22,943 results match your criteria Brain Metastases


Intussusception induced by gastrointestinal metastasis of malignant melanoma: A case report.

Int J Surg Case Rep 2020 Apr 1;71:102-106. Epub 2020 Apr 1.

University of Tsukuba, Faculty of Medicine, Gastroenterological and Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery, Tennnodai, Tsukuba-city, Ibaraki-Ken, 305-8575, Japan. Electronic address:

Introduction: Malignant melanoma sometimes metastasizes to small intestine, and could cause various clinical symptoms, including intussusception. Among the acute abdomen cohort in Japan, it is quite rare to encounter this entity.

Presentation Of Case: A 68-year-old male patient was admitted to our hospital with chief complaints of abdominal pain and vomiting. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijscr.2020.03.026DOI Listing

Treatment of brain metastases in small cell lung cancer: Decision-making amongst a multidisciplinary panel of European experts.

Radiother Oncol 2020 Apr 20;149:84-88. Epub 2020 Apr 20.

Department of Radiation Oncology (Maastro), Maastricht University Medical Center, School for Oncology and Developmental Biology (GROW), The Netherlands.

Background: Brain metastases (BM) are common in patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC). In recent years, the role of whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) for brain metastases in lung cancer is being reevaluated, especially in the context of new systemic treatments available for SCLC. With this analysis, we investigate decision-making in SCLC patients with BM among European experts in medical oncology and radiation oncology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radonc.2020.04.015DOI Listing

Unusual cause of seizure in a child: Intracranial calcified metastasis of osteosarcoma.

Indian J Cancer 2020 Apr-Jun;57(2):209-211

Department of Radiodiagnosis, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

Intracranial parenchymal calcification has both benign and malignant etiologies. Calcifications by malignant etiologies are comparatively rare. Malignant calcification has numerous causes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijc.IJC_796_18DOI Listing

First-Line Carboplatin Plus Pemetrexed with Pemetrexed Maintenance in HIV+ Patients with Advanced Non-Squamous Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: The Phase II IFCT-1001 CHIVA Trial.

Eur Respir J 2020 May 22. Epub 2020 May 22.

Service de Pneumologie, Assistance Publique - Hôpitaux de Paris (Hôpital Tenon) and Sorbonne Université, Paris, France.

Purpose: HIV infection is an exclusion criterion in lung cancer trials. This multicenter phase II trial aimed to assess feasibility, efficacy and safety of first-line carboplatin plus pemetrexed (CaP) followed by pemetrexed (P) maintenance in people living with HIV (PLHIV) with advanced non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NS-NSCLC).

Methods: Four cycles of CaP were followed by P-maintenance therapy in patients with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (PS) ≤2. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1183/13993003.02066-2019DOI Listing

Metastasis directed treatment of brain metastases from colorectal cancer - a Danish population-based cohort study.

Acta Oncol 2020 May 22:1-5. Epub 2020 May 22.

Department of Experimental Clinical Oncology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus N, Denmark.

Brain metastases (BMs) are an uncommon presentation of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) with reported incidence of about 2-4%. Today, there is an increased awareness towards a metastasis directed treatment approach with either surgical resection, stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) or both. We examined patient characteristics and survival for patients treated with a localized modality for BM from CRC in a nationwide population-based study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0284186X.2020.1769861DOI Listing

Autocatalytic Delivery of Brain Tumor-targeting, Size-shrinkable Nanoparticles for Treatment of Breast Cancer Brain Metastases.

Adv Funct Mater 2020 Apr 20;30(14). Epub 2020 Feb 20.

Department of Neurosurgery, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511, USA.

Breast cancer brain metastases (BCBMs) represent a major cause of morbidity and mortality among patients with breast cancer. Chemotherapy, which is widely used to treat tumors outside of the brain, is often ineffective on BCBMs due to its inability to efficiently cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Although the BBB is partially disrupted in tumor lesions, it remains intact enough to prevent most therapeutics from entering the brain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adfm.201910651DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7241433PMC

Diffuse pneumonitis from coronavirus HKU1 on checkpoint inhibitor therapy.

J Immunother Cancer 2020 05;8(1)

Oncology, Georgetown Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Washington, DC, USA.

Background: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) can produce specific immune-related adverse events including pneumonitis. The impact of ICI therapy on the severity of acute coronavirus infection symptomatology warrants further exploration.

Case Presentation: We report a 65-year-old man diagnosed with stage IV melanoma who developed pulmonary and brain metastases and was treated with bilateral craniotomies followed by combined nivolumab and ipilimumab immunotherapy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jitc-2020-000898DOI Listing

Cumulative intracranial tumour volume prognostic assessment: a new predicting score index for patients with brain metastases treated by stereotactic radiosurgery.

Clin Exp Metastasis 2020 May 19. Epub 2020 May 19.

Department of Neurosurgery and Gamma Knife Radiosurgery, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Via Olgettina 60, 20132, Milan, Italy.

Brain metastases (BM) represent the most common intracranial malignancy in adults. Limitations of existing prognostic models reduce their predictivity and clinical applicability. The aim of this study is to validate the cumulative intracranial tumour volume prognostic assessment (CITVPA) as a new prognostic score system for patients with BM treated by Stereotactic Radiosurgery (SRS). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10585-020-10037-zDOI Listing

The Neuropeptide System and Colorectal Cancer Liver Metastases: Mechanisms and Management.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 May 15;21(10). Epub 2020 May 15.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Hepatology and Acquired Immunodeficiencies, University of Medical Sciences, Szwajcarska Street 3, 61-285 Poznań, Poland.

Colorectal cancer (CRC), classified as the third most prevalent cancer worldwide, remains to be a clinical and research challenge. It is estimated that ~50% of CRC patients die from distant metastases, with treatment of this complication still posing significant difficulties. While liver metastasis (LM) cascade is known in the literature, its mechanisms are still unclear and remain studied in different research models. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21103494DOI Listing

Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Resected Brain Metastases - Does the Surgical Corridor Need to be Targeted?

Pract Radiat Oncol 2020 May 16. Epub 2020 May 16.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California. Electronic address:

Introduction: Although consensus guidelines for post-resection stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for brain metastases recommend the surgical corridor leading to the resection cavity be included in the SRS plan, no study has reported patterns of tumor recurrence based on inclusion or exclusion of the corridor as a target. We reviewed tumor control and toxicity outcomes of post-resection SRS for deep brain metastases based on whether or not the surgical corridor was targeted.

Materials And Methods: We retrospectively reviewed patients who had resected brain metastases treated with SRS between 2007 and 2018 and included only 'deep' tumors (defined as located ≥1. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prro.2020.04.009DOI Listing

Melanoma in the liver: oxidative stress and the mechanisms of metastatic cell survival.

Semin Cancer Biol 2020 May 16. Epub 2020 May 16.

Department of Physiology, University of Valencia, 46010, Valencia, Spain. Electronic address:

Metastatic melanoma is a fatal disease with a rapid systemic dissemination. The most frequent target sites are the liver, bone, and brain. Melanoma metastases represent a heterogeneous cell population, which associates with genomic instability and resistance to therapy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.semcancer.2020.05.001DOI Listing

Repeated stereotactic radiosurgery for the treatment of relapsed brain metastases: is it time to give up whole-brain radiotherapy?

Oncoscience 2020 Mar 24;7(3-4):19-20. Epub 2020 Apr 24.

Advanced Radiation Oncology Department, Cancer Care Center, IRCCS Sacro Cuore Don Calabria Hospital, Negrar, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncoscience.500DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7217138PMC

Tradeoff between metabolic i-proteasome addiction and immune evasion in triple-negative breast cancer.

Life Sci Alliance 2020 Jul 18;3(7). Epub 2020 May 18.

The University of Queensland (UQ) Centre for Clinical Research, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia

In vitro studies have suggested proteasome inhibitors could be effective in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). We found that bortezomib and carfilzomib induce proteotoxic stress and apoptosis via the unfolded protein response (UPR) in TNBC cell lines, with sensitivity correlated with expression of immuno-() but not constitutive-() proteasome subunits. Equally, the transcriptomes of i-proteasome-high human TNBCs are enriched with UPR gene sets, and the genomic copy number landscape reflects positive selection pressure favoring i-proteasome activity, but in the setting of adjuvant treatment, this is actually associated with favorable prognosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.26508/lsa.201900562DOI Listing

Cystic brain metastases and fusion in lung cancer.

Transl Lung Cancer Res 2020 Apr;9(2):424-425

Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Parma, Medical Oncology Unit, University Hospital of Parma, Parma, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/tlcr.2020.02.12DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7225137PMC

Analysis of lung adenocarcinoma with bone metastasis: a case report.

Transl Lung Cancer Res 2020 Apr;9(2):389-392

Department of Respiratory, The Fourth Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Yiwu 310009, China.

Lung adenocarcinoma is one of the most common types of lung cancer, and patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation-positive can be intervened with EGFR-TKI therapy to achieve longer survival. AURA3 study showed that patients resistant with the first generation of EGFR-TKI and with T790M mutation still received longer progression-free survival (PFS) after treatment with the third generation of EGFR-TKI osimertinib, and osimertinib also had a good effect on brain metastasis. Moreover, the FLAURA study published by the European Society of Medical Oncology (ESMO) in 2019 showed that the first line use of osimertinib could achieve a PFS of 18. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/tlcr.2020.03.11DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7225164PMC

Heterogeneity of neoantigen landscape between primary lesions and their matched metastases in lung cancer.

Transl Lung Cancer Res 2020 Apr;9(2):246-256

Department of Medical Oncology, Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital & Thoracic Cancer Institute, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200433, China.

Background: Personalized cancer vaccines based on tumor-derived neoantigens have shown strong and long-lasting antitumor effect in patients with some solid tumors. However, whether neoantigens identified from primary lesions could represent their metastatic lesions, and consequently the effect of vaccine therapy remained unknown.

Methods: To investigate whether neoantigens identified from primary tumors are similar to their matched metastases in lung cancer, we identified 79 samples from 24 cases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/tlcr.2020.03.03DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7225166PMC

Large choroidal metastasis with exudative retinal detachment as presenting manifestation of small cell lung cancer: A case report.

Respir Med Case Rep 2020 4;30:101074. Epub 2020 May 4.

Unit of Ocular Oncology, Neuromuscular and Sense Organs Department, Careggi University Hospital, Florence, Italy.

A 64-year-old man, diagnosed with a retinal detachment of his left eye, was sent to our hospital to evaluate vitreoretinal surgery. Left eye best-corrected visual acuity was hand motion. Fundus examination showed a voluminous slightly pigmented choroidal neoformation with secondary retinal detachment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rmcr.2020.101074DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7218149PMC

Stem-Cell Therapy as a Potential Strategy for Radiation-Induced Brain Injury.

Stem Cell Rev Rep 2020 May 16. Epub 2020 May 16.

Department of Neurology, Dalian Municipal Central Hospital Affiliated with Dalian Medical University, No. 826 Xinan Road, Shahekou District Dalian, Dalian, Liaoning, 116033, China.

Radiation therapy is a standard and effective non-surgical treatment for primary brain tumors and metastases. However, this strategy inevitably results in damage of normal brain tissue, causing severe complications, especially the late-delayed cognitive impairment. Due to the multifactorial and complex pathological effects of radiation, there is a lack of effective preventative and restorative treatments for the irradiated brain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12015-020-09984-7DOI Listing

Nomogram to predict the risk and survival of synchronous bone metastasis in colorectal cancer: a population-based real-world analysis.

Int J Colorectal Dis 2020 May 16. Epub 2020 May 16.

Department of Colorectal Surgery, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai, 200032, China.

Purpose: Bone metastasis (BM) can obviously affect the quality of life of patients in colorectal cancer (CRC), and the whole management of patients with BM would be attractive in current clinical practice.

Methods: A total of 52,859 patients during 2010-2015 were collected from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. After propensity score matching (PSM), cancer-specific survival (CCS) and overall survival (OS) with BM were adopted to assess survival probability difference. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00384-020-03612-zDOI Listing

Genes that Mediate Metastasis across the Blood-Brain Barrier.

Trends Cancer 2020 May 13. Epub 2020 May 13.

Department of Neurological Surgery, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL 60611, USA. Electronic address:

Brain metastasis is an important cause of mortality in patients with cancer and represents the majority of all intracranial tumors. A key step during the metastatic journey of the cancer cell to the brain is the invasion through the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms that govern this process remain unknown. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.trecan.2020.04.007DOI Listing

Prospective assessment of mask versus frame fixation during Gamma Knife treatment for brain metastases.

Radiother Oncol 2020 May 13. Epub 2020 May 13.

Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Bonn, University of Bonn, Germany; University Medical Center Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany. Electronic address:

Purpose: The newest generation of the Leksell Gamma Knife (GK) allows frame based as well as frameless treatment. We here report outcomes of a prospective non-randomized study on mask fixation (MF) versus frame fixation (FF) for GK treatment of brain metastases.

Methods: The decision for FF or MF was made on a case-by-case basis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radonc.2020.05.011DOI Listing

Real-world assessment of afatinib for patients with EGFR-positive non-small cell lung cancer.

Invest New Drugs 2020 May 15. Epub 2020 May 15.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Kitasato University School of Medicine, 1-15-1, Kitasato, Minami-ku, Kanagawa, 252-0374, Sagamihara-City, Japan.

Introduction Afatinib is used to treat patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring common EGFR mutations; however, the clinicopathological factors that predict this drug's effectiveness in real-world settings remain unclear. We therefore evaluated the effectiveness of afatinib in such patients and assessed potential prognostic factors. Methods We retrospectively investigated patients with NSCLC who received first-line afatinib between July 2014 and August 2018. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10637-020-00948-9DOI Listing

A matched-pair analysis of clinical outcomes after intracavitary cesium-131 brachytherapy versus stereotactic radiosurgery for resected brain metastases.

J Neurosurg 2020 May 15:1-8. Epub 2020 May 15.

1Stich Radiation Oncology, Weill Cornell Medical College/NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital, New York, New York.

Objective: Adjuvant radiation therapy (RT), such as cesium-131 (Cs-131) brachytherapy or stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), reduces local recurrence (LR) of brain metastases (BM). However, SRS is less efficacious for large cavities, and the delay between surgery and SRS may permit tumor repopulation. Cs-131 has demonstrated improved local control, with reduced radiation necrosis (RN) compared to SRS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2020.3.JNS193419DOI Listing

Clinical and radiographic adverse events after Gamma Knife radiosurgery for brainstem lesions: a dosimetric analysis.

Radiother Oncol 2020 May 12. Epub 2020 May 12.

Department of Neurosurgery, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, United States.

Objectives: To analyze the association between dose-volume relationships and adverse effects in brainstem lesions treated with Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS).

Methods: Treatment plans were generated on BrainLab Elements and GammaPlan software. Dosimetric data were analyzed as continuous variables for patients who received GKRS to brain metastases or arteriovenous malformations (AVM) within or abutting the brainstem. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radonc.2020.05.010DOI Listing

Combination treatments with immunotherapy in brain metastases patients.

Future Oncol 2020 May 15. Epub 2020 May 15.

Department of Pulmonary Diseases, GROW - School for Oncology & Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Center+, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) have revolutionized the treatment of many advanced cancers. However, in most pivotal trials, patients with brain metastases (BM) were either excluded, or only selected patients were allowed. Therefore, there are still some concerns about the safety/efficacy ratio of ICI in patients with BM. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/fon-2020-0156DOI Listing

A Population-Based Analysis of Distant Metastasis in Stage IV Gastric Cancer.

Med Sci Monit 2020 May 15;26:e923867. Epub 2020 May 15.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, First Affiliated Hospital, Army Medical University, Chongqing, China (mainland).

BACKGROUND Distant metastasis (DM) is a crucial problem in management of patients with gastric cancer. Identification of the risk factors for development of DM and the prognostic factors for patients with DM is essential in development of individualized treatment of patients at the advanced stage with specific metastasis. MATERIAL AND METHODS Records of patients with gastric cancer were extracted from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12659/MSM.923867DOI Listing

Direct evidence of the relationship between brain metastatic adenocarcinoma and white matter fibers: A fiber dissection and diffusion tensor imaging tractography study.

J Clin Neurosci 2020 May 11. Epub 2020 May 11.

Department of Neurosurgery, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Ishikawa, Japan.

It is commonly known that brain metastases usually have clear boundaries in magnetic resonance imaging. However, little is known regarding the trajectory of white matter fibers around the tumors, especially using the fiber dissection technique. Here, we focused on the anatomical interaction between white matter fibers and the tumor, using the fiber dissection in a postmortem brain with metastatic tumor and compared the findings with those of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jocn.2020.05.043DOI Listing

A Simple and Practical Scoring System for Radiosurgical Treatment in Patients with Brain Metastases.

Stereotact Funct Neurosurg 2020 May 14:1-8. Epub 2020 May 14.

Gamma Knife Center, Department of Neurosurgery, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Republic of Korea,

Background: The study aimed to investigate the prognostic factors for patients with brain metastases undergoing radiosurgical treatment and to introduce a simple and practical scoring system for the prediction of survival time.

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed data for 311 patients treated with Gamma Knife radiosurgery at a single institute. The mean age at time of treatment was 60 years (range 23-86 years), and the median Karnofsky performance status (KPS) score was 90 (range 60-100). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000507338DOI Listing

Hypomethylating Agent Azacitidine Is Effective in Treating Brain Metastasis Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Through Regulation of DNA Methylation of Keratin 18 Gene.

Transl Oncol 2020 May 11;13(6):100775. Epub 2020 May 11.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, West Virginia School of Osteopathic Medicine, 400 Lee Street North, Lewisburg, WV. Electronic address:

Breast cancer patients presenting with symptomatic brain metastases have poor prognosis, and current chemotherapeutic agents are largely ineffective. In this study, we evaluated the hypomethylating agent azacitidine (AZA) for its potential as a novel therapeutic in preclinical models of brain metastasis of breast cancer. We used the parental triple-negative breast cancer MDA-MB-231 (231) cells and their brain colonizing counterpart (231Br) to ascertain phenotypic differences in response to AZA. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tranon.2020.100775DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7225776PMC

Patterns of Metastasis in Merkel Cell Carcinoma.

Ann Surg Oncol 2020 May 13. Epub 2020 May 13.

Department of Surgery, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Background: Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a cutaneous neuroendocrine malignancy with a propensity for regional and distant spread. Because of the relative infrequency of this disease, the patterns of metastasis in MCC are understudied.

Methods: Patients with American Joint Committee on Cancer (8th edition) stage I-IV MCC treated at our institution were identified (1/1/2008-2/28/2018). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1245/s10434-020-08587-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7220648PMC

Expression of angiopoietin-like 4 fibrinogen-like domain (cANGPTL4) increases risk of brain metastases in women with breast cancer.

Oncotarget 2020 May 5;11(18):1590-1602. Epub 2020 May 5.

Université Paris Diderot, Inserm, UMR_S942, Paris, France.

Background: Brain metastases challenge daily clinical practice, and the mechanisms by which cancer cells cross the blood-brain barrier remain largely undeciphered. Angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4) proteolytic fragments have controversial biological effects on endothelium permeability. Here, we studied the link between ANGPTL4 and the risk of brain metastasis in cancer patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.27553DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7210011PMC

Meta-Analysis of Treatment Modalities in Metastatic Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumors in Children.

Pediatr Neurol 2020 May 8. Epub 2020 May 8.

The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus, Ohio; Division of Hematology, Oncology and Bone Marrow Transplant, Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, Ohio. Electronic address:

Background: Metastatic atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (AT/RTs) are aggressive central nervous system tumors that present during infancy and are associated with dismal outcomes. Patients receive multimodal treatment including surgical resection, systemic chemotherapy, and one or more of intrathecal chemotherapy (IT), marrow-ablative chemotherapy with autologous hematopoietic cell rescue (AuHCR) and radiation therapy (XRT). While data regarding treatment modalities for AT/RT patients exist, no comprehensive data have been published regarding the metastatic patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2020.03.003DOI Listing

Consensus Recommendations for Management and Counseling of Adverse Events Associated With Lorlatinib: A Guide for Healthcare Practitioners.

Adv Ther 2020 May 12. Epub 2020 May 12.

University of Missouri Health Care, Columbia, MO, USA.

Resistance to first- and second-generation anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and development and progression of central nervous system metastases remain significant issues in the treatment of ALK-positive non-small-cell lung cancer. Lorlatinib is a novel third-generation ALK TKI that is able to penetrate the blood-brain barrier and has broad-spectrum potency against most known resistance mutations that can develop during treatment with crizotinib and second-generation ALK TKIs. The safety profile of lorlatinib is distinct from those of other ALK TKIs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12325-020-01365-3DOI Listing

Molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying brain metastasis of breast cancer.

Cancer Metastasis Rev 2020 May 13. Epub 2020 May 13.

Division of Gene Regulation, Institute for Advanced Medical Research, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinano-machi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, 160-8582, Japan.

Metastasis of cancer cells to the brain occurs frequently in patients with certain subtypes of breast cancer. In particular, patients with HER2-positive or triple-negative breast cancer are at high risk for the development of brain metastases. Despite recent advances in the treatment of primary breast tumors, the prognosis of breast cancer patients with brain metastases remains poor. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10555-020-09881-yDOI Listing

LabBM Score and Extracranial Score As New Tools for Predicting Survival in Patients with Brain Metastases Treated with Focal Radiotherapy.

Cureus 2020 Apr 11;12(4):e7633. Epub 2020 Apr 11.

Oncology, Nordland Hospital Trust, Bodø, NOR.

Background Two recently validated, untraditional prognostic scores include serum albumin and lactate dehydrogenase, among other parameters. The latter are hemoglobin, platelet counts, and C-reactive protein (three-tiered LabBM score), whereas the four-tiered extracranial score includes more than one extracranial site of metastatic involvement. Until now, head-to-head comparisons of these two scores in patients treated with focal radiotherapy for newly diagnosed brain metastases are not available. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.7633DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7213767PMC

Perioperative imaging in patients treated with resection of brain metastases: a survey by the European Association of Neuro-Oncology (EANO) Youngsters committee.

BMC Cancer 2020 May 12;20(1):410. Epub 2020 May 12.

Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Background: Neurosurgical resection represents an important treatment option in the modern, multimodal therapy approach of brain metastases (BM). Guidelines for perioperative imaging exist for primary brain tumors to guide postsurgical treatment. Optimal perioperative imaging of BM patients is so far a matter of debate as no structured guidelines exist. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-020-06897-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7216695PMC

The Impact of Race and Age on Distribution of Metastases in Patients with Prostate Cancer.

J Urol 2020 May 12:101097JU0000000000001131. Epub 2020 May 12.

Cancer Prognostics and Health Outcomes Unit, Division of Urology, University of Montreal Health Center, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Background: Our objective was to investigate the effect of race and age on the distribution of prostate cancer (PCa) metastases.

Methods: Patients with metastatic PCa were abstracted from the National Inpatient Sample database (2008-2015).

Results: Of 6,963 patients with metastatic PCa, 3,881 (72. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JU.0000000000001131DOI Listing

Applications of radiomics and machine learning for radiotherapy of malignant brain tumors.

Strahlenther Onkol 2020 May 11. Epub 2020 May 11.

Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-3, -4), Research Center Juelich, Wilhelm-Johnen-Straße, 52428, Juelich, Germany.

Background: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and amino acid positron-emission tomography (PET) of the brain contain a vast amount of structural and functional information that can be analyzed by machine learning algorithms and radiomics for the use of radiotherapy in patients with malignant brain tumors.

Methods: This study is based on comprehensive literature research on machine learning and radiomics analyses in neuroimaging and their potential application for radiotherapy in patients with malignant glioma or brain metastases.

Results: Feature-based radiomics and deep learning-based machine learning methods can be used to improve brain tumor diagnostics and automate various steps of radiotherapy planning. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00066-020-01626-8DOI Listing

Metastatic non-functional paraganglioma to the lung.

J Cardiothorac Surg 2020 May 11;15(1):82. Epub 2020 May 11.

Department of Thoracic Oncology, King Hussein Cancer Center, Amman, Jordan.

Introduction: Paragangliomas are rare endocrine tumors that arise from the extra-adrenal autonomic paraganglia and sympathetic paragangliomas usually secret catecholamines and are located in the sympathetic paravertebral ganglia of thorax, abdomen, and pelvis. In contrast, most parasympathetic paragangliomas are nonfunctional and located along the glossopharyngeal and vagal nerves in the neck and at the base of the skull. Such neoplasms, although rare, are clinically important because they may recur after surgical resection and 10% of them give rise to metastases causing death with the lymphatic nodes, bones, liver, and lungs being the most common locations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13019-020-01113-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7216671PMC

Multiple intraventricular metastases from lung adenocarcinoma with EGFR G719X mutation: a case report.

BMC Pulm Med 2020 May 11;20(1):135. Epub 2020 May 11.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, China.

Background: Brain is one of the most common target organ of lung cancer metastasis, while descriptions of intraventricular carcinomatosis could hardly be found among previous cases. To date no cases from lung adenocarcinoma have been reported in the literature.

Case Presentation: We report here a case of multiple intraventricular metastases from lung adenocarcinoma with EGFR G719X mutation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12890-020-1168-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7216397PMC

Spinal metastasis of glioblastoma multiforme before gliosarcomatous transformation: a case report.

BMC Neurol 2020 May 11;20(1):178. Epub 2020 May 11.

Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Surgery, Shuang Ho Hospital, Taipei Medical University, No. 291, Zhongzheng Rd., Zhonghe District, New Taipei City, 235, Taiwan, R.O.C..

Background: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the most aggressive malignant brain tumors. Intracranial GBM metastases to the spine are rarely detected clinically. Secondary gliosarcomas after treatment of primary GBM are rarely described. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12883-020-01768-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7216360PMC

[Heterogeneity in PD-L1 expression on infiltrating immune cells between the primary and metastatic breast cancers].

Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi 2020 May;49(5):430-434

Department of Pathology, the Fourth Hospital of Hebei Medical University,Shijiazhuang 050011, China.

To investigate the expression difference in PD-L1 on mesenchymal infiltrating immune cells between the primary and metastatic breast cancers, and to explore its relationship with clinicopathological parameters. All cases of primary breast cancer and their matched metastases diagnosed at the Fourth Hospital of Hebei Medical University between January 2010 and December 2018 were included. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to detect the expression of PD-L1 (SP142) in interstitial infiltrating immune cells, and the expression of ER, PR, HER2 and Ki-67 in primary and matched metastases was detected. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn112151-20200225-00137DOI Listing

Metastatic Neuroendocrine Carcinoma Presenting with Bilateral Axillary Lymphadenopathy.

Cureus 2020 Apr 7;12(4):e7575. Epub 2020 Apr 7.

Radiology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, USA.

Metastatic, high-grade neuroendocrine carcinomas are frequently associated with small cell lung cancer (SCLC), classically spreading to the liver, bone, lung, and brain. Though SCLCs most commonly present as large masses interfering with the airway, this malignancy may appear initially as a benign mass at a distant site. This case profiles a 64-year-old woman who presented with bilateral breast masses that were identified as metastases of poorly differentiated, high-grade neuroendocrine SCLC through mammogram, ultrasound, CT, and core biopsy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.7575DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7205366PMC

A National Consensus Survey for Current Practice in Brain Tumor Management III: Brain Metastasis and Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma.

Brain Tumor Res Treat 2020 Apr;8(1):20-28

Department of Cancer Control, Graduate School of Cancer Science and Policy, National Cancer Center, Goyang, Korea.

Background: The Guideline Working Group of the Korean Society for Neuro-Oncology (KSNO) conducted the nationwide questionnaire survey for diverse queries facing to treat patients with brain tumor. As part III of the survey, the aim of this study is to evaluate the national patterns of clinical practice for patients with brain metastasis and primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL).

Methods: A web-based survey was sent to all members of the KSNO by email. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14791/btrt.2020.8.e7DOI Listing

Metronomic chemotherapy of cyclophosphamide plus methotrexate for advanced breast cancer: Real-world data analyses and experience of one center.

Cancer Commun (Lond) 2020 May 11;40(5):222-233. Epub 2020 May 11.

Department of Medical Oncology, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 510060, P. R. China.

Background: Real-world data of the CM regimen [cyclophosphamide (CTX) plus methotrexate (MTX)] in metronomic pattern for advanced breast cancer is limited to small-sample or retrospective studies. This study was aimed to determine the effectiveness and safety of CM regimen in treating advanced breast cancer and to identify which patients are most likely to benefit from metronomic CM regimen.

Methods: Patients with advanced breast cancer who received the metronomic CM regimen at least once between January 2009 and February 2019 in Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center were included. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cac2.12029DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7238669PMC

Prostate-specific membrane antigen expression in the vasculature of primary lung carcinomas associates with faster metastatic dissemination to the brain.

J Cell Mol Med 2020 May 11. Epub 2020 May 11.

Translational Cancer Medicine Research Program, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

Glioblastomas and brain metastases (BM) of solid tumours are the most common central nervous system neoplasms associated with very unfavourable prognosis. In this study, we report the association of prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) with various clinical parameters in a large cohort of primary and secondary brain tumours. A tissue microarray containing 371 cases of ascending grades of gliomas pertaining to astrocytic origin and samples of 52 cases of primary lung carcinomas with matching BM with follow-up time accounting to 10. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcmm.15350DOI Listing

Programmed Death Ligand 1 Heterogeneity and its Impact on Benefit from Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

J Thorac Oncol 2020 May 7. Epub 2020 May 7.

Department of Thoracic/Head and Neck Medical Oncology, the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas; Department of Genomic Medicine, the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas. Electronic address:

Introduction: PD-L1 expression may vary in different disease sites and at different time points of disease course. We aimed to investigate PD-L1 heterogeneity and its impact on the predictive value on immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapy in NSCLC patients.

Methods: PD-L1 expression was analyzed in 1,398 NSCLC patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtho.2020.04.026DOI Listing

Defining oligometastatic disease from a radiation oncology perspective: An ESTRO-ASTRO consensus document.

Radiother Oncol 2020 Apr 22;148:157-166. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

Department of Radiation Oncology, UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, USA.

Background: Recognizing the rapidly increasing interest and evidence in using metastasis-directed radiotherapy (MDRT) for oligometastatic disease (OMD), ESTRO and ASTRO convened a committee to establish consensus regarding definitions of OMD and define gaps in current evidence.

Methods: A systematic literature review focused on curative intent MDRT was performed in Medline, Embase and Cochrane. Subsequent consensus opinion, using a Delphi process, highlighted the current state of evidence and the limitations in the available literature. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radonc.2020.04.003DOI Listing

A HER2 Antibody Drug Conjugate Controls Growth of Breast Cancer Brain Metastases in Hematogenous Xenograft Models, with Heterogeneous Blood-Tumor Barrier Penetration Unlinked to a Passive Marker.

Neuro Oncol 2020 May 9. Epub 2020 May 9.

Women's Malignancies Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD.

Background: Brain metastases of HER2+ breast cancer persist as a clinical challenge. Many HER2-directed therapeutics are antibodies or antibody drug conjugates, and their permeability through the blood-tumor barrier is poorly understood. We investigated the efficacy of a biparatopic anti-HER2 Antibody-Tubulysin Conjugate (bHER2-ATC) in preclinical models of brain metastases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/neuonc/noaa118DOI Listing

Clinical dose profile of Gamma Knife stereotactic radiosurgery for extensive brain metastases.

J Neurosurg 2020 May 8:1-5. Epub 2020 May 8.

3Neurological Surgery and the Center for Image-Guided Neurosurgery, University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; and.

Objective: The use of Gamma Knife stereotactic radiosurgery (GKSRS) for the treatment of extensive intracranial metastases has been expanding due to its superior dosimetry and efficacy. However, there remains a dearth of data regarding the dose parameters in actual clinical scenarios. The authors endeavored to calculate the radiation dose to the brain when treating ≥ 15 brain metastases with GKSRS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2020.3.JNS193369DOI Listing