1,838,149 results match your criteria Brain Research[Journal]


Cognitive training benefit depends on brain injury location in adolescents with traumatic brain injury: a pilot study.

Eur J Phys Rehabil Med 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

School of Psychology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Australian Catholic University, Melbourne, Australia.

Background: Executive dysfunctioning after pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been linked to poor outcomes in school performance, social functioning and employment. The credibility of training-induced cognitive enhancement in TBI is threatened by its limited proof of benefit in executive skills of daily living.

Aim: Our primary aim was to investigate if cognitive intervention for improving impairments in executive functions in the chronic stage of traumatic brain injury is effective during adolescence. Read More

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December 2018

Methods to Quantify Nanomaterial Association with, and Distribution Across, the Blood-Brain Barrier In Vivo.

Authors:
Robert A Yokel

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1894:281-299

Pharmaceutical Sciences Department, University of Kentucky Academic Medical Center, Lexington, KY, USA.

The role and functional anatomy of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is summarized to enable the investigator to appropriately address evaluation of nanomaterial interaction with, and distribution across, it into brain tissue (parenchyma). Transport mechanisms across the BBB are presented, in relation to nanomaterial physicochemical properties. Measures and test substances to assess BBB integrity/disruption/permeation are introduced, along with how they are used to interpret the results obtained with the presented methods. Read More

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January 2019

Functional Imaging of Visuospatial Attention in Complex and Naturalistic Conditions.

Curr Top Behav Neurosci 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Lyon Neuroscience Research Center, Bron, France.

One of the ultimate goals of cognitive neuroscience is to understand how the brain works in the real world. Functional imaging with naturalistic stimuli provides us with the opportunity to study the brain in situations similar to the everyday life. This includes the processing of complex stimuli that can trigger many types of signals related both to the physical characteristics of the external input and to the internal knowledge that we have about natural objects and environments. Read More

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December 2018
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TrkB Regulates N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Signaling by Uncoupling and Recruiting the Brain-Specific Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor, RasGrf1.

J Mol Neurosci 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Biochemistry, Western University, Medical Sciences Building, Rm 342, 1151 Richmond St. North, London, ON, N6A 5C1, Canada.

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) facilitates multiple aspects of neuronal differentiation and cellular physiology by activating the high-affinity receptor tyrosine kinase, TrkB. While it is known that both BDNF and TrkB modulate cellular processes involved in learning and memory, exactly how TrkB cross-talks and modulates signaling downstream of excitatory ionotropic receptors, such as the NMDA receptor (NMDAR), are not well understood. A model that we have investigated involves the signaling molecule RasGrf1, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for both Ras and Rac. Read More

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December 2018

The 'Neglected' Personal Neglect.

Neuropsychol Rev 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland.

A review of patients with brain injury showing personal neglect is presented. The aim is to shed light on this aspect of neglect often unresearched or only indirectly investigated, and to discuss recent findings concerning the methods used to assess personal neglect, its neural correlates and its association with the more often explored aspect of extrapersonal neglect. The review was performed using PubMed and PsychInfo databases to search for papers published in the last 123 years (until January 2018). Read More

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December 2018

A review of filamin A mutations and associated interstitial lung disease.

Eur J Pediatr 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Clinical Genetics Department, Our Lady's Children's Hospital, Dublin, Ireland.

The filamin A gene (FLNA) on Xq28 encodes the filamin A protein. Mutation in FLNA causes a wide spectrum of disease including skeletal dysplasia, neuronal migration abnormality, cardiovascular malformation, intellectual disability and intestinal obstruction. Recently, childhood-onset interstitial lung disease associated with a range of FLNA mutations has been recognised and reported. Read More

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December 2018
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Advances in quantitative assessment of parkinsonian motor symptoms with wearable devices.

Sci China Life Sci 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Neurology, Fujian Institute of Geriatrics, Fujian Medical University Union Hospital, Fuzhou, 350001, China.

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December 2018

Gradients of connectivity distance in the cerebral cortex of the macaque monkey.

Brain Struct Funct 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Max Planck Research Group for Neuroanatomy and Connectivity, Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Leipzig, Germany.

Cortical connectivity conforms to a series of organizing principles that are common across species. Spatial proximity, similar cortical type, and similar connectional profile all constitute factors for determining the connectivity between cortical regions. We previously demonstrated another principle of connectivity that is closely related to the spatial layout of the cerebral cortex. Read More

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December 2018

Behavioral and electrophysiological brain effects of aspartame on well-nourished and malnourished rats.

Metab Brain Dis 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Departamento de Nutrição, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE, 50670-901, Brazil.

The non-caloric sweetener aspartame can be potentially harmful to the developing brain, as some studies suggest an association between aspartame intake and adverse neural effects. This study aimed to evaluate the possible effects of aspartame, with or without associated early nutritional deficiency, on behavioral parameters suggestive of anxiety and electrophysiological features of the excitability-related phenomenon known as cortical spreading depression (CSD). Newborn Wistar rats (n = 80) were suckled under favorable (L; n = 40) or unfavorable lactation conditions (L; n = 40), consisting of litters with 9 or 15 pups, respectively. Read More

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December 2018

The Influence of a Xanthine-Catechin Chemical Matrix on in vitro Macrophage-Activation Triggered by Antipsychotic Ziprasidone.

Inflammation 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Postgraduate Program of Pharmacology, Federal University of Santa Maria (UFSM), Santa Maria, RS, Brazil.

Ziprasidone (ZIP) is an effective antipsychotic with low side effects than other second-generation antipsychotics. Despite this, there are reports of adverse events and previous studies associating the use of ZIP the inflammatory response. It is possible to infer that bioactive molecules present in some foods could attenuate peripheral inflammatory and oxidative stress potentially triggered ZIP. Read More

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December 2018

Glucose metabolic brain patterns to discriminate amyotrophic lateral sclerosis from Parkinson plus syndromes.

EJNMMI Res 2018 Dec 13;8(1):110. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Division of Nuclear Medicine, KU Leuven, Herestraat 49, 3000, Leuven, Belgium.

Background: F-FDG brain PET measures metabolic changes in neurodegenerative disorders and may discriminate between different diseases even at an early stage. The objective of this study was to classify patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and Parkinson plus syndromes (PP). To this end, different approaches were evaluated using generalized linear models and corresponding glucose metabolic brain patterns. Read More

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December 2018

Type 2 diabetes mellitus, brain atrophy and cognitive decline in older people: a longitudinal study.

Diabetologia 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Menzies Institute for Medical Research, University of Tasmania, 17 Liverpool Street, Private Bag 23, Hobart, TAS, 7000, Australia.

Aims/hypothesis: The aims of the study were to examine whether type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with greater brain atrophy and cognitive decline, and whether brain atrophy mediates associations between type 2 diabetes and cognitive decline.

Methods: Participants without dementia aged 55-90 years from the Cognition and Diabetes in Older Tasmanians (CDOT) study underwent brain MRI (ventricular and total brain volume) and neuropsychological measures (global function and seven cognitive domains) at three time points over 4.6 years. Read More

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December 2018

Novel tau fragments in cerebrospinal fluid: relation to tangle pathology and cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease.

Acta Neuropathol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, The Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Göteborgsvägen 31, House V3/SU, 43180, Mölndal, Sweden.

Tau is an axonal microtubule-binding protein. Tau pathology in brain and increased tau concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Most of tau in CSF is present as fragments. Read More

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December 2018

Gadolinium-enhanced imaging of pediatric thoracic lymphoma: is intravenous contrast really necessary?

Eur Radiol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Frankfurt, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590, Frankfurt/Main, Germany.

Objectives: Increasing awareness of potential side effects from gadolinium-based contrast agents has underlined the need for contrast-free magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Numerous recent articles evaluated the risk of potential brain deposits, with the result that research is putting the focus more on alternative unenhanced imaging techniques. The aim of this study was to determine the need for contrast media for chest MRI in primary staging and follow-up care of lymphoma. Read More

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December 2018
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Ginsenoside Rf alleviates dysmenorrhea and inflammation through the BDNF-TrkB-CREB pathway in a rat model of endometriosis.

Food Funct 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Shandong University QiLu Hospital, 104 culture west Road, Jinan 250012, Shandong, China.

To investigate the effects and the underlying mechanisms of ginsenoside Rf in a surgically induced rat endometriosis model, endometriosis was constructed through homologous transplantation and the Wistar rats were further randomly classified into the sham group, the estradiol valerate (E2V) control group, the endometriosis group, and the ginsenoside Rf groups (1.0, 2.0 and 4. Read More

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December 2018

Takotsubo syndrome in a stroke patient with carotid artery stenosis.

eNeurologicalSci 2018 Dec 22;13:46-48. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Krankenanstalt Rudolfstiftung, Juchgasse 25, A-1030 Wien, Austria.

Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) is a transient transient left ventricular dysfunction, predominantly affecting elderly women and often preceded by emotional or physical stress. TTS may be the cause as well as the consequence of stroke. We report a 82-years old female with a history of long-standing untreated arterial hypertension who was hospitalized because of a left-sided tongue paralysis and dysarthria. Read More

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December 2018

Radiation-induced vascular malformations in the brain, mimicking tumor in MRI-based treatment response assessment maps (TRAMs).

Clin Transl Radiat Oncol 2019 Feb 14;15:1-6. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Advanced Technology Center, Sheba Medical Center, Ramat-Gan 52621, Israel.

•Of 310 brain tumors patients recruited, histology of 99 lesions was available.•Of those, 5 were histologically confirmed as radiation-induced malformations.•TRAMs cannot differentiate active tumor from vascular malformation. Read More

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February 2019

Subregional Hippocampal Thickness Abnormalities in Older Adults with a History of Heavy Cannabis Use.

Cannabis Cannabinoid Res 2018 10;3(1):242-251. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, University of California, Los Angeles, California.

Legalization of cannabis (CB) for both medicinal and, in some states, recreational use, has given rise to increasing usage rates across the country. Of particular concern are indications that frequent CB use may be selectively harmful to the developing adolescent brain compared with adult-onset usage. However, the long-term effects of heavy, adolescent CB use on brain structure and cognitive performance in late-life remain unknown. Read More

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December 2018
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New neurons use Slit-Robo signaling to migrate through the glial meshwork and approach a lesion for functional regeneration.

Sci Adv 2018 Dec 12;4(12):eaav0618. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Developmental and Regenerative Biology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 467-8601, Japan.

After brain injury, neural stem cell-derived neuronal precursors (neuroblasts) in the ventricular-subventricular zone migrate toward the lesion. However, the ability of the mammalian brain to regenerate neuronal circuits for functional recovery is quite limited. Here, using a mouse model for ischemic stroke, we show that neuroblast migration is restricted by reactive astrocytes in and around the lesion. Read More

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December 2018

Editorial: Bioscience of D-amino Acid Oxidase From Biochemistry to Pathophysiology.

Front Mol Biosci 2018 28;5:108. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department of Pharmacology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

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November 2018

Human D-Amino Acid Oxidase: Structure, Function, and Regulation.

Front Mol Biosci 2018 28;5:107. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Dipartimento di Biotecnologie e Scienze della Vita, Università degli Studi dell'Insubria, Varese, Italy.

D-Amino acid oxidase (DAAO) is an FAD-containing flavoenzyme that catalyzes with absolute stereoselectivity the oxidative deamination of all natural D-amino acids, the only exception being the acidic ones. This flavoenzyme plays different roles during evolution and in different tissues in humans. Its three-dimensional structure is well conserved during evolution: minute changes are responsible for the functional differences between enzymes from microorganism sources and those from humans. Read More

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November 2018

A Systematic Review of Atypical Teratoid Rhabdoid Tumor in Adults.

Front Oncol 2018 28;8:567. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Division of Neuropathology, University of Alberta Hospital, Edmonton, AB, Canada.

Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor in adults is a relatively rare malignant neoplasm. It is characterized by the presence of rhabdoid cells in combination with loss of either the INI1 or BRG1protein from the tumor cells. A systematic review was conducted using MEDLINE using the terms "atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor" AND "adult. Read More

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November 2018
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Contemporary Surgical Management of Deep-Seated Metastatic Brain Tumors Using Minimally Invasive Approaches.

Front Oncol 2018 28;8:558. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department of Neurosurgery, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL, United States.

A subset of metastatic brain tumors occurs in deep-seated locations. Accessing and resecting these lesions can be associated with significant morbidity because it involves large craniotomies, extensive white matter dissection, prolonged retraction, and risk of inadvertent tissue injury. As a result, only palliative treatment options are typically offered for these lesions including observation, needle biopsies, and/or radiation therapy. Read More

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November 2018
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Effect of combined anti-PD-1 and temozolomide therapy in glioblastoma.

Oncoimmunology 2019 16;8(1):e1525243. Epub 2018 Oct 16.

Department of Neurosurgery, Brain Tumor Center, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

: Although programmed death-1 (PD-1) blockade is effective in treating several types of cancer, the efficacy of this agent in glioblastoma (GBM) is largely unknown. : We evaluated therapeutic effects of anti-PD-1, temozolomide (TMZ), and their combination in an orthotopic murine GBM model. The phenotype, number, and composition of lymphocytes were evaluated using flow cytometry. Read More

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October 2018
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The role of CMV in glioblastoma and implications for immunotherapeutic strategies.

Oncoimmunology 2019 16;8(1):e1514921. Epub 2018 Oct 16.

Lillian S. Wells Department of Neurosurgery, UF Brain Tumor Immunotherapy Program, Preston A. Wells, Jr. Center for Brain Tumor Therapy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.

Controversy surrounds the role of cytomegalovirus (CMV) in glioblastoma (GBM). However, several studies have shown that CMV nucleic acids and proteins are present within GBM tumor tissue. CMV has been implicated in GBM pathogenesis by affecting tumor stem cell factors, angiogenesis and immune pathways. Read More

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October 2018
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Identification of PD-L2, B7-H3 and CTLA-4 immune checkpoint proteins in genetic subtypes of meningioma.

Oncoimmunology 2019 5;8(1):e1512943. Epub 2018 Sep 5.

Project neuroArm, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada.

Meningioma is the most common brain tumor in adults. Surgical resection remains the primary treatment. No chemotherapy exists. Read More

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September 2018
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Combination PD-1 blockade and irradiation of brain metastasis induces an effective abscopal effect in melanoma.

Oncoimmunology 2019 11;8(1):e1507669. Epub 2018 Oct 11.

Department of Immunology, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland, OH, USA.

Nearly half of melanoma patients develop brain metastases during the course of their disease. Despite advances in both localized radiation and systemic immunotherapy, brain metastases remain difficult to treat, with most patients surviving less than 5 months from the time of diagnosis. While both treatment regimens have individually shown considerable promise in treating metastatic melanoma, there is interest in combining these strategies to take advantage of potential synergy. Read More

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October 2018
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A Case of Mistaken Identity: Glutaric Aciduria Type I Masquerading as Postmeningitic Hydrocephalus.

J Clin Imaging Sci 2018 15;8:50. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Department of Radiology and Imaging, Vardhman Mahavir Medical College and Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi, India.

We report the characteristic neuroimaging features of a rare metabolic leukodystrophy in an 8-year-old boy, born of consanguineous parenthood. The child presented with macrocrania, regression of milestones, and dystonia. The patient was referred for magnetic resonance imaging with a clinical diagnosis of postmeningitic hydrocephalus. Read More

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November 2018

Chudley-McCullough Syndrome.

J Clin Imaging Sci 2018 15;8:45. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Department of Radiology, Diskapi Yildirim Beyazit Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey.

Chudley-McCullough syndrome (CMS), an autosomal recessive condition first reported by Chudley et al., in 1997, comprises profound sensorineural hearing loss and specific brain abnormalities. The hearing loss may be congenital or early onset. Read More

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November 2018
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Utility of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Brain Epilepsy Protocol in New-Onset Seizures: How is it Different in Developing Countries?

J Clin Imaging Sci 2018 15;8:43. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Department of Radiodiagnosis, Kempegowda Institute of Medical Sciences, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.

Introduction: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the current imaging tool of choice in the investigation of patients with seizures. The advent of high-resolution MRI with a dedicated seizure protocol has significantly increased the chances of identifying a cause, resulting in a positive clinical impact on the management of these patients.

Aims: The aims of this study were to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of standard MRI, identify whether there is an increase in the diagnostic yield with the addition of dedicated seizure protocol, and compare the diagnostic yields of MRI and electroencephalogram (EEG) individually and in combination. Read More

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November 2018

Epigenetic modulation during hippocampal development.

Biomed Rep 2018 Dec 18;9(6):463-473. Epub 2018 Oct 18.

Department of Pharmacology, Medical School of Yangtze University, Jingzhou, Hubei 434023, P.R. China.

The hippocampus is located in the limbic system and is vital in learning ability, memory formation and emotion regulation, and is associated with depression, epilepsy and mental retardation in an abnormal developmental situation. Several factors have been found to modulate the development of the hippocampus, and epigenetic modification have a crucial effect in this progress. The present review summarizes the epigenetic modifications, including DNA methylation, histone acetylation, and non-coding RNAs, regulating all stages of hippocampal development, focusing on the growth of Ammons horn and the dentate gyrus in humans and rodents. Read More

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December 2018

Impacts of cognitive impairment for different levels and causes of traumatic brain injury, and education status in TBI patients.

Dement Neuropsychol 2018 Oct-Dec;12(4):415-420

Young Researchers and Elite Club, Zahedan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Zahedan, Iran.

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of main causes of death and disability among many young and old populations in different countries.

Objective: The aim of this study were to consider and predict the cognitive impairments according to different levels and causes of TBI, and education status.

Methods: The study was performed using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) to estimate cognitive impairment in patients at a trauma center in Zahedan city. Read More

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December 2018
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Frontostriatal grey matter atrophy in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis A visual rating study.

Dement Neuropsychol 2018 Oct-Dec;12(4):388-393

Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is characterised by frontostriatal grey matter changes similar to those in frontotemporal dementia (FTD). However, these changes are usually detected at a group level, and simple visual magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) cortical atrophy scales may further elucidate frontostriatal changes in ALS.

Objective: To investigate whether frontostriatal changes are detectable using simple visual MRI atrophy rating scales applied at an individual patient level in ALS. Read More

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December 2018

Monitoring of drug treatment and psychosocial intervention with SPECT in Alzheimer patients Implications for neurologically appropriate psychosocial interventions. An observational study. The Osaki-Tajiri Project.

Dement Neuropsychol 2018 Oct-Dec;12(4):380-387

Geriatric Behavioral Neurology, Tohoku University CYRIC, Japan.

We previously examined cerebral blood flow (CBF) with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) with reference to drug treatment (donepezil) and psychosocial intervention.

Objective: The aim is to provide "brain-based" evidence for psychosocial interventions using SPECT.

Methods: The participants were 27 consecutive outpatients with AD who received the drug and psychosocial intervention, and SPECT three times (baseline, pre-/post-intervention) at 6 month-intervals. Read More

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December 2018

Focused ultrasound and Alzheimer's disease A systematic review.

Dement Neuropsychol 2018 Oct-Dec;12(4):353-359

Medical student. Departamento de Medicina, Faculdade de Ciências Médicas da Paraíba, Cabedelo, PB, Brazil.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) affects millions of people, however, there is still no effective treatment. The use of focused ultrasound with microbubbles (FUS-MB) for the opening of the blood-brain barrier has been recently studied and may become a promising therapeutic target.

Objective: To discuss the use of FUS-MB for the treatment of AD and to present some of the techniques used. Read More

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December 2018

Late adult-onset adrenomyeloneuropathy evolving with atypical severe frontal lobe syndrome: Importance of neuroimaging.

Radiol Case Rep 2019 Mar 5;14(3):309-314. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Medical, Surgical, Neurological, Metabolic Sciences, and Aging, 2nd Division of Neurology, Center for Rare Diseases and InterUniversity Center for Research in Neurosciences, University of Campania "Luigi Vanvitelli", Via Sergio Pansini, 80131 Naples, Italy.

X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a rare inherited metabolic disease affecting the nervous system and the adrenal glands. It is caused by a mutation of the gene, resulting in the impaired degradation of very long-chain fatty acids and their subsequent accumulation in several organs and tissues. X-ALD is notable for its high phenotypical variability, that includes isolated adrenocortical insufficiency, slowly progressive myelopathy with paraparesis, ataxia, and peripheral neuropathy to severe childhood cerebral forms. Read More

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Co-expression network analysis of gene expression profiles of HER2 breast cancer-associated brain metastasis.

Oncol Lett 2018 Dec 10;16(6):7008-7019. Epub 2018 Oct 10.

Department of Breast Surgery, Hubei Cancer Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430079, P.R. China.

Brain metastasis occurs in ~30% of patients with breast cancer, and patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) breast cancer have a particularly high frequency of brain metastasis. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis was conducted to identify the hub differentially expressed genes from patients with HER2 breast cancer between brain metastases and primary tumors. The potential candidate genes were investigated in another set of patient samples to confirm their relevance. Read More

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December 2018

Neuroprotective role of dexmedetomidine pretreatment in cerebral ischemia injury via ADRA2A-mediated phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in adult rats.

Exp Ther Med 2018 Dec 18;16(6):5201-5209. Epub 2018 Oct 18.

Cancer Biology Research Center, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430030, P.R. China.

Neuroprotective effects of dexmedetomidine (Dex) have been reported in various models of brain injury. However, to our knowledge, the neuroprotective mechanism of Dex pretreatment in rats remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to detect the expression of the α2A adrenergic receptor (ADRA2A) in focal ischemic brain tissues and to investigate the protective role and corresponding mechanism of Dex pretreatment in cerebral ischemia in rats. Read More

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December 2018

Surgical strategy for temporal lobe epilepsy with dual pathology and incomplete evidence from EEG and neuroimaging.

Exp Ther Med 2018 Dec 19;16(6):4886-4892. Epub 2018 Sep 19.

Department of Neurosurgery, The Second Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Dalian, Liaoning 116000, P.R. China.

Coexistence of hippocampal sclerosis (HS) and a temporal neocortical lesion, including focal cortical dysplasia, vascular malformations or benign primary brain tumors, is defined as dual pathology. In the majority of cases, the complete evidence based on electroencephalogram (EEG) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for each of the dual pathological lesions is difficult to obtain. As a result, patients with dual pathology are poor surgical candidates due to potential incomplete resection of the epileptogenic zone. Read More

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December 2018

Activation of astrocytes and expression of inflammatory cytokines in rats with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

Exp Ther Med 2018 Dec 27;16(6):4401-4406. Epub 2018 Sep 27.

Department of Neurology, The Second People's Hospital of Liaocheng, Liaocheng, Shandong 252601, P.R. China.

The aim of the study was to investigate and discuss the activation of astrocytes and the expression of inflammatory cytokines in rats with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Twenty Wistar rats were randomly divided into the normal control (n=10) and EAE group (n=10). The rats in the EAE group were injected intraperitoneally with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein 35-55 emulsion, and those in the control group were injected with the equivalent volume of normal saline. Read More

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December 2018

Neuroinflammation in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease.

Clin Exp Neuroimmunol 2018 Nov 23;9(4):211-218. Epub 2018 Sep 23.

RIKEN Center for Brain Science Laboratory for Proteolytic Neuroscience Wako Japan.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common type of neurocognitive disorder. Although both amyloid β peptide deposition and neurofibrillary tangle formation in the AD brain have been established as pathological hallmarks of the disease, many other factors contribute in a complex manner to the pathogenesis of AD before clinical symptoms of the disease become apparent. Longitudinal pathophysiological processes cause patients' brains to exist in a state of chronic neuroinflammation, with glial cells acting as key regulators of the neuroinflammatory state. Read More

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November 2018

p53-Sensitive Epileptic Behavior and Inflammation in Hypomorphic Mice.

Front Genet 2018 27;9:581. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Department of Biology and Biotechnology, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

Epilepsy is a complex clinical condition characterized by repeated spontaneous seizures. Seizures have been linked to multiple drivers including DNA damage accumulation. Investigation of epilepsy physiopathology in humans imposes ethical and practical limitations, for this reason model systems are mostly preferred. Read More

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November 2018

Traumatic Brain Injury in Mice Induces Acute Bacterial Dysbiosis Within the Fecal Microbiome.

Front Immunol 2018 27;9:2757. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Center for Neuroregeneration, Houston Methodist Research Institute, Houston, TX, United States.

The secondary injury cascade that is activated following traumatic brain injury (TBI) induces responses from multiple physiological systems, including the immune system. These responses are not limited to the area of brain injury; they can also alter peripheral organs such as the intestinal tract. Gut microbiota play a role in the regulation of immune cell populations and microglia activation, and microbiome dysbiosis is implicated in immune dysregulation and behavioral abnormalities. Read More

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November 2018
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Increased Excitability Induced in the Primary Motor Cortex by Transcranial Ultrasound Stimulation.

Front Neurol 2018 28;9:1007. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Psychology Clinical Neuroscience Center, Department of Psychology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, United States.

Transcranial Ultrasound Stimulation (tUS) is an emerging technique that uses ultrasonic waves to noninvasively modulate brain activity. As with other forms of non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS), tUS may be useful for altering cortical excitability and neuroplasticity for a variety of research and clinical applications. The effects of tUS on cortical excitability are still unclear, and further complications arise from the wide parameter space offered by various types of devices, transducer arrangements, and stimulation protocols. Read More

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November 2018

Oculomotor Performances Are Associated With Motor and Non-motor Symptoms in Parkinson's Disease.

Front Neurol 2018 28;9:960. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department of Neurology, Xinhua Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Parkinson's disease (PD) patients exhibit deficits in oculomotor behavior, yet the results are inconsistent across studies. In addition, how these results are associated with clinical symptoms is unclear, especially in China. We designed a case-control study in China including 37 PD patients and 39 controls. Read More

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November 2018

Linking Cognitive Measures of Response Inhibition and Reward Sensitivity to Trait Impulsivity.

Front Psychol 2018 28;9:2306. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department of Psychiatry, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada.

Impulsivity is regarded as a multifaceted construct that comprises two dimensions: rapid-response impulsivity and reward-delay impulsivity. It is unclear, however, which aspects of trait impulsivity, as assessed by self-report measures are related to rapid-response impulsivity and/or to reward-delay impulsivity, as different results have been reported in studies using both self-report and cognitive measures. This study aimed to directly relate self-report measures of impulsivity to cognitive measures of impulsivity in individuals at low- or high-levels on two impulsivity dimensions, specifically rapid-response impulsivity and reward-delay impulsivity. Read More

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November 2018
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The Structural Effects of Modality on the Rise of Symbolic Language: A Rebuttal of Evolutionary Accounts and a Laboratory Demonstration.

Front Psychol 2018 28;9:2300. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Laboratoire de Sciences Phonétiques, Département de Linguistique, Université de Montréal, Montreal, QC, Canada.

Why does symbolic communication in humans develop primarily in an oral medium, and how do theories of language origin explain this? Non-human primates, despite their ability to learn and use symbolic signs, do not develop symbols as in oral language. This partly owes to the lack of a direct cortico-motoneuron control of vocalizations in these species compared to humans. Yet such modality-related factors that can impinge on the rise of symbolic language are interpreted differently in two types of evolutionary storylines. Read More

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November 2018

Merging Generative Linguistics and Psycholinguistics.

Authors:
Jordi Martorell

Front Psychol 2018 28;9:2283. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Basque Center on Cognition Brain and Language, Donostia-San Sebastián, Spain.

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November 2018

Genetic and Environmental Influences on the Affective Regulation Network: A Prospective Experience Sampling Analysis.

Front Psychiatry 2018 28;9:602. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychology, Maastricht University Medical Centre, Maastricht, Netherlands.

The study of networks of affective mental states that play a role in psychopathology may help model the influence of genetic and environmental risks. The aim of the present paper was to examine networks of affective mental states (AMS: "cheerful," "insecure," "relaxed," "anxious," "irritated," and "down") over time, stratified by genetic liability for psychopathology and exposure to environmental risk, using momentary assessment technology. Momentary AMS, collected using the experience sampling method (ESM) as well as childhood trauma and genetic liability (based on the level of shared genes and psychopathology in the co-twin) were collected in a population-based sample of female-female twin pairs and sisters (585 individuals). Read More

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November 2018
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