12,751 results match your criteria Brain Overview

Overview of the central amygdala role in feeding behaviour.

Br J Nutr 2021 Jun 21:1-23. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

The neural regulation of feeding behaviour, as an essential factor for survival, is an important research area today. Feeding behaviour and other lifestyle habits play a major role in optimising health and obesity control. Feeding behaviour is physiologically controlled through processes associated with energy and nutrient needs. Read More

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Radiotherapy of brain metastasis from lung cancer in limited resource settings.

J Thorac Dis 2021 May;13(5):3308-3314

Department of Radiation Oncology, Tata Memorial centre, Homi Bhabha National Institute, Mumbai, India.

Radiotherapy is one of the most commonly used treatment modality for brain metastases from lung cancer. Its use has evolved from conventional whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) to more sophisticated stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and hippocampal sparing radiotherapy. Indications of cranial radiotherapy are also evolving with the advent of targeted therapies directed against molecular markers like epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK). Read More

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Inflammation and Stroke Risk: A New Target for Prevention.

Stroke 2021 Jun 24:STROKEAHA121034388. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Second Department of Neurology, "Attikon" University Hospital, National & Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece (G.T.).

New therapeutic approaches are required for secondary prevention of residual vascular risk after stroke. Diverse sources of evidence support a causal role for inflammation in the pathogenesis of stroke. Randomized controlled trials of anti-inflammatory agents have reported benefit for secondary prevention in patients with coronary disease. Read More

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Head injury care in a low- and middle-income country tertiary trauma center: epidemiology, systemic lacunae, and possible leads.

Acta Neurochir (Wien) 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Department of Anesthesia, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education & Research (PGIMER), Sector 12, Chandigarh, 160012, India.

Background: Although head injury (HI) from low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) heavily contributes to the global disease burden, studies are disproportionately less from this part of the world. Knowing the different epidemiological characteristics from high-income nations can target appropriate prevention strategies. This study aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the clinico-epidemiological data of HI patients, focusing on the existing challenges with possible solutions from a developing nation's perspective. Read More

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Neuroinflammation: An Integrating Overview of Reactive-Neuroimmune Cell Interactions in Health and Disease.

Mediators Inflamm 2021 31;2021:9999146. Epub 2021 May 31.

Centro de Altos Estudios en Ciencias Humanas y de la Salud, Universidad Abierta Interamericana-Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, CAECIHS, UAI-CONICET, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

The concept of central nervous system (CNS) inflammation has evolved over the last decades. Neuroinflammation is the response of reactive CNS components to altered homeostasis, regardless of the cause to be endogenous or exogenous. Neurological diseases, whether traumatic, neoplastic, ischemic, metabolic, toxic, infectious, autoimmune, developmental, or degenerative, involve direct and indirect immune-related neuroinflammation. Read More

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Drug development for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD): Progress, challenges, and future directions.

Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 2021 Jun 19. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University, New York, NY, United States.

In 2017, facing lack of progress and failures encountered in targeted drug development for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and related neurodevelopmental disorders, the ISCTM with the ECNP created the ASD Working Group charged to identify barriers to progress and recommending research strategies for the field to gain traction. Working Group international academic, regulatory and industry representatives held multiple in-person meetings, teleconferences, and subgroup communications to gather a wide range of perspectives on lessons learned from extant studies, current challenges, and paths for fundamental advances in ASD therapeutics. This overview delineates the barriers identified, and outlines major goals for next generation biomedical intervention development in ASD. Read More

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Current knowledge on the immune microenvironment and emerging immunotherapies in diffuse midline glioma.

EBioMedicine 2021 Jun 19;69:103453. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

Department of Neurosurgery, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai,10 Union Square East, 5th Floor, Suite 5E, New York, NY 10003, USA; Department of Oncological Sciences, The Tisch Cancer Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA. Electronic address:

Diffuse midline glioma (DMG) is an incurable malignancy with the highest mortality rate among pediatric brain tumors. While radiotherapy and chemotherapy are the most common treatments, these modalities have limited promise. Due to their diffuse nature in critical areas of the brain, the prognosis of DMG remains dismal. Read More

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Engineered Neural Circuits for Modeling Brain Physiology and Neuropathology.

Acta Biomater 2021 Jun 19. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

Brain Science Institute, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Seoul 02792, Republic of Korea; Division of Bio-Medical Science & Technology, KIST School, Korea University of Science and Technology (UST), Seoul 02792, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

The neural circuits of the central nervous system are the regulatory pathways for feeling, motion control, learning, and memory, and their dysfunction is closely related to various neurodegenerative diseases. Despite the growing demand for the unraveling of the physiology and functional connectivity of the neural circuits, their fundamental investigation is hampered because of the inability to access the components of neural circuits and the complex microenvironment. As an alternative approach, in vitro human neural circuits show principles of in vivo human neuronal circuit function They allow access to the cellular compartment and permit real-time monitoring of neural circuits. Read More

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The Emerging Role of Phosphodiesterases in Movement Disorders.

Mov Disord 2021 Jun 21. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Department of Clinical and Movement Neurosciences, UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology, National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, London, United Kingdom.

Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE) enzymes catalyze the hydrolysis and inactivation of the cyclic nucleotides cyclic adenosine monophosphate and cyclic guanosine monophosphate, which act as intracellular second messengers for many signal transduction pathways in the central nervous system. Several classes of PDE enzymes with specific tissue distributions and cyclic nucleotide selectivity are highly expressed in brain regions involved in cognitive and motor functions, which are known to be implicated in neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease. The indication that PDEs are intimately involved in the pathophysiology of different movement disorders further stems from recent discoveries that mutations in genes encoding different PDEs, including PDE2A, PDE8B, and PDE10A, are responsible for rare forms of monogenic parkinsonism and chorea. Read More

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Earlier initiation of palliative care in the disease trajectory of people living with dementia: a scoping review protocol.

BMJ Open 2021 06 21;11(6):e044502. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Atlantic Fellow for Equity in Brain Health, Global Brain Health Institute (GBHI), University of California, San Francisco, California, USA.

Introduction: While the need for palliative care for people living with dementia has widely been recognised, they continue to be a disadvantaged group when it comes to timely initiation, and controversies remain regarding appropriate timing, or what elements constitute high quality palliative care early in the disease trajectory. To date, no literature review has summarised this debate or offered insights. The aim of this scoping review is to provide a general overview of research regarding palliative care in mild or moderate dementia, to identify existing controversies, and to examine what are key components of palliative care in dementia, specifically when initiated earlier in the disease trajectory. Read More

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Barrier maintenance by S1P during inflammation and sepsis.

Tissue Barriers 2021 Jun 21:1940069. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Jena University Hospital, Jena, Germany.

Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a multifaceted lipid signaling molecule that activates five specific G protein-coupled S1P receptors. Despite the fact that S1P is known as one of the strongest barrier-enhancing molecules for two decades, no medical application is available yet. The reason for this lack of translation into clinical practice may be the complex regulatory network of S1P signaling, metabolism and transportation. Read More

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Depression and Pain: use of antidepressant.

Curr Neuropharmacol 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Departamento de Biología de la Reproducción, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa. Apartado Postal 55 535, C.P. 09340, Ciudad de México, Mexico.

Background: Emotional disorders are common comorbid affectations that exacerbate the severity and persistence of chronic pain. Specifically, depressive symptoms can lead to an excessive duration and intensity of pain. The use of antidepressant drugs is associated with pain reduction. Read More

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Neuronal Damage and Neuroinflammation, a Bridge Between Bacterial Meningitis and Neurodegenerative Diseases.

Front Cell Neurosci 2021 3;15:680858. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet Biomedicum, Stockholm, Sweden.

Bacterial meningitis is an inflammation of the meninges which covers and protects the brain and the spinal cord. Such inflammation is mostly caused by blood-borne bacteria that cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and finally invade the brain parenchyma. Pathogens such as , , and are the main etiological causes of bacterial meningitis. Read More

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How Alcohol Influences Mechanisms of Sexual Risk Behavior Change: Contributions of Alcohol Challenge Research to the Development of HIV Prevention Interventions.

AIDS Behav 2021 Jun 19. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

Department of Psychological & Brain Sciences, Boston University, 900 Commonwealth Avenue, 2nd Floor, Boston, MA, 02215, USA.

This paper examines the contributions of laboratory-based alcohol challenge research (ACR) to the development of HIV prevention interventions. Following a brief overview of HIV prevention interventions and related health behavior change models, we discuss how alcohol may influence mechanisms of behavior change. The paper highlights the value of ACR for: (1) elucidating mechanisms of action through which alcohol affects sexual risk behavior, (2) testing how alcohol may influence mechanisms thought to underlie HIV prevention interventions, (3) clarifying moderators of the causal influences of alcohol, (4) identifying novel intervention targets, and (5) developing strategies to reduce sexual risk among those who consume alcohol. Read More

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Fluid management, electrolytes imbalance and renal management in neonates with neonatal encephalopathy treated with hypothermia.

Semin Fetal Neonatal Med 2021 Jun 12:101261. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Alabama-Birmingham, 1600 7th Ave south, Lowder Bldg 502, AL, 35223, Birmingham, USA. Electronic address:

Kidney dysfunction and acute kidney injury (AKI) frequently accompanies neonatal encephalopathy and contributes to neonatal morbidity and mortality. While there are currently no proven therapies for the treatment of AKI, understanding the pathophysiology along with early recognition and treatment of alterations in fluid, electrolyte and metabolic homeostasis that accompany AKI offer opportunity to reduce associated morbidity. Promising new tests and technologies, including urine and serum biomarkers and renal near-infrared spectroscopy offer opportunities to improve diagnosis and monitoring of neonates at risk for kidney injury. Read More

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Prenatal androgen influences on the brain: A review, critique, and illustration of research on congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

J Neurosci Res 2021 Jun 17. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Department of Psychology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA.

Sex hormones, especially androgens, contribute to sex and gender differences in the brain and behavior. Organizational effects are particularly important because they are thought to be permanent, reflecting hormone exposure during sensitive periods of development. In human beings, they are often studied with natural experiments in which sex hormones are dissociated from other biopsychosocial aspects of development, such as genes and experiences. Read More

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Brain death and management of the potential donor.

Neurol Sci 2021 Jun 17. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Sao Paulo, Rua Eneas Aguiar, 255, São Paulo, 05403-010, Brazil.

One of the first attempts to define brain death (BD) dates from 1963, and since then, the diagnosis criteria of that entity have evolved. In spite of the publication of practice parameters and evidence-based guidelines, BD is still causing concern and controversies in the society. The difficulties in determining brain death and making it understood by family members not only endorse futile therapies and increase health care costs, but also hinder the organ transplantation process. Read More

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Nursing homes during the COVID-19 pandemic: a scoping review of challenges and responses.

Eur Geriatr Med 2021 Jun 16. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

School of Medicine, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.

Introduction: COVID-19 has caused unprecedented challenges in nursing homes. In this scoping review, we aimed to describe factors that contributed to the spread and mortality of COVID-19 in nursing homes and provide an overview of responses that were implemented to try to overcome such challenges.

Methods: The MeSH terms "Nursing homes" and "COVID-19" were searched in MEDLINE Ovid, and English language articles were retrieved that were published between 1 March 2020 and 31 January 2021. Read More

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Contribution of Gut Microbiota to Immunological Changes in Alzheimer's Disease.

Front Immunol 2021 31;12:683068. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Molecular Cell Biology and Immunology, Amsterdam University Medical Centers, Amsterdam Neuroscience, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

Emerging evidence suggests that both central and peripheral immunological processes play an important role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), but regulatory mechanisms remain unknown. The gut microbiota and its key metabolites are known to affect neuroinflammation by modulating the activity of peripheral and brain-resident immune cells, yet an overview on how the gut microbiota contribute to immunological alterations in AD is lacking. In this review, we discuss current literature on microbiota composition in AD patients and relevant animal models. Read More

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Event-Based Sensing and Signal Processing in the Visual, Auditory, and Olfactory Domain: A Review.

Front Neural Circuits 2021 31;15:610446. Epub 2021 May 31.

School of Physics, Engineering and Computer Science, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, United Kingdom.

The nervous systems converts the physical quantities sensed by its primary receptors into trains of events that are then processed in the brain. The unmatched efficiency in information processing has long inspired engineers to seek brain-like approaches to sensing and signal processing. The key principle pursued in neuromorphic sensing is to shed the traditional approach of periodic sampling in favor of an event-driven scheme that mimicks sampling as it occurs in the nervous system, where events are preferably emitted upon the change of the sensed stimulus. Read More

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Selected issues in sport-related concussion (SRC|mild traumatic brain injury) for the team physician: a consensus statement.

Br J Sports Med 2021 Jun 16. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Orthopaedic Surgery, HSS, New York, New York, USA.

Selected Issues in Sport-Related Concussion (SRC|Mild Traumatic Brain Injury) for the Team Physician: A Consensus Statement is title 22 in a series of annual consensus documents written for the practicing team physician. This document provides an overview of selected medical issues important to team physicians who are responsible for athletes with sports-related concussion (SRC). This statement was developed by the Team Physician Consensus Conference (TPCC), an annual project-based alliance of six major professional associations. Read More

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[Neuropathology of dementia].

Wien Med Wochenschr 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Abteilung für Neuropathologie und Neurochemie, Universitätsklinik für Neurologie, Medizinischer Universitätscampus Wien, Ebene 4J, Währinger Gürtel 18-20, 1090, Wien, Österreich.

Dementia is the clinical consequence of various neurological disorders with a multitude of etiologies. Precise knowledge of the underlying pathologies is essential for an accurate treatment of patients and for the development of suitable disease biomarkers. A definite diagnosis of many of the disorders, particularly for neurodegenerative ones, can only be made after a thorough postmortem neuropathological examination. Read More

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TEAD family transcription factors in development and disease.

Development 2021 Jun 15;148(12). Epub 2021 Jun 15.

The School of Biomedical Sciences, Queensland Brain Institute, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072, Australia.

The balance between stem cell potency and lineage specification entails the integration of both extrinsic and intrinsic cues, which ultimately influence gene expression through the activity of transcription factors. One example of this is provided by the Hippo signalling pathway, which plays a central role in regulating organ size during development. Hippo pathway activity is mediated by the transcriptional co-factors Yes-associated protein (YAP) and transcriptional co-activator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ), which interact with TEA domain (TEAD) proteins to regulate gene expression. Read More

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Artificial intelligence in neurodegenerative diseases: A review of available tools with a focus on machine learning techniques.

Artif Intell Med 2021 Jul 30;117:102081. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Berenson-Allen Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation, Harvard Medical School, 330 Brookline Avenue, Boston, United States. Electronic address:

Neurodegenerative diseases have shown an increasing incidence in the older population in recent years. A significant amount of research has been conducted to characterize these diseases. Computational methods, and particularly machine learning techniques, are now very useful tools in helping and improving the diagnosis as well as the disease monitoring process. Read More

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A guideline for linking brain wave findings to the various aspects of discrete perception.

Eur J Neurosci 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Laboratory of Psychophysics, Brain Mind Institute, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne, Switzerland.

Brain waves, determined by electrical and magnetic brain recordings (e.g., EEG and MEG), and fluctuating behavioral responses, determined by response time or accuracy measures, are frequently taken to support discrete perception. Read More

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Production of Phenotypically Uniform Human Cerebral Organoids from Pluripotent Stem Cells.

Bio Protoc 2021 Apr 20;11(8):e3985. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Biochemistry, Donnelly Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Recent advances in stem cell technology have allowed researchers to generate 3D cerebral organoids (COs) from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs). Indeed, COs have provided an unprecedented opportunity to model the developing human brain in a 3D context, and in turn, are suitable for addressing complex neurological questions by leveraging advancements in genetic engineering, high resolution microscopy, and tissue transcriptomics. However, the use of this model is limited by substantial variations in the overall morphology and cellular composition of organoids derived from the same pluripotent cell line. Read More

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Estimating Aggregate Environmental Risk Score in Psychiatry: The Exposome Score for Schizophrenia.

Front Psychiatry 2021 28;12:671334. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Psychiatry and Neuropsychology, School for Mental Health and Neuroscience, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, Netherlands.

To understand the role of environment in the pathoetiology of psychosis spectrum disorders, research has thus far mainly investigated the effects of single exposures in isolation, such as the association between cannabis use and schizophrenia. However, this approach fails to acknowledge the complexity of the exposome, which represents the totality of the environment involving many exposures over an individual's lifetime. Therefore, contemporary research adopting the exposome paradigm has aimed at capturing the combined effect of different environmental exposures by utilizing an aggregate environmental vulnerability score for schizophrenia: the exposome score for schizophrenia. Read More

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Human prion disease surveillance in Spain, 1993-2018: an overview.

Prion 2021 Dec;15(1):94-106

Department of Neurodegeneration, Ageing and Mental Health, National Epidemiology Centre, Carlos III Health Institute, Madrid, Spain.

In Spain, human transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) have been undergoing continuous surveillance for over 25 years. In 1995, the system was launched as an EU Concerted Action, with EU surveillance network procedures being incorporated from 2002 onwards. The aim of this report was to describe performance and outcomes of this surveillance system across the period 1993-2018. Read More

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December 2021

Exploring the alternative: Fish, flies and worms as preclinical models for ALS.

Neurosci Lett 2021 Jun 10;759:136041. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

KU Leuven - University of Leuven, Department of Neurosciences, Experimental Neurology, and Leuven Brain Institute (LBI), Leuven, Belgium; VIB, Center for Brain & Disease Research, Laboratory of Neurobiology, Leuven, Belgium. Electronic address:

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an incurable neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the loss of upper and lower motor neurons. In general, patients succumb to respiratory insufficiency due to respiratory muscle weakness. Despite many promising therapeutic strategies primarily identified in rodent models, patient trials remain rather unsuccessful. Read More

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Profiling Autoantibody Responses to Devise Novel Diagnostic and Prognostic Markers Using High-Density Protein Microarrays.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2344:191-208

Department of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai, India.

Protein microarrays are a diverse and high-throughput platform for screening biomolecular interactions, autoantigens, and protein expression profiles across tissues, etc. Autoantibodies produced against aberrant protein expression are often observed in malignancies which makes protein microarrays a powerful platform to elucidate biomarkers of translational interest. Early diagnosis of malignancies is an enduring clinical problem that has a direct impact on disease prognosis. Read More

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January 2021