190,285 results match your criteria Brain Metastasis

Hypofractionated versus single-fraction stereotactic radiosurgery for the treatment of brain metastases: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2021 Apr 20;206:106645. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Pelita Harapan, Tangerang, Indonesia. Electronic address:

Objective: This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to synthesize the latest evidence on the hypofractionated stereotactic radiosurgery (HF-SRS) compared to single-fraction stereotactic radiosurgery (SF-SRS) for the treatment of brain metastases.

Methods: We systematically searched PubMed, Scopus, EuropePMC, ProQuest, and Cochrane Central Databases. Original research articles investigating patients with brain metastasis receiving HF-SRS or SF-SRS reporting the local control/failure and/or radionecrosis during follow-up were included. Read More

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A multicenter cohort study of osimertinib compared with afatinib as first-line treatment for EGFR-mutated non-small-cell lung cancer from practical dataset: CJLSG1903.

ESMO Open 2021 May 10;6(3):100115. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Matsunami General Hospital, Kasamatsu, Gifu, Japan.

Background: FLAURA, the prospective trial of osimertinib as a first-line therapy compared with first-generation epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs), did not show superior survival benefit for osimertinib in either the subgroup of Asians or the subgroup with the L858R mutation. In addition, the superiority of osimertinib compared with second-generation EGFR-TKI is thus far unclear.

Patients And Methods: We reviewed the clinical data of all consecutive patients who were treated with osimertinib or afatinib as first-line therapy between May 2016 and October 2019 from 15 institutions in Japan. Read More

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Breast Cancer Metastasis.

Mi Young Kim

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1187:183-204

Department of Biological Sciences, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon, South Korea.

Owing to increased awareness of the importance of mammogram and advances in surgical technology, survival rate of patients with primary breast cancer has dramatically increased. Despite all these advances in breast cancer treatment, there are no currently available treatments for this disease once it metastasizes to distant organs including bones, lungs, brain, and liver. This is mainly attributed to the complexity of metastatic process. Read More

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January 2021

Phospholipase Signaling in Breast Cancer.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1187:23-52

School of Life Sciences, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan, Republic of Korea.

Breast cancer progression results from subversion of multiple intra- or intercellular signaling pathways in normal mammary tissues and their microenvironment, which have an impact on cell differentiation, proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis. Phospholipases (PLC, PLD and PLA) are essential mediators of intra- and intercellular signaling. They hydrolyze phospholipids, which are major components of cell membrane that can generate many bioactive lipid mediators, such as diacylglycerol, phosphatidic acid, lysophosphatidic acid, and arachidonic acid. Read More

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January 2021

Multifunctional Liposomes Enable Active Targeting and Twinfilin 1 Silencing to Reverse Paclitaxel Resistance in Brain Metastatic Breast Cancer.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular and Functional Imaging, Zhongda Hospital, Medical School, Southeast University, Nanjing 210009, People's Republic of China.

Paclitaxel (PTX) is a first-line chemotherapeutic drug for breast cancer, but PTX resistance often occurs in metastatic breast cancer. In addition, due to the poor targeting of chemotherapeutic drugs and the presence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), it is hard to effectively treat brain metastatic breast cancer using paclitaxel. Thus, it is urgent to develop an effective drug delivery system for the treatment of brain metastatic breast cancer. Read More

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Metastatic Hepatic Epitheloid Hemangioendothelioma in a Young Male: A Rare Presentation.

Gastrointest Tumors 2021 Apr 18;8(2):58-62. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Department of General Surgery, AIIMS, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India.

Hepatic EHE (epithelioid hemangioendothelioma) is an uncommon entity of vascular origin and a low-grade malignant tumor. Primary hepatic EHE is rare. These tumors can be multifocal at presentation like in the soft tissues, bones, brain, liver, and small intestine. Read More

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Lasofoxifene as a potential treatment for therapy-resistant ER-positive metastatic breast cancer.

Breast Cancer Res 2021 May 12;23(1):54. Epub 2021 May 12.

The Ben May Department for Cancer Research, The University of Chicago, 929 East 57th Street, GCIS W421C, Chicago, IL, 60637, USA.

Background: Endocrine therapy remains the mainstay of treatment for estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer. Constitutively active mutations in the ligand binding domain of ERα render tumors resistant to endocrine agents. Breast cancers with the two most common ERα mutations, Y537S and D538G, have low sensitivity to fulvestrant inhibition, a typical second-line endocrine therapy. Read More

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Thorny ground, rocky soil: tissue-specific mechanisms of tumor dormancy and relapse.

Semin Cancer Biol 2021 May 9. Epub 2021 May 9.

Public Health Sciences Division/Translational Research Program, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA, USA; Human Biology Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA, USA. Electronic address:

Disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) spread systemically yet distinct patterns of metastasis indicate a range of tissue susceptibility to metastatic colonization. Distinctions between permissive and suppressive tissues are still being elucidated at cellular and molecular levels. Although there is a growing appreciation for the role of the microenvironment in regulating metastatic success, we have a limited understanding of how diverse tissues regulate DTC dormancy, the state of reversible quiescence and subsequent awakening thought to contribute to delayed relapse. Read More

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Awake craniotomy in brain tumors - Technique systematization and the state of the art.

Rev Col Bras Cir 2021 7;48:e20202722. Epub 2021 May 7.

- Irmandade da Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo, Neurocirurgia - ISCMSP, SP, Brasil.

The anesthesia for awake craniotomy (AC) is a consecrated anesthetic technique that has been perfected over the years. Initially used to map epileptic foci, it later became the standard technique for the removal of glial neoplasms in eloquent brain areas. We present an AC anesthesia technique consisting of three primordial times, called awake-asleep-awake, and their respective particularities, as well as delve into the anesthetic medications used. Read More

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Limited brain metastases: a narrative review.

Ann Palliat Med 2021 Apr 26. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, Cleveland, OH, USA; Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH, USA.

Limited brain metastases refer to an oligometastatic state in the brain for which focal therapy with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is appropriate. The definition of what is considered "limited" for brain metastases, however, is not well defined. Multiple recent randomized trials show that metastasis-directed therapy with surgery or stereotactic radiation can prolong survival for patients with 1-5 metastases from various primary tumors, but patients with untreated brain metastases were largely excluded from these trials. Read More

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A non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patient with leptomeningeal metastasis harboring rare epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations G719S and L861Q benefited from doubling dosage of osimertinib: a case report.

Ann Palliat Med 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Neuro-Oncology, Guangdong Sanjiu Brain Hospital, Guangzhou, China.

Leptomeningeal metastasis (LM) is a rare but lethal complication of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) that has a devastating impact on patient survival and quality of life. Osimertinib, an irreversible tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is approved as a therapy for advanced NSCLC with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation. However, the efficacy and optimal dosage of osimertinib in the treatment of NSCLC patients with LM who harbor uncommon EGFR mutations have yet to be fully investigated. Read More

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Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor of the Cerebellar Hemisphere: An Unusual Location and Multiple Intracranial Parenchyma Metastases.

Cureus 2021 Apr 8;13(4):e14373. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Neurosurgery, Ningxia Key Laboratory of Cerebrocranial Disease, General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan, CHN.

Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) are rare soft tissue malignancies that can occur in any part of the body. The most common sites are the proximal limbs and trunk. Intracranial MPNSTs are rare; most originate from the auditory, trigeminal, and other cranial nerves, and occurrence within the brain parenchyma is rarer. Read More

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Co-Occurrence Conundrum: Brain Metastases from Lung Adenocarcinoma, Radiation Necrosis, and Gliosarcoma.

Case Rep Oncol 2021 Jan-Apr;14(1):487-492. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Winship Cancer Institute of Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) commonly presents with metastasis to the brain. When brain metastases are treated with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), longitudinal imaging to monitor treatment response may identify radiation necrosis, metastasis progression, and/or another primary brain malignancy. A 60-year-old female with metastatic NSCLC involving the brain underwent treatment with systemic therapy and SRS. Read More

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Peripheral-specific Y1 receptor antagonism increases thermogenesis and protects against diet-induced obesity.

Nat Commun 2021 May 11;12(1):2622. Epub 2021 May 11.

Neuroscience Division, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, St Vincent's Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Obesity is caused by an imbalance between food intake and energy expenditure (EE). Here we identify a conserved pathway that links signalling through peripheral Y1 receptors (Y1R) to the control of EE. Selective antagonism of peripheral Y1R, via the non-brain penetrable antagonist BIBO3304, leads to a significant reduction in body weight gain due to enhanced EE thereby reducing fat mass. Read More

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[Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Associated with Bevacizumab during Chemotherapy for Clinical Stage Ⅳ Sigmoid Colon Cancer-A Case Report].

Gan To Kagaku Ryoho 2021 Apr;48(4):596-598

Dept. of Gastroenterological Surgery, Toho University Omori Medical Center.

The case is a 59‒year‒old woman. A detailed examination of fecal occult blood revealed a diagnosis of cStage Ⅳ sigmoid colon cancer cT3N1M1b(liver H2, hilar liver and celiac artery lymph nodes). After excision of the primary lesion, decided to give chemotherapy. Read More

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[How to Preserve QOL of Patients with Small Cell Lung Cancer-Cutting‒Edge Treatment of Brain and Bone Metastases].

Gan To Kagaku Ryoho 2021 Apr;48(4):486-492

Dept. of Thoracic Oncology, Kobe Minimally Invasive Cancer Center.

Small cell lung cancer(SCLC)frequently develops both brain metastases and bone metastases. Considering the negative effects on quality of life(QOL), it is essential to manage properly these metastases. In patients with limited‒disease(LD) SCLC who have a good response to chemoradiotherapy, prophylactic cranial irradiation(PCI)is given to decrease brain metastases. Read More

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[Left Upper Lung Cancer with Mediastinal Inferior Lober Branch of Pulmonary Artery].

Kyobu Geka 2021 Feb;74(2):112-115

Department of Thoracic Surgery, Kansai Medical University, Hirakata, Japan.

We herein report a rare case of an antero-basal pulmonary artery that was noticed during left upper lung lobectomy. A 61-year-old man underwent surgery and radiation for a brain tumor, which was diagnosed as a solitary metastasis of the primary lung cancer in the upper lobe of the left lung. He underwent left upper lobectomy for the lung cancer. Read More

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February 2021

Esophageal metastases from primary lung cancer: a case report.

J Med Case Rep 2021 May 12;15(1):265. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Affiliated Taikang Xianlin Drum Tower Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210000, Jiangsu, China.

Background: Primary lung cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed cancers. The common metastatic sites are the liver, bones, brain, adrenal glands and central nervous system. However, gastrointestinal metastases, particularly esophageal metastases, from lung cancer are rare. Read More

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Oral Methadone for Patients With Neuropathic Pain Due to Neoplastic Brachial Plexopathy.

J Palliat Care 2021 May 11:8258597211016564. Epub 2021 May 11.

Palliative Care Unit, Takarazuka Municipal Hospital, Takarazuka, Japan.

Introduction: The brachial plexus nerves originate from the cervical (C5-C8) and first thoracic (T1) spinal nerves, and innervate muscles and skin of the chest, shoulder, arm and hand. Brachial plexus injuries can occur as a result of shoulder trauma and inflammation. Malignant tumors can also cause neoplastic brachial plexopathy (NBP), and refractory neuropathic pain is the most common symptom of NBP. Read More

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Current landscape and future prospects of radiation sensitizers for malignant brain tumors: a systematic review.

World Neurosurg 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Penn State Cancer Institute, Hershey, Pennsylvania USA; Penn State Department of Neurosurgery, Hershey, Pennsylvania USA. Electronic address:

Background: Radiation therapy (RT) is the cornerstone of management of malignant brain tumors, but its efficacy is limited in hypoxic tumors. Although numerous radiosensitizer compounds have been developed to enhance the effect of RT, progress has been stagnant. Through this systematic review, we provide an overview of radiosensitizers developed to date for malignant brain tumors, summarize their safety and efficacy, and evaluate areas for possible improvement. Read More

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Update on neuroimaging in brain tumours.

Marion Smits

Curr Opin Neurol 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Radiology & Nuclear Medicine, Erasmus MC, University Medical Centre Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Purpose Of Review: To highlight some of the recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in terms of acquisition, analysis, and interpretation for primary diagnosis, treatment planning, and surveillance of patients with a brain tumour.

Recent Findings: The rapidly emerging field of radiomics associates large numbers of imaging features with clinical characteristics. In the context of glioma, attempts are made to correlate such imaging features with the tumour genotype, using so-called radiogenomics. Read More

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Expectoration of tonsillar metastasis of pulmonary pleomorphic carcinoma after pseudoprogression: A case report.

Thorac Cancer 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Thoracic Oncology, National Hospital Organization Toneyama National Hospital, Osaka, Japan.

Pulmonary pleomorphic carcinoma is a rare malignant tumor that grows rapidly and has a poor prognosis. Although no effective treatments have so far been established, immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have shown clinical improvement in some cases of pleomorphic carcinoma. However, pseudoprogression is a major concern for treatment of this carcinoma using ICIs. Read More

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Real-World Utilization of EGFR TKIs and Prognostic Factors for Survival in EGFR-Mutated Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients with Brain Metastases.

Int J Cancer 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Medical Oncology, Cancer Hospital of the University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Zhejiang Cancer Hospital, Institute of Cancer Research and Basic Medical Sciences of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hangzhou, China.

Brain metastases (BMs) cause morbidity and mortality in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The optimal management of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mutated NSCLC with BM is debatable. We aimed to investigate the impact of different treatments among patients with EGFR-mutated NSCLC. Read More

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Case report and literature review: antenatal diagnosis of a fetal anaplastic astrocytoma.

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2021 May 9:1-7. Epub 2021 May 9.

Department of Ultrasound, The School of Clinical Medicine, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, China.

Objectives: To describe the ultrasonographic appearance of congenital anaplastic astrocytoma, so as to provide diagnostic clues for it. An updated review of the literature was also carried out.

Results: There was a case of fetal anaplastic astrocytoma detected by ultrasound at 37 + 1 weeks of gestation. Read More

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Congenital medulloblastoma presented in the neonatal period.

Autops Case Rep 2021 Apr 22;11:e2021258. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Hospital Universitario "Dr. José Eleuterio González", Departamento de Patología y Citología, Monterrey, México.

Congenital medulloblastoma is a rare brain tumor that appears in less than 1% of pediatric patients. Congenital medulloblastoma has a poor prognosis and should be suspected in patients with clinical manifestations of hyporeactivity, slow suction reflexes, and the presence of hydrocephalus. Herein we present the case of a 12-day-old female newborn who developed non-communicative hydrocephalus, hyporeactivity, and hyporeflexia. Read More

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Small bowel perforation and death caused by anaplastic thyroid carcinoma metastasis in a patient with concomitant colonic and bilateral breast carcinoma.

Autops Case Rep 2021 Mar 26;11:e2021255. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Charles University, 3rd Faculty of Medicine, University Hospital Královské Vinohrady, Department of General Surgery, Prague, Czech Republic.

Undifferentiated or anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is rare and one of the most aggressive human malignancies. The tumor is usually voluminous and fast-growing and mostly affects older women. The most common sites of distant metastases are the lungs, brain, and bones. Read More

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A Novel Role for Brain and Acute Leukemia Cytoplasmic (BAALC) in Human Breast Cancer Metastasis.

Front Oncol 2021 22;11:656120. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Cancer Cell Biology Research Group, School of Biomedical Sciences and Pharmacy, College of Health, Medicine and Wellbeing, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW, Australia.

Brain and Acute Leukemia, Cytoplasmic (BAALC) is a protein that controls leukemia cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival and is overexpressed in several cancer types. The gene is located in the chromosomal region 8q22.3, an area commonly amplified in breast cancer and associated with poor prognosis. Read More

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A logistic regression model for prediction of glioma grading based on radiomics.

Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2021 Apr;46(4):385-392

Department of Radiology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410008.

Objectives: Glioma is the most common intracranial primary tumor in central nervous system. Glioma grading possesses important guiding significance for the selection of clinical treatment and follow-up plan, and the assessment of prognosis. This study aims to explore the feasibility of logistic regression model based on radiomics to predict glioma grading. Read More

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Utility of Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation for Extensive-Stage Small-Cell Lung Cancer in the MRI Screening Era.

Clin Lung Cancer 2021 Mar 26. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Radiation Oncology, UPMC Hillman Cancer Center, Pittsburgh, PA. Electronic address:

Background: Conflicting data exists regarding the benefit of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) in patients with extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer (ES-SCLC). We sought to retrospectively review outcomes of patients within our network with ES-SCLC treated with and without PCI between 2009 and 2020.

Methods: Endpoints assessed using the Kaplan-Meier estimator were overall survival (OS), freedom from death with uncontrolled intracranial disease (UI-DFS), brain metastasis-free survival (BMFS), and symptomatic BMFS (SBMFS). Read More

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[CT and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings of the Intracranial Extra-cerebral Chondroma:A Case Report].

Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao 2021 Apr;43(2):300-304

Department of Radiology,Hainan Hospital of Chinese PLA General Hospital,Sanya,Hainan 572013,China.

Intracranial intradural chondroma is a rare disorder,the imaging findings of which have been rarely reported.The current study reported a case of intracranial extra-cerebral chondroma and described the detailed CT and magnetic resonance imaging findings,which would provide valuable imaging evidence for the diagnosis of intracranial extra-cerebral chondroma. Read More

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