14,296 results match your criteria Brain Overview


The many facets of CD26/dipeptidyl peptidase 4 and its inhibitors in disorders of the CNS - a critical overview.

Rev Neurosci 2022 Jul 1. Epub 2022 Jul 1.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Otto v. Guericke University Magdeburg, Leipziger Str. 44, D-39120 Magdeburg, Germany.

Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 is a serine protease that cleaves X-proline or X-alanine in the penultimate position. Natural substrates of the enzyme are glucagon-like peptide-1, glucagon inhibiting peptide, glucagon, neuropeptide Y, secretin, substance P, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide, endorphins, endomorphins, brain natriuretic peptide, beta-melanocyte stimulating hormone and amyloid peptides as well as some cytokines and chemokines. The enzyme is involved in the maintenance of blood glucose homeostasis and regulation of the immune system. Read More

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Patient-derived cancer organoids for drug-screening: basic technology and clinical application.

J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2022 Jun 30. Epub 2022 Jun 30.

Department of Oncology, the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, China.

Cancer organoids, a three-dimensional (3D) culture system of cancer cells derived from tumor tissues, recapitulate physiological structure of the parental tumor. Different tumor organoids have been established for a variety of tumor types, such as colorectal, liver, stomach, pancreatic and brain tumors. Some tumor organoid biobanks are built to screen and discover novel antitumor drug targets. Read More

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Transfreq: A Python package for computing the theta-to-alpha transition frequency from resting state electroencephalographic data.

Hum Brain Mapp 2022 Jun 30. Epub 2022 Jun 30.

Dipartimento di Neuroscienze, Riabilitazione, Oftalmologia, Genetica e Scienze Materno-Infantili (DINOGMI), Università degli Studi di Genova, Genoa, Italy.

A classic approach to estimate individual theta-to-alpha transition frequency (TF) requires two electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings, one acquired in a resting state condition and one showing alpha desynchronisation due, for example, to task execution. This translates into long recording sessions that may be cumbersome in studies involving patients. Moreover, an incomplete desynchronisation of the alpha rhythm may compromise TF estimates. Read More

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A proposed novel traumatic brain injury classification system - an overview and inter-rater reliability validation on behalf of the Society of British Neurological Surgeons.

Br J Neurosurg 2022 Jun 30:1-6. Epub 2022 Jun 30.

Division of Neurosurgery, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

Introduction: The measurement of traumatic brain injury (TBI) 'severity' has traditionally been based on the earliest Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) recorded, however, the underlying parenchymal pathology is highly heterogonous. This heterogeneity renders prediction of outcome on an individual patient level inaccurate and makes comparison between patients both in clinical practice and research difficult. The complexity of this heterogeneity has resulted in generic all encompassing 'traumatic brain injury protocols'. Read More

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Neuromorphic computing hardware and neural architectures for robotics.

Sci Robot 2022 Jun 29;7(67):eabl8419. Epub 2022 Jun 29.

Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Neuromorphic hardware enables fast and power-efficient neural network-based artificial intelligence that is well suited to solving robotic tasks. Neuromorphic algorithms can be further developed following neural computing principles and neural network architectures inspired by biological neural systems. In this Viewpoint, we provide an overview of recent insights from neuroscience that could enhance signal processing in artificial neural networks on chip and unlock innovative applications in robotics and autonomous intelligent systems. Read More

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Wellbeing and brain structure: A comprehensive phenotypic and genetic study of image-derived phenotypes in the UK Biobank.

Hum Brain Mapp 2022 Jun 29. Epub 2022 Jun 29.

Neuroscience Research Australia, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Wellbeing, an important component of mental health, is influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Previous association studies between brain structure and wellbeing have typically focused on volumetric measures and employed small cohorts. Using the UK Biobank Resource, we explored the relationships between wellbeing and brain morphometrics (volume, thickness and surface area) at both phenotypic and genetic levels. Read More

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May the 4C's be with you: an overview of complexity-inspired frameworks for analysing resting-state neuroimaging data.

J R Soc Interface 2022 Jun 29;19(191):20220214. Epub 2022 Jun 29.

Department of Neuroimaging, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK.

Competing and complementary models of resting-state brain dynamics contribute to our phenomenological and mechanistic understanding of whole-brain coordination and communication, and provide potential evidence for differential brain functioning associated with normal and pathological behaviour. These neuroscientific theories stem from the perspectives of physics, engineering, mathematics and psychology and create a complicated landscape of domain-specific terminology and meaning, which, when used outside of that domain, may lead to incorrect assumptions and conclusions within the neuroscience community. Here, we review and clarify the key concepts of connectivity, computation, criticality and coherence-the 4C's-and outline a potential role for metastability as a common denominator across these propositions. Read More

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Male reproductive toxicity of inorganic nanoparticles in rodent models: A systematic review.

Chem Biol Interact 2022 Jun 25:110023. Epub 2022 Jun 25.

Laboratory of Cellular Biology, Department of Morphology, Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. Electronic address:

The use of nanoscale materials for different biomedical applications has grown a lot in the last years and raised several concerns about toxic effects on human health. Several studies have shown that different types of NPs may exert toxic effects on organs such as the brain, the liver and the kidney. However, The toxicological effects of inorganic NPs on reproductive organs only recently has attracted attention. Read More

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Modeling tuberous sclerosis complex with human induced pluripotent stem cells.

World J Pediatr 2022 Jun 27. Epub 2022 Jun 27.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, Whitehead Research Building 447, 615 Michael Street, Atlanta, GA, 30322, USA.

Background: Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder with a birth incidence of 1:6000 in the United States that is characterized by the growth of non-cancerous tumors in multiple organ systems including the brain, kidneys, lungs, and skin. Importantly, TSC is also associated with significant neurological manifestations including epilepsy, TSC-associated neuropsychiatric disorders, intellectual disabilities, and autism spectrum disorder. Mutations in the TSC1 or TSC2 genes are well-established causes of TSC, which lead to TSC1/TSC2 deficiency in organs and hyper-activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway. Read More

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miRNA Involvement in Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury.

Front Neurosci 2022 10;16:901360. Epub 2022 Jun 10.

Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Clinical Pharmacology, Iuliu Haţieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca, Romania.

Cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury is a debilitating medical condition, currently with only a limited amount of therapies aimed at protecting the cerebral parenchyma. Micro RNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNA molecules that the RNA-induced silencing complex either degrade or prevent target messenger RNAs from being translated and thus, can modulate the synthesis of target proteins. In the neurological field, miRNAs have been evaluated as potential regulators in brain development processes and pathological events. Read More

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An Overview on Different L-Thyroxine (l-T) Formulations and Factors Potentially Influencing the Treatment of Congenital Hypothyroidism During the First 3 Years of Life.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2022 9;13:859487. Epub 2022 Jun 9.

Department of Human Pathology of Adulthood and Childhood, University of Messina, Messina, Italy.

Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is a relatively frequent congenital endocrine disorder, caused by defective production of thyroid hormones (THs) at birth. Because THs are essential for the development of normal neuronal networks, CH is also a common preventable cause of irreversible intellectual disability (ID) in children. Prolonged hypothyroidism, particularly during the THs-dependent processes of brain development in the first years of life, due to delays in diagnosis, inadequate timing and dosing of levothyroxine (l-thyroxine or l-T), the non-compliance of families, incorrect follow-up and the interference of foods, drugs and medications affecting the absorption of l-T, may be responsible for more severe ID. Read More

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Polydopamine, harness of the antibacterial potentials-A review.

Mater Today Bio 2022 Jun 16;15:100329. Epub 2022 Jun 16.

Department of Chemistry and Nano Science, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, 03760, Republic of Korea.

Antibiotic resistance is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality, triggered by the adhesion of microbes and to some extent the formation of biofilms. This condition has been quite challenging in the health and industrial sector. Conditions and processes required to foil these infectious and resistance are of much concern. Read More

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The glymphatic system and subarachnoid hemorrhage: disruption and recovery.

Explor Neuroprotective Ther 2022 21;2(3):118-130. Epub 2022 Jun 21.

Department of Neurosurgery, College of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32610, USA.

The glymphatic system, or glial-lymphatic system, is a waste clearance system composed of perivascular channels formed by astrocytes that mediate the clearance of proteins and metabolites from the brain. These channels facilitate the movement of cerebrospinal fluid throughout brain parenchyma and are critical for homeostasis. Disruption of the glymphatic system leads to an accumulation of these waste products as well as increased interstitial fluid in the brain. Read More

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The Role of Genetic Data in Selecting Device-Aided Therapies in Patients With Advanced Parkinson's Disease: A Mini-Review.

Front Aging Neurosci 2022 10;14:895430. Epub 2022 Jun 10.

Department of Medicine, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, China.

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disease. At present, 5-10% of PD patients are found to have monogenic form of the disease. Each genetic mutation has its own unique clinical features and disease trajectory. Read More

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Pathological changes of brain oscillations following ischemic stroke.

J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2022 Jun 25:271678X221105677. Epub 2022 Jun 25.

Department of Neurological Surgery, UCSF, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Brain oscillations recorded in the extracellular space are among the most important aspects of neurophysiology data reflecting the activity and function of neurons in a population or a network. The signal strength and patterns of brain oscillations can be powerful biomarkers used for disease detection and prediction of the recovery of function. Electrophysiological signals can also serve as an index for many cutting-edge technologies aiming to interface between the nervous system and neuroprosthetic devices and to monitor the efficacy of boosting neural activity. Read More

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Overview of oxidative stress findings in hepatic encephalopathy: From cellular and ammonium-based animal models to human data.

Anal Biochem 2022 Jun 23:114795. Epub 2022 Jun 23.

CIBM Center for Biomedical Imaging, Switzerland; Animal Imaging and Technology, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland; Laboratory of Functional and Metabolic Imaging, EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Oxidative stress is a natural phenomenon in the body. Under physiological conditions intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) are normal components of signal transduction cascades, and their levels are maintained by a complex antioxidants systems participating in the in-vivo redox homeostasis. Increased oxidative stress is present in several chronic diseases and interferes with phagocytic and nervous cell functions, causing an up-regulation of cytokines and inflammation. Read More

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The microbiome-gut-brain axis in Parkinson disease - from basic research to the clinic.

Nat Rev Neurol 2022 Jun 24. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Edmond J. Safra Program in Parkinson's Disease, Toronto Western Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Evidence for a close bidirectional link between the brain and the gut has led to a paradigm shift in neurology, especially in the case of Parkinson disease (PD), in which gastrointestinal dysfunction is a prominent feature. Over the past decade, numerous high-quality preclinical and clinical publications have shed light on the highly complex relationship between the gut and the brain in PD, providing potential for the development of new biomarkers and therapeutics. With the advent of high-throughput sequencing, the role of the gut microbiome has been specifically highlighted. Read More

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Modulation Spectral Signal Representation for Quality Measurement and Enhancement of Wearable Device Data: A Technical Note.

Sensors (Basel) 2022 Jun 17;22(12). Epub 2022 Jun 17.

Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, University of Quebec, Montréal, QC H5A 1K6, Canada.

Wearable devices are burgeoning, and applications across numerous verticals are emerging, including human performance monitoring, at-home patient monitoring, and health tracking, to name a few. Off-the-shelf wearables have been developed with focus on portability, usability, and low-cost. As such, when deployed in highly ecological settings, wearable data can be corrupted by artifacts and by missing data, thus severely hampering performance. Read More

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CRISPR-Cas9-Based Technology and Its Relevance to Gene Editing in Parkinson's Disease.

Pharmaceutics 2022 Jun 13;14(6). Epub 2022 Jun 13.

Department of Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Dojazd 30, 60-631 Poznan, Poland.

Parkinson's disease (PD) and other chronic and debilitating neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) impose a substantial medical, emotional, and financial burden on individuals and society. The origin of PD is unknown due to a complex combination of hereditary and environmental risk factors. However, over the last several decades, a significant amount of available data from clinical and experimental studies has implicated neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, dysregulated protein degradation, and mitochondrial dysfunction as the primary causes of PD neurodegeneration. Read More

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Impact of Zinc Transport Mechanisms on Embryonic and Brain Development.

Nutrients 2022 Jun 17;14(12). Epub 2022 Jun 17.

Department of Pharmacology, Rutgers-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA.

The trace element zinc (Zn) binds to over ten percent of proteins in eukaryotic cells. Zn flexible chemistry allows it to regulate the activity of hundreds of enzymes and influence scores of metabolic processes in cells throughout the body. Deficiency of Zn in humans has a profound effect on development and in adults later in life, particularly in the brain, where Zn deficiency is linked to several neurological disorders. Read More

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Neuroprotective Effect of Caffeine in Alzheimer's Disease.

Molecules 2022 Jun 10;27(12). Epub 2022 Jun 10.

Centre for Brain Research, Department of Anatomy and Medical Imaging, Faculty of Medical and Health Science, University of Auckland, Auckland 1023, New Zealand.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the leading cause of dementia, predicted to be the most significant health burden of the 21st century, with an estimated 131.5 million dementia patients by the year 2050. This review aims to provide an overview of the effect of caffeine on AD and cognition by summarizing relevant research conducted on this topic. Read More

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Human Brain Models of Intellectual Disability: Experimental Advances and Novelties.

Int J Mol Sci 2022 Jun 9;23(12). Epub 2022 Jun 9.

Center for Human Genetics, University Hospitals Leuven, 3000 Leuven, Belgium.

Intellectual disability (ID) is characterized by deficits in conceptual, social and practical domains. ID can be caused by both genetic defects and environmental factors and is extremely heterogeneous, which complicates the diagnosis as well as the deciphering of the underlying pathways. Multiple scientific breakthroughs during the past decades have enabled the development of novel ID models. Read More

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Screening for Mild Cognitive Impairment in the Preoperative Setting: A Narrative Review.

Healthcare (Basel) 2022 Jun 15;10(6). Epub 2022 Jun 15.

Department of Anesthesiology, Catharina Hospital, 5623 EJ Eindhoven, The Netherlands.

Cognitive impairment predisposes patients to the development of delirium and postoperative cognitive dysfunction. In particular, in older patients, the adverse sequelae of cognitive decline in the perioperative period may contribute to adverse outcomes after surgical procedures. Subtle signs of cognitive impairment are often not previously diagnosed. Read More

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Ischaemic Stroke of the "Hand-Knob" Area Due to Paradoxical Cerebral Air Embolism after Central Venous Catheterization-A Doubly Rare Occurrence: A Case Report and an Overview of Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Treatment.

Brain Sci 2022 Jun 13;12(6). Epub 2022 Jun 13.

Geriatric Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, 20122 Milan, Italy.

Central venous catheters (CVCs) are increasingly used across specialties for invasive haemodynamic monitoring and for the delivery of fluids, medications, and nutritional support. Cerebral air embolism (CAE) is a rare but potentially fatal complication associated with the insertion, maintenance, and removal of CVCs. It can occur through different mechanisms, including the direct retrograde ascension of air into the cerebral veins and paradoxical embolism due to a right-to-left intracardiac or intrapulmonary shunt. Read More

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Effects of Sound Interventions on the Permeability of the Blood-Brain Barrier and Meningeal Lymphatic Clearance.

Brain Sci 2022 Jun 5;12(6). Epub 2022 Jun 5.

Department of Anesthesiology, Center for Translational Research in Neurodegenerative Disease, College of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA.

The meningeal lymphatic, or glymphatic, system is receiving increasing attention from the scientific community. Recent work includes noninvasive techniques to demonstrate relationships between blood-brain barrier (BBB) activity and the glymphatic system in the human central nervous system. One potential technique is the use of music/sound to enhance BBB permeability regarding the movement of small molecules in and out of the brain. Read More

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A Survey on Deep Learning for Precision Oncology.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2022 Jun 17;12(6). Epub 2022 Jun 17.

Graduate Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 106335, Taiwan.

Precision oncology, which ensures optimized cancer treatment tailored to the unique biology of a patient's disease, has rapidly developed and is of great clinical importance. Deep learning has become the main method for precision oncology. This paper summarizes the recent deep-learning approaches relevant to precision oncology and reviews over 150 articles within the last six years. Read More

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Proton MR Spectroscopy of Pediatric Brain Disorders.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2022 Jun 14;12(6). Epub 2022 Jun 14.

Department of Radiology, Children's Hospital Los Angeles and University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA 90027, USA.

In vivo MR spectroscopy is a non -invasive methodology that provides information about the biochemistry of tissues. It is available as a "push-button" application on state-of-the-art clinical MR scanners. MR spectroscopy has been used to study various brain diseases including tumors, stroke, trauma, degenerative disorders, epilepsy/seizures, inborn errors, neuropsychiatric disorders, and others. Read More

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Breaching Brain Barriers: B Cell Migration in Multiple Sclerosis.

Biomolecules 2022 Jun 7;12(6). Epub 2022 Jun 7.

MS Center Amsterdam, Molecular Cell Biology and Immunology, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam Neurosciences, Amsterdam UMC Location VUmc, 1081 Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS) known for the manifestation of demyelinated lesions throughout the CNS, leading to neurodegeneration. To date, not all pathological mechanisms that drive disease progression are known, but the clinical benefits of anti-CD20 therapies have put B cells in the spotlight of MS research. Besides their pathological effects in the periphery in MS, B cells gain access to the CNS where they can contribute to disease pathogenesis. Read More

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Posterior Fossa Tumor Rehabilitation: An Up-to-Date Overview.

Children (Basel) 2022 Jun 16;9(6). Epub 2022 Jun 16.

Pediatric Neurosurgery Unit, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario Agostino Gemelli IRCCS, 00168 Rome, Italy.

This narrative review highlights the latest achievements in the field of post-surgical rehabilitation of posterior fossa tumors. Studies investigating the effects of cognitive rehabilitation programs have been considered, following a comprehensive literature search in the scientific electronic databases: Pubmed, Scopus, Plos One, and ScienceDirect. This review investigates the effects of cognitive remediation, with specific highlights for single cognitive domains. Read More

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Targeting Glioblastoma Stem Cells to Overcome Chemoresistance: An Overview of Current Therapeutic Strategies.

Biomedicines 2022 Jun 2;10(6). Epub 2022 Jun 2.

Department of Integrated Biological Science, Pusan National University, Busan 46241, Korea.

Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most malignant primary brain tumor. The current standard approach in GBM is surgery, followed by treatment with radiation and temozolomide (TMZ); however, GBM is highly resistant to current therapies, and the standard of care has not been revised over the last two decades, indicating an unmet need for new therapies. GBM stem cells (GSCs) are a major cause of chemoresistance due to their ability to confer heterogeneity and tumorigenic capacity. Read More

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