57,216 results match your criteria Brain Metastasis Imaging

Multifunctional Liposomes Enable Active Targeting and Twinfilin 1 Silencing to Reverse Paclitaxel Resistance in Brain Metastatic Breast Cancer.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular and Functional Imaging, Zhongda Hospital, Medical School, Southeast University, Nanjing 210009, People's Republic of China.

Paclitaxel (PTX) is a first-line chemotherapeutic drug for breast cancer, but PTX resistance often occurs in metastatic breast cancer. In addition, due to the poor targeting of chemotherapeutic drugs and the presence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), it is hard to effectively treat brain metastatic breast cancer using paclitaxel. Thus, it is urgent to develop an effective drug delivery system for the treatment of brain metastatic breast cancer. Read More

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Lasofoxifene as a potential treatment for therapy-resistant ER-positive metastatic breast cancer.

Breast Cancer Res 2021 May 12;23(1):54. Epub 2021 May 12.

The Ben May Department for Cancer Research, The University of Chicago, 929 East 57th Street, GCIS W421C, Chicago, IL, 60637, USA.

Background: Endocrine therapy remains the mainstay of treatment for estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer. Constitutively active mutations in the ligand binding domain of ERα render tumors resistant to endocrine agents. Breast cancers with the two most common ERα mutations, Y537S and D538G, have low sensitivity to fulvestrant inhibition, a typical second-line endocrine therapy. Read More

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Co-Occurrence Conundrum: Brain Metastases from Lung Adenocarcinoma, Radiation Necrosis, and Gliosarcoma.

Case Rep Oncol 2021 Jan-Apr;14(1):487-492. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Winship Cancer Institute of Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) commonly presents with metastasis to the brain. When brain metastases are treated with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), longitudinal imaging to monitor treatment response may identify radiation necrosis, metastasis progression, and/or another primary brain malignancy. A 60-year-old female with metastatic NSCLC involving the brain underwent treatment with systemic therapy and SRS. Read More

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[Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Associated with Bevacizumab during Chemotherapy for Clinical Stage Ⅳ Sigmoid Colon Cancer-A Case Report].

Gan To Kagaku Ryoho 2021 Apr;48(4):596-598

Dept. of Gastroenterological Surgery, Toho University Omori Medical Center.

The case is a 59‒year‒old woman. A detailed examination of fecal occult blood revealed a diagnosis of cStage Ⅳ sigmoid colon cancer cT3N1M1b(liver H2, hilar liver and celiac artery lymph nodes). After excision of the primary lesion, decided to give chemotherapy. Read More

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[How to Preserve QOL of Patients with Small Cell Lung Cancer-Cutting‒Edge Treatment of Brain and Bone Metastases].

Gan To Kagaku Ryoho 2021 Apr;48(4):486-492

Dept. of Thoracic Oncology, Kobe Minimally Invasive Cancer Center.

Small cell lung cancer(SCLC)frequently develops both brain metastases and bone metastases. Considering the negative effects on quality of life(QOL), it is essential to manage properly these metastases. In patients with limited‒disease(LD) SCLC who have a good response to chemoradiotherapy, prophylactic cranial irradiation(PCI)is given to decrease brain metastases. Read More

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[Left Upper Lung Cancer with Mediastinal Inferior Lober Branch of Pulmonary Artery].

Kyobu Geka 2021 Feb;74(2):112-115

Department of Thoracic Surgery, Kansai Medical University, Hirakata, Japan.

We herein report a rare case of an antero-basal pulmonary artery that was noticed during left upper lung lobectomy. A 61-year-old man underwent surgery and radiation for a brain tumor, which was diagnosed as a solitary metastasis of the primary lung cancer in the upper lobe of the left lung. He underwent left upper lobectomy for the lung cancer. Read More

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February 2021

Update on neuroimaging in brain tumours.

Marion Smits

Curr Opin Neurol 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Radiology & Nuclear Medicine, Erasmus MC, University Medical Centre Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Purpose Of Review: To highlight some of the recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in terms of acquisition, analysis, and interpretation for primary diagnosis, treatment planning, and surveillance of patients with a brain tumour.

Recent Findings: The rapidly emerging field of radiomics associates large numbers of imaging features with clinical characteristics. In the context of glioma, attempts are made to correlate such imaging features with the tumour genotype, using so-called radiogenomics. Read More

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Case report and literature review: antenatal diagnosis of a fetal anaplastic astrocytoma.

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2021 May 9:1-7. Epub 2021 May 9.

Department of Ultrasound, The School of Clinical Medicine, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, China.

Objectives: To describe the ultrasonographic appearance of congenital anaplastic astrocytoma, so as to provide diagnostic clues for it. An updated review of the literature was also carried out.

Results: There was a case of fetal anaplastic astrocytoma detected by ultrasound at 37 + 1 weeks of gestation. Read More

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Congenital medulloblastoma presented in the neonatal period.

Autops Case Rep 2021 Apr 22;11:e2021258. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Hospital Universitario "Dr. José Eleuterio González", Departamento de Patología y Citología, Monterrey, México.

Congenital medulloblastoma is a rare brain tumor that appears in less than 1% of pediatric patients. Congenital medulloblastoma has a poor prognosis and should be suspected in patients with clinical manifestations of hyporeactivity, slow suction reflexes, and the presence of hydrocephalus. Herein we present the case of a 12-day-old female newborn who developed non-communicative hydrocephalus, hyporeactivity, and hyporeflexia. Read More

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A logistic regression model for prediction of glioma grading based on radiomics.

Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2021 Apr;46(4):385-392

Department of Radiology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410008.

Objectives: Glioma is the most common intracranial primary tumor in central nervous system. Glioma grading possesses important guiding significance for the selection of clinical treatment and follow-up plan, and the assessment of prognosis. This study aims to explore the feasibility of logistic regression model based on radiomics to predict glioma grading. Read More

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Utility of Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation for Extensive-Stage Small-Cell Lung Cancer in the MRI Screening Era.

Clin Lung Cancer 2021 Mar 26. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Radiation Oncology, UPMC Hillman Cancer Center, Pittsburgh, PA. Electronic address:

Background: Conflicting data exists regarding the benefit of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) in patients with extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer (ES-SCLC). We sought to retrospectively review outcomes of patients within our network with ES-SCLC treated with and without PCI between 2009 and 2020.

Methods: Endpoints assessed using the Kaplan-Meier estimator were overall survival (OS), freedom from death with uncontrolled intracranial disease (UI-DFS), brain metastasis-free survival (BMFS), and symptomatic BMFS (SBMFS). Read More

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[CT and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings of the Intracranial Extra-cerebral Chondroma:A Case Report].

Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao 2021 Apr;43(2):300-304

Department of Radiology,Hainan Hospital of Chinese PLA General Hospital,Sanya,Hainan 572013,China.

Intracranial intradural chondroma is a rare disorder,the imaging findings of which have been rarely reported.The current study reported a case of intracranial extra-cerebral chondroma and described the detailed CT and magnetic resonance imaging findings,which would provide valuable imaging evidence for the diagnosis of intracranial extra-cerebral chondroma. Read More

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Characteristics of central nervous system progression in non-small cell lung cancer treated with crizotinib or alectinib.

Cancer Rep (Hoboken) 2021 May 7:e1414. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Thoracic Medical Oncology, The Cancer Institute Hospital, Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: Most patients treated with anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-tyrosine kinase inhibitors for ALK-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) develop resistance, leading to metastasis, with progression to the central nervous system (CNS) being a primary concern. Although alectinib has better CNS penetration than crizotinib, patients treated with alectinib also develop CNS progression. CNS metastases more likely occurs during crizotinib treatment due to less blood-brain barrier (BBB) penetration capability than alectinib. Read More

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Cell-Type-Specific Gene Modules Related to the Regional Homogeneity of Spontaneous Brain Activity and Their Associations With Common Brain Disorders.

Front Neurosci 2021 20;15:639527. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Radiology and Tianjin Key Laboratory of Functional Imaging, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin, China.

Mapping gene expression profiles to neuroimaging phenotypes in the same anatomical space provides opportunities to discover molecular substrates for human brain functional properties. Here, we aimed to identify cell-type-specific gene modules associated with the regional homogeneity (ReHo) of spontaneous brain activity and their associations with brain disorders. Fourteen gene modules were consistently associated with ReHo in the three datasets, five of which showed cell-type-specific expression (one neuron-endothelial module, one neuron module, one astrocyte module and two microglial modules) in two independent cell series of the human cerebral cortex. Read More

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Characterization of the tumor immune-microenvironment of adenocarcinoma of lung with a metastatic lesion in the pancreas treated successfully with first-line, single-agent pembrolizumab.

Ther Adv Med Oncol 2021 19;13:17588359211010156. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Oncocyte Corporation, Irvine, CA, USA.

Single-agent immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy in advanced non-small cell lung cancer can significantly prolong progression-free and overall survival when compared with cytotoxic chemotherapy. Here, we report a case of newly diagnosed adenocarcinoma of the lung with a solitary brain metastasis and a biopsy confirmed adenocarcinoma in the tail of the pancreas. Cytomorphology and immunohistochemistry suggested the lung and pancreas tumors were distinct primaries. Read More

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Clinicopathological Features of Growth Hormone-producing Pituitary Adenomas and Correlation With Preoperative Laboratory Findings.

Anticancer Res 2021 May;41(5):2669-2680

"Carol Davila" University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Bucharest, Romania.

Background/aim: The histopathological variability of each type of pituitary adenoma (PA) that causes growth hormone (GH) excess influences the phenotype, radiological characteristics and therapy response of acromegaly patients. We correlated the immunohistochemical (IHC) features of GH-secreting PAs with their clinical, laboratory and imaging data.

Patients And Methods: We included 32 patients with documented acromegaly; tumour specimens were histologically and IHC examined: anterior pituitary hormones, pituitary-specific transcription factor-1 (PIT-1), Ki-67 labelling index were evaluated. Read More

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Effective Control of Brain Metastases Irrespective of Distance from Isocenter in Single-isocenter Multitarget Stereotactic Radiosurgery.

Anticancer Res 2021 May;41(5):2575-2581

Department of Radiology, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Japan.

Background/aim: Few previous studies have evaluated the effectiveness of single-isocenter multitarget (SIMT) stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) in clinical practice.

Patients And Methods: Gross tumor volumes of 113 metastases in 13 patients were measured by contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. Prescribed doses were set at 20-24 Gy. Read More

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ABCB1 inhibition provides a novel therapeutic target to block TWIST1-induced migration in medulloblastoma.

Neurooncol Adv 2021 Jan-Dec;3(1):vdab030. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Children's Brain Tumour Research Centre, Division of Child Health, Obstetrics and Gynaecology, School of Medicine, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK.

Background: Therapeutic intervention in metastatic medulloblastoma is dependent on elucidating the underlying metastatic mechanism. We investigated whether an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-like pathway could drive medulloblastoma metastasis.

Methods: A 3D Basement Membrane Extract (3D-BME) model was used to investigate medulloblastoma cell migration. Read More

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Intracranial Metastasis from Prostate Cancer: Investigation, Incidence, and Imaging Findings in a Large Cohort of Australian Men.

J Clin Imaging Sci 2021 24;11:24. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

I-MED Radiology, The Wesley Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Objectives: Prostate cancer metastasizing to the brain is remarkably uncommon, with the incidence never having been described in the modern setting. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence and imaging pattern of intracranial metastasis from prostate cancer in a large cohort of Australian men with prostate cancer.

Material And Methods: Retrospective review was undertaken of imaging reports for all known prostate cancer patients, who underwent an imaging examination inclusive of the brain, between July 1, 2014, and July 1, 2020. Read More

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The extreme anterior interhemispheric transcallosal approach for pure aqueduct tumors: surgical technique and case series.

Neurosurg Rev 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Neurosurgery, Yeditepe University School of Medicine, Yeditepe University Kosuyolu Hospital, Kosuyolu Mah, Kosuyolu Cad. No: 168, 34718, Kadiköy, Istanbul, Turkey.

Purely aqueductal tumors represent a rare but distinct entity of neoplasms with characteristic morphology and clinical presentation. This study aims to describe the extreme anterior interhemispheric transcallosal approach as a surgical option for purely aqueductal tumors in the upper part of the cerebral aqueduct and present the surgical results. Prospectively collected data of 4 patients undergoing the extreme anterior interhemispheric transcallosal approach for purely aqueductal tumors in the upper cerebral aqueduct was analyzed. Read More

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Infrared spectroscopic imaging study of BV-2 microglia altering tumor cell biological activity and cellular fraction.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 Apr 30;559:129-134. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Translational Institute for Cancer Pain, Clinical Research and Innovation Unit, Xinhua Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine (Chongming Branch), Shanghai, 202150, PR China. Electronic address:

Tumor brain metastasis is a severe threat to patients' neurological function, in which microglia may be involved in the process of tumor cell metastasis among nerve cells. Our study focused on the interaction between microglia and breast and lung cancer cells. Changes in the proliferation and migration ability of cocultured tumor cells were examined; synchrotron radiation-based fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (SR-FTIR) was used to detect changes in the structures and contents of biomolecules within the tumor cells. Read More

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Case Report: Pseudomeningeosis and Demyelinating Metastasis-Like Lesions From Checkpoint Inhibitor Therapy in Malignant Melanoma.

Front Oncol 2021 15;11:637185. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Neurology, Division of Clinical Neurooncology, University Hospital Essen, Essen, Germany.

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have considerably expanded the effective treatment options for malignant melanoma. ICIs revert tumor-associated immunosuppression and potentiate T-cell mediated tumor clearance. Immune-related neurologic adverse events (irNAEs) manifest in the central (CNS) or peripheral nervous system (PNS) and most frequently present as encephalitis or myasthenia gravis respectively. Read More

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Mycobacterium infection as a mimicker of brain metastasis.

Clin Case Rep 2021 Apr 18;9(4):2481-2482. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Radiology and Medical Imaging Department State University of Campinas Campinas Brazil.

Mycobacterium infection is a differential diagnosis to be considered in brain multifocal lesions with peripheral enhancement. Read More

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Imaging Mimics of Brain Tumors.

Radiol Clin North Am 2021 May 23;59(3):457-470. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, University of Virginia Health System, PO Box 800170, Charlottesville, VA 22908-0170, USA. Electronic address:

Nonneoplastic entities may closely resemble the imaging findings of primary or metastatic intracranial neoplasia, posing diagnostic challenges for the referring provider and radiologist. Prospective identification of brain tumor mimics is an opportunity for the radiologist to add value to patient care by decreasing time to diagnosis and avoiding unnecessary surgical procedures and medical therapies, but requires familiarity with mimic entities and a high degree of suspicion on the part of the interpreting radiologist. This article provides a framework for the radiologist to identify "brain tumor mimics," highlighting imaging and laboratory pearls and pitfalls, and illustrating unique and frequently encountered lesions. Read More

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Radiogenomics of Gliomas.

Radiol Clin North Am 2021 May;59(3):441-455

Department of Radiology and Neurology, Division of Neuroradiology, Penn State College of Medicine, Penn State Milton Hershey Medical Center, Mail Code H066 500, University Drive, Hershey, PA 17033, USA.

The 2016 World Health Organization brain tumor classification is based on genomic and molecular profile of tumor tissue. These characteristics have improved understanding of the brain tumor and played an important role in treatment planning and prognostication. There is an ongoing effort to develop noninvasive imaging techniques that provide insight into tissue characteristics at the cellular and molecular levels. Read More

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Imaging of Neurologic Injury following Oncologic Therapy.

Radiol Clin North Am 2021 May 23;59(3):425-440. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Division of Neuroradiology, Penn State Milton Hershey Medical Center, Penn State College of Medicine, Mail Code H066 500 University Drive, Hershey, PA 17033, USA; Department of Radiology, Penn State College of Medicine, Hershey, PA, USA; Department of Neurology, Penn State College of Medicine, Hershey, PA, USA.

Neurologic injury arises from treatment of central nervous system malignancies as result of direct toxic effects or indirect vascular, autoimmune, or infectious effects. Multimodality treatment may potentiate both therapeutic and toxic effects. Symptoms range from mild to severe and permanent. Read More

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Neoplastic Meningitis and Paraneoplastic Syndromes.

Radiol Clin North Am 2021 May;59(3):409-423

Department of Radiology, UT Southwestern Medical School and Parkland Hospital, 5323 Harry Hines Boulevard, Dallas, TX 75390, USA.

Neoplastic meningitis (NM) and paraneoplastic syndromes (PNSs) are a rare group of disorders present in patients with cancer. Clinical diagnosis of these conditions is challenging, and imaging and laboratory analysis play a significant role in diagnosing. Diagnosis of NM largely depends on documenting circulating tumor cells in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and/or leptomeningeal and nodular enhancement on contrast-enhanced MR imaging of the brain or axial spine. Read More

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Imaging Surveillance of Gliomas: Role of Basic and Advanced Imaging Techniques.

Radiol Clin North Am 2021 May;59(3):395-407

Division of Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology, University of Michigan Medical School, Michigan Medicine, 1500 East Medical Center Drive, UMHS, B2-A209, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA. Electronic address:

It is essential to be aware of widely accepted criteria for grading of treatment response in both high-grade and low-grade gliomas. These criteria primarily take into account responses of measurable and nonmeasurable lesions on T2-weighted, fluid-attenuated inversion recovery, and postcontrast images to determine a final category of response for the patient. The additional role that other advanced imaging techniques, such as diffusion and perfusion imaging, can play in the surveillance of these tumors is discussed in this article. Read More

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Role of Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the Presurgical Mapping of Brain Tumors.

Radiol Clin North Am 2021 May;59(3):377-393

Division of Neuroradiology, The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 600 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA. Electronic address:

When planning for brain tumor resection, a balance between maximizing resection and minimizing injury to eloquent brain parenchyma is paramount. The advent of blood oxygenation level-dependent functional magnetic resonance (fMR) imaging has allowed researchers and clinicians to reliably measure physiologic fluctuations in brain oxygenation related to neuronal activity with good spatial resolution. fMR imaging can offer a unique insight into preoperative planning for brain tumors by identifying eloquent areas of the brain affected or spared by the neoplasm. Read More

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Cellular and Molecular Imaging with SPECT and PET in Brain Tumors.

Radiol Clin North Am 2021 May;59(3):363-375

The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 601 North Caroline Street, JHOC 3150, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA. Electronic address:

This review highlights the 2 major molecular imaging modalities that are used in clinics, namely single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET), and their added value in management of patients with brain tumors. There are a variety of SPECT and PET radiotracers that can allow imaging of different molecular processes. Those radiotracers target specific molecular features of tumors, resulting in improved specificity of these agents. Read More

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