2,074 results match your criteria Brain Pathology[Journal]


Increased expression of miR142 and miR155 in glial and immune cells after traumatic brain injury may contribute to neuroinflammation via astrocyte activation.

Brain Pathol 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

Department of (Neuro)Pathology, Amsterdam Neuroscience, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with the pathological activation of immune-competent cells in the brain, such as astrocytes, microglia, and infiltrating immune blood cells, resulting in chronic inflammation and gliosis. This may contribute to the secondary injury after TBI, thus understanding of these processes is crucial for the development of effective treatments of post-traumatic pathologies. MicroRNAs (miRNAs, miRs) are small non-coding RNAs, functioning as post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bpa.12865DOI Listing

Differential diagnosis of vacuolar myopathies in the NGS era.

Brain Pathol 2020 May 17. Epub 2020 May 17.

Institute of Neuropathology, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.

Altered autophagy accompanied by abnormal autophagic (rimmed) vacuoles detectable by light and electron microscopy is a common denominator of many familial and sporadic non-inflammatory muscle diseases. Even in the era of next generation sequencing (NGS), late-onset vacuolar myopathies remain a diagnostic challenge. We identified 32 adult vacuolar myopathy patients from 30 unrelated families, studied their clinical, histopathological and ultrastructural characteristics and performed genetic testing in index patients and relatives using Sanger sequencing and NGS including whole exome sequencing (WES). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bpa.12864DOI Listing

47-Year-Old Female with Left Upper Extremity Weakness and 28-Year-Old Male Motor Vehicle Accident Victim.

Brain Pathol 2020 May;30(3):719-720

Neurosurgery-Tower Health Physician Network, West Reading, PA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bpa.12836DOI Listing

An 8-Year-Old Girl with Posterior Fossa Mass.

Brain Pathol 2020 May;30(3):713-714

Department of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, University Medical Center Hamburg Eppendorf, Germany.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bpa.12833DOI Listing

Corrigendum.

Authors:

Brain Pathol 2020 May 14;30(3):721. Epub 2020 Feb 14.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bpa.12827DOI Listing

Corrigendum.

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Brain Pathol 2020 May;30(3):722

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bpa.12830DOI Listing

5-Year-Old Girl with Worsening Seizure Disorder.

Brain Pathol 2020 May;30(3):717-718

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, TX, 77030.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bpa.12835DOI Listing

Investigating the presence of doubly phosphorylated α-synuclein at tyrosine 125 and serine 129 in idiopathic Lewy body diseases.

Brain Pathol 2020 Apr 23. Epub 2020 Apr 23.

College of Health and Life Sciences, Hamad Bin Khalifa University (HBKU), Education City, Qatar Foundation, Doha, Qatar.

Aggregation of the protein α-synuclein (α-syn) into insoluble intracellular assemblies termed Lewy bodies (LBs) is thought to be a critical pathogenic event in LB diseases such as Parkinson's disease and dementia with LBs. In LB diseases, the majority of α-syn is phosphorylated at serine 129 (pS129), suggesting that this is an important disease-related post-translational modification (PTM). However, PTMs do not typically occur in isolation and phosphorylation at the proximal tyrosine 125 (pY125) residue has received considerable attention and has been inconsistently reported to be present in LBs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bpa.12845DOI Listing

Oedematous myositis: a clinical presentation first suggesting dermatomyositis diagnosis.

Brain Pathol 2020 Apr 22. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Immunology, National Reference Center of Neuromuscular disorders, APHP, Pitié-Salpêtrière University Hospital, Sorbonne University, University Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France.

Aims: Oedema of the limbs is uncommon in idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM). The few reported cases have been associated with severe and refractory dermatomyositis (DM), sometimes in association with cancers. We aimed to determine if oedematous myositis is a homogeneous subtype based on clinical, serological and pathological features. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bpa.12844DOI Listing

cIMPACT-NOW update 6: new entity and diagnostic principle recommendations of the cIMPACT-Utrecht meeting on future CNS tumor classification and grading.

Brain Pathol 2020 Apr 19. Epub 2020 Apr 19.

International Agency for Research on Cancer, World Health Organization, Lyon, France.

cIMPACT-NOW (the Consortium to Inform Molecular and Practical Approaches to CNS Tumor Taxonomy) was established to evaluate and make practical recommendations on recent advances in the field of CNS tumor classification, particularly in light of the rapid progress in molecular insights into these neoplasms. For Round 2 of its deliberations, cIMPACT-NOW Working Committee 3 was reconstituted and convened in Utrecht, The Netherlands, for a meeting designed to review putative new CNS tumor types in advance of any future World Health Organization meeting on CNS tumor classification. In preparatory activities for the meeting and at the actual meeting, a list of possible entities was assembled and each type and subtype debated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bpa.12832DOI Listing
April 2020
3.840 Impact Factor

Factors associated with development and distribution of granular/fuzzy astrocytes in neurodegenerative diseases.

Brain Pathol 2020 Apr 15. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

Department of Neuropsychiatry, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama, Japan.

Granular/fuzzy astrocytes (GFAs), a subtype of "aging-related tau astrogliopathy," are noted in cases bearing various neurodegenerative diseases. However, the pathogenic significance of GFAs remains unclear. We immunohistochemically examined the frontal cortex, caudate nucleus, putamen and amygdala in 105 cases composed of argyrophilic grain disease cases (AGD, N = 26), and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP, N = 10), Alzheimer's disease (AD, N = 20) and primary age-related tauopathy cases (PART, N = 18) lacking AGD, as well as 31 cases bearing other various neurodegenerative diseases to clarify (i) the distribution patterns of GFAs in AGD, and PSP, AD and PART lacking AGD, (ii) the impacts of major pathological factors and age on GFA formation and (iii) immunohistochemical features useful to understand the formation process of GFAs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bpa.12843DOI Listing

B cells and multiple sclerosis spinal cord pathology.

Brain Pathol 2020 Apr 14. Epub 2020 Apr 14.

The Blizard Institute (Neuroscience, Surgery & Trauma), Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bpa.12840DOI Listing

Investigation of pathology, expression and proteomic profiles in human TREM2 variant postmortem brains with and without Alzheimer's disease.

Brain Pathol 2020 Apr 8. Epub 2020 Apr 8.

The Queen Square Brain Bank for Neurological Disorders, Department of Clinical and Movement Neuroscience, UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology, London, UK.

Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 TREM2 was identified as a risk factor for late onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here we compared TREM2 cases with a variant (TREM2 ) and cases without a TREM2 variant (TREM2 ), considering pathological burden, inflammatory response and altered canonical pathways and biochemical functions between the cohorts. We hypothesised that TREM2 cases would have a loss of function, indicating an altered inflammatory profile compared to TREM2 cases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bpa.12842DOI Listing

B cell rich meningeal inflammation associates with increased spinal cord pathology in multiple sclerosis.

Brain Pathol 2020 Apr 3. Epub 2020 Apr 3.

Department of Brain Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College, London, UK.

Increased inflammation in the cerebral meninges is associated with extensive subpial cortical grey matter pathology in the forebrain and a more severe disease course in a substantial proportion of secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS) cases. It is not known whether this relationship extends to spinal cord pathology. We assessed the contribution of meningeal and parenchymal immune infiltrates to spinal cord pathology in SPMS cases characterized in the presence (F+) or absence (F-) of lymphoid-like structures in the forebrain meninges. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bpa.12841DOI Listing
April 2020
3.840 Impact Factor

Mini-symposium in medulloblastoma genomics in the modern molecular era.

Authors:
David W Ellison

Brain Pathol 2020 May;30(3):661-663

Department of Pathology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN, 38105.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bpa.12838DOI Listing

Pathology, diagnostics, and classification of medulloblastoma.

Authors:
Brent A Orr

Brain Pathol 2020 May;30(3):664-678

Department of Pathology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, 262 Danny Thomas Place, Memphis, TN, 38105.

Medulloblastoma (MB) is the most common CNS embryonal tumor. While the overall cure rate is around 70%, patients with high-risk disease continue to have poor outcome and experience long-term morbidity. MB is among the tumors for which diagnosis, risk stratification, and clinical management has shown the most rapid advancement. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bpa.12837DOI Listing

Clinicopathologic and genetic features of multiple system atrophy with Lewy body disease.

Brain Pathol 2020 Mar 30. Epub 2020 Mar 30.

Department of Neuroscience, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL.

Background: Abnormal aggregates of α-synuclein are pathologic hallmarks of multiple system atrophy (MSA) and Lewy body disease (LBD). LBD sometimes coexists with MSA, but the impact of co-pathology, particularly diffuse LBD, on presentation of MSA has not been studied. We aimed to determine the frequency and clinicopathologic features of MSA with LBD (MSA+LBD). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bpa.12839DOI Listing

Endothelium-targeted overexpression of Krüppel-like factor 11 protects the blood-brain barrier function after ischemic brain injury.

Brain Pathol 2020 Mar 20. Epub 2020 Mar 20.

Pittsburgh Institute of Brain Disorders & Recovery, Department of Neurology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, 15213.

Microvascular endothelial cell (EC) injury and the subsequent blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown are frequently seen in many neurological disorders, including stroke. We have previously documented that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ)-mediated cerebral protection during ischemic insults needs Krüppel-like factor 11 (KLF11) as a critical coactivator. However, the role of endothelial KLF11 in cerebrovascular function and stroke outcome is unclear. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bpa.12831DOI Listing

MiR-1253 exerts tumor-suppressive effects in medulloblastoma via inhibition of CDK6 and CD276 (B7-H3).

Brain Pathol 2020 Mar 7. Epub 2020 Mar 7.

Department of Biochemistry, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE.

Of the four primary subgroups of medulloblastoma, the most frequent cytogenetic abnormality, i17q, distinguishes Groups 3 and 4 which carry the highest mortality; haploinsufficiency of 17p13.3 is a marker for particularly poor prognosis. At the terminal end of this locus lies miR-1253, a brain-enriched microRNA that regulates bone morphogenic proteins during cerebellar development. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bpa.12829DOI Listing

A 55-year old male with a right fronto-parietal lesion.

Brain Pathol 2020 03;30(2):411-412

Medical School, University of Nicosia, Nicosia, Cyprus.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bpa.12817DOI Listing

A 67-Year-Old Man with Leg Weakness and Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy.

Brain Pathol 2020 03;30(2):427-428

Department of Neurology, National Center Hospital, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry (NCNP), Kodaira, Japan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bpa.12824DOI Listing
March 2020
3.840 Impact Factor

A 58-Year Old Male with Left Temporo-Parietal Cystic Lesion.

Brain Pathol 2020 03;30(2):417-419

Department of Pathology, Bhopal Memorial Hospital and Research Centre, Bhopal, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bpa.12820DOI Listing

A 64-Year-Old Patient With a Mesiotemporal Mass and Symptomatic Epilepsy.

Brain Pathol 2020 03;30(2):413-414

Department of Neurology, Ulm University, Ulm, Germany.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bpa.12818DOI Listing

65-Year-Old with Acute Cerebral Hemorrhage.

Brain Pathol 2020 03;30(2):429-430

Department of Neurosurgery, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bpa.12825DOI Listing

A 45-Year Old Man With An Intraventricular Mass.

Brain Pathol 2020 03;30(2):405-406

Department of Advanced Biomedical Sciences, Pathology Section, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bpa.12814DOI Listing

A 4-Year-Old Girl With a Supratentorial Mass.

Brain Pathol 2020 03;30(2):421-422

Jimmy Everest Section of Pediatric Hematology-Oncology, University of Oklahoma, Oklahoma City, OK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bpa.12821DOI Listing

A 70-Year Old Man with Dystonic and Choreiform Movements.

Brain Pathol 2020 03;30(2):415-416

Department of Pathology and Genomic Medicine, Houston Methodist Hospital, Houston, TX.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bpa.12819DOI Listing

A 79-Year-Old Woman With Headache and Acromegaly.

Brain Pathol 2020 03;30(2):407-408

Department of Neurology, State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, Brazil.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bpa.12815DOI Listing

A 13-Year-Old Girl with Worsening Visual Function.

Brain Pathol 2020 03;30(2):423-424

Department of Neurosurgery, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bpa.12822DOI Listing

A 63-Year-Old Male with Cauda Equina Syndrome.

Brain Pathol 2020 03;30(2):409-410

Department of Pathology and Lab Medicine, Western University, London, ON, Canada.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bpa.12816DOI Listing
March 2020
3.840 Impact Factor

A 21-Month-Old Boy with One-Month History of Vomiting.

Brain Pathol 2020 03;30(2):425-426

Department of Hematology/Oncology, Saitama Children's Medical Center, Saitama, Japan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bpa.12823DOI Listing

In the wall lies the truth: a systematic review of diagnostic markers in intracranial aneurysms.

Brain Pathol 2020 May 27;30(3):437-445. Epub 2020 Feb 27.

Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospital of Essen, Essen, Germany.

Objective: Despite recent advances in molecular biology and genetics, the development of intracranial aneurysms (IA) is still poorly understood. Elucidation of the processes occurring in the IA wall is essential for a better understanding of IA pathophysiology. We sought to analyze the current evidence from histological, molecular and genetic studies of IA. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bpa.12828DOI Listing

Prognostic and radiographic correlates of a prospectively collected molecularly profiled cohort of IDH1/2-wildtype astrocytomas.

Brain Pathol 2020 May 12;30(3):653-660. Epub 2020 Feb 12.

Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, 10065.

Background: In the molecular era, the relevance of tumor grade for prognostication of IDH1/2-wildtype (WT) gliomas has been debated. It has been suggested that histologic grade II and III astrocytomas with molecular features of glioblastoma, IDH1/2-WT have a similar prognosis to glioblastoma and should be considered for the same clinical trials.

Methods: We integrated prospective clinical sequencing from 564 patients with IDH1/2-WT gliomas (26 grade II, 71 grade III and 467 grade IV) with clinical and radiographic data to assess associations between molecular features, grade and outcome. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bpa.12826DOI Listing

Extensive subpial cortical demyelination is specific to multiple sclerosis.

Brain Pathol 2020 May 3;30(3):641-652. Epub 2020 Feb 3.

Institute of Neuropathology, University Medical Center Göttingen, Georg August University Göttingen, Robert-Koch-Str. 40, 37075, Göttingen, Germany.

Cortical demyelinated lesions are frequent and widespread in chronic multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, and may contribute to disease progression. Inflammation and related oxidative stress have been proposed as central mediators of cortical damage, yet meningeal and cortical inflammation is not specific to MS, but also occurs in other diseases. The first aim of this study was to test whether cortical demyelination was specific for demyelinating CNS diseases compared to other CNS disorders with prominent meningeal and cortical inflammation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bpa.12813DOI Listing

Receptors for pro-resolving mediators are increased in Alzheimer's disease brain.

Brain Pathol 2020 May 21;30(3):614-640. Epub 2020 Jan 21.

Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Section of Neurogeriatrics, Center for Alzheimer Research, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Neuroinflammation is a key element of AD pathology and conceivably a result of a disturbed resolution. Resolution of inflammation is an active process which is strictly orchestrated following the acute inflammatory response after removal of the inflammatory stimuli. Acute inflammation is actively terminated by specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs) thereby promoting healing and return to homeostasis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bpa.12812DOI Listing

The molecular biology of medulloblastoma metastasis.

Brain Pathol 2020 May 15;30(3):691-702. Epub 2020 Jan 15.

Developmental and Stem Cell Biology Program, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Medulloblastoma (MB) is the most common primary malignant brain tumor of childhood and a significant contributor to pediatric morbidity and death. While metastatic dissemination is the predominant cause of morbidity and mortality for patients with this disease, most research efforts and clinical trials to date have focused on the primary tumor; this is due mostly to the paucity of metastatic tumor samples and lack of robust mouse models of MB dissemination. Most current insights into the molecular drivers of metastasis have been derived from comparative molecular studies of metastatic and non-metastatic primary tumors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bpa.12811DOI Listing

Clinicopathologic and molecular features of intracranial desmoplastic small round cell tumors.

Brain Pathol 2020 03 29;30(2):213-225. Epub 2019 Dec 29.

Department of Pathology, University of California, San Francisco, CA.

Desmoplastic small round cell tumors (DSRCTs) are highly aggressive sarcomas that most commonly occur intra-abdominally, and are defined by EWSR1-WT1 gene fusion. Intracranial DSRCTs are exceptionally rare with only seven previously reported fusion-positive cases. Herein, we evaluate the clinical, morphologic, immunohistochemical and molecular features of five additional examples. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bpa.12809DOI Listing
March 2020
3.840 Impact Factor

Perivascular macrophages in the neonatal macaque brain undergo massive necroptosis after simian immunodeficiency virus infection.

Brain Pathol 2020 May 26;30(3):603-613. Epub 2019 Dec 26.

Department of Microbiology and Molecular Cell Biology, Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, VA.

We previously showed that rhesus macaques neonatally infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) do not develop SIV encephalitis (SIVE) and maintain low brain viral loads despite having similar plasma viral loads compared to SIV-infected adults. We hypothesize that differences in myeloid cell populations that are the known target of SIV and HIV in the brain contribute to the lack of neonatal susceptibility to lentivirus-induced encephalitis. Using immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence microscopy, we examined the frontal cortices from uninfected and SIV-infected infant and adult macaques (n = 8/ea) as well as adults with SIVE (n = 4) to determine differences in myeloid cell populations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bpa.12808DOI Listing

Corrigendum.

Authors:

Brain Pathol 2020 Jan 18;30(1):205. Epub 2019 Oct 18.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bpa.12786DOI Listing
January 2020

Medulloblastoma genomics in the modern molecular era.

Brain Pathol 2020 May 16;30(3):679-690. Epub 2019 Dec 16.

Department of Developmental Neurobiology, Division of Brain Tumor Research, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN.

Medulloblastoma (MB) represents a spectrum of biologically and clinically distinct entities. Initially described histopathologically as a small, round blue cell tumor arising in the cerebellum, MB has emerged as a paradigm for molecular classification in cancer. Recent advances in genomic, transcriptomic and epigenomic profiling of MB have further refined molecular classification and complemented conventional histopathological diagnosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bpa.12804DOI Listing

Modeling pediatric medulloblastoma.

Brain Pathol 2020 May 17;30(3):703-712. Epub 2019 Dec 17.

Department of Tumor Cell Biology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN, 38105.

Mouse models of medulloblastoma have proven to be instrumental in understanding disease mechanisms, particularly the role of epigenetic and molecular drivers, and establishing appropriate preclinical pipelines. To date, our research community has developed murine models for all four groups of medulloblastoma, each of which will be critical for the identification and development of new therapeutic approaches. Approaches to modeling medulloblastoma range from genetic engineering with CRISPR/Cas9 or in utero electroporation, to orthotopic and patient-derived orthotopic xenograft systems. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bpa.12803DOI Listing

The neuroprotective role of microglial cells against amyloid beta-mediated toxicity in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures.

Brain Pathol 2020 May 13;30(3):589-602. Epub 2020 Jan 13.

Department of Neurology, Philipps-University Marburg, Marburg, Germany.

During Alzheimer's disease (AD) progression, microglial cells play complex roles and have potentially detrimental as well as beneficial effects. The use of appropriate model systems is essential for characterizing and understanding the roles of microglia in AD pathology. Here, we used organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (OHSCs) to investigate the impact of microglia on amyloid beta (Aβ)-mediated toxicity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bpa.12807DOI Listing

Pathological changes in the cerebellum of patients with multiple system atrophy and Parkinson's disease-a stereological study.

Brain Pathol 2020 May 6;30(3):576-588. Epub 2020 Jan 6.

Research Laboratory for Stereology and Neuroscience, Department of Neurology, Bispebjerg-Frederiksberg Hospital, Nielsine Nielsens Vej 6B, DK-2400, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Multiple system atrophy (MSA) and Parkinson's disease (PD) are synucleinopathies characterized by aggregation of α-synuclein in brain cells. Recent studies have shown that morphological changes in terms of cerebral nerve cell loss and increase in glia cell numbers, the degree of brain atrophy and molecular and epidemiological findings are more severe in MSA than PD. In the present study, we performed a stereological comparison of cerebellar volumes, granule and Purkinje cells in 13 patients diagnosed with MSA [8 MSA-P (striatonigral subtype) and 5 MSA-C (olivopontocerebellar subtype)], 12 PD patients, and 15 age-matched control subjects. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bpa.12806DOI Listing

The anatomy and metabolome of the lymphatic system in the brain in health and disease.

Brain Pathol 2020 03 5;30(2):392-404. Epub 2019 Dec 5.

State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, China.

Recent studies have demonstrated that the brain is equipped with a lymphatic drainage system that is actively involved in parenchymal waste clearance, brain homeostasis and immune regulation. However, the exact anatomic drainage routes of brain lymph fluid (BLF) remain elusive, hampering the physiological study and clinical application of this system. In this study, we systematically dissected the anatomy of the BLF pathways in a rat model. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bpa.12805DOI Listing

IDH mutant lower grade (WHO Grades II/III) astrocytomas can be stratified for risk by CDKN2A, CDK4 and PDGFRA copy number alterations.

Brain Pathol 2020 May 3;30(3):541-553. Epub 2019 Dec 3.

Department of Anatomical and Cellular Pathology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, Hong Kong, China SAR.

In the 2016, WHO classification of tumors of the central nervous system, isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutation is a main classifier for lower grade astrocytomas and IDH-mutated astrocytomas is now regarded as a single group with longer survival. However, the molecular and clinical heterogeneity among IDH mutant lower grade (WHO Grades II/III) astrocytomas have only rarely been investigated. In this study, we recruited 160 IDH mutant lower grade (WHO Grades II/III) astrocytomas, and examined PDGFRA amplification, CDKN2A deletion and CDK4 amplification by FISH analysis, TERT promoter mutation by Sanger sequencing and ATRX loss and p53 expression by immunohistochemistry. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bpa.12801DOI Listing
May 2020
3.840 Impact Factor

Reduction in the neuronal surface of post and presynaptic GABA receptors in the hippocampus in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

Brain Pathol 2020 May 12;30(3):554-575. Epub 2019 Dec 12.

Synaptic Structure Laboratory, Instituto de Investigación en Discapacidades Neurológicas (IDINE), Departamento de Ciencias Médicas, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Castilla-La Mancha, Campus Biosanitario, C/ Almansa 14, 02008, Albacete, Spain.

The hippocampus plays key roles in learning and memory and is a main target of Alzheimer's disease (AD), which causes progressive memory impairments. Despite numerous investigations about the processes required for the normal hippocampal functions, the neurotransmitter receptors involved in the synaptic deficits by which AD disables the hippocampus are not yet characterized. By combining histoblots, western blots, immunohistochemistry and high-resolution immunoelectron microscopic methods for GABA receptors, this study provides a quantitative description of the expression and the subcellular localization of GABA in the hippocampus in a mouse model of AD at 1, 6 and 12 months of age. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bpa.12802DOI Listing

MicroRNA profiles of MS gray matter lesions identify modulators of the synaptic protein synaptotagmin-7.

Brain Pathol 2020 May 17;30(3):524-540. Epub 2019 Nov 17.

Institute of Neuropathology, University Hospital Essen, D-45147, Essen, Germany.

We established microRNA (miRNA) profiles in gray and white matter multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions and identified seven miRNAs which were significantly more upregulated in the gray matter lesions. Five of those seven miRNAs, miR-330-3p, miR-4286, miR-4488, let-7e-5p, miR-432-5p shared the common target synaptotagmin7 (Syt7). Immunohistochemistry and transcript analyses using nanostring technology revealed a maldistribution of Syt7, with Syt7 accumulation in neuronal soma and decreased expression in axonal structures. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bpa.12800DOI Listing

BRAF V600E mutant oligodendroglioma-like tumors with chromosomal instability in adolescents and young adults.

Brain Pathol 2020 May 10;30(3):515-523. Epub 2019 Nov 10.

Division of Pathology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada.

We performed genome-wide methylation analysis on 136 pediatric low-grade gliomas, identifying a unique cluster consisting of three tumors with oligodendroglioma-like histology, BRAF p.V600E mutations and recurrent whole chromosome gains of 7 and loss of 10. Morphologically, all showed similar features, including a diffusely infiltrative glioma composed of round nuclei with perinuclear halos, a chicken-wire pattern of branching capillaries and microcalcification. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bpa.12799DOI Listing
May 2020
1 Read
3.840 Impact Factor

Complement C3a induces axonal hypomyelination in the periventricular white matter through activation of WNT/β-catenin signal pathway in septic neonatal rats experimentally induced by lipopolysaccharide.

Brain Pathol 2020 May 6;30(3):495-514. Epub 2019 Nov 6.

Department of Critical Care and Emergency, Guangdong Provincial People's Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou, 510080, Guangdong, China.

Neuroinflammation is thought to play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of periventricular white matter (PWM) damage (PWMD) induced by neonatal sepsis. Because the complement cascade is implicated in inflammatory response, this study was carried out to determine whether C3a is involved in PWMD, and, if so, whether it would induce axonal hypomyelination. Furthermore, we explored if C3a would act through its C3a receptor (C3aR) and thence inhibit maturation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) via the WNT/β-catenin signal pathway. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bpa.12798DOI Listing