10,101 results match your criteria Brain Overview


The Fifth International Neurological Congress in Lisbon, 1953.

Eur Neurol 2019 Mar 21;80(5-6):321-332. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

Graduate Program in Neuroscience and Education, University of Macedonia, Thessaloniki,

We present an overview of the International Neurological Congress that was held in Lisbon, Portugal, on September 7-12, 1953, the fifth in the series of meetings that became a tradition and helped to establish Neurology and Neurosurgery as independent medical specialties in the mid-twentieth century. Four main symposia focused on vascular and metabolic diseases of the brain and on the parietal lobe. An additional 345 papers were read on diverse topics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000499041DOI Listing

Anaesthetic neuroprotection in children: does it exist or is it all just bad?

Curr Opin Anaesthesiol 2019 Mar 15. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Department of Anaesthesia, Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Genoa, Italy.

Purpose Of Review: In the last 20 years, data from studies of laboratory animals, including nonhuman primates, have provided ample evidence that general anaesthetic drugs cause pathological changes in developing central nervous system (neurotoxicity). Recently, a new area of research has been developed in order to recognize any possible actions that can attenuate anaesthetics neurotoxicity. This review aims to provide an overview of the recent literature on neuroprotection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ACO.0000000000000723DOI Listing

Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders: still evolving and broadening.

Authors:
Kazuo Fujihara

Curr Opin Neurol 2019 Mar 19. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

Department of Multiple Sclerosis Therapeutics, Fukushima Medical University School of Medicine and Southern TOHOKU Research Institute for Neuroscience, Koriyama, Japan.

Purpose Of Review: The diagnostic criteria of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) has been revised in the past 20 years and pathological and therapeutic data have been accumulated. This review provides an overview of evolution and broadening of the concept of NMOSD.

Recent Findings: NMOSD encompassing brain syndrome as well as optic neuritis and acute myelitis is now classified into aquaporine-4 (AQP)-antibody-seropositive and aquaporine-4 (AQP)-antibody-seronegative diseases, detecting more patients earlier than before. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/WCO.0000000000000694DOI Listing
March 2019
6 Reads

Experimental and Computational Methods for the Study of Cerebral Organoids: A Review.

Front Neurosci 2019 5;13:162. Epub 2019 Mar 5.

Research Center E. Piaggio, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy.

Cerebral (or brain) organoids derived from human cells have enormous potential as physiologically relevant downscaled models of the human brain. In fact, these stem cell-derived neural aggregates resemble the three-dimensional (3D) cytoarchitectural arrangement of the brain overcoming not only the unrealistic somatic flatness but also the planar neuritic outgrowth of the two-dimensional (2D) cultures. Despite the growing use of cerebral organoids in scientific research, a more critical evaluation of their reliability and reproducibility in terms of cellular diversity, mature traits, and neuronal dynamics is still required. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2019.00162DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6411764PMC

Evaluation of the content coverage of questionnaires containing basic and instrumental activities of daily living (ADL) used in adult patients with brain tumors.

J Neurooncol 2019 Mar 18. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Department of Neurology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Background: Everyday functioning can be assessed using measures of basic activities of daily living (BADL) or instrumental activities of daily living (IADL). The aim of this review was to provide an overview of the scope and specific content of BADL and/or IADL covered by currently used questionnaires in adult brain tumor patient studies.

Methods: Electronic databases were searched up to April 2017 to identify all eligible questionnaires with items regarding BADL/IADL in studies with adult brain tumor patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11060-019-03136-9DOI Listing

Primary Cilia-An Underexplored Topic in Major Mental Illness.

Front Psychiatry 2019 4;10:104. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

Department of Psychiatry, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Though much progress has been made in recent years towards understanding the function and physiology of primary cilia, they remain a somewhat elusive organelle. Some studies have explored the role of primary cilia in the developing nervous system, and their dysfunction has been linked with several neurosensory deficits. Yet, very little has been written on their potential role in psychiatric disorders. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2019.00104DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6409319PMC

Outcomes and clinical implications of intranasal insulin administration to the central nervous system.

Exp Neurol 2019 Mar 15. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Institute of Medical Psychology and Behavioral Neurobiology, University of Tübingen, 72076 Tübingen, Germany; German Center for Diabetes Research (DZD), 72076 Tübingen, Germany; Institute for Diabetes Research and Metabolic Diseases of the Helmholtz Center Munich at the University of Tübingen, 72076 Tübingen, Germany. Electronic address:

Insulin signaling in the brain plays a critical role in metabolic control and cognitive function. Targeting insulinergic pathways in the central nervous system via peripheral insulin administration is feasible, but associated with systemic effects that necessitate tight supervision or countermeasures. The intranasal route of insulin administration, which largely bypasses the circulation and thereby greatly reduces these obstacles, has now been repeatedly tested in proof-of-concept studies in humans as well as animals. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00144886183059
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.expneurol.2019.03.007DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Recovery from stroke: factors affecting prognosis.

Clin Neuropsychol 2019 Mar 18:1-4. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

a Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center (DVBIC) , Tampa , FL , USA.

Objective: Stroke is commonly seen in neuropsychological practice. Individual differences, diffuse damage, and the difficulty inherent in researching stroke create challenges for the clinician trying to synthesize the latest information to educate patients and families on prognosis. The objective of this special issue is to provide an overview of the latest clinical research in stroke - the contributors address assessment and treatment issues that are relevant to practice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13854046.2019.1578899DOI Listing

Impact of Substance Use Disorder Pharmacotherapy on Executive Function: A Narrative Review.

Front Psychiatry 2019 1;10:98. Epub 2019 Mar 1.

Translational Addiction Research Laboratory, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Substance use disorders are chronic, relapsing, and harmful conditions characterized by executive dysfunction. While there are currently no approved pharmacotherapy options for stimulant and cannabis use disorders, there are several evidence-based options available to help reduce symptoms during detoxification and aid long-term cessation for those with tobacco, alcohol and opioid use disorders. While these medication options have shown clinical efficacy, less is known regarding their potential to enhance executive function. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2019.00098DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6405638PMC

Mobile EEG in research on neurodevelopmental disorders: Opportunities and challenges.

Dev Cogn Neurosci 2019 Mar 8;36:100635. Epub 2019 Mar 8.

Social, Genetic and Developmental Psychiatry Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, London, United Kingdom.

Mobile electroencephalography (mobile EEG) represents a next-generation neuroscientific technology - to study real-time brain activity - that is relatively inexpensive, non-invasive and portable. Mobile EEG leverages state-of-the-art hardware alongside established advantages of traditional EEG and recent advances in signal processing. In this review, we propose that mobile EEG could open unprecedented possibilities for studying neurodevelopmental disorders. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dcn.2019.100635DOI Listing

Cognitive functions and social cognition in multiple sclerosis: An overview.

Hell J Nucl Med 2019 Jan-Apr;22 Suppl:102-110

1st Department of Psychiatry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, "Papageorgiou" General Hospital, Thessaloniki, Greece.

Cognitive decline has been widely reported in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) despite its clinical heterogeneity, at all stages and in all subtypes of the disease. Deficits are most commonly present in attention, processing speed, working memory, verbal fluency and executive function. However, MS patients also show decreased performance in tasks related to social cognition, i. Read More

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January 2019

MicroRNAs and Regeneration in Animal Models of CNS Disorders.

Authors:
Tamara Roitbak

Neurochem Res 2019 Mar 15. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Department of Neurosurgery, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, 1101 Yale Blvd, Albuquerque, NM, 87106-3834, USA.

microRNAs (miRNAs) are recently identified small RNA molecules that regulate gene expression and significantly influence the essential cellular processes associated with CNS repair after trauma and neuropathological conditions including stroke and neurodegenerative disorders. A number of specific miRNAs are implicated in regulating the development and propagation of CNS injury, as well as its subsequent regeneration. The review focuses on the functions of the miRNAs and their role in brain recovery following CNS damage. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11064-019-02777-6DOI Listing

Activation of microglia and astrocytes: a roadway to neuroinflammation and Alzheimer's disease.

Inflammopharmacology 2019 Mar 14. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technology, Maharaja Ranjit Singh Punjab Technical University, Bathinda, Punjab, 151001, India.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease that is of high importance to the neuroscience world, yet the complex pathogenicity is not fully understood. Inflammation is usually observed in AD and could implicate both beneficial or detrimental effects depending on the severity of the disease. During initial AD pathology, microglia and astrocyte activation is beneficial since they are involved in amyloid-beta clearance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10787-019-00580-xDOI Listing

The Hypertensive Headache: a Review.

Curr Pain Headache Rep 2019 Mar 14;23(5):30. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Mayo Clinic Arizona, 13400 E Shea Blvd, Scottsdale, AZ, 85259, USA.

Purpose Of Review: The purpose of this review is to provide an overview and update on the common causes of headache attributed to arterial hypertension with a focus on secondary headache disorders. We will also highlight uncommon and recent findings in this area of research.

Recent Findings: There is some controversy in the relationship between chronic hypertension and headache, particularly migraine; recent research suggests that there may be a link, but it is likely complex and multifactorial. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11916-019-0767-z
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11916-019-0767-zDOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Complement Therapeutics in the Multi-Organ Donor: Do or Don't?

Front Immunol 2019 27;10:329. Epub 2019 Feb 27.

Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands.

Over the last decade, striking progress has been made in the field of organ transplantation, such as better surgical expertise and preservation techniques. Therefore, organ transplantation is nowadays considered a successful treatment in end-stage diseases of various organs, e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00329DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6400964PMC
February 2019
1 Read

Epilepsy Disease and Nose-to-Brain Delivery of Polymeric Nanoparticles: An Overview.

Pharmaceutics 2019 Mar 13;11(3). Epub 2019 Mar 13.

Department of Drug Sciences, University of Catania; V.le Andrea Doria, 6, 95125 Catania, Italy.

Epilepsy is the fourth most common global neurological problem, which can be considered a spectrum disorder because of its various causes, seizure types, its ability to vary in severity and the impact from person to person, as well as its range of co-existing conditions. The approaches to drug therapy of epilepsy are directed at the control of symptoms by chronic administration of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). These AEDs are administered orally or intravenously but alternative routes of administration are needed to overcome some important limits. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11030118DOI Listing

Gitelman Syndrome: A Rare Cause of Seizure Disorder and a Systematic Review.

Case Rep Med 2019 5;2019:4204907. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Resident Physician, Abington Hospital-Jefferson Health, Abington, PA, USA.

Gitelman syndrome is one of the few inherited causes of metabolic alkalosis due to salt losing tubulopathy. It is caused by tubular defects at the level of distal convoluted tubules, mimicking a thiazide-like tumor. It usually presents in late childhood or in teenage as nonspecific weakness, fatigability, polyuria, and polydipsia but very rarely with seizures. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/4204907DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6379858PMC
February 2019
1 Read

How Reward and Aversion Shape Motivation and Decision Making: A Computational Account.

Neuroscientist 2019 Mar 13:1073858419834517. Epub 2019 Mar 13.

2 Department of Animals in Science and Society, Division of Behavioural Neuroscience, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands.

Processing rewarding and aversive signals lies at the core of many adaptive behaviors, including value-based decision making. The brain circuits processing these signals are widespread and include the prefrontal cortex, amygdala and striatum, and their dopaminergic innervation. In this review, we integrate historic findings on the behavioral and neural mechanisms of value-based decision making with recent, groundbreaking work in this area. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1073858419834517DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

A systematic review and standardized clinical validity assessment of male infertility genes.

Hum Reprod 2019 Mar 13. Epub 2019 Mar 13.

Department of Human Genetics, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behavior, Radboud University Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Study Question: Which genes are confidently linked to human monogenic male infertility?

Summary Answer: Our systematic literature search and clinical validity assessment reveals that a total of 78 genes are currently confidently linked to 92 human male infertility phenotypes.

What Is Known Already: The discovery of novel male infertility genes is rapidly accelerating with the availability of next-generating sequencing methods, but the quality of evidence for gene-disease relationships varies greatly. In order to improve genetic research, diagnostics and counseling, there is a need for an evidence-based overview of the currently known genes. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/humrep/advance-article/doi/10.1093/
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/humrep/dez022DOI Listing
March 2019
5 Reads

Neurocognitive mechanisms of theory of mind impairment in neurodegeneration: a transdiagnostic approach.

Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 2019 20;15:557-573. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

The University of Sydney, Brain and Mind Centre, Sydney, NSW, Australia,

Much of human interaction is predicated upon our innate capacity to infer the thoughts, beliefs, emotions, and perspectives of others, in short, to possess a "theory of mind" (ToM). While the term has evolved considerably since its inception, ToM encompasses our unique ability to apprehend the mental states of others, enabling us to anticipate and predict subsequent behavior. From a developmental perspective, ToM has been a topic of keen research interest, with numerous studies seeking to explicate the origins of this fundamental capacity and its disruption in developmental disorders such as autism. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S158996DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6388953PMC
February 2019

From isoniazid to psychobiotics: the gut microbiome as a new antidepressant target.

Br J Hosp Med (Lond) 2019 Mar;80(3):139-145

Professor of Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry and APC Microbiome Ireland, University College Cork, Ireland.

An awareness of the importance of the gut-brain axis in psychiatric disorders such as depression is increasing. The gut microbiome is a key component of this axis. Gut bacteria can communicate with the brain through a variety of pathways including the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, immune modulation, tryptophan metabolism and the production of various neuroactive compounds. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12968/hmed.2019.80.3.139DOI Listing

Targeting of the unfolded protein response (UPR) as therapy for Parkinson's disease.

Biol Cell 2019 Mar 12. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

Biomedical Neuroscience Institute, Faculty of Medicine, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile.

Parkinson's disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder, leading to the progressive decline of motor control due to the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. At the molecular level, Parkinson's disease share common molecular signatures with most neurodegenerative diseases including the accumulation of misfolded proteins in the brain. Alteration in the buffering capacity of the proteostasis network during aging is proposed as one of the triggering steps leading to abnormal protein aggregation in this disease, highlighting disturbances in the function of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/boc.201800068DOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads

Regulation of Circadian Genes by the MAPK Pathway: Implications for Rapid Antidepressant Action.

Neurosci Bull 2019 Mar 11. Epub 2019 Mar 11.

Savaid Medical School, University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 101408, China.

Accumulating evidence suggests that the circadian rhythm plays a critical role in mood regulation, and circadian disturbances are often found in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway is involved in mediating entrainment of the circadian system. Furthermore, the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway has been shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of MDD and the rapid onset of action of antidepressant therapies, both pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s12264-019-00358-9
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12264-019-00358-9DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Respiratory management during therapeutic hypothermia for hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.

J Perinatol 2019 Mar 11. Epub 2019 Mar 11.

Department of Pediatric Newborn Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.

Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) has become the standard of care treatment to improve morbidity and mortality in infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). Although TH has clearly proven to be beneficial, recent studies suggest optimization of respiratory management as an approach to prevent further damage and improve neurodevelopmental outcome. The ventilatory management of asphyxiated neonates presents a challenge because both the hypoxic insult and TH have an impact on respiratory functions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41372-019-0349-2DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Attenuation of the effects of oxidative stress by the MAO-inhibiting antidepressant and carbonyl scavenger phenelzine.

Chem Biol Interact 2019 Mar 8;304:139-147. Epub 2019 Mar 8.

Department of Psychiatry (Neurochemical Research Unit), University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada; Department of Medicine (Neurology), University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada. Electronic address:

Phenelzine (β-phenylethylhydrazine) is a monoamine oxidase (MAO)-inhibiting antidepressant with anxiolytic properties. It possesses a number of important pharmacological properties which may alter the effects of oxidative stress. After conducting a comprehensive literature search, the authors of this review paper aim to provide an overview and discussion of the mechanisms by which phenelzine may attenuate oxidative stress. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbi.2019.03.003DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Metastatic breast cancer to the adductor magnus; a case report and literature overview.

Breast Dis 2019 Mar 5. Epub 2019 Mar 5.

1051 Essington Rd Suite 210, Joliet, IL, USA.

Metastatic breast cancer is commonly found in the pectoralis major and minor muscles, ribs, spine, pelvis, long bones of the extremities, liver, lung, and the brain. It is unusual to see breast cancer metastases to distal skeletal muscle. We report a case of a patient with a history of stage IIA infiltrating lobular carcinoma of the right breast presenting with a metastatic lesion in the right adductor magnus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/BD-180376DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Harnessing Exosomes for the Development of Brain Drug Delivery Systems.

Bioconjug Chem 2019 Mar 21. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

Department of Pharmacology and Chemical Biology , Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine , Shanghai 200025 , China.

Brain drug delivery is one of the most important bottlenecks in the development of drugs for the central nervous system. Cumulative evidence has emerged that extracellular vesicles (EVs) play a key role in intercellular communication. Exosomes, a subgroup of EVs, have received the most attention due to their capability in mediating the horizontal transfer of their bioactive inclusions to neighboring and distant cells, and thus specifically regulating the physiological and pathological functions of the recipient cells. Read More

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http://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.bioconjchem.9b00085
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.bioconjchem.9b00085DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Affective vulnerability in substance use disorders.

Curr Opin Psychol 2019 Jan 28;30:54-58. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

Division of Alcohol and Drug Abuse, McLean Hospital, 115 Mill Street, Belmont, MA 02478, USA; Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, 25 Shattuck Street, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

Substances of abuse are characterized by their rewarding effects and engagement of reward pathways in the brain. However, these substances also provide rapid relief of negative affect, and thus are highly negatively reinforcing. Accordingly, negative affectivity and other affective vulnerabilities (factors related to the experience of affect) are strongly linked to problematic substance use and substance use disorders. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.copsyc.2019.01.011DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Metabolism and inflammation: implications for traumatic brain injury therapeutics.

Expert Rev Neurother 2019 Mar 8;19(3):227-242. Epub 2019 Mar 8.

a Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Clinical Neurosciences , University of Cambridge , Cambridge , UK.

Introduction: Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability in young people, affecting 69 million people annually, worldwide. The initial trauma disrupts brain homeostasis resulting in metabolic dysfunction and an inflammatory cascade, which can then promote further neurodegenerative effects for months or years, as a 'secondary' injury. Effective targeting of the cerebral inflammatory system is challenging due to its complex, pleiotropic nature. Read More

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https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/14737175.2019.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14737175.2019.1582332DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Role of age-related alterations of the cerebral venous circulation in the pathogenesis of vascular cognitive impairment.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2019 Mar 8. Epub 2019 Mar 8.

Reynolds Oklahoma Center on Aging, Department of Geriatric Medicine, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, United States.

There has been an increasing appreciation of role of vascular contributions to cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID) associated with old age. Strong preclinical and translational evidence links age-related dysfunction and structural alterations of the cerebral arteries, arterioles and capillaries to the pathogenesis of many types of dementia in the elderly, including Alzheimer's disease. The low pressure, low velocity and large volume venous circulation of the brain also plays critical roles in the maintenance of homeostasis in the central nervous system. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00776.2018DOI Listing
March 2019
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An Updated View on the Molecular Pathomechanisms of Human Dihydrolipoamide Dehydrogenase Deficiency in Light of Novel Crystallographic Evidence.

Authors:
Attila Ambrus

Neurochem Res 2019 Mar 7. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

Department of Medical Biochemistry, MTA-SE Laboratory for Neurobiochemistry, Semmelweis University, 37-47 Tuzolto Street, Budapest, 1094, Hungary.

Dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (LADH, E3) deficiency is a rare (autosomal, recessive) genetic disorder generally presenting with an onset in the neonatal age and early death; the highest carrier rate has been found among Ashkenazi Jews. Acute clinical episodes usually involve severe metabolic decompensation and lactate acidosis that result in neurological, cardiological, and/or hepatological manifestations. Clinical severity is due to the fact that LADH is a common E3 subunit to the alpha-ketoglutarate, pyruvate, alpha-ketoadipate, and branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complexes, and is also a constituent in the glycine cleavage system, thus a loss in LADH function adversely affects multiple key metabolic routes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11064-019-02766-9DOI Listing
March 2019
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A Detailed Overview of Long-Term Outcomes in Severe Traumatic Brain Injury Eight Years Post-injury.

Front Neurol 2019 21;10:120. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Laboratoire de Recherches Cliniques et en Santé publique sur les Handicaps Psychiques, Cognitifs et Moteurs (HANDIReSP, EA4047), Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin, Montigny-Le-Bretonneux, France.

Severe traumatic brain injury is a leading cause of acquired persistent disabilities, and represents an important health and economic burden. However, the determinants of long-term outcome have rarely been systematically studied in a prospective longitudinal study of a homogeneous group of patients suffering exclusively from severe TBI Prospective observational study of an inception cohort of adult patients with severe traumatic brain injury in the Parisian area (PariS-TBI). Outcome was assessed with face-to-face interview 8 years after Traumatic Brain Injury, focusing on impairments, activity limitations, and participation restriction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2019.00120DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6393327PMC
February 2019

GCPII and its close homolog GCPIII: from a neuropeptidase to a cancer marker and beyond.

Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) 2019 03 1;24:648-687. Epub 2019 Mar 1.

Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Flemingovo n. 2, Prague, 16610, Czechia,

Glutamate carboxypeptidases II and III (GCPII and GCPIII) are highly homologous di-zinc metallopeptidases belonging to the M28 family. These enzymes are expressed in a variety of tissues, including the brain, prostate, kidney, testis and jejunum. GCPII has been recognized as a neuropeptidase in the central nervous system, as a folate hydrolase participating in absorption of folates in the jejunum and, most importantly, as a prostate-specific membrane antigen that is highly expressed in prostate adenocarcinoma. Read More

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A systematic review of MEG-based studies in Parkinson's disease: The motor system and beyond.

Hum Brain Mapp 2019 Mar 7. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

Amsterdam UMC, location VUmc, Department of Neurology, Amsterdam Neuroscience, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Parkinson's disease (PD) is accompanied by functional changes throughout the brain, including changes in the electromagnetic activity recorded with magnetoencephalography (MEG). An integrated overview of these changes, its relationship with clinical symptoms, and the influence of treatment is currently missing. Therefore, we systematically reviewed the MEG studies that have examined oscillatory activity and functional connectivity in the PD-affected brain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hbm.24562DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Stem cell therapies for acute spinal cord injury in humans: a review.

Neurosurg Focus 2019 Mar;46(3):E10

Recent advances in stem cell biology present significant opportunities to advance clinical applications of stem cell-based therapies for spinal cord injury (SCI). In this review, the authors critically analyze the basic science and translational evidence that supports the use of various stem cell sources, including induced pluripotent stem cells, oligodendrocyte precursor cells, and mesenchymal stem cells. They subsequently explore recent advances in stem cell biology and discuss ongoing clinical translation efforts, including combinatorial strategies utilizing scaffolds, biogels, and growth factors to augment stem cell survival, function, and engraftment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2018.12.FOCUS18602DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Children and Adults as Language Learners: Rules, Variation, and Maturational Change.

Authors:
Elissa L Newport

Top Cogn Sci 2019 Mar 5. Epub 2019 Mar 5.

Department of Neurology, Georgetown University.

Here we overview our recent research investigating children and adults' learning of rules and variation. In all these studies, our findings are that children and adults differ in how they acquire linguistic patterns that are productive, variable, inconsistently used, or lexically restricted. Some of our studies examine children's learning of natural languages; other studies expose learners to miniature languages and then ask them to produce novel sentences or judge their grammaticality. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tops.12416DOI Listing

Current and future pharmacological therapies for managing cirrhosis and its complications.

World J Gastroenterol 2019 Feb;25(8):888-908

Liver Unit/Division of Integrative Systems Medicine and Digestive Disease, Imperial College London, London W2 1NY, United Kingdom.

Due to the restrictions of liver transplantation, complication-guided pharmacological therapy has become the mainstay of long-term management of cirrhosis. This article aims to provide a complete overview of pharmacotherapy options that may be commenced in the outpatient setting which are available for managing cirrhosis and its complications, together with discussion of current controversies and potential future directions. PubMed/Medline/Cochrane Library were electronically searched up to December 2018 to identify studies evaluating safety, efficacy and therapeutic mechanisms of pharmacological agents in cirrhotic adults and animal models of cirrhosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v25.i8.888DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6397723PMC
February 2019
5 Reads

Novel electrode technologies for neural recordings.

Nat Rev Neurosci 2019 Mar 4. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA.

Neural recording electrode technologies have contributed considerably to neuroscience by enabling the extracellular detection of low-frequency local field potential oscillations and high-frequency action potentials of single units. Nevertheless, several long-standing limitations exist, including low multiplexity, deleterious chronic immune responses and long-term recording instability. Driven by initiatives encouraging the generation of novel neurotechnologies and the maturation of technologies to fabricate high-density electronics, novel electrode technologies are emerging. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41583-019-0140-6DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Guidelines for the Management of Pediatric Severe Traumatic Brain Injury, Third Edition: Update of the Brain Trauma Foundation Guidelines, Executive Summary.

Pediatr Crit Care Med 2019 Mar;20(3):280-289

Herman and Faye Sarkowsky Endowed Chair, Head, Division of Pediatric Neurology, University of Washington, Seattle Children's Hospital, Seattle, WA.

Objectives: The purpose of this work is to identify and synthesize research produced since the second edition of these Guidelines was published and incorporate new results into revised evidence-based recommendations for the treatment of severe traumatic brain injury in pediatric patients.

Methods And Main Results: This document provides an overview of our process, lists the new research added, and includes the revised recommendations. Recommendations are only provided when there is supporting evidence. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PCC.0000000000001736DOI Listing
March 2019
25 Reads

Modeling of inflicted head injury by shaking trauma in children: what can we learn? : Part I: A systematic review of animal models.

Forensic Sci Med Pathol 2019 Mar 4. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

Division of Digital and Biometric Traces, Netherlands Forensic Institute, Laan van Ypenburg 6, 2497 GB, The Hague, The Netherlands.

Inflicted blunt force trauma and/or repetitive acceleration-deceleration trauma in infants can cause brain injury. Yet, the exact pathophysiologic mechanism with its associated thresholds remains unclear. In this systematic review an overview of animal models for shaking trauma and their findings on tissue damage will be provided. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12024-019-0082-3DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

[Foix-Chavany-Marie Syndrome: A Clinical Overview].

Brain Nerve 2019 Mar;71(3):273-280

Yokohama Municipal Citizen's Hospital.

Foix-Chavany-Marie syndrome, which has been reported since the 19th century, is a cortical type of pseudobulbar palsy. Although previously most cases were due to acute recurrent stroke, recent reports have indicated that there are various causes, including infectious, developmental, epileptic and degenerative processes and various clinical courses, which may be transient or slowly progressive. Moreover, modern imaging techniques have revealed the significance of the injury of the white matter tract, such as the frontal aslant tract, rather than classical lesions of bilateral motor cortices. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11477/mf.1416201255DOI Listing

Technical improvements in carotid revascularization based on the mechanism of procedural stroke.

J Cardiovasc Surg (Torino) 2019 Mar 1. Epub 2019 Mar 1.

Vascular Surgery, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands -

The benefit of carotid revascularization in patients with severe carotid artery stenosis is hampered by the risk of stroke due to the intervention itself. The risk of periprocedural strokes is higher for carotid artery stenting(CAS) as compared to carotid endarterectomy(CEA). Over the past years, the pathophysiological mechanism responsible for periprocedural stroke seems to unfold step by step. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0021-9509.19.10918-4DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Clinical and surrogate endpoints in future studies on outcome of carotid revascularization.

J Cardiovasc Surg (Torino) 2019 Mar 1. Epub 2019 Mar 1.

Service of Interventional Radiology, Centro Vascolare Ticino, Ospedale Regionale di Lugano, Sede Civico, Lugano, Switzerland -

This paper will provide a comparison of classical endpoints like stroke and mortality vs. biochemical (non- STEMI) myocardial infarction and DW-MRI new brain lesions, and will discuss the importance of cranial nerve lesion in CEA. An overview of possible endpoints of future randomized clinical trials will be given. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0021-9509.19.10910-XDOI Listing
March 2019
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Treatment of severe traumatic brain injury in German pediatric intensive care units-a survey of current practice.

Childs Nerv Syst 2019 Mar 2. Epub 2019 Mar 2.

Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Friedrich-Alexander-University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Loschgestr. 15, 91054, Erlangen, Germany.

Purpose: German pediatric guidelines for severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) management expired in 2011. Thus, divergent evidence-based institutional protocols are predominantly being followed. We performed a survey of current Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) management of isolated severe TBI in Germany to reveal potential varying practices. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00381-019-04098-zDOI Listing
March 2019
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Guidelines for the Management of Pediatric Severe Traumatic Brain Injury, Third Edition: Update of the Brain Trauma Foundation Guidelines, Executive Summary.

Neurosurgery 2019 Mar 2. Epub 2019 Mar 2.

Division of Pediatric Neurology, University of Washington, Seattle Children's Hospital, Seattle, Washington.

The purpose of this work is to identify and synthesize research produced since the second edition of these Guidelines was published and incorporate new results into revised evidence-based recommendations for the treatment of severe traumatic brain injury in pediatric patients. This document provides an overview of our process, lists the new research added, and includes the revised recommendations. Recommendations are only provided when there is supporting evidence. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/neuros/nyz051DOI Listing
March 2019
5 Reads

Human Glial Chimeric Mice to Define the Role of Glial Pathology in Human Disease.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1936:311-331

Department of Neurology and the Center for Translational Neuromedicine, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY, USA.

Human glial progenitor cells (hGPCs) can engraft, expand, and differentiate into functional oligodendrocytes and astrocytes when transplanted neonatally into murine hosts, in which they outcompete the host glial pool to ultimately colonize and dominate the recipient brains. When congenitally hypomyelinated mutants are used as hosts, the donor hGPCs generate myelinogenic oligodendrocytes as well as astrocytes, so that the recipient mice develop a largely humanized white matter, with entirely human-derived myelin. In addition, by neonatally engrafting hGPCs derived from patient- and disease-specific pluripotent stem cells, glial chimeric mice may be produced in which large proportions of all macroglial cells are not only human but also patient and disease specific. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-9072-6_18DOI Listing
January 2019

4-Borono-2-F-fluoro-L-phenylalanine PET for boron neutron capture therapy-oriented diagnosis: overview of a quarter century of research.

Authors:
Kiichi Ishiwata

Ann Nucl Med 2019 Feb 28. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

Southern TOHOKU Drug Discovery and Cyclotron Research Center, Southern TOHOKU Research Institute for Neuroscience, 7-61-2 Yatsuyamada, Koriyama, 963-8052, Japan.

4-B-Borono-2-F-fluoro-L-phenylalanine (F-FBPA) was developed for monitoring the pharmacokinetics of 4-B-borono-L-phenylalanine (B-BPA) used in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) with positron emission tomography (PET). The tumor-imaging potential of F-FBPA was demonstrated in various animal models. Accumulation of F-FBPA was higher in melanomas than in non-melanoma tumors in animal models and cell cultures. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12149-019-01347-8DOI Listing
February 2019

Gut-focused hypnotherapy for Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders: Evidence-base, practical aspects, and the Manchester Protocol.

Neurogastroenterol Motil 2019 Feb 27:e13573. Epub 2019 Feb 27.

Neurogastroenterology Unit, Gastroenterology, Wythenshawe Hospital, Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, UK.

Background: Despite their high prevalence and advances in the field of neurogastroenterology, there remain few effective treatment options for functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs). It is recognized that approximately 25% of sufferers will have symptoms refractory to existing therapies, causing significant adverse effects on quality of life and increased healthcare utilization and morbidity. Gut-focused hypnotherapy, when delivered by trained therapists, has been shown to be highly effective in severe refractory FGIDs. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/nmo.13573
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nmo.13573DOI Listing
February 2019
3 Reads

Neuronanomedicine: An Up-to-Date Overview.

Pharmaceutics 2019 Feb 26;11(3). Epub 2019 Feb 26.

"Dr. Victor Gomoiu" Clinical Children's Hospital, "Carol Davila" University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 050474 Bucharest, Romania.

The field of neuronanomedicine has recently emerged as the bridge between neurological sciences and nanotechnology. The possibilities of this novel perspective are promising for the diagnosis and treatment strategies of severe central nervous system disorders. Therefore, the development of nano-vehicles capable of permeating the blood⁻brain barrier (BBB) and reaching the brain parenchyma may lead to breakthrough therapies that could improve life expectancy and quality of the patients diagnosed with brain disorders. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11030101DOI Listing
February 2019
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Removal of Artifacts from EEG Signals: A Review.

Sensors (Basel) 2019 Feb 26;19(5). Epub 2019 Feb 26.

School of Big Data and Information Engineering, Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025, China.

Electroencephalogram (EEG) plays an important role in identifying brain activity and behavior. However, the recorded electrical activity always be contaminated with artifacts and then affect the analysis of EEG signal. Hence, it is essential to develop methods to effectively detect and extract the clean EEG data during encephalogram recordings. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s19050987DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read