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas, 28031 Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:

We have studied the consequences of in vivo GSK3β overexpression in the cerebellum using transgenic mice with conditional expression where the transactivator tTA protein expression is driven by GFAP promoter. We demonstrate an increase in GSK3β in Bergmann cells. To study cerebellar dysfunctions and evaluate motor coordination we analysed the latency to fall in the accelerating rotarod test. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2019.01.040DOI Listing
January 2019

Editorial: Brain in Motion.

Brain Res 2019 Jan 31. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Neuropsychology Lab, Department of Psychology, European Medical School, University of Oldenburg, Oldenburg, Germany; Cluster of Excellence Hearing4all, University of Oldenburg, Oldenburg, Germany; Research Centre Neurosensory Science, University of Oldenburg, Oldenburg, Germany. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2019.01.027DOI Listing
January 2019

Delivery of different genes into presynaptic and postsynaptic neocortical neurons connected by a BDNF-TrkB synapse.

Brain Res 2019 Jan 30. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

Department of Ophthalmology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans LA 70112, USA; Department of Phamracology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans LA 70112, USA. Electronic address:

Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) signaling through TrkB receptors has important roles in synapse formation, synaptic plasticity, learning, and specific diseases. However, it is challenging to relate BDNF-TrkB synapses to circuit physiology or learning, as BDNF-TrkB synapses are embedded in complex circuits that contain numerous neuron and synapse types. Thus, analyzing the physiology of neurons connected by BDNF-TrkB synapses would be advanced by a technology to deliver different genes into presynaptic and postsynaptic neurons, connected by a BDNF-TrkB synapse. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2019.01.038DOI Listing
January 2019
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The effects of lamotrigine and ethosuximide on seizure frequency, neuronal loss, and astrogliosis in a model of temporal-lobe epilepsy.

Brain Res 2019 Jan 29. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

Neurology department of the First Hospital of Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, Shanxi, China.

Objective: The putative neuroprotective and disease-modifying effects of lamotrigine (LTG) and ethosuximide (ESM) were investigated in the lithium-pilocarpine (Li-Pc) model of temporal-lobe epilepsy (TLE) in rats. Then, spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS), neuronal loss and astrogliosis were assessed.

Methods: Status Epilepticus (SE) was induced by Li-Pc in five experimental groups: 24 h after SE, all rats received twice daily either a low (10 mg/kg) or high (20 mg/kg) dose of LTG, or a low (25 mg/kg) or high (50 mg/kg) dose of ESM, or solvent. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2019.01.031DOI Listing
January 2019
3 Reads
2.843 Impact Factor

Impaired iPLAβ activity affects iron uptake and storage without iron accumulation: an in vitro study excluding decreased iPLAβ activity as the cause of iron deposition in PLAN.

Brain Res 2019 Jan 29. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

Department of Neurology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, 410008 Hunan, People's Republic of China; National Clinical Research Center for Geriatric Disorders, Central South University, Changsha, 410008 Hunan, People's Republic of China; Center for Medical Genetics, Central South University, Changsha, 410008 Hunan, People's Republic of China; Key Laboratory of Hunan Province in Neurodegenerative Disorders, Central South University, Changsha, 410008 Hunan, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

PLA2G6-associated neurodegeneration (PLAN, NBIA2) is the second most common type of Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation (NBIA), caused by recessive mutations of PLA2G6 gene, which encodes Ca-independent phospholipase Aβ (iPLAβ). In most PLAN cases, decreased iPLAβ activity and iron deposition was observed meanwhile, and researchers also identified a PLA2G6 mutation family without iron deposition shown by MRI images. This brought us the question of whether decreased iPLAβ activity was the cause of iron deposition in PLAN. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2019.01.036DOI Listing
January 2019