10,805 results match your criteria Brain Imaging in Multiple Sclerosis


Cognitive impairment in benign multiple sclerosis: a multiparametric structural and functional MRI study.

J Neurol 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Neuroimaging Research Unit, Institute of Experimental Neurology, Division of Neuroscience, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy.

Introduction: The substrates of cognitive impairment in benign MS (BMS) still need to be identified. We investigated whether cognitive impairment in BMS patients is associated with specific patterns of brain structural and functional abnormalities.

Methods: Thirty-seven BMS patients (EDSS score ≤ 3. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00415-020-10025-zDOI Listing

Impact of multiple sclerosis risk loci in postinfectious neurological syndromes.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2020 Jun 24;44:102326. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Fondazione Istituto Neurologico Nazionale IRCCS Mondino, via Mondino 2, 27100 Pavia, Italy.

Background: The genetic component of multiple sclerosis (MS) is now set to 200 autosomal common variants. However, it is unclear how genetic knowledge be clinically used in the differential diagnosis between MS and other inflammatory conditions like adult-onset postinfectious neurological syndromes (PINS). The aim of this study was to investigate whether PINS and MS have a shared genetic background using an updated polygenic risk scores. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msard.2020.102326DOI Listing

A case of possible atypical demyelinating event of the central nervous system following COVID-19.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2020 Jun 24;44:102324. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Professor of Neurology, Multiple Sclerosis Research Center, Neuroscience Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

After the novel coronavirus disease outbreak first began in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, the viral epidemic has quickly spread across the world, and it is now a major public health concern. Here we present a 21-year-old male with encephalomyelitis following intermittent vomiting and malaise for 4 days. He reported upper respiratory signs and symptoms 2 weeks before this presentation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msard.2020.102324DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7311915PMC

Sex-specific differences in rim appearance of multiple sclerosis lesions on quantitative susceptibility mapping.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2020 Jun 18;45:102317. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States; Department of Neurology Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States; Department of Neurology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 110 South Paca Street, 3(rd) Floor, Baltimore, Maryland 201201. Electronic address:

Background: Susceptibility MRI techniques, such as phase and quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) reveal lesion heterogeneity in MS, including the presence of lesions with outer rims suggestive of iron accumulation in macrophages and microglia, indicative of chronic-active inflammatory white matter lesions (WMLs).

Objective: To evaluate the in vivo relationship between chronic-active WMLs (as visualized by rimmed lesions on QSM) and several clinical metrics.

Methods: 39 patients (15 men, 24 women) with MS underwent 7 Tesla brain MRIs and clinical evaluation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msard.2020.102317DOI Listing

Can t2 blackout effect be A marker of iron accumulation in brains of multiple sclerosis patients ?: A qualitative study.

Br J Radiol 2020 Jul 1:20200552. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Department of Radiology, Inonu UniversityFaculty of Medicine, Malatya, Turkey.

Objective: T2blackout (TBO) effect, which is a commonfinding in thebrains of multiplesclerosis (MS) patients and older population that are imaged for other reasons on diffusion weighted imagings (DWI) and apparent diffusion coefficent map (ADC) shows the existence of paramagnetic materials in thetissue. Becauseiron is known to accumulate in especially deep graymatter (DGM) structures in MS brains, we aimed to investigate the relationship between TBO and clinico-radiological parameters that may be iron-related in MS.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the latest MR images of MS patients on 3 Tesla MR scanner between 2018-2019. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1259/bjr.20200552DOI Listing

Recommendations of the Polish Medical Society of Radiology and the Polish Society of Neurology for the routinely used magnetic resonance imaging protocol in patients with multiple sclerosis.

Pol J Radiol 2020 26;85:e272-e276. Epub 2020 May 26.

Department of Radiology, Medical Centre for Postgraduate Education, Warsaw, Poland.

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a widely used method for the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) that is essential for the detection and follow-up of the disease. The Polish Medical Society of Radiology (PLTR) and the Polish Society of Neurology (PTN) present the second version of the recommendations for examinations routinely conducted in magnetic resonance imaging departments in patients with MS, which include new data and practical comments for electroradiology technicians and radiologists. The recommended protocol aims to improve the MRI procedure and, most importantly, to standardise the method of conducting scans in all MRI departments. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5114/pjr.2020.96010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7315047PMC

Neurologic and Radiographic Findings Associated With COVID-19 Infection in Children.

JAMA Neurol 2020 Jul 1. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Department of Neurology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London, United Kingdom.

Importance: Neurological manifestations have been reported in adults with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by the highly pathogenic virus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2).

Objective: To report the neurological manifestations of children with COVID-19.

Design, Setting, And Participants: In this case-series study, patients younger than 18 years who presented with SARS-CoV-2 infection and neurological symptoms to Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children (London, UK) between March 1, 2020, and May 8, 2020, were included after infection was confirmed by either a quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay by nasopharyngeal swab or a positive test result for IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in serum. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaneurol.2020.2687DOI Listing

Structural Neural Correlates of Impaired Postural Control in People with Secondary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis.

Int J MS Care 2020 May-Jun;22(3):123-128. Epub 2019 Aug 29.

Background: Secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS) is characterized by worsening of postural control and brain atrophy. However, little is known about postural deficits and their neuroanatomical correlates in this population. We aimed to determine the neuroanatomical correlates of postural deficits in people with SPMS and whether posture control deteriorates concomitantly with the brain and spinal cord atrophy in 2 years in SPMS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7224/1537-2073.2019-004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7307870PMC

Change in Functional Brain Activation Patterns Induced by Olfactory Stimulation in Multiple Sclerosis.

Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 2020 9;16:1451-1458. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Department of Neurology, Affiliated Hospital of North Sichuan Medical College, Nanchong 637000, People's Republic of China.

Background: Olfactory disorder is one of the commonly appearing symptoms in diseases like Parkinson's disease (PD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, reports of olfactory changes in multiple sclerosis (MS) are scarce and usually ignored or seldom recognized by clinicians. The majority of current research is based on subjective answers obtained by smelling odorants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S252933DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7294099PMC

Inversion Recovery Susceptibility Weighted Imaging With Enhanced T2 Weighting at 3 T Improves Visualization of Subpial Cortical Multiple Sclerosis Lesions.

Invest Radiol 2020 Jun 22. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

From the Translational Neuroradiology Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke.

Objectives: Cortical demyelination is common in multiple sclerosis (MS) and can be extensive. Cortical lesions contribute to disability independently from white matter lesions and may form via a distinct mechanism. However, current magnetic resonance imaging methods at 3 T are insensitive to cortical, and especially subpial cortical, lesions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RLI.0000000000000698DOI Listing

In vivo Characterization of Four F-Labeled S1PR1 Tracers for Neuroinflammation.

Mol Imaging Biol 2020 Jun 29. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Department of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, 510 S. Kingshighway Blvd., St. Louis, MO, 63110, USA.

Purpose: The sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1PR1) is an important biomarker for imaging inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS). Herein, we report our recent evaluation of four F-labeled S1PR1 tracers (F-TZ43113, F-TZ35104, F-TZ4877, and F-TZ4881) in a rat model of multiple sclerosis (MS).

Procedures: MicroPET studies of each tracer's uptake and kinetics were performed in an experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) rat model of MS to quantify upregulated S1PR1 expression in the lumbar spinal cord of EAE rats. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11307-020-01514-8DOI Listing

Phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy and fatigue in multiple sclerosis.

J Neural Transm (Vienna) 2020 Jun 28. Epub 2020 Jun 28.

Service de Neuroradiologie, Hôpital Henri-Mondor, 51 avenue du Maréchal de Lattre de Tassigny, 94010, Créteil Cedex, France.

Fatigue stands among the most debilitating multiple sclerosis (MS) manifestations. Several pathophysiological mechanisms have been proposed at its origin. However, unmet needs still exist, and further investigations are required to better understand and manage this complaint. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00702-020-02221-yDOI Listing
June 2020
2.402 Impact Factor

Subsampled brain MRI reconstruction by generative adversarial neural networks.

Med Image Anal 2020 Jun 11;65:101747. Epub 2020 Jun 11.

The School of Electrical and Computer Engineering The Zlotowski Center for Neuroscience Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Israel. Electronic address:

A main challenge in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is speeding up scan time. Beyond improving patient experience and reducing operational costs, faster scans are essential for time-sensitive imaging, such as fetal, cardiac, or functional MRI, where temporal resolution is important and target movement is unavoidable, yet must be reduced. Current MRI acquisition methods speed up scan time at the expense of lower spatial resolution and costlier hardware. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.media.2020.101747DOI Listing

Insights into Endothelin-3 and Multiple Sclerosis.

Biomol Concepts 2020 Jun 25;11(1):137-141. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Neurology and Neurophysiology Unit, Dpt. of Neurology and Human Movement Sciences, University Hospital of Siena, Santa Maria alle Scotte, Viale Bracci 2 53100 Siena, Italy.

Endothelins are powerful vasoconstrictor peptides that play numerous other roles. Endothelin-1 (ET1) is the principal isoform produced by the endothelium in the human cardiovascular system. Endothelin-3 (ET3) and its rPptor affinity have been demonstrated to support neuronal repair mechanisms throughout life. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/bmc-2020-0012DOI Listing

Impact of Lesion Location on Longitudinal Myelin Water Fraction Change in Chronic Multiple Sclerosis Lesions.

J Neuroimaging 2020 Jun 24. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Department of Radiology, Weil Cornell Medicine, New York City, NY.

Background And Purpose: To examine the impact of lesion location on longitudinal myelin water fraction (MWF) changes in chronic multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions. Relative hypoxia, due to vascular watershed regions of the cerebrum, has been implicated in lesion development but impact on ongoing demyelination is unknown.

Methods: Forty-eight patients with relapsing-remitting and secondary progressive MS had two MWF scans with fast acquisition, spiral trajectory, and T2prep (FAST-T2) sequence, at an interval of 2. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jon.12716DOI Listing

Cervical Spinal Cord Lesions and Atrophy versus Brain Measures in Explaining Physical Disability in Multiple Sclerosis.

Radiology 2020 Jun 23:202304. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

From the Buffalo Neuroimaging Analysis Center, Department of Neurology, Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences (R.Z., N.B.), and Center for Biomedical Imaging at the Clinical Translational Science Institute (R.Z.), University at Buffalo, State University of New York, 100 High St, Buffalo, NY 14203; and IRCCS, Fondazione Don Carlo Gnocchi, Milan, Italy (N.B.).

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1148/radiol.2020202304DOI Listing

Clinical Relevance of Multiparametric MRI Assessment of Cervical Cord Damage in Multiple Sclerosis.

Radiology 2020 Jun 23:200430. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

From the Neuroimaging Research Unit, Institute of Experimental Neurology, Division of Neuroscience (R.B., E.P., A.M., L.C., P.P., E.D.M., M.F., M.A.R.), Neurology Unit (R.B., L.C., P.P., E.D.M., M.F., M.A.R.), and Neurophysiology Unit (M.F.), IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Via Olgettina 60, Milan 20132, Italy; and Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy (R.B., L.C., E.D.M., M.F.).

Background In multiple sclerosis (MS), knowledge about how spinal cord abnormalities translate into clinical manifestations is incomplete. Comprehensive, multiparametric MRI studies are useful in this perspective, but studies for the spinal cord are lacking. Purpose To identify MRI features of cervical spinal cord damage that could help predict disability and disease course in MS by using a comprehensive, multiparametric MRI approach. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1148/radiol.2020200430DOI Listing

Multiple sclerosis lesions in motor tracts from brain to cervical cord: spatial distribution and correlation with disability.

Brain 2020 Jun 23. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

NeuroPoly Lab, Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Polytechnique Montreal, Montreal, Canada.

Despite important efforts to solve the clinico-radiological paradox, correlation between lesion load and physical disability in patients with multiple sclerosis remains modest. One hypothesis could be that lesion location in corticospinal tracts plays a key role in explaining motor impairment. In this study, we describe the distribution of lesions along the corticospinal tracts from the cortex to the cervical spinal cord in patients with various disease phenotypes and disability status. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/awaa162DOI Listing

Unilateral Optic Neuritis in Children: Experience of a Tertiary Centre.

Eur Neurol 2020 Jun 22:121-128. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Centre for Child Development - Neuropediatrics Unit, Hospital Pediátrico, Centro Hospitalar e Universitário de Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal.

Introduction: Optic neuritis (ON) is an inflammation of the optic nerve that can be associated with a multitude of different systemic conditions and primary CNS disorders. In children, only around 25% of unilateral ON cases are considered idiopathic. Despite being considered a clinical diagnosis per se, neuroimaging plays a crucial role in the diagnostic pathway for these patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000508070DOI Listing

Conversion of clinically isolated syndrome to multiple sclerosis: a prospective study.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2020 Jun 4;44:102262. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic; Department of Neurology, University Hospital Brno, Czech Republic. Electronic address:

Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) begins with an acute clinical attack (clinically isolated syndrome) in approximately 85% of patients. The conversion rate from clinically isolated syndrome to multiple sclerosis has been documented at 30% to 82% in previous studies. When an individual presents for evaluation after a single episode of inflammation of the CNS, several decisions regarding follow-up in subsequent years need to be made, including that of whether or not to start a therapy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msard.2020.102262DOI Listing

7T MPFLAIR versus MP2RAGE for Quantifying Lesion Volume in Multiple Sclerosis.

J Neuroimaging 2020 Jun 22. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Department of Neurology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD.

Background And Purpose: Use of fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) scans to quantify multiple sclerosis (MS) lesion volume on 7 Tesla (7T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has many downsides, including poor image homogeneity. There are little data about the relative benefit of alternative modalities. The purpose of this paper is to investigate if magnetization-prepared 2 rapid acquisition gradient echo (MP2RAGE) is a viable alternative to FLAIR for robust lesion volume measurement and disability correlations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jon.12718DOI Listing

Consensus Guidelines of the French Society of Neuroradiology (SFNR) on the use of Gadolinium-Based Contrast agents (GBCAs) and related MRI protocols in Neuroradiology.

J Neuroradiol 2020 06 18. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

MRI center, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon, France; Université Lyon 1, CREATIS-LRMN, CNRS/UMR/5220-INSERM U630, Villeurbanne, France.

Gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) are used in up to 35% of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations and are associated with an excellent safety profile. Nevertheless, two main issues have arisen in the last two decades: the risk of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis and the risk of gadolinium deposition and retention. As a first step, this article reviews the different categories of GBCAs available in neuroradiology, their issues, and provides updates regarding the use of these agents in routine daily practice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neurad.2020.05.008DOI Listing

Clinico-radiological dissociation of disease activity in MS patients: frequency and clinical relevance.

J Neurol 2020 Jun 20. Epub 2020 Jun 20.

Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam UMC, Location VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Objective: To investigate the prevalence and clinical relevance regarding disability progression in multiple sclerosis patients with a dissociation in clinical and radiological disease expression.

Methods: We prospectively selected patients with early relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) or a clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) from the Amsterdam MS cohort. Patients underwent clinical examination at baseline, after 2 years, 6 years and a subset also after 11 years, including the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), 25-foot walk test (25-FWT) and 9-hole peg test (9-HPT). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00415-020-09991-1DOI Listing

Nocebo and lessebo effects.

Authors:
Tiago A Mestre

Int Rev Neurobiol 2020 9;153:121-146. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

University of Ottawa Brain and Mind Research Institute, Ottawa, ON, Canada; The Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Ottawa, ON, Canada; Division of Neurology, Department of Medicine, The Ottawa Hospital, Ottawa, ON, Canada. Electronic address:

The power of placebos is commonly associated with the placebo effect. In contrast, detrimental effects related to the use of a placebo are little studied and less well recognized. This chapter covers the nocebo and lessebo effects defined, respectively, as expectation of harm in the form of adverse events in a placebo arm and reduction of therapeutic benefit due to the uncertainty of being allocated to placebo. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.irn.2020.04.005DOI Listing

Clinical and radiological profile of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders in an Ecuadorian cohort.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2020 May 28;44:102208. Epub 2020 May 28.

Department of Neurology. Hospital Carlos Andrade Marín. Address: Avenida 18 de Septiembre y Ayacucho. Quito, Ecuador. Electronic address:

Background: Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is a complex disease characterized by a severe inflammation of the central nervous system (CNS). This disease typically manifests with recurrent optic neuritis (ON) and acute transverse myelitis (ATM). The clinical and radiological spectrum of NMOSD is little known in Latin America (LATAM) and few reports have been published in the literature so far. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msard.2020.102208DOI Listing

Approved and Emerging Disease Modifying Therapies on Neurodegeneration in Multiple Sclerosis.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Jun 17;21(12). Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Department of Neurology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201, USA.

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune, chronic, progressive disease leading to a combination of inflammation, demyelination, and neurodegeneration throughout the central nervous system (CNS). The outcome of these processes can be visualized in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans as brain atrophy, or brain volume loss (BVL), as well as lesions, "black holes" and spinal cord atrophy. MRI outcomes such as BVL have been used as biomarkers of neurodegeneration and other measures of MS disease progression in clinical research settings. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21124312DOI Listing

Efficacy of levetiracetam on upper limb movement in multiple sclerosis patients with cerebellar signs: a multicenter double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study.

Eur J Neurol 2020 Jun 17. Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Department of Medical, Surgical Science and Advanced Technology "GF Ingrassia", University of Catania, Catania, Italy.

Background: The literature provides contrasting results on the efficacy of levetiracetam (LEV) in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients with cerebellar signs. We sought to evaluate the efficacy of LEV on upper limb movement in MS patients.

Methods: In this multicenter double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study, MS patients with prevalently cerebellar signs were randomly allocated into two groups: LEV followed by placebo (Group 1) or placebo followed by LEV (Group 2). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ene.14403DOI Listing

Acoustic Speech Analytics Are Predictive of Cerebellar Dysfunction in Multiple Sclerosis.

Cerebellum 2020 Jun 18. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Department of Neurology, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville, Australia.

Speech production relies on motor control and cognitive processing and is linked to cerebellar function. In diseases where the cerebellum is impaired, such as multiple sclerosis (MS), speech abnormalities are common and can be detected by instrumental assessments. However, the potential of speech assessments to be used to monitor cerebellar impairment in MS remains unexplored. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12311-020-01151-5DOI Listing

Using amyloid PET imaging to diagnose Alzheimer's disease in patients with multiple sclerosis.

J Neurol 2020 Jun 18. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Department of Brain Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, W6 8RP, UK.

Background: Cognitive dysfunction affects 40-60% of individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS). The neuropsychological profile commonly consists of a subcortical pattern of deficits, although a proportion of patients have a severe progressive cortical dementia. However, patients with MS can be affected by other neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00415-020-09969-zDOI Listing

Critical spinal cord lesions associate with secondary progressive motor impairment in long-standing MS: A population-based case-control study.

Mult Scler 2020 Jun 18:1352458520929192. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN, USA/Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN, USA.

Background: Progressive motor impairment anatomically attributable to prominent, focally atrophic lateral column spinal cord lesions ("critical lesions") can be seen in multiple sclerosis (MS), for example, progressive hemiparetic MS.

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate whether similar spinal cord lesions are more frequent in long-standing MS patients with secondary progressive motor impairment (secondary progressive MS (SPMS)) versus those maintaining a relapsing-remitting course (relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS)).

Methods: We retrospectively identified Olmsted County (MN, USA) residents on 31 December 2011 with (1) RRMS or SPMS for ⩾25 years, and (2) available brain and spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1352458520929192DOI Listing

Use of Multiplied, Added, Subtracted and/or FiTted Inversion Recovery (MASTIR) pulse sequences.

Quant Imaging Med Surg 2020 Jun;10(6):1334-1369

Department of Radiology, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA, USA.

The group of Multiplied, Added, Subtracted and/or fiTted Inversion Recovery (MASTIR) pulse sequences in which usually two or more inversion recovery (IR) images of different types are combined is described, and uses for this type of sequence are outlined. IR sequences of different types can be multiplied, added, subtracted, and/or fitted together to produce variants of the MASTIR sequence. The sequences provide a range of options for increasing image contrast, demonstrating specific tissues and fluids of interest, and suppressing unwanted signals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/qims-20-568DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7276363PMC

Baseline cerebral metabolism predicts fatigue and cognition in Multiple Sclerosis patients.

Neuroimage Clin 2020 May 26;27:102281. Epub 2020 May 26.

School of Behavioral and Brain Sciences, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX, USA; Department of Psychiatry, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA.

Background: Cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO), a measure of global oxygen metabolism, reflects resting cellular activity. The mechanisms underlying fatigue and cognitive dysfunction in multiple sclerosis (MS) remain unknown. If fatigue indeed reflects ongoing autoimmune activity and cortical reorganization, and cognitive decline is the result of gray matter atrophy and white matter degeneration, we postulate that changes in CMRO should reflect disease activity and predict these symptoms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nicl.2020.102281DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7298673PMC

Epstein Barr virus-immortalized B lymphocytes exacerbate experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in xenograft mice.

J Med Virol 2020 Jun 16. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Nebraska Center for Virology, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE, 68583.

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common autoimmune disorder affecting the central nervous system. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a causative agent for infectious mononucleosis (IM) that is associated with MS pathogenesis. However, the exact mechanism by which EBV, specifically in IM, increases the risk for MS remains unknown. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.26188DOI Listing

Enlarged perivascular spaces in multiple sclerosis on magnetic resonance imaging: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

J Neurol 2020 Jun 13. Epub 2020 Jun 13.

Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Background: Perivascular spaces can become detectable on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) upon enlargement, referred to as enlarged perivascular spaces (EPVS) or Virchow-Robin spaces. EPVS have been linked to small vessel disease. Some studies have also indicated an association of EPVS to neuroinflammation and/or neurodegeneration. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00415-020-09971-5DOI Listing

Myelination- and immune-mediated MR-based brain network correlates.

J Neuroinflammation 2020 Jun 12;17(1):186. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Department of Neurology with Institute of Translational Neurology, Münster University Hospital, Münster, Germany.

Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS), characterized by inflammatory and neurodegenerative processes. Despite demyelination being a hallmark of the disease, how it relates to neurodegeneration has still not been completely unraveled, and research is still ongoing into how these processes can be tracked non-invasively. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) derived brain network characteristics, which closely mirror disease processes and relate to functional impairment, recently became important variables for characterizing immune-mediated neurodegeneration; however, their histopathological basis remains unclear. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12974-020-01827-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7293122PMC

Microstructural white matter abnormalities in hypothyroidism evaluation with diffusion tensor imaging tract-based spatial statistical analysis.

Radiol Med 2020 Jun 10. Epub 2020 Jun 10.

Department of Radiology, Ondokuz Mayıs University Faculty of Medicine, Samsun, Turkey.

Purpose: Hypothyroidism is presented in a wide range from neuropsychiatric problems including depression, memory and cognitive disorders to poor motor coordination. Against the background of morphologic, functional and molecular changes on the white and grey matter of the brain, we aimed to investigate the effects of hypothyroidism on white matter (WM) integrity using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS).

Methods: Eighteen patients with hyperthyroidism and 14 age-sex-matched healthy control subjects were included in this study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11547-020-01234-7DOI Listing

Voxel-Based Morphometry-from Hype to Hope. A Study on Hippocampal Atrophy in Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 Jun;41(6):987-993

From the Hietzing Hospital with Neurological Center Rosenhügel & Karl Landsteiner Institute for Clinical Epilepsy Research and Cognitive Neurology (F.R., J.B., C.B.), Vienna, Austria.

Background And Purpose: Automated volumetry of the hippocampus is considered useful to assist the diagnosis of hippocampal sclerosis in temporal lobe epilepsy. However, voxel-based morphometry is rarely used for individual subjects because of high rates of false-positives. We investigated whether an approach with high dimensional warping to the template and nonparametric statistics would be useful to detect hippocampal atrophy in patients with hippocampal sclerosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6545DOI Listing

Neuroimaging in tuberous sclerosis complex.

Childs Nerv Syst 2020 Jun 9. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Department of Pediatric Neurosciences, Pediatric Neurosurgery Unit, Santobono-Pausilipon Children's Hospital, Via Mario Fiore n. 6, 80129, Naples, Italy.

Introduction: Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder affecting multiple systems, due to inactivating mutations of TSC1 or TSC2 mTOR pathway genes. Neurological manifestations are observed in about 95% cases, representing the most frequent cause of morbidity and one of the most common causes of mortality.

Background: Neuroimaging is crucial for early diagnosis, monitoring, and management of these patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00381-020-04705-4DOI Listing

Transplantation of induced neural stem cells (iNSCs) into chronically demyelinated corpus callosum ameliorates motor deficits.

Acta Neuropathol Commun 2020 Jun 9;8(1):84. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Department of Anatomy, Physiology and Genetics, F. Edward Hebert School of Medicine, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Rd, Bethesda, MD, 20814, USA.

Multiple Sclerosis (MS) causes neurologic disability due to inflammation, demyelination, and neurodegeneration. Immunosuppressive treatments can modify the disease course but do not effectively promote remyelination or prevent long term neurodegeneration. As a novel approach to mitigate chronic stage pathology, we tested transplantation of mouse induced neural stem cells (iNSCs) into the chronically demyelinated corpus callosum (CC) in adult mice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40478-020-00960-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7285785PMC

Erratum: Puscas, I.; et al. IVIVC Assessment of Two Mouse Brain Endothelial Cell Models for Drug Screening. 2019, , 587.

Pharmaceutics 2020 Jun 4;12(6). Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Faculty of Pharmacy, Université de Montréal, CP6128 Succursale Centre-ville, Montreal, QC H3C 3J7, Canada.

The authors wish to make the following corrections to this paper [... Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12060514DOI Listing

Identifying Progression In Multiple Sclerosis: New Perspectives.

Ann Neurol 2020 Jun 7. Epub 2020 Jun 7.

Neuroimaging Research Unit, Institute of Experimental Neurology, Division of Neuroscience, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy.

The identification of progression in multiple sclerosis is typically retrospective. Given the profound burden of progressive multiple sclerosis, and the recent development of effective treatments for these patients, there is a need to establish measures capable of identifying progressive multiple sclerosis early in the disease course. Starting from recent pathological findings, this review assesses the state-of-the-art of potential measures able to predict progressive multiple sclerosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ana.25808DOI Listing

Thirty years of translational research in Mobility Medicine: Collection of abstracts of the 2020 Padua Muscle Days.

Authors:
Ugo Carraro

Eur J Transl Myol 2020 Apr 1;30(1):8826. Epub 2020 Apr 1.

Interdepartmental Research Centre of Myology (CIR-Myo), Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Padova, Italy.

More than half a century of skeletal muscle research is continuing at Padua University (Italy) under the auspices of the Interdepartmental Research Centre of Myology (CIR-Myo), the European Journal of Translational Myology (EJTM) and recently also with the support of the A&CM-C Foundation for Translational Myology, Padova, Italy. The Volume 30(1), 2020 of the EJTM opens with the collection of abstracts for the conference "2020 Padua Muscle Days: Mobility Medicine 30 years of Translational Research". This is an international conference that will be held between March 18-21, 2020 in Euganei Hills and Padova in Italy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4081/ejtm.2019.8826DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7254447PMC

Clinical features and genetic risk of demyelination following anti-TNF treatment.

J Crohns Colitis 2020 Jun 4. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

IBD Pharmacogenetics Group, University of Exeter, Exeter, UK.

Background: Anti-TNF exposure has been linked to demyelination events. We sought to describe the clinical features of demyelination events following anti-TNF treatment and test whether affected patients were genetically predisposed to multiple sclerosis (MS).

Methods: We conducted a case-control study to describe the clinical features of demyelination events following anti-TNF. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ecco-jcc/jjaa104DOI Listing

A Scope of the Social Brain in Multiple Sclerosis: Insights From Neuroimaging Studies.

Cogn Behav Neurol 2020 Jun;33(2):90-102

Excitabilité Nerveuse et Thérapeutique, Université Paris-Est-Créteil, Créteil, France.

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common inflammatory neurologic disease in young adults. Its pathological mechanisms include demyelination, neurodegeneration, and synaptopathy. Cognitive deficits occur in up to 65% of individuals with MS and affect both nonsocial (eg, information processing speed, memory, and executive functions) and social (ie, emotion recognition, theory of mind, and empathy) cognitive domains. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/WNN.0000000000000227DOI Listing
June 2020
1.138 Impact Factor

Inversion recovery zero echo time (IR-ZTE) imaging for direct myelin detection in human brain: a feasibility study.

Quant Imaging Med Surg 2020 May;10(5):895-906

Department of Radiology, University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA, USA.

Background: Myelin alteration is closely associated with neurological diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS). Unfortunately, due to myelin's extremely short T2* (~0.3 ms or shorter at 3T), it cannot be directly imaged with conventional MR imaging techniques. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/qims.2020.04.13DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7242298PMC

Novel Automated Method for the Detection of White Matter Hyperintensities in Brain Multispectral MR Images.

Curr Med Imaging 2020 ;16(5):469-478

Department of Radiology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan.

Background: According to the Standards for Reporting Vascular Changes on Neuroimaging, White Matter Hyperintensities (WMHs) are cerebral white matter lesions that are characterized by abnormal tissues of variable sizes and appear hyperintense in T2-weighted Magnetic Resonance (MR) measurements without cavitation (i.e., their tissue signals differ from those of Cerebrospinal Fluid or CSF). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1573405614666180801112844DOI Listing
January 2020

Explorative study of emerging blood biomarkers in progressive multiple sclerosis (EmBioProMS): Design of a prospective observational multicentre pilot study.

Contemp Clin Trials Commun 2020 Jun 19;18:100574. Epub 2020 May 19.

Department of Neurology, University Hospital of Ulm, Ulm, Germany.

Background: Defining clinical and subclinical progression in multiple sclerosis (MS) is challenging. Patient history, expanded disability status scale (EDSS), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) all have shortcomings and may underestimate disease dynamics. Emerging serum biomarkers such as glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and neurofilament light chain (NfL) proved useful in many cross-sectional studies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conctc.2020.100574DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7251538PMC

Four cases of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in iatrogenic immunocompromised patients.

eNeurologicalSci 2020 Jun 17;19:100243. Epub 2020 May 17.

Department of Biomedicine, Neuroscience & Advanced Diagnostic, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy.

Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) caused by John Cunningham Virus (JCV). We report four PML cases in immunocompromised patients, respectively treated with (1) Natalizumab, (2) Rituximab, (3) autologous stem-cell transplantation, and (4) Tacrolimus. All patients underwent neurological examination, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), JCV-DNA research on biological samples, and lymphocytes subpopulation study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ensci.2020.100243DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7248236PMC

Five-year longitudinal changes in quantitative spinal cord MRI in multiple sclerosis.

Mult Scler 2020 Jun 1:1352458520923970. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Background: The spinal cord (SC) is highly relevant to disability in multiple sclerosis (MS), but few studies have evaluated longitudinal changes in quantitative spinal cord magnetic resonance imaging (SC-MRI).

Objectives: The aim of this study was to characterize the relationships between 5-year changes in SC-MRI with disability in MS.

Methods: In total, 75 MS patients underwent 3 T SC-MRI and clinical assessment (expanded disability status scale (EDSS) and MS functional composite (MSFC)) at baseline, 2 and 5 years. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1352458520923970DOI Listing
June 2020
4.822 Impact Factor

Sodium in the Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis Spinal Cord: Increased Concentrations and Associations With Microstructural Tissue Anisotropy.

J Magn Reson Imaging 2020 Jun 1. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

NMR Research Unit, Queen Square MS Centre, UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology, Faculty of Brain Sciences, University College London, London, UK.

Background: Associations between brain total sodium concentration, disability, and disease progression have recently been reported in multiple sclerosis. However, such measures in spinal cord have not been reported.

Purpose: To measure total sodium concentration (TSC) alterations in the cervical spinal cord of people with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) and a control cohort using sodium MR spectroscopy (MRS). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmri.27201DOI Listing