11,431 results match your criteria Brain Overview


Introduction to a special issue on military neuropsychology: Serving those who serve.

Clin Neuropsychol 2020 Jul 3:1-5. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

United States Special Operations Command (USSOCOM), Departments of Psychology and Psychiatry and Behavioral Neurosciences, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA.

The military has a long history with neuropsychology and its precursors. From developing intelligence tests during World War I, to developing early capacity and personality assessments during World War II, to forward deploying for the evaluation and treatment of frequent concussive brain injuries during more recent conflicts, clinical neuropsychology has been at the forefront of military selection, healthcare and research. The objective of this special issue is to provide an overview of the latest clinical research relevant to military neuropsychology-some contributors address assessment and treatment issues that are relevant to current practice and others foretell the future of our field. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13854046.2020.1786605DOI Listing

An overview of nanomedicines for neuron targeting.

Nanomedicine (Lond) 2020 Jul 3. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Department of Basic Sciences, Faculty of Medicine & Health Sciences, Universitat Internacional de Catalunya, 08195, Sant Cugat del Vallès, Spain.

Medical treatments of neuron-related disorders are limited due to the difficulty of targeting brain cells. Major drawbacks are the presence of the blood-brain barrier and the lack of specificity of the drugs for the diseased cells. Nanomedicine-based approaches provide promising opportunities for overcoming these limitations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/nnm-2020-0088DOI Listing

Neurobiological biomarkers of response to ketamine.

Adv Pharmacol 2020 18;89:195-235. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Section on the Neurobiology and Treatment of Mood Disorders, Intramural Research Program, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, United States.

As a field, psychiatry is undergoing an exciting paradigm shift toward early identification and intervention that will likely minimize both the burden associated with severe mental illnesses as well as their duration. In this context, the rapid-acting antidepressant ketamine has revolutionized our understanding of antidepressant response and greatly expanded the pharmacologic armamentarium for treatment-resistant depression. Efforts to characterize biomarkers of ketamine response support a growing emphasis on early identification, which would allow clinicians to identify biologically enriched subgroups with treatment-resistant depression who are more likely to benefit from ketamine therapy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.apha.2020.05.003DOI Listing

Clinical overview of NMDA-R antagonists and clinical practice.

Adv Pharmacol 2020 1;89:103-129. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Yale Depression Research Program, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, United States. Electronic address:

Depression represents one of the most common and debilitating mental illnesses in the world today. Despite this pressing issue, the majority treatments for depression give patients therapeutic response only approximately half of the time, with many not responding at all. In part, this stagnation has been due to the dominance of the monoamine hypothesis that guides the current approach to understanding and treating depression. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.apha.2020.04.004DOI Listing

A Brief Overview of Neurosurgical Management for Breast Cancer Metastasis.

SF J Med Oncol Cancer 2020 11;1(1). Epub 2020 May 11.

Department of Neurosurgery, University of Florida, USA.

Despite advances in chemotherapy and radiation, stage IV breast cancer presents a serious challenge to clinicians in light of the continued poor outcomes for patients. Stage IV breast cancer frequently metastasizes to the brain often necessitating neurosurgical intervention. The goals of the neurosurgeon are to adequately address metastatic disease to the central nervous system, limit morbidity for the patients, while preserving as much neurologic function as possible, and to help guide next steps regarding need for radiation and immunotherapy. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7328909PMC

Recent Strategies for Targeted Brain Drug Delivery.

Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 2020 ;68(7):567-582

Department of Pharmaceutical Informatics, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University.

Because the brain is the most important human organ, many brain disorders can cause severe symptoms. For example, glioma, one type of brain tumor, is progressive and lethal, while neurodegenerative diseases cause severe disability. Nevertheless, medical treatment for brain diseases remains unsatisfactory, and therefore innovative therapies are desired. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1248/cpb.c20-00041DOI Listing
January 2020

Dementia and subthalamic deep brain stimulation in Parkinson disease: A long-term overview.

Neurology 2020 Jul 1. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

From the Movement Disorders Unit (F.B., V.F., F.C., E.S., E.L., A.B., S.M., P.P., A.K., E.C., C.A., P.K., A.C., E.M.) and Neurosurgery Department (A.L.B., S.C., E.S.), CHU Grenoble Alpes, France; Institute of Neurology (F.B.), Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS, Università Cattolica Del Sacro Cuore, Rome, Italy; U1216 (V.F., E.S., E.L., A.B., S.M., P.P., A.K., E.C., C.A., P.K., A.L.B., S.C., E.S., A.C., E.M.), Grenoble Institut des Neurosciences, Inserm, Université Grenoble Alpes, France; Neurology Unit (F.C.), Neuromotor & Rehabilitation Department, Azienda USL-IRCCS di Reggio Emilia; Clinical and Experimental Medicine PhD Program (F.C.), University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena; Department of Clinical and Movement Neurosciences (P.L.), University College London Queen Square Institute of Neurology, UK; and Department of Neurology (P.K.), INSELSPITAL, University Hospital Bern, Switzerland.

Objectives: To assess the prevalence and the cumulative incidence of dementia at short-, medium- and long-term follow-up after deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) (at 1, 5, and 10 years) and to evaluate potential risk factors for postoperative dementia.

Methods: The presence of dementia (according to the DSM-V) was retrospectively evaluated at each postoperative follow-up in patients with Parkinson disease (PD) who underwent bilateral STN-DBS. Preoperative and perioperative risk factors of developing postoperative dementia were also investigated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000009822DOI Listing

Percutaneous Closure of the Patent Ductus Arteriosus in Very-Low-Weight Infants.

Neoreviews 2020 Jul;21(7):e469-e478

Center for Perinatal Research, The Abigail Wexner Research Institute at Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, OH.

In view of the known complications of drug therapy and open surgical ligation, and the potential for prolonged patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) exposure to be harmful, health care practitioners have sought new approaches to achieve definitive ductal closure. Interest in percutaneous (catheter-based) PDA closure has emerged within the neonatal community as a viable treatment option, because it has been fueled by recent procedural and device modifications, as well as mounting feasibility and safety data. Herein, we provide a contemporary review of percutaneous PDA closure among infants at the crux of the medical debate-very-low-weight infants (≤1,500 g), including: 1) characterization of traditional PDA treatments (drug therapy, open surgical ligation) and conservative (nonintervention) management options; 2) a general overview of the major procedural steps of percutaneous ductal closure, including efforts to reduce thrombotic complications and the emergence of a novel US Food and Drug Administration-approved device; 3) a systematic review and meta-analysis to better understand risk profiles of percutaneous PDA closure in this population; and 4) discussion of current gaps in our understanding of optimal PDA care, including the critical need for well-designed, randomized, controlled clinical trials. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/neo.21-7-e469DOI Listing

Brain-body interactions underlying the association of loneliness with mental and physical health.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2020 Jun 28. Epub 2020 Jun 28.

Department of Neuroscience, Brighton and Sussex Medical School (BSMS), University of Sussex, Falmer, BN1 9RY, UK; Sackler Centre for Consciousness Science, University of Sussex, Falmer, BN1 9RR, UK; Sussex Partnership NHS Foundation Trust, Brighton, BN2 3EW, UK.

Loneliness can be operationalized as the actual or perceived absence of those social relationships that serve to meet basic emotional needs. In contrast to solitude, a chosen state of being without company, loneliness is associated with negative affect and emotional distress. Loneliness can have detrimental effects on mental and physical wellbeing, expressed as an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2020.06.015DOI Listing

Pseudobulbar Affect: An Overview.

J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 2020 Jun 30:1-6. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Pseudobulbar affect (PBA) is a disorder that develops in the context of a brain injury or underlying neurological dysfunction. It is characterized as an affective disorder of emotional expression. PBA manifests as frequent uncontrollable outbursts of laughing or crying, incongruent with the individual's internal emotional state. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/02793695-20200624-08DOI Listing

Targeting the medulloblastoma: a molecular-based approach.

Acta Biomed 2020 Jun 30;91(7-S):79-100. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Pediatric Clinic, Department of Pediatrics, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Uni-versity of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.

Background: The lack of success of standard therapies for medulloblastoma has highlighted the need to plan a new therapeutic approach. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the novel treatment strategies based on the molecular characterization and risk categories of the medulloblastoma, also focusing on up-to-date relevant clinical trials and the challenges in translating tailored approaches into clinical practice.

Methods: An online search of the literature was carried out on the PubMed/MEDLINE and ClinicalTrials. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.23750/abm.v91i7-S.9958DOI Listing

Potential roads for reaching the summit: an overview on target therapies for high-grade gliomas.

Acta Biomed 2020 Jun 30;91(7-S):61-78. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Pediatric Clinic, Department of Pediatrics, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Uni-versity of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.

The tailored targeting of specific oncogenes represents a new frontier in the treatment of high-grade glioma in the pursuit of innovative and personalized approaches. The present study consists in a wide-ranging overview of the target therapies and related translational challenges in neuro-oncology.

Methods: A review of the literature on PubMed/MEDLINE on recent advances concerning the target therapies for treatment of central nervous system malignancies was carried out. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.23750/abm.v91i7-S.9956DOI Listing

The impact of stem cells in neuro-oncology: applications, evidence, limitations and challenges.

Acta Biomed 2020 Jun 30;91(7-S):51-60. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Pediatric Clinic, Department of Pediatrics, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Uni-versity of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.

Background: Stem cells (SCs) represent a recent and attractive therapeutic option for neuro-oncology, as well as for treating degenerative, ischemic and traumatic pathologies of the central nervous system. This is mainly because of their homing capacity, which makes them capable of reaching the inaccessible SC niches of the tumor, therefore, acting as living drugs. The target of the study is a comprehensive overview of the SC-based therapies in neuro-oncology, also highlighting the current translational challenges of this type of approach. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.23750/abm.v91i7-S.9955DOI Listing

Neuronal αδ proteins and brain disorders.

Pflugers Arch 2020 Jun 30. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Institute of Physiology, Medical University Innsbruck, 6020, Innsbruck, Austria.

αδ proteins are membrane-anchored extracellular glycoproteins which are abundantly expressed in the brain and the peripheral nervous system. They serve as regulatory subunits of voltage-gated calcium channels and, particularly in nerve cells, regulate presynaptic and postsynaptic functions independently from their role as channel subunits. αδ proteins are the targets of the widely prescribed anti-epileptic and anti-allodynic drugs gabapentin and pregabalin, particularly for the treatment of neuropathic pain conditions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00424-020-02420-2DOI Listing

Systematic review of combined functional near-infrared spectroscopy and transcranial direct-current stimulation studies.

Neurophotonics 2020 Apr 25;7(2):020901. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

St. Mary's Hospital Campus, Imperial College London, Department of Surgery and Cancer, London, United Kingdom.

Combining transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) with functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a recent approach to exploring brain activation evoked by neurostimulation. To critically evaluate studies combining tDCS and fNIRS and provide a consolidated overview of cortical hemodynamic responses to neurostimulation. Key terms were searched in three databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO) with cross-referencing and works from Google Scholar also evaluated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.NPh.7.2.020901DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7315225PMC

Neutrophils: Underestimated Players in the Pathogenesis of Multiple Sclerosis (MS).

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Jun 26;21(12). Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Laboratory of Molecular Immunology, Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Transplantation, Rega Institute for Medical Research, KU Leuven, Herestraat 49-Box 1042, 3000 Leuven, Belgium.

Neutrophils are the most abundant circulating and first-responding innate myeloid cells and have so far been underestimated in the context of multiple sclerosis (MS). MS is the most frequent, immune-mediated, inflammatory disease of the central nervous system. MS is treatable but not curable and its cause(s) and pathogenesis remain elusive. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21124558DOI Listing

Deep Learning for Multigrade Brain Tumor Classification in Smart Healthcare Systems: A Prospective Survey.

IEEE Trans Neural Netw Learn Syst 2020 Jun 30;PP. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Brain tumor is one of the most dangerous cancers in people of all ages, and its grade recognition is a challenging problem for radiologists in health monitoring and automated diagnosis. Recently, numerous methods based on deep learning have been presented in the literature for brain tumor classification (BTC) in order to assist radiologists for a better diagnostic analysis. In this overview, we present an in-depth review of the surveys published so far and recent deep learning-based methods for BTC. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TNNLS.2020.2995800DOI Listing

An overview of the human brain myelin proteome and differences associated with schizophrenia.

World J Biol Psychiatry 2020 Jun 30:1-32. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Translational Research in Psychiatry, Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry, Munich, Germany.

Objectives: Disturbances in the myelin sheath drive disruptions in neural transmission and brain connectivity as seen in schizophrenia. Here, the myelin proteome was characterized in schizophrenia patients and healthy controls to visualize differences in proteomic profiles.

Methods: A liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry-based shotgun proteomic analysis was performed of a myelin-enriched fraction of post-mortem brain samples from schizophrenia patients (n = 12) and mentally healthy controls (n = 8). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15622975.2020.1789217DOI Listing

Protein-Based Drug Delivery in Brain Tumor Therapy.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2020 ;1249:203-221

Department of Bioengineering, College of Engineering, and BK21 PLUS Future Biopharmaceutical Human Resource Training and Research Team, Hanyang University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Despite the use of active surgeries, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy in clinical practice, brain tumors are still a difficult health problem due to their rapid development and poor prognosis. To treat brain tumors, various nanoparticles can be used to target effective physiological conditions based on continuously changing vascular characteristics and microenvironments to promote effective brain tumor-targeting drug delivery. In addition, a brain tumor-targeting drug delivery system that increases drug accumulation in the brain tumor area and reduces toxicity in the normal brain and peripheral tissues is needed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-3258-0_13DOI Listing
January 2020

ETMR: a tumor entity in its infancy.

Acta Neuropathol 2020 Jun 29. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Hopp Children's Cancer Center (KiTZ), Heidelberg, Germany.

Embryonal tumor with Multilayered Rosettes (ETMR) is a relatively rare but typically deadly type of brain tumor that occurs mostly in infants. Since the discovery of the characteristic chromosome 19 miRNA cluster (C19MC) amplification a decade ago, the methods for diagnosing this entity have improved and many new insights in the molecular landscape of ETMRs have been acquired. All ETMRs, despite their highly heterogeneous histology, are characterized by specific high expression of the RNA-binding protein LIN28A, which is, therefore, often used as a diagnostic marker for these tumors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00401-020-02182-2DOI Listing

Raman spectroscopy reveals biochemical differences in plasma derived extracellular vesicles from sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients.

Nanomedicine 2020 Jun 26:102249. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Genomic and post-Genomic Center, IRCCS Mondino Foundation, Pavia, Italy. Electronic address:

Sporadic Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease for which there is no validated blood based biomarker. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have the potential to solve this unmet clinical need. However, due to their heterogeneity and complex chemical composition, EVs are difficult to study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nano.2020.102249DOI Listing

Biomarker Organization in Circulating Extracellular Vesicles: New Applications in Detecting Neurodegenerative Diseases.

Adv Biosyst 2020 Jun 28:e1900309. Epub 2020 Jun 28.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore, 117583, Singapore.

Neurodegenerative diseases are heterogeneous disorders characterized by a progressive loss of function and/or death of nerve cells, leading to severe cognitive and functional decline. Due to the complex pathology, early detection and intervention are critical to the development of successful treatments; however, current diagnostic approaches are limited to subjective, late-stage clinical findings. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have recently emerged as a promising circulating biomarker for neurodegenerative diseases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adbi.201900309DOI Listing

Extracellular Vesicles for Treatment of Solid Organ Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury.

Am J Transplant 2020 Jun 28. Epub 2020 Jun 28.

Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL, 32224, USA.

As the incidence of ischemia reperfusion (I-R) injury has substantially increased, there is a pressing need to develop effective strategies to treat this global health issue. I-R injury can affect all organs and is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Pathological settings such as myocardial infarction, stroke, hemorrhagic shock, and solid organ transplantation are particularly prone to cause I-R injury. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ajt.16164DOI Listing

Neural In Vitro Models for Studying Substances Acting on the Central Nervous System.

Handb Exp Pharmacol 2020 Jun 28. Epub 2020 Jun 28.

Department of Pharmacological and Biomolecular Sciences, University of Milan, Milan, Italy.

Animal models have been greatly contributing to our understanding of physiology, mechanisms of diseases, and toxicity. Yet, their limitations due to, e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/164_2020_367DOI Listing

Mounting evidence of FKBP12 implication in neurodegeneration.

Neural Regen Res 2020 Dec;15(12):2195-2202

Department of Chemistry "Ugo Schiff ", University of Florence, Sesto Fiorentino, Italy.

Intrinsically disordered proteins, such as tau or α-synuclein, have long been associated with a dysfunctional role in neurodegenerative diseases. In Alzheimer's and Parkinson's' diseases, these proteins, sharing a common chemical-physical pattern with alternating hydrophobic and hydrophilic domains rich in prolines, abnormally aggregate in tangles in the brain leading to progressive loss of neurons. In this review, we present an overview linking the studies on the implication of the peptidyl-prolyl isomerase domain of immunophilins, and notably FKBP12, to a variety of neurodegenerative diseases, focusing on the molecular origin of such a role. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/1673-5374.284980DOI Listing
December 2020

Arterial spin labeling perfusion in neonates.

Semin Fetal Neonatal Med 2020 Jun 21:101130. Epub 2020 Jun 21.

Neuroradiology Unit IRCCS, Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Genoa, Italy; Department of Health Sciences (DISSAL), University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy. Electronic address:

Abnormal brain perfusion is a key mechanism underlying neonatal brain injury. Understanding the mechanisms leading to brain perfusion changes in high-risk neonates and how these alterations may influence brain development is key to improve therapeutic strategies preventing brain injury and the neurodevelopmental outcome of these infants. To date, several studies demonstrated that Arterial Spin Labeling is a reliable tool to accurately and non-invasively analyze brain perfusion, facilitating the understanding of normal and pathological mechanisms underlying neonatal brain maturation and injury. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.siny.2020.101130DOI Listing

Temozolomide: An Updated Overview of Resistance Mechanisms, Nanotechnology Advances and Clinical Applications.

Curr Neuropharmacol 2020 Jun 26. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Institute of Biopathology and Regenerative Medicine (IBIMER), Biomedical Research Centre (CIBM), University of Granada. Spain.

Temozolomide (TMZ), an oral alkylating prodrug which delivers a methyl group to purine bases of DNA (O6- guanine; N7-guanine and N3-adenine), is frequently used together with radiotherapy as part of the first-line treatment of high-grade gliomas. The main advantages are its high oral bioavailability (almost 100% although the concentration found in the cerebrospinal fluid was approximately 20% of the plasma concentration of TMZ), its lipophilic properties, and small size that confer the ability to cross the blood-brain barrier. Furthermore, this agent has demonstrated activity not only in brain tumors but also in a variety of solid tumors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1570159X18666200626204005DOI Listing

A systematic Analysis of Evaluation Methods for Inpatient Children and Adolescents Rehabilitation Programs.

Klin Padiatr 2020 Jun 25. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Ludwig Boltzmann Institut for Health Technology Assessment, Ludwig Boltzmann Gesellschaft, Vienna, Austria.

Increasing chronic diseases in children and adolescents such as obesity, asthma bronchiale, or mental disorders, result in a growing importance of rehabilitation programs and subsequent program evaluations. We conducted a systematic literature search in 5 databases and provided an overview of methods for evaluating inpatient child and adolescent rehabilitation programs. This included an identification of generic and indication-specific outcomes and standardized measuring instruments. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1177-1115DOI Listing

Autosomal Dominantly Inherited GREB1L Variants in Individuals with Profound Sensorineural Hearing Impairment.

Genes (Basel) 2020 Jun 23;11(6). Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Center for Statistical Genetics, Sergievsky Center, Taub Institute for Alzheimer's Disease and the Aging Brain, and the Department of Neurology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY 10032, USA.

Congenital hearing impairment is a sensory disorder that is genetically highly heterogeneous. By performing exome sequencing in two families with congenital nonsyndromic profound sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL), we identified autosomal dominantly inherited missense variants [p.(Asn283Ser); p. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/genes11060687DOI Listing

Machine Learning-Based Models for Prediction of Toxicity Outcomes in Radiotherapy.

Front Oncol 2020 5;10:790. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

Division of Radiotherapy, IEO European Institute of Oncology IRCCS, Milan, Italy.

In order to limit radiotherapy (RT)-related side effects, effective toxicity prediction and assessment schemes are essential. In recent years, the growing interest toward artificial intelligence and machine learning (ML) within the science community has led to the implementation of innovative tools in RT. Several researchers have demonstrated the high performance of ML-based models in predicting toxicity, but the application of these approaches in clinics is still lagging, partly due to their low interpretability. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2020.00790DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7289968PMC

Reducing Allostatic Load in Depression and Anxiety Disorders: Physical Activity and Yoga Practice as Add-On Therapies.

Front Psychiatry 2020 4;11:501. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Dirección Médica y Científica, Gador SA, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

The allostatic load (AL) index constitutes a useful tool to objectively assess the biological aspects of chronic stress in clinical practice. AL index has been positively correlated with cumulative chronic stress (physical and psychosocial stressors) and with a high risk to develop pathological conditions (e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2020.00501DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7287161PMC

Translation Imaging in Parkinson's Disease: Focus on Neuroinflammation.

Front Aging Neurosci 2020 5;12:152. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

Institute of Molecular Bioimaging and Physiology (IBFM), CNR, Milan, Italy.

Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and the appearance of α-synuclein insoluble aggregates known as Lewy bodies. Neurodegeneration is accompanied by neuroinflammation mediated by cytokines and chemokines produced by the activated microglia. Several studies demonstrated that such an inflammatory process is an early event, and contributes to oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunctions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2020.00152DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7289967PMC

Current Status, Challenges, and Possible Solutions of EEG-Based Brain-Computer Interface: A Comprehensive Review.

Front Neurorobot 2020 3;14:25. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Faculty of Electrical & Electronics Engineering Technology, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Pekan, Malaysia.

Brain-Computer Interface (BCI), in essence, aims at controlling different assistive devices through the utilization of brain waves. It is worth noting that the application of BCI is not limited to medical applications, and hence, the research in this field has gained due attention. Moreover, the significant number of related publications over the past two decades further indicates the consistent improvements and breakthroughs that have been made in this particular field. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnbot.2020.00025DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7283463PMC

Targeting Microglial Population Dynamics in Alzheimer's Disease: Are We Ready for a Potential Impact on Immune Function?

Front Cell Neurosci 2020 5;14:149. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

School of Biological Sciences, University of Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia, affecting two-thirds of people with dementia in the world. To date, no disease-modifying treatments are available to stop or delay the progression of AD. This chronic neurodegenerative disease is dominated by a strong innate immune response, whereby microglia plays a central role as the main resident macrophage of the brain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fncel.2020.00149DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7289918PMC

G Protein-Coupled Receptors in the Mammalian Blood-Brain Barrier.

Front Cell Neurosci 2020 3;14:139. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Center for Neurodegeneration and Regeneration, Zilkha Neurogenetic Institute, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, United States.

The mammalian neurovascular unit (NVU) is comprised of neurons, glia, and vascular cells. The NVU is the nexus between the cardiovascular and central nervous system (CNS). The central component of the NVU is the blood-brain barrier (BBB) which consists of a monolayer of tightly connected endothelial cells covered by pericytes and further surrounded by astrocytic endfeet. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fncel.2020.00139DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7283493PMC

Therapeutic Approaches Targeting Protein Aggregation in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

Front Mol Neurosci 2020 9;13:98. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Department of Neurology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, United States.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a debilitating neurodegenerative disease that targets motor neurons (MNs) in the brain and spinal cord. It leads to gradual loss of motor signals to muscles leading to atrophy and weakness. Most patients do not survive for more than 3-5 years after disease onset. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnmol.2020.00098DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7296057PMC

The Role of P2X7 Receptor in Alzheimer's Disease.

Front Mol Neurosci 2020 3;13:94. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Veterinary School, Complutense University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent neurodegenerative disease characterized by a progressive cognitive decline associated with global brain damage. Initially, intracellular paired helical filaments composed by hyperphosphorylated tau and extracellular deposits of amyloid-β (Aβ) were postulated as the causing factors of the synaptic dysfunction, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, and neuronal death, detected in AD patients. Therefore, the vast majority of clinical trials were focused on targeting Aβ and tau directly, but no effective treatment has been reported so far. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnmol.2020.00094DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7283947PMC

Investigation of Schizophrenia with Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

Adv Neurobiol 2020 ;25:155-206

Friedman Brain Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA.

Schizophrenia is a chronic and severe neuropsychiatric condition manifested by cognitive, emotional, affective, perceptual, and behavioral abnormalities. Despite decades of research, the biological substrates driving the signs and symptoms of the disorder remain elusive, thus hampering progress in the development of treatments aimed at disease etiologies. The recent emergence of human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-based models has provided the field with a highly innovative approach to generate, study, and manipulate living neural tissue derived from patients, making possible the exploration of fundamental roles of genes and early-life stressors in disease-relevant cell types. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-45493-7_6DOI Listing
January 2020

Modeling Neurodevelopmental Deficits in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex with Stem Cell Derived Neural Precursors and Neurons.

Adv Neurobiol 2020 ;25:1-31

Department of Neurology, F.M. Kirby Center for Neurobiology, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a rare genetic disorder that is caused by mutations in TSC1 or TSC2. TSC is a multi-organ disorder characterized by development of non-malignant cellular overgrowths, called hamartomas, in different organs of the body. TSC is also characterized as a neurodevelopmental disorder presenting with epilepsy and autism, and formation of cortical malformations ("tubers"), subependymal giant cell astrocytomas (SEGAs), and subependymal nodules (SENs) in the patient's brain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-45493-7_1DOI Listing
January 2020

Melanoma Brain Metastases in the Era of Target Therapies: An Overview.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jun 21;12(6). Epub 2020 Jun 21.

Istituto di Candiolo, FPO - IRCCS - Str. Prov.le 142, km 3,95, 10060 Candiolo, Italy.

Malignant melanoma is the third most common type of tumor that causes brain metastases. Patients with cerebral involvement have a dismal prognosis and their treatment is an unmet medical need. Brain involvement is a multistep process involving several signaling pathways such as Janus kinase/signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (JAK/STAT), Phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Protein Kinase B (PI3K/AKT), Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and Phosphatase and Tensin Homolog (PTEN). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12061640DOI Listing

Insights on the metabolization of the antidepressant venlafaxine by meagre (Argyrosomus regius) using a combined target and suspect screening approach.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Jun 15;737:140226. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA), C. Emili Grahit 101, 17003 Girona, Spain; Universitat de Girona, Girona, Spain.

Bioaccumulation of pharmaceuticals in fish exposed to contaminated water can be shaped by their capability to metabolize these xenobiotics, affecting their toxicity and animal welfare. In this study the in vivo metabolization of the antidepressant venlafaxine by the juvenile marine fish meagre (Argyrosomus regius) was evaluated using a combined target and suspect screening analytical approach. Thirteen venlafaxine metabolites were identified, namely N-desmethylvenlafaxine and N,N-didesmethylvenlafaxine, which were unequivocally identified using analytical standards, and 11 more tentatively identified by suspect screening analysis, including two Phase II metabolites formed by amino acid conjugation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.140226DOI Listing

The role of monoamine oxidase A in the neurobiology of aggressive, antisocial, and violent behavior: a tale of mice and men.

Prog Neurobiol 2020 Jun 20:101875. Epub 2020 Jun 20.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA; Translational Initiative on Antisocial Personality Disorder (TrIAD). Electronic address:

Over the past two decades, research has revealed that genetic factors shape the propensity for aggressive, antisocial, and violent behavior. The best-documented gene implicated in aggression is MAOA (Monoamine oxidase A), which encodes the key enzyme for the degradation of serotonin and catecholamines. Congenital MAOA deficiency, as well as low-activity MAOA variants, has been associated with a higher risk for antisocial behavior (ASB) and violence, particularly in males with a history of child maltreatment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pneurobio.2020.101875DOI Listing

Spinal microglia-neuron interactions in chronic pain.

J Leukoc Biol 2020 Jun 23. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong SAR.

Current deficiency in our understanding of acute-to-chronic pain transition remains a hurdle for developing effective treatments against chronic pain. Whereas neurocentric mechanisms alone are insufficient to provide satisfactory explanation for such transition, neuro-immune crosstalk has attracted attention in recent pain research. In contrast to brain microglia, spinal microglia are activated immediately in various pain states. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/JLB.3MR0520-695RDOI Listing
June 2020
4.289 Impact Factor

Modelling neurodegenerative diseases with 3D brain organoids.

Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2020 Jun 22. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Dongguk University, Seoul, 04620, Republic of Korea.

Neurodegenerative diseases are incurable and debilitating conditions characterized by the deterioration of brain function. Most brain disease models rely on human post-mortem brain tissue, non-human primate tissue, or in vitro two-dimensional (2D) experiments. Resource limitations and the complexity of the human brain are some of the reasons that make suitable human neurodegenerative disease models inaccessible. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/brv.12626DOI Listing

Afatinib for the treatment of mutation-positive NSCLC: A review of clinical findings.

J Oncol Pharm Pract 2020 Jun 20:1078155220931926. Epub 2020 Jun 20.

College of Medicine, Stephenson Cancer Center, University of Oklahoma, Norman, USA.

Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors represent the standard of care in patients with mutation-positive (m+) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The availability of several EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors approved for use in the first-line or later settings in NSCLC warrants an in-depth understanding of the pharmacological properties of, and clinical data supporting, these agents. The second-generation, irreversible ErbB-family blocker, afatinib, has been extensively studied in the context of m+ NSCLC. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1078155220931926DOI Listing

Biological basis of child health 4: an overview of the central nervous system and principles of neurological assessment.

Authors:
Doreen Crawford

Nurs Child Young People 2020 Jun 22. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Crawford-McKenzie, Colsterworth, Lincolnshire, England.

This article is the fourth in a series on the biological basis of child health. It explains the embryological development of the nervous system and describes some of the anatomical and physiological features of the central nervous system, which is comprised of the brain and spinal cord. It also outlines the principles of neurological assessment in infants and children, before detailing the presentation and management of three conditions that can affect the central nervous system in this patient population - seizures, meningitis and raised intracranial pressure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7748/ncyp.2020.e1249DOI Listing

Role of Adenosine in Epilepsy and Seizures.

J Caffeine Adenosine Res 2020 Jun 4;10(2):45-60. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Deptartment of Neurosurgery, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey, USA.

Adenosine is an endogenous anticonvulsant and neuroprotectant of the brain. Seizure activity produces large quantities of adenosine, and it is this seizure-induced adenosine surge that normally stops a seizure. However, within the context of epilepsy, adenosine plays a wide spectrum of different roles. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/caff.2019.0022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7301316PMC

SUPFUNSIM: Spatial Filtering Toolbox for EEG.

Neuroinformatics 2020 Jun 21. Epub 2020 Jun 21.

Centre for Modern Interdisciplinary Technologies, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Wileńska 4, Toruń, 87-100, Poland.

Brain activity pattern recognition from EEG or MEG signal analysis is one of the most important method in cognitive neuroscience. The SUPFUNSIM library is a new MATLAB toolbox which generates accurate EEG forward model and implements a collection of spatial filters for EEG source reconstruction, including the linearly constrained minimum-variance (LCMV), eigenspace LCMV, nulling (NL), and minimum-variance pseudo-unbiased reduced-rank (MV-PURE) filters in various versions. It also enables source-level directed connectivity analysis using partial directed coherence (PDC) measure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12021-020-09464-wDOI Listing