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Spectrum of GABAA receptor variants in epilepsy.

Curr Opin Neurol 2019 Jan 16. Epub 2019 Jan 16.

Department of Neurology and Epileptology, Hertie Institute of Clinical Brain Research, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.

Purpose Of Review: Recent publications point to an increasingly important role of variants in genes encoding GABAA receptor subunits associated with both common and rare forms of epilepsies. The aim of this review is to give an overview of the current clinical phenotypes, genetic findings and pathophysiological mechanisms related to GABAA receptor variants.

Recent Findings: Early work showed that inherited variants in GABRG2 and GABRA1 cause relatively mild forms of monogenic epilepsies in large families. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/WCO.0000000000000657DOI Listing
January 2019

Going beyond the mean: Intraindividual variability of cognitive performance in prodromal and early neurodegenerative disorders.

Clin Neuropsychol 2019 Jan 21:1-21. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

b Department of Neurology , RWTH Aachen University , Aachen , Germany.

Objective: Intraindividual variability (IIV), generally defined as short-term variations in behavior, has been proposed as a sign of subtle early impairment in neurodegenerative disorders, presumably associated with the disintegration of neuronal network connectivity. We aim to provide a review of IIV as a sensitive cognitive marker in prodromal neurodegenerative disorders.

Method: A narrative review focusing not only on theoretical and methodological definitions, including an overview on the neural correlates of IIV, but mainly on results from population-based and clinical-based studies on the role of IIV as a reliable predictor of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and conversion to dementia in neurodegenerative disorders, mostly Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13854046.2018.1533587DOI Listing
January 2019

The Regulation of Peripheral Metabolism by Gut-Derived Hormones.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2018 4;9:754. Epub 2019 Jan 4.

College of Medicine and Public Health, Flinders University, Adelaide, SA, Australia.

Enteroendocrine cells lining the gut epithelium constitute the largest endocrine organ in the body and secrete over 20 different hormones in response to cues from ingested foods and changes in nutritional status. Not only do these hormones convey signals from the gut to the brain via the gut-brain axis, they also act directly on metabolically important peripheral targets in a highly concerted fashion to maintain energy balance and glucose homeostasis. Gut-derived hormones released during fasting tend to be orexigenic and have hyperglycaemic potential. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2018.00754DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6328484PMC
January 2019

Functional Biomarkers for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

Front Neurol 2018 4;9:1141. Epub 2019 Jan 4.

Brain and Mind Centre, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

The clinical diagnosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) relies on determination of progressive dysfunction of both cortical as well as spinal and bulbar motor neurons. However, the variable mix of upper and lower motor neuron signs result in the clinical heterogeneity of patients with ALS, resulting frequently in delay of diagnosis as well as difficulty in monitoring disease progression and treatment outcomes particularly in a clinical trial setting. As such, the present review provides an overview of recently developed novel non-invasive electrophysiological techniques that may serve as biomarkers to assess UMN and LMN dysfunction in ALS patients. Read More

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https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fneur.2018.01141
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2018.01141DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6328463PMC
January 2019
1 Read

"Neuro-oncology research in Nigeria: a great untapped potential".

World Neurosurg 2019 Jan 16. Epub 2019 Jan 16.

Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, Duke University, Durham, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Nigeria has the largest population in Africa and has sub-optimal access to neuro-oncology care. It has been estimated that there is approximately 1 neurosurgeon to 2.4 million people in the country, with only few of these trained in the neuro-oncology sub-specialty and no dedicated medical or radiation neurooncologists. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S18788750193006
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2018.12.192DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

TRP Channels as Sensors of Chemically-Induced Changes in Cell Membrane Mechanical Properties.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Jan 16;20(2). Epub 2019 Jan 16.

Instituto de Neurociencias de Alicante, Universidad Miguel Hernández y CSIC, E-03550 Alicante , Spain.

Transient Receptor Potential ion channels (TRPs) have been described as polymodal sensors, being responsible for transducing a wide variety of stimuli, and being involved in sensory functions such as chemosensation, thermosensation, mechanosensation, and photosensation. Mechanical and chemical stresses exerted on the membrane can be transduced by specialized proteins into meaningful intracellular biochemical signaling, resulting in physiological changes. Of particular interest are compounds that can change the local physical properties of the membrane, thereby affecting nearby proteins, such as TRP channels, which are highly sensitive to the membrane environment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20020371DOI Listing
January 2019

Brain injury, behaviour support, and family involvement: putting the pieces together and looking forward.

Disabil Rehabil 2019 Jan 17:1-11. Epub 2019 Jan 17.

c Discipline of Physiotherapy , Flinders University , Adelaide , Australia.

Purpose: (1) to provide insight into the family's experience and support needs following acquired brain injury (ABI) specific to behavioural changes; (2) to provide an overview of empirically-based behaviour support approaches for individuals with ABI; and (3), to examine family involvement in implementing behavioural interventions.

Methods: Review of the literature.

Results: Family members experience significant distress resulting from neurobehavioural changes in relatives with ABI, and report unmet informational and practical support needs regarding this issue. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09638288.2018.1522551DOI Listing
January 2019

[New guidelines for the diagnosis of irreversible loss of brain function : Concept and limitations, organizational demands, and implementation].

Med Klin Intensivmed Notfmed 2019 Jan 15. Epub 2019 Jan 15.

Universitätsklinik für Anästhesiologie, Intensivmedizin, Notfallmedizin und Schmerztherapie, Klinikum Oldenburg AöR, Rahel-Straus-Str. 10, 36133, Oldenburg, Deutschland.

In 2015, the German Medical Association (Bundesärztekammer) issued new guidelines on the diagnosis of the "irreversible loss of brain function" (ILBF). ILBF replaced the colloquial term "brain death" in order to leave the notion that concepts of death might vary such as "cardiac death" or "apparent death" and stress the objective medical-scientific matter. The German Transplantation Law describes ILBF as "the final, irreversible loss of all function of the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brainstem. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00063-018-0527-6DOI Listing
January 2019

Oligonucleotide Therapeutics as a New Class of Drugs for Malignant Brain Tumors: Targeting mRNAs, Regulatory RNAs, Mutations, Combinations, and Beyond.

Neurotherapeutics 2019 Jan 14. Epub 2019 Jan 14.

Ann Romney Center for Neurologic Diseases, Department of Neurology, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Initiative for RNA Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, 02115, USA.

Malignant brain tumors are rapidly progressive and often fatal owing to resistance to therapies and based on their complex biology, heterogeneity, and isolation from systemic circulation. Glioblastoma is the most common and most aggressive primary brain tumor, has high mortality, and affects both children and adults. Despite significant advances in understanding the pathology, multiple clinical trials employing various treatment strategies have failed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13311-018-00702-3DOI Listing
January 2019

Cannabis and Mood Disorders.

Curr Addict Rep 2018 Sep 10;5(3):336-345. Epub 2018 May 10.

Addictions Division, Centre for Addictions and Mental Health (CAMH), Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA USA.

Purpose Of Review: The present review will provide an overview of the neurobiology, epidemiology, clinical impact, and treatment of cannabis use disorder (CUD) in mood disorders.

Recent Findings: Patients with mood disorders including major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD) have higher rates of cannabis use, and CUD compared to the general population. Reasons for this association are not clear, nor are the putative therapeutic effects of cannabis use, or its components delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), in these illnesses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40429-018-0214-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6329464PMC
September 2018
1 Read

A Review on the Use of Wearable Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy in Naturalistic Environments.

Jpn Psychol Res 2018 Oct 19;60(4):347-373. Epub 2018 Jul 19.

Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, University College London, UK.

The development of novel miniaturized wireless and wearable functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) devices have paved the way to new functional brain imaging that can revolutionize the cognitive research fields. Over the past few decades, several studies have been conducted with conventional fNIRS systems that have demonstrated the suitability of this technology for a wide variety of populations and applications, to investigate both the healthy brain and the diseased brain. However, what makes wearable fNIRS even more appealing is its capability to allow measurements in everyday life scenarios that are not possible with other gold-standard neuroimaging modalities, such as functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jpr.12206DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6329605PMC
October 2018

Use of HINTS in the acute vestibular syndrome. An Overview.

Authors:
Jorge C Kattah

Stroke Vasc Neurol 2018 Dec 23;3(4):190-196. Epub 2018 Jun 23.

Department of Neurology, University of Illinois College of Medicine, Peoria, Illinois, USA.

Following the initial description of HINTS to diagnose acute vestibular syndrome (AVS) in 2009, there has been significant interest in the systematic evaluation of HINTs to diagnose stroke and other less common central causes of AVS. This trend increased with availability of the video head impulse test (video-HIT). This article reviews the original papers and discusses the main publications from 2009 to 2017. Read More

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http://svn.bmj.com/cgi/doi/10.1136/svn-2018-000160
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/svn-2018-000160DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6312070PMC
December 2018
2 Reads

Overview of MEG.

Organ Res Methods 2019 Jan 9;22(1):95-115. Epub 2016 Nov 9.

MGH/HST Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 149 13th St., Mailcode 149-2301, Charlestown, MA 02129; U.S.A. Tel. +1-617-726-0663.

Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is a method to study electrical activity in the human brain by recording the neuromagnetic field outside the head. MEG, like electroencephalography (EEG), provides an excellent, millisecond-scale time resolution, and allows the estimation of the spatial distribution of the underlying activity, in favorable cases with a localization accuracy of a few millimeters. To detect the weak neuromagnetic signals, superconducting sensors, magnetically shielded rooms, and advanced signal processing techniques are used. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1094428116676344DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6326378PMC
January 2019
1 Read

Neural functions of the aging brain: Daily living, developmental and geriatric disabilities.

J Chem Neuroanat 2019 Jan;95:1-5

Inter University Centre for Biomedical Research & Super Speciality Hospital, Mahatma Gandhi University Campus at Thalappady, Rubber Board P.O., Kottayam, Kerala - 686009, India. Electronic address:

Neuronal, microglial, astrocytic and oligodendrocytic functions of the brain are significantly affected during normal aging, and more so if inflicted with neurological diseases. Aging is a consistent risk factor for many neurodegenerative diseases that are sporadic in nature, whereas developmental neurological disabilities stem from errors in brain development. The neuronal functions are affected in both developmental disabilities and geriatric diseases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jchemneu.2018.12.004DOI Listing
January 2019

Cytochrome P450-The Wonderful Nanomachine Revealed through Dynamic Simulations of the Catalytic Cycle.

Acc Chem Res 2019 Jan 11. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

Institute of Chemistry , The Hebrew University of Jerusalem , Givat Ram Campus , 91904 Jerusalem , Israel.

This Account addresses the catalytic cycle of the enzyme cytochrome P450 (CYP450) as a prototypical biological machine with automatic features. CYP450 is a nanomachine that uses dioxygen and two reducing and two proton equivalents to oxidize a plethora of molecules (so-called substrates) as a means of supplying bio-organisms with essential molecules (e.g. Read More

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http://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.accounts.8b00467
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.accounts.8b00467DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Individual differences in college-age learners: The importance of relational reasoning for learning and assessment in higher education.

Br J Educ Psychol 2019 Jan 11. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

Department of Human Learning and Development, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, USA.

Background: The term individual differences refers to the physical, behavioral, cognitive, social, and emotional attributes that make each human unique. Late adolescence to young adulthood represents a time of significant neurobiological and cognitive transformations that contribute further to human variability. Those transformations include an increase in the white matter of the brain accompanied by an increased capacity for higher-order thinking, reasoning, decision-making, and selfcontrol. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/bjep.12264
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjep.12264DOI Listing
January 2019
3 Reads

Imaging stress: an overview of stress induction methods in the MR scanner.

J Neural Transm (Vienna) 2019 Jan 10. Epub 2019 Jan 10.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Medical School, University of Tübingen, Calwerstrasse 14, 72076, Tübingen, Germany.

Processing of acute stress has potential implications for mental and physical health. At the same time, individuals differ largely in how strongly they react to stress. Neuroimaging paradigms have been developed to characterize the neural underpinnings of the stress response in general and to understand the mechanisms that differentiate high and low susceptible individuals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00702-018-01965-yDOI Listing
January 2019

Electroconvulsive therapy: 80 years old and still going strong.

World J Psychiatry 2019 Jan 4;9(1):1-6. Epub 2019 Jan 4.

University of Notre Dame, Fremantle, WA 6009, Australia.

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), which is among the oldest and most controversial treatments in the field of psychiatry, has its 80 birthday this year. In this brief historical overview, the discovery of the therapeutic effects of convulsive therapy by Laszló Meduna, and the circumstances that motivated Ugo Cerletti and Lucio Bini to use electricity as a means of seizure induction are described. Meduna's original theory about the antagonism between epilepsy and schizophrenia has been replaced by hypotheses on the mechanism of action of ECT. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5498/wjp.v9.i1.1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6323557PMC
January 2019

[Deep Learning and Natural Language Processing].

Brain Nerve 2019 Jan;71(1):45-55

Department of Information and Communication Engineering, Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, The University of Tokyo.

The field of natural language processing (NLP) has seen rapid advances in the past several years since the introduction of deep learning techniques. A variety of NLP tasks including syntactic parsing, machine translation, and summarization can now be performed by relatively simple combinations of general neural network models such as recurrent neural networks and attention mechanisms. This manuscript gives a brief introduction to deep learning and an overview of the current deep learning-based NLP technology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11477/mf.1416201215DOI Listing
January 2019

Evaluating the safety profile of focused ultrasound and microbubble-mediated treatments to increase blood-brain barrier permeability.

Expert Opin Drug Deliv 2019 Jan 10. Epub 2019 Jan 10.

a Physical Sciences Platform, Sunnybrook Research Institute , Toronto , ON , Canada.

Introduction: Treatment of several diseases of the brain are complicated by the presence of the skull and the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Focused ultrasound (FUS) and microbubble (MB)-mediated BBB treatment is a minimally invasive method to transiently increase the permeability of blood vessels in targeted brain areas. It can be used as a general delivery system to increase the concentration of therapeutic agents in the brain parenchyma. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17425247.2019.1567490DOI Listing
January 2019

Neuroimaging Biomarkers of Experimental Epileptogenesis and Refractory Epilepsy.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Jan 8;20(1). Epub 2019 Jan 8.

Department of Neuroscience and Experimental Therapeutics, College of Medicine, Texas A&M University Health Science Center, Bryan, TX 77807, USA.

This article provides an overview of neuroimaging biomarkers in experimental epileptogenesis and refractory epilepsy. Neuroimaging represents a gold standard and clinically translatable technique to identify neuropathological changes in epileptogenesis and longitudinally monitor its progression after a precipitating injury. Neuroimaging studies, along with molecular studies from animal models, have greatly improved our understanding of the neuropathology of epilepsy, such as the hallmark hippocampus sclerosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20010220DOI Listing
January 2019
5 Reads

1-Deoxy-sphingolipids.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Biol Lipids 2019 Jan 6. Epub 2019 Jan 6.

Institute for Clinical Chemistry, University Hospital Zurich, Switzerland; Zurich Center for Integrative Human Physiology (ZIHP), University of Zurich, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Sphingolipids (SLs) are fundamental components of eukaryotic cells. 1-Deoxysphingolipids differ structurally from canonical SLs as they lack the essential C1-OH group. Consequently, 1-deoxysphingolipids cannot be converted to complex sphingolipids and not degraded over the canonical catabolic pathways. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbalip.2018.12.013DOI Listing
January 2019

PLA2G6-Associated Neurodegeneration (PLAN): Review of Clinical Phenotypes and Genotypes.

Front Neurol 2018 18;9:1100. Epub 2018 Dec 18.

Department of Neurology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Phospholipase A2 group VI (PLA2G6)-associated neurodegeneration (PLAN) includes a series of neurodegenerative diseases that result from the mutations in . PLAN has genetic and clinical heterogeneity, with different mutation sites, mutation types and ethnicities and its clinical phenotype is different. The clinical phenotypes and genotypes of PLAN are closely intertwined and vary widely. Read More

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https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fneur.2018.01100
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2018.01100DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6305538PMC
December 2018
3 Reads

The Multipurpose Application WeChat: A Review on Recent Research.

Front Psychol 2018 11;9:2247. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

School of Information Management, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

With currently over one billion monthly active users, the Chinese social media and multipurpose application WeChat (, , micro-message) has become one of the world's most popular social media platforms. Despite its enormous number of users in Asia, WeChat is still not well known in Western countries. Against this background, the present review aims to provide the reader with a comprehensive overview on the functionality of this application, comparison with other popular applications such as Facebook/WhatsApp and previous research. Read More

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https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.02247
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.02247DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6297283PMC
December 2018
3 Reads

Manganese-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Overview and Central Nervous System Applications With a Focus on Neurodegeneration.

Front Aging Neurosci 2018 13;10:403. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Physiology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, United States.

Manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) rose to prominence in the 1990s as a sensitive approach to high contrast imaging. Following the discovery of manganese conductance through calcium-permeable channels, MEMRI applications expanded to include functional imaging in the central nervous system (CNS) and other body systems. MEMRI has since been employed in the investigation of physiology in many animal models and in humans. Read More

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https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fnagi.2018.00403
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2018.00403DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6300587PMC
December 2018
2 Reads

EEG-Based Mental Workload Neurometric to Evaluate the Impact of Different Traffic and Road Conditions in Real Driving Settings.

Front Hum Neurosci 2018 18;12:509. Epub 2018 Dec 18.

BrainSigns srl, Rome, Italy.

Car driving is considered a very complex activity, consisting of different concomitant tasks and subtasks, thus it is crucial to understand the impact of different factors, such as road complexity, traffic, dashboard devices, and external events on the driver's behavior and performance. For this reason, in particular situations the cognitive demand experienced by the driver could be very high, inducing an excessive experienced mental workload and consequently an increasing of error commission probability. In this regard, it has been demonstrated that human error is the main cause of the 57% of road accidents and a contributing factor in most of them. Read More

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https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fnhum.2018.00509
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2018.00509DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6305466PMC
December 2018
2 Reads

Music Affects Rodents: A Systematic Review of Experimental Research.

Front Behav Neurosci 2018 14;12:301. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Neuroscience, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands.

There is rapidly emerging interest in music interventions in healthcare. Music interventions are widely applicable, inexpensive, without side effects, and easy to use. It is not precisely known how they exert positive effects on health outcomes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnbeh.2018.00301DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6302112PMC
December 2018

Glutamate Cotransmission in Cholinergic, GABAergic and Monoamine Systems: Contrasts and Commonalities.

Front Neural Circuits 2018 18;12:113. Epub 2018 Dec 18.

Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Douglas Mental Health University Institute, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada.

Multiple discoveries made since the identification of vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs) two decades ago revealed that many neuronal populations in the brain use glutamate in addition to their "primary" neurotransmitter. Such a mode of cotransmission has been detected in dopamine (DA), acetylcholine (ACh), serotonin (5-HT), norepinephrine (NE) and surprisingly even in GABA neurons. Interestingly, work performed by multiple groups during the past decade suggests that the use of glutamate as a cotransmitter takes different forms in these different populations of neurons. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fncir.2018.00113DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6305298PMC
December 2018

Emerging insights from the genetics of cerebral small-vessel disease.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2019 Jan 8. Epub 2019 Jan 8.

Department of Neurology, J. Philip Kistler Stroke Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

Cerebral small-vessel disease (cSVD) is a common cause of stroke, functional decline, vascular cognitive impairment, and dementia. Pathological processes in the brain's microcirculation are tightly interwoven with pathology in the brain parenchyma, and this interaction has been conceptualized as the neurovascular unit (NVU). Despite intensive research efforts to decipher the NVU's structure and function to date, molecular mechanisms underlying cSVD remain poorly understood, which hampers the development of cSVD-specific therapies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nyas.13998DOI Listing
January 2019

The Astrocyte-Neuron Interface: An Overview on Molecular and Cellular Dynamics Controlling Formation and Maintenance of the Tripartite Synapse.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1938:3-18

Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Hyderabad, Sangareddy, Telangana, India.

Astrocytes are known to provide trophic support to neurons and were originally thought to be passive space-filling cells in the brain. However, recent advances in astrocyte development and functions have highlighted their active roles in controlling brain functions by modulating synaptic transmission. A bidirectional cross talk between astrocytic processes and neuronal synapses define the concept of tripartite synapse. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-9068-9_1DOI Listing
January 2019

Down syndrome: neurobiological alterations and therapeutic targets.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2019 Jan 4. Epub 2019 Jan 4.

Applied Biotechnology Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Down syndrome (DS) is a genetic disease that occurs due to an aneuploidy of human chromosome 21. Trisomy of chromosome 21 is a primary genetic cause of developmental abnormalities leading to cognitive and learning deficits. Impairments in GABAergic transmission, noradrenergic neuronal loss, anomalous glutamatergic transmission and N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor signalling, mitochondrial dysfunction, increased oxidative stress and inflammation, differentially expressed microRNAs, increased expression of crucial chromosome 21 genes, and DNA hyper-methylation and hyperactive homocysteine trans-sulfuration pathway, are common incongruities that have been reported in DS and might contribute to cognitive impairment and intellectual disability. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S01497634183080
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2019.01.001DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Emerging pathways to neurodegeneration: Dissecting the critical molecular mechanisms in Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease.

Biomed Pharmacother 2019 Jan 3;111:765-777. Epub 2019 Jan 3.

Department of Life Sciences, School of Pharmacy, International Medical University, No 126, Jalan Jalil Perkasa 19, Bukit Jalil 57000, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Electronic address:

Neurodegenerative diseases are usually sporadic in nature and commonly influenced by a wide range of genetic, life style and environmental factors. A unifying feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) is the abnormal accumulation and processing of mutant or damaged intra and extracellular proteins; this leads to neuronal vulnerability and dysfunction in the brain. Through a detailed review of ubiquitin proteasome, mRNA splicing, mitochondrial dysfunction, and oxidative stress pathway interrelation on neurodegeneration can improve the understanding of the disease mechanism. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2018.12.101DOI Listing
January 2019

Cranioplasty after craniectomy in pediatric patients-a systematic review.

Childs Nerv Syst 2019 Jan 4. Epub 2019 Jan 4.

Department of Neurosurgery, Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, room G03.124, 3484, CX, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Introduction: Complications following cranioplasty with either autografts or cranial implants are commonly reported in pediatric patients. However, data regarding cranioplasty strategies, complications and long-term outcomes are not well described. This study systematically reviews the literature for an overview of current cranioplasty practice in children. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00381-018-4025-1DOI Listing
January 2019

Deconstructing cortical folding: genetic, cellular and mechanical determinants.

Nat Rev Neurosci 2019 Jan 4. Epub 2019 Jan 4.

Instituto de Neurociencias, Agencia Estatal Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas and Universidad Miguel Hernández, San Juan de Alicante, Spain.

Folding of the cerebral cortex is a fundamental milestone of mammalian brain evolution and is associated with dramatic increases in size and complexity. New animal models, genetic tools and bioengineering materials have moved the study of cortical folding from simple phenomenological observation to sophisticated experimental testing. Here, we provide an overview of how genetics, cell biology and biomechanics shape this complex and multifaceted process and affect each other. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41583-018-0112-2DOI Listing
January 2019

The Ganzfeld experience-A stably inducible altered state of consciousness: Effects of different auditory homogenizations.

Psych J 2019 Jan 4. Epub 2019 Jan 4.

Institute of Cognitive Science, Osnabrück University, Osnabrück, Germany.

In the Ganzfeld technique, the visual and auditory perceptual fields are homogenized. After a short exposure to completely unstructured sensory input, participants transit into an altered state of consciousness. Visual homogenization is typically accomplished by a combination of goggles and bright light; auditory homogenization is accomplished by the presentation of unstructured auditory noise via headphones. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pchj.262DOI Listing
January 2019

Established and emerging uses of 5-ALA in the brain: an overview.

J Neurooncol 2019 Jan 3. Epub 2019 Jan 3.

Department of Neurosurgery, Universitätsklinikum Münster, Münster, Germany.

Introduction: 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) was approved by the FDA in June 2017 as an intra-operative optical imaging agent for patients with gliomas (suspected World Health Organization Grades III or IV on preoperative imaging) as an adjunct for the visualization of malignant tissue during surgery. 5-ALA fluorescence-guided surgery (FGS) has been in widespread use in Europe and other continents since 2007.

Methods: We reviewed the data available and summarize the most important known uses of 5-ALA FGS and its potential future applications. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11060-018-03087-7DOI Listing
January 2019

Informatics tools to assess the success of procedural harmonization in preclinical multicenter biomarker discovery study on post-traumatic epileptogenesis.

Epilepsy Res 2018 Dec 27;150:17-26. Epub 2018 Dec 27.

A.I. Virtanen Institute for Molecular Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.

The Epilepsy Bioinformatics Study for Antiepileptogenic Therapy (EpiBioS4Rx) is a National Institutes for Neurological Diseases and Stoke funded Centers-Without-Walls international multidisciplinary study aimed at preventing epileptogenesis. The preclinical biomarker discovery in EpiBios4Rx applies a multicenter study design to allow the number of animals that are required for adequate statistical power for the analysis to be studied in an efficient manner. Further, the use of multiple centers mimics the clinical trial situation, and therefore potentially the chance of successful clinical translation of the outcomes of the study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2018.12.010DOI Listing
December 2018

Nonimmersive Brain Gaming for Older Adults With Cognitive Impairment: A Scoping Review.

Gerontologist 2019 Jan 3. Epub 2019 Jan 3.

Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, School of Medicine, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora.

Background: Technological advances have allowed a variety of computerized cognitive training tools to be engineered in ways that are fun and entertaining yet challenging at a level that can maintain motivation and engagement. This revolution has created an opportunity for gerontological scientists to evaluate brain gaming approaches to improve cognitive and everyday function. The purpose of this scoping review is to provide a critical overview of the existing literature on nonimmersive, electronic brain gaming interventions in older adults with mild cognitive impairment or dementia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geront/gny164DOI Listing
January 2019
77 Reads

Getting to the Heart of Alzheimer Disease.

Circ Res 2019 Jan;124(1):142-149

From the College of Nursing (J.M.T., J.M.A., L.E.W.), The Ohio State University, Columbus.

In a somewhat narrow diagnostic lens, Alzheimer disease (AD) has been considered a brain-specific disease characterized by the presence of Aβ (β-amyloid) plaques and tau neural fibrillary tangles and neural inflammation; these pathologies lead to neuronal death and consequently clinical symptoms, such as memory loss, confusion, and impaired cognitive function. However, for decades, researchers have noticed a link between various cardiovascular abnormalities and AD-such as heart failure, coronary artery disease, atrial fibrillation, and vasculopathy. A considerable volume of work has pointed at this head to heart connection, focusing mainly on associations between cerebral hypoperfusion and neuronal degradation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.118.313563DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6319653PMC
January 2019
2 Reads

Overview of the toxic effects of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in blood, liver, muscles, and brain of a Neotropical detritivorous fish.

Environ Toxicol 2019 Jan 3. Epub 2019 Jan 3.

Physiological Sciences Department, Federal University of São Carlos, São Carlos, SP, Brazil.

The toxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO -NP) in the blood, liver, muscle, and brain of a Neotropical detritivorous fish, Prochilodus lineatus, was tested. Juvenile fish were exposed to 0, 1, 5, 10, and 50 mg L of TiO -NP for 48 hours (acute exposure) or 14 days (subchronic exposure) to evaluate changes in hematology, red blood cell (RBC) genotoxicity/mutagenicity, liver function (reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, antioxidant responses, detoxification, and histopathology), acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in muscles and brain, and Ti bioaccumulation. TiO -NP did not cause genetic damage to RBC, but acutely decreased white blood cells (WBC) and increased monocytes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/tox.22699DOI Listing
January 2019

A comparative perspective on brain regeneration in amphibians and teleost fish.

Dev Neurobiol 2019 Jan 1. Epub 2019 Jan 1.

Research Institute of Molecular Pathology (IMP), Vienna Biocenter (VBC), Campus-Vienna-Biocenter 1, 1030, Vienna, Austria.

Regeneration of lost cells in the central nervous system, especially the brain, is present to varying degrees in different species. In mammals, neuronal cell death often leads to glial cell hypertrophy, restricted proliferation and formation of a gliotic scar, which prevents neuronal regeneration. Conversely, amphibians such as frogs and salamanders and teleost fish possess the astonishing capacity to regenerate lost cells in several regions of their brains. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/dneu.22665DOI Listing
January 2019

A little piece of mind: best practices for brain tumor intraoperative consultation.

Authors:
Christine Fuller

Mod Pathol 2019 Jan 2. Epub 2019 Jan 2.

Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, USA.

The workup of the vast majority of brain tumors is initiated at intraoperative consultation. These fresh tumor samples are often quite small and given the nature of the "prime real estate" being sampled, there is never a guarantee that additional tissue will be provided to the responsible pathologist upon request. The 2016 World Health Organization (WHO) Classification of Central Nervous System (CNS) Tumors introduced the concept of "integrative diagnoses," many diagnostic entities now requiring molecular testing in addition to the more routine pathologic workup. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41379-018-0147-yDOI Listing
January 2019

Pathogenic Feed-Forward Mechanisms in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's Disease Converge on GSK-3.

Brain Plast 2018 Dec 26;4(2):151-167. Epub 2018 Dec 26.

Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) share many commonalities ranging from signaling deficits such as altered cholinergic activity, neurotrophin and insulin signaling to cell stress cascades that result in proteinopathy, mitochondrial dysfunction and neuronal cell death. These pathological processes are not unidirectional, but are intertwined, resulting in a series of feed-forward loops that worsen symptoms and advance disease progression. At the center of these loops is glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3), a keystone protein involved in many of the multidirectional biological processes that contribute to AD and PD neuropathology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/BPL-180078DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6311352PMC
December 2018

Mirtazapine for chronic breathlessness? A review of mechanistic insights and therapeutic potential.

Expert Rev Respir Med 2018 Dec 30:1-8. Epub 2018 Dec 30.

a Cicely Saunders Institute of Palliative Care, Policy and Rehabilitation , King's College London , London , UK.

Introduction: Chronic breathlessness is a common and distressing symptom of advanced disease with few effective treatments. Central nervous system mechanisms are important in respiratory sensation and control. Consequently, drugs which may modify processing and perception of afferent information in the brain may have a role. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17476348.2019.1563486DOI Listing
December 2018

Natural Compounds for the Management of Parkinson's Disease and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

Biomed Res Int 2018 22;2018:4067597. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Laboratory of Neurosciences, Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez, Mexico.

Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder with an unknown aetiology. The pathogenic mechanisms include oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, protein dysfunction, inflammation, autophagy, apoptosis, and abnormal deposition of -synuclein. Currently, the existing pharmacological treatments for PD cannot improve fundamentally the degenerative process of dopaminergic neurons and have numerous side effects. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/4067597DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6282143PMC
November 2018
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An overview of tramadol and its usage in pain management and future perspective.

Biomed Pharmacother 2018 Dec 27;111:443-451. Epub 2018 Dec 27.

Shobhaben Pratapbhai Patel School of Pharmacy and Technology Management, SVKM'S NMIMS, V.L. Mehta Road, Vile Parle West, Mumbai, 400056, India. Electronic address:

Patients with chronic non-malignant pain report impairment of physical and social life along with psychological state affecting their overall quality of life. The purpose of managing pain is to reduce the trauma and improve the patient comfort with better quality of life. Tramadol is a centrally acting weak μ-opioid receptor analgesic and is a racemic mixture of (+)-tramadol and (-)-tramadol enantiomers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2018.12.085DOI Listing
December 2018

Regulation of P2X7 receptor expression in the brain.

Brain Res Bull 2018 Dec 26. Epub 2018 Dec 26.

Department of Physiology and Medical Physics, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin, Ireland.

Because of its prominent role in driving inflammatory processes, the ATP-gated purinergic P2 × 7 receptor has attracted much attention over the past decade as a potential therapeutic target for numerous human conditions, particularly diseases of the central nervous system, including neurodegenerative diseases (e.g. Alzheimer's and Huntington's disease), psychiatric disorders (e. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S03619230183073
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresbull.2018.12.008DOI Listing
December 2018
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Neuroimmune signaling in alcohol use disorder.

Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2019 Feb 24;177:34-60. Epub 2018 Dec 24.

Waggoner Center for Alcohol and Addiction Research, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712-01095, USA.

Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a widespread disease with limited treatment options. Targeting the neuroimmune system is a new avenue for developing or repurposing effective pharmacotherapies. Alcohol modulates innate immune signaling in different cell types in the brain by altering gene expression and the molecular pathways that regulate neuroinflammation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pbb.2018.12.007DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Is diet important in bipolar disorder?

Psychiatr Pol 2018 Oct 27;52(5):783-795. Epub 2018 Oct 27.

Klinika Psychiatrii Dorosłych, Uniwersytet Medyczny w Poznaniu.

In recent years it has been increasingly indicated that diet/nutrition is important in the pathogenesis, course and effectiveness of treatment of various mental disorders. Most of the research published so far has focused on the role of nutrition and nutrients in the development and treatment of depression. The results indicated a relationship between diet and risk of depression. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12740/PP/OnlineFirst/78703DOI Listing
October 2018

Eye Tracking During Visually Situated Language Comprehension: Flexibility and Limitations in Uncovering Visual Context Effects.

J Vis Exp 2018 Nov 30(141). Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Institute of German Studies and Linguistics, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin; Berlin School of Mind and Brain; Einstein Center for Neurosciences Berlin;

The present work is a description and an assessment of a methodology designed to quantify different aspects of the interaction between language processing and the perception of the visual world. The recording of eye-gaze patterns has provided good evidence for the contribution of both the visual context and linguistic/world knowledge to language comprehension. Initial research assessed object-context effects to test theories of modularity in language processing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3791/57694DOI Listing
November 2018