8,400 results match your criteria Brain Imaging in Astrocytoma


Abnormal spindle-like microcephaly-associated (ASPM) gene expression in posterior fossa brain tumors of childhood and adolescence.

Childs Nerv Syst 2020 Jun 26. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Oncology Institute-GRAACC, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Purpose: In neurogenesis, ASPM (abnormal spindle-like microcephaly-associated) gene is expressed mainly in the ventricular zone of posterior fossa and is the major determinant in the cerebral cortex. Besides its role in embryonic development, ASPM overexpression promotes tumor growth, including central nervous system (CNS) tumors. This study aims to investigate ASPM expression levels in most frequent posterior fossa brain tumors of childhood and adolescence: medulloblastoma (MB), ependymoma (EPN), and astrocytoma (AS), correlating them with clinicopathological characteristics and tumor solid portion size. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00381-020-04740-1DOI Listing

INCIDENTAL FINDINGS ON BRAIN MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING (MRI) IN PEDIATRIC ENDOCRINE PATIENTS.

Endocr Pract 2020 Jun 23. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

From: Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes Unit.

To explore incidental findings on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of pediatric patients referred due to endocrine disorders. A retrospective, observational study conducted in a tertiary referral center. The neuroimaging database of 17,445 brain MRI studies of 11,011 pediatric patients were searched for cases with endocrine referrals and without medical history of malignancy, genetic syndromes and/or neurological comorbidities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4158/EP-2020-0208DOI Listing

Role of the default mode resting-state network for cognitive functioning in malignant glioma patients following multimodal treatment.

Neuroimage Clin 2020 May 26;27:102287. Epub 2020 May 26.

Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-1, -3, -4), Research Center Juelich, Wilhelm-Johnen-Str., 52428 Juelich, Germany; Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Aachen, RWTH Aachen University, Pauwelsstr. 30, 52074 Aachen, Germany.

Background: Progressive cognitive decline following multimodal neurooncological treatment is a common observation in patients suffering from malignant glioma. Alterations of the default-mode network (DMN) represent a possible source of impaired neurocognitive functioning and were analyzed in these patients.

Methods: Eighty patients (median age, 51 years) with glioma (WHO grade IV glioblastoma, n = 57; WHO grade III anaplastic astrocytoma, n = 13; WHO grade III anaplastic oligodendroglioma, n = 10) and ECOG performance score 0-1 underwent resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) and neuropsychological testing at a median interval of 13 months (range, 1-114 months) after initiation of therapy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nicl.2020.102287DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7298724PMC

Neuroimaging of pediatric infratentorial tumors and the value of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in determining tumor grade.

Acta Radiol 2020 Jun 15:284185120933219. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Department of Pathology, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India.

Background: Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) provides information about the cellular density of tumors. This feature is useful in grading and identifying different tumor types.

Purpose: To assess the value of diffusion restriction and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in differentiating pediatric infratentorial tumors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0284185120933219DOI Listing

Neuroimaging in tuberous sclerosis complex.

Childs Nerv Syst 2020 Jun 9. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Department of Pediatric Neurosciences, Pediatric Neurosurgery Unit, Santobono-Pausilipon Children's Hospital, Via Mario Fiore n. 6, 80129, Naples, Italy.

Introduction: Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder affecting multiple systems, due to inactivating mutations of TSC1 or TSC2 mTOR pathway genes. Neurological manifestations are observed in about 95% cases, representing the most frequent cause of morbidity and one of the most common causes of mortality.

Background: Neuroimaging is crucial for early diagnosis, monitoring, and management of these patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00381-020-04705-4DOI Listing

Congenital subpendymal giant cell astrocytoma in children with tuberous sclerosis complex: growth patterns and neurological outcome.

Pediatr Res 2020 Jun 9. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Sydney Children's Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Background: Literature regarding congenital subependymal giant cell astrocytomas (SEGA) is limited, and suggests they are at risk of rapid growth and complications. We sought to characterise the growth patterns of congenital SEGA. The second part of the study was an exploratory analysis of congenital SEGA as a possible biomarker for poor neurological outcome. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41390-020-1002-7DOI Listing

Exploring the Feasibility and Effects of a Ketogenic Diet in Patients With CNS Malignancies: A Retrospective Case Series.

Front Neurosci 2020 19;14:390. Epub 2020 May 19.

Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Center, Los Angeles, CA, United States.

Recently, the ketogenic diet has been proposed as an adjunct treatment for a range of medical conditions including weight loss, diabetes, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases. Because malignant CNS tumors are highly dependent on glucose, the use of a ketogenic diet as an adjunct therapy is currently being explored. This case series summarizes our experience implementing a ketogenic diet for patients with CNS malignancies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2020.00390DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7248360PMC

Glioblastoma multiforme that unusually present with radiographic dural tails: Questioning the diagnostic paradigm with a rare case report.

Radiol Case Rep 2020 Jul 8;15(7):1087-1090. Epub 2020 May 8.

Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai-Elmhurst Hospital, Queens, New York, NY.

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is both the most common as well as one of the most aggressive primary intracerebral tumors. It classically presents on magnetic resonance imaging as a heterogeneous ring-enhancing lesion in the brain parenchyma with central necrosis. This type of neoplasm can also rarely present, however, as a mass with meningeal attachment and radiographic evidence of a dural tail, which was until recently thought to be specific to meningiomas. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radcr.2020.05.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7256235PMC

Occurrence of Glioma in Pregnant Patients: An Institutional Case Series and Review of the Literature.

Anticancer Res 2020 Jun;40(6):3453-3457

Department of Neurology & Neurotherapeutics, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, U.S.A.

Background/aim: Gliomas present a uniquely challenging clinical situation in the context of pregnancy, with no standard recommendations. This case series aimed to describe the treatment regimen and outcomes of five pregnant patients with gliomas.

Patients And Methods: This is a retrospective study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.21873/anticanres.14331DOI Listing

Fractionated Stereotactic Sequential Boost in a Selected Cohort of Glioblastoma Patients: A Mono-institutional Analysis.

Anticancer Res 2020 Jun;40(6):3387-3393

Radiation Oncology Division, Perugia General Hospital, Perugia, Italy.

Aim: To retrospectively assess toxicity and survival in 15 selected Glioblastoma patients treated with a sequential fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT) boost after chemo-radiotherapy (CHT-RT) and compare their survival outcomes with a control group.

Patients And Methods: Toxicity was assessed with the CTCAE 3.0 scale. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.21873/anticanres.14322DOI Listing

TSC2 pathogenic variants are predictive of severe clinical manifestations in TSC infants: results of the EPISTOP study.

Genet Med 2020 May 28. Epub 2020 May 28.

Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.

Purpose: To perform comprehensive genotyping of TSC1 and TSC2 in a cohort of 94 infants with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) and correlate with clinical manifestations.

Methods: Infants were enrolled at age <4 months, and subject to intensive clinical monitoring including electroencephalography (EEG), brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and neuropsychological assessment. Targeted massively parallel sequencing (MPS), genome sequencing, and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) were used for variant detection in TSC1/TSC2. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-020-0823-4DOI Listing

Fluorescein-guided surgery for spinal gliomas: Analysis of 220 consecutive cases.

Int Rev Neurobiol 2020 13;151:139-154. Epub 2020 May 13.

Department of Neurosurgery, Beijing Tsinghua Changgung Hospital, School of Clinical Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Objective: Sodium fluorescein (FL) is widely used as a fluorescent tracer for brain tumor resection. However, FL-guided resection of spinal gliomas has been reported only occasionally. To evaluate the safety, characteristics, and usefulness of FL-guided surgery in the resection of spinal glioma. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.irn.2020.03.004DOI Listing

Advantage of high b value diffusion-weighted imaging for differentiation of common pediatric brain tumors in posterior fossa.

Eur J Radiol 2020 Jul 5;128:108983. Epub 2020 May 5.

Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, 1-2-3, Kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima, Japan. Electronic address:

Purpose: The pediatric posterior fossa (PF) brain tumors with higher frequencies are embryonal tumors (ET), ependymal tumors (EPN) and pilocytic astrocytomas (PA), however, it is often difficult to make a differential diagnosis among them with conventional MRI. The ADC calculated from DWI could be beneficial for diagnostic work up.

Method: We acquired DWI at b = 1000 and 4000(s/mm). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejrad.2020.108983DOI Listing
July 2020
2.369 Impact Factor

Tc-CXCR4-L for Imaging of the Chemokine-4 Receptor Associated with Brain Tumor Invasiveness: Biokinetics, Radiation Dosimetry, and Proof of Concept in Humans.

Contrast Media Mol Imaging 2020 27;2020:2525037. Epub 2020 Apr 27.

Departamento de Materiales Radiactivos, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ), Ocoyoacac 52750, Estado de México, Mexico.

Overexpression of the chemokine-4 receptor (CXCR4) in brain tumors is associated with high cancer cell invasiveness. Recently, we reported the preclinical evaluation of Tc-CXCR4-L (cyclo-D-Tyr-D-[NMe]Orn[EDDA-Tc-6-hydrazinylnicotinyl]-Arg-NaI-Gly) as a SPECT radioligand capable of specifically detecting the CXCR4 protein. This research aimed to estimate the biokinetic behavior and radiation dosimetry of Tc-CXCR4-L in healthy subjects, as well as to correlate the radiotracer uptake by brain tumors in patients, with the histological grade of differentiation and CXCR4 expression evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/2525037DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7201577PMC

Magnetic Resonance Elastography reveals effects of anti-angiogenic glioblastoma treatment on tumor stiffness and captures progression in an orthotopic mouse model.

Cancer Imaging 2020 May 12;20(1):35. Epub 2020 May 12.

Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: Anti-angiogenic treatment of glioblastoma (GBM) complicates radiologic monitoring. We evaluated magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) as an imaging tool for monitoring the efficacy of anti-VEGF treatment of GBM.

Methods: Longitudinal studies were performed in an orthotopic GBM xenograft mouse model. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40644-020-00314-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7218549PMC

Pediatric Low-Grade Gliomas.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 May 4;12(5). Epub 2020 May 4.

Department of Pediatric Neurosurgery, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15224, USA.

Brain tumors constitute the largest source of oncologic mortality in children and low-grade gliomas are among most common pediatric central nervous system tumors. Pediatric low-grade gliomas differ from their counterparts in the adult population in their histopathology, genetics, and standard of care. Over the past decade, an increasingly detailed understanding of the molecular and genetic characteristics of pediatric brain tumors led to tailored therapy directed by integrated phenotypic and genotypic parameters and the availability of an increasing array of molecular-directed therapies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12051152DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7281318PMC

A biphasic tumor in posterior cranial fossa and the pineal region in young adult.

Surg Neurol Int 2020 11;11:64. Epub 2020 Apr 11.

Departments of Neurosurgery, University Hospital Dubrava, Zagreb, Croatia.

Background: Biphasic tumors of the central nervous system are rarely described and mainly consisted out of the glial and mesenchymal component. The tumor originated out of both astrocytes and pinealocytes, best to our knowledge, has not been described. We present a case of a brain tumor consisted out of pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) and pineocytoma as components situated in the pineal region and posterior cranial fossa in young adult. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.25259/SNI_288_2019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7193197PMC

The Diagnostic Value of Conventional MRI and CT Features in the Identification of the IDH1-Mutant and 1p/19q Co-Deletion in WHO Grade II Gliomas.

Acad Radiol 2020 Apr 28. Epub 2020 Apr 28.

Department of Neurosurgery, First Medical Center, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Rationale And Objectives: The classification of patients based on pathology and molecular features is important for improving WHO grade II glioma patient prognosis, especially for the initially diagnosed patients. Less invasive and more convenient methods for the prediction of the pathological type and gene status are desired.

Materials And Methods: This study investigates the ability to use conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) features for determining the Isocitrate Dehydrogenase (IDH)-mutant and 1p/19q-codeletion status, through a retrospective review of information obtained from 189 WHO grade II glioma patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.acra.2020.03.008DOI Listing

Neuroimaging Findings in Children with Constitutional Mismatch Repair Deficiency Syndrome.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 05 30;41(5):904-910. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

From the Department of Radiology (A.K., M.S., S.S., C.H.), Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Ramat Gan, Israel.

Background And Purpose: Constitutional mismatch repair deficiency is a hereditary childhood cancer predisposition syndrome characterized by brain tumors and colorectal and hematologic malignancies. Our objective was to describe the neuroimaging findings in patients with constitutional mismatch repair deficiency.

Materials And Methods: This retrospective study included 14 children with genetically confirmed constitutional mismatch repair deficiency who were referred to 2 tertiary pediatric oncology centers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6512DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7228156PMC

Clinical characteristics and prognostic factors of adult patients with pilocytic astrocytoma.

J Neurooncol 2020 May 27;148(1):187-198. Epub 2020 Apr 27.

Division of Oncology, Department of Medicine I, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Introduction: Pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) is the most common primary brain neoplasm in children and treated in curative intent with gross total resection (GTR). However, PA is rare in adults, resulting in limited knowledge on the natural clinical course. This study aimed to describe the clinical course and identify prognostic factors of adult patients with PA. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11060-020-03513-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7280326PMC

Ependymoma and pilocytic astrocytoma: Differentiation using radiomics approach based on machine learning.

J Clin Neurosci 2020 Apr 23. Epub 2020 Apr 23.

School of Electrical Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001, China; Industrial Technology Research Institute, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001, China; Henan Key Laboratory of Brain Science and Brain-Computer Interface Technology, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001, China. Electronic address:

Mandatory accurate and specific diagnosis demands have brought about increased challenges for radiologists in pediatric posterior fossa tumor prediction and prognosis. With the development of high-performance computing and machine learning technologies, radiomics provides increasing opportunities for clinical decision-making. Several studies have applied radiomics as a decision support tool in intracranial tumors differentiation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jocn.2020.04.080DOI Listing
April 2020
1.318 Impact Factor

Survival, Prognostic Factors, and Volumetric Analysis of Extent of Resection for Anaplastic Gliomas.

Cancer Res Treat 2020 Apr 23. Epub 2020 Apr 23.

Department of Neurosurgery, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Purpose: The aim of this study is to evaluate the survival rate and prognostic factors of anaplastic gliomas according to the 2016 World Health Organization classification, including extent of resection (EOR) as measured by contrast-enhanced T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the T2-weighted MRI.

Materials And Methods: The records of 113 patients with anaplastic glioma who were newly diagnosed at our institute between 2000 and 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. There were 62 cases (54. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4143/crt.2020.057DOI Listing

The Use of Rapid Sequence Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Brain as a Screening Tool for the Detection of Gross Intracranial Pathology in Children Presenting to the Emergency Department With a Chief Complaint of Persistent or Recurrent Headaches.

Pediatr Emerg Care 2020 Apr 16. Epub 2020 Apr 16.

From the Pediatric Emergency/Trauma Center Saint Joseph Children's Hospital and Medical Center; and Vascular and Interventional Radiology Florida Hospital Carollwood, Tampa, FL.

Objective: The purpose of the study, was to assess the utility of rapid sequence brain magnetic resonance imaging (RS-MRI), as a screening tool to detect gross intracranial pathology in children that present to the emergency department, with a chief complaint of persistent or recurrent headaches. Rapid sequence MRI of the brain is a radiation-free technique that is used to evaluate ventricular size in children with shunted hydrocephalus, who present to the emergency department with symptomatology consistent with shunt malfunction.

Methods: The study evaluated RS-MRI radiographic findings of 105 children that presented to a busy tertiary care pediatric emergency/trauma center between May 1, 2013, and May 31, 2015. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PEC.0000000000002089DOI Listing

The effect of mTOR inhibition on obstructive hydrocephalus in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) related subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA).

J Neurooncol 2020 May 13;147(3):731-736. Epub 2020 Apr 13.

Division of Haematology/Oncology, Department of Paediatrics, The Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, M5G 1X8, Canada.

Purpose: Mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors (mTORi) are known to effectively reduce the size of subependymal giant cell astrocytomas (SEGAs), which are benign brain lesions associated with Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC) that commonly cause obstructive hydrocephalus (OH). This retrospective case series reviews an institutional experience of the effect of mTORi on OH in patients with TSC-related SEGA.

Methods: Thirteen of 16 identified patients with TSC-related SEGA treated with mTORi from October 2007 to December 2018 were included. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11060-020-03487-8DOI Listing

Image-based metric of invasiveness predicts response to adjuvant temozolomide for primary glioblastoma.

PLoS One 2020 27;15(3):e0230492. Epub 2020 Mar 27.

Mathematical NeuroOncology Laboratory, Precision Neurotherapeutics Innovation Program, Mayo Clinic, Phoenix, Arizona, United States of America.

Background: Temozolomide (TMZ) has been the standard-of-care chemotherapy for glioblastoma (GBM) patients for more than a decade. Despite this long time in use, significant questions remain regarding how best to optimize TMZ therapy for individual patients. Understanding the relationship between TMZ response and factors such as number of adjuvant TMZ cycles, patient age, patient sex, and image-based tumor features, might help predict which GBM patients would benefit most from TMZ, particularly for those whose tumors lack O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0230492PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7100932PMC

HSP70/IL-2 Treated NK Cells Effectively Cross the Blood Brain Barrier and Target Tumor Cells in a Rat Model of Induced Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM).

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Mar 25;21(7). Epub 2020 Mar 25.

Department of Stem Cells and Developmental Biology, Cell Science Research Center, Royan Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Technology, ACECR, Tehran 16635-148, Iran.

Natural killer (NK) cell therapy is one of the most promising treatments for Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM). However, this emerging technology is limited by the availability of sufficient numbers of fully functional cells. Here, we investigated the efficacy of NK cells that were expanded and treated by interleukin-2 (IL-2) and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), both in vitro and in vivo. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21072263DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7178276PMC
March 2020
2.862 Impact Factor

Young Girl With Headache.

Ann Emerg Med 2020 04;75(4):e21-e22

Division of Emergency Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.annemergmed.2019.10.023DOI Listing

Textiloma Mimicking a Recurrent High-Grade Astrocytoma: A Case Report.

J Neurol Surg Rep 2020 Jan 22;81(1):e7-e9. Epub 2020 Mar 22.

Department of Neuro-Oncology, Aurora Cancer Care, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States.

 Textiloma (Txm) is a nonmedical term that has been given to foreign body-related inflammatory pseudotumor arising from retained nonabsorbable cotton matrix that is either inadvertently or deliberately left behind during surgery, which may trigger an inflammatory reaction. This report describes a case of Txm mimicking a recurrent high-grade astrocytoma.  We, here, present the case of a 69-year-old female with a 6-month history of progressive left-sided weakness. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0039-3400231DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7085942PMC
January 2020

Rare gain of chromosome 5 in a supratentorial hemispheric paediatric pilomyxoid astrocytoma.

BMJ Case Rep 2020 Mar 17;13(3). Epub 2020 Mar 17.

Department of Neurosciences and Pediatrics, University of California San Diego, San Diego, California, USA

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2020-234878DOI Listing

FASN Is a Biomarker Enriched in Malignant Glioma-Derived Extracellular Vesicles.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Mar 12;21(6). Epub 2020 Mar 12.

Department of Neurosurgery, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, 20246 Hamburg, Germany.

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are known for their important role in cancer progression and hold considerable potential as a source for tumor biomarkers. However, purification of tumor-specific EVs from patient plasma is still an urgent unmet need due to contamination by normal host cell-derived EVs, that results in compromised analytical sensitivity. Here we identified fatty acid synthase (FASN), a key lipogenic enzyme which is highly expressed in malignant glioma cells, to be elevated in CD63- and CD81-positive EVs in glioma patient plasma samples, opening vital opportunities to sort brain tumor-specific EVs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21061931DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7139767PMC

Involvement of the Olfactory Apparatus by Gliomas.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 04 12;41(4):712-717. Epub 2020 Mar 12.

Radiology (S.C.).

The olfactory bulbs and tracts are central nervous system white matter tracts maintained by central neuroglia. Although rare, gliomas can originate from and progress to involve the olfactory apparatus. Through a Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant retrospective review of the institutional teaching files and brain MR imaging reports spanning 10 years, we identified 12 cases of gliomas involving the olfactory bulbs and tracts, including 6 cases of glioblastoma, 2 cases of anaplastic oligodendroglioma, and 1 case each of pilocytic astrocytoma, diffuse (grade II) astrocytoma, anaplastic astrocytoma (grade III), and diffuse midline glioma. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6471DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7144643PMC

Segmentation and Classification in Digital Pathology for Glioma Research: Challenges and Deep Learning Approaches.

Front Neurosci 2020 21;14:27. Epub 2020 Feb 21.

Cancer Imaging Program, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, United States.

Biomedical imaging Is an important source of information in cancer research. Characterizations of cancer morphology at onset, progression, and in response to treatment provide complementary information to that gleaned from genomics and clinical data. Accurate extraction and classification of both visual and latent image features Is an increasingly complex challenge due to the increased complexity and resolution of biomedical image data. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2020.00027DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7046596PMC
February 2020

Prognostic Factors and Nomogram Predicting Survival in Diffuse Astrocytoma.

J Neurosci Rural Pract 2020 Jan 3;11(1):135-143. Epub 2020 Mar 3.

Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand.

Prognosis of low-grade glioma are currently determined by genetic markers that are limited in some countries. This study aimed to use clinical parameters to develop a nomogram to predict survival of patients with diffuse astrocytoma (DA) which is the most common type of low-grade glioma. Retrospective data of adult patients with DA from three university hospitals in Thailand were analyzed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0039-3403446DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7055629PMC
January 2020

Machine Learning Decision Tree Models for Differentiation of Posterior Fossa Tumors Using Diffusion Histogram Analysis and Structural MRI Findings.

Front Oncol 2020 7;10:71. Epub 2020 Feb 7.

Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, United States.

We applied machine learning algorithms for differentiation of posterior fossa tumors using apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) histogram analysis and structural MRI findings. A total of 256 patients with intra-axial posterior fossa tumors were identified, of whom 248 were included in machine learning analysis, with at least 6 representative subjects per each tumor pathology. The ADC histograms of solid components of tumors, structural MRI findings, and patients' age were applied to construct decision models using Classification and Regression Tree analysis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2020.00071DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7018938PMC
February 2020

Revealing the epigenetic effect of temozolomide on glioblastoma cell lines in therapeutic conditions.

PLoS One 2020 26;15(2):e0229534. Epub 2020 Feb 26.

Intraoperative Imaging Unit, Chair and Department of Neurosurgery and Neurotraumatology, Karol Marcinkowski University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland.

Temozolomide (TMZ) is a drug of choice in glioblastoma treatment. Its therapeutic applications expand also beyond high grade gliomas. However, a significant number of recurrences and resistance to the drug is observed. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0229534PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7043761PMC

From cells to tissue: How cell scale heterogeneity impacts glioblastoma growth and treatment response.

PLoS Comput Biol 2020 02 26;16(2):e1007672. Epub 2020 Feb 26.

Integrated Mathematical Oncology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida, United States of America.

Glioblastomas are aggressive primary brain tumors known for their inter- and intratumor heterogeneity. This disease is uniformly fatal, with intratumor heterogeneity the major reason for treatment failure and recurrence. Just like the nature vs nurture debate, heterogeneity can arise from intrinsic or environmental influences. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1007672DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7062288PMC
February 2020

Encapsulated Butylidenephthalide Efficiently Crosses the Blood-Brain Barrier and Suppresses Growth of Glioblastoma.

Int J Nanomedicine 2020 31;15:749-760. Epub 2020 Jan 31.

Department of Medical Laboratory and Biotechnology, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 40201, Taiwan, Republic of China.

Background: Butylidenephthalide (BP) has anti-tumor effects on glioblastoma. However, the limitation of BP for clinical application is its unstable structure. A polycationic liposomal polyethylenimine (PEI) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) complex (LPPC) has been developed to encapsulate BP for drug structure protection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S235815DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6999785PMC

Computer-aided diagnosis of isocitrate dehydrogenase genotypes in glioblastomas from radiomic patterns.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2020 Feb;99(8):e19123

Department of Medical Imaging, Taipei Medical University Hospital.

World Health Organization tumor classifications of the central nervous system differentiate glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) into wild-type (WT) and mutant isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) genotypes. This study proposes a noninvasive computer-aided diagnosis to interpret the status of IDH in glioblastomas from transformed magnetic resonance imaging patterns. The collected image database was composed of 32 WT and 7 mutant IDH cases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000019123DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7034690PMC
February 2020

Patterns of care and clinical outcome in assumed glioblastoma without tissue diagnosis: A population-based study of 131 consecutive patients.

PLoS One 2020 13;15(2):e0228480. Epub 2020 Feb 13.

Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Background: Elderly patients with glioblastoma and an accumulation of negative prognostic factors have an extremely short survival. There is no consensus on the clinical management of these patients and many may escape histologically verified diagnosis. The primary aim of this study was to characterize this particular subgroup of patients with radiological glioblastoma diagnosis without histological verification. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0228480PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7017992PMC

Risk stratification in pediatric low-grade glioma and glioneuronal tumor treated with radiation therapy: An integrated clinicopathologic and molecular analysis.

Neuro Oncol 2020 Feb 13. Epub 2020 Feb 13.

Department of Pathology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital.

Background: Management of unresectable pediatric low-grade glioma and glioneuronal tumor (LGG/LGGNT) is controversial. There are no validated prognostic features to guide use of radiation therapy (RT). Our study aimed to identify negative prognostic features in patients treated with RT using clinicopathologic and molecular data and validate these findings in an external dataset. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/neuonc/noaa031DOI Listing
February 2020
5.562 Impact Factor

Prediction of survival in patients with IDH-wildtype astrocytic gliomas using dynamic O-(2-[F]-fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine PET.

Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2020 Jun 7;47(6):1486-1495. Epub 2020 Feb 7.

Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Cologne, University of Cologne, Kerpener St. 62, 50937, Cologne, Germany.

Purpose: Integrated histomolecular diagnostics of gliomas according to the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of 2016 has refined diagnostic accuracy and prediction of prognosis. This study aimed at exploring the prognostic value of dynamic O-(2-[F]-fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine (FET) PET in newly diagnosed, histomolecularly classified astrocytic gliomas of WHO grades III or IV.

Methods: Before initiation of treatment, dynamic FET PET imaging was performed in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma (GBM) and anaplastic astrocytoma (AA). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00259-020-04695-0DOI Listing

[Intraoperative vascular fluorescence in cerebral glioblastomas and vascular histological features].

Zh Vopr Neirokhir Im N N Burdenko 2019 ;83(6):21-34

Serbsky National Medical Research Center for Psychiatry and Narcology, Moscow, Russia.

5-ALA intraoperative fluorescence is widely used in surgery of brain tumors for intraoperative demarcation of boundaries and more total resection because 5-ALA metabolites are not accumulated in the intact brain and vascular tissues. Given this fact, it was hypothesized that fluorescence of vessels in the immediate vicinity of a brain tumor may indicate their infiltration by tumor cells as a potential pathway for their dissemination and as a factor for continued tumor growth after surgery and adjuvant therapy.

Purpose: Identification of fluorescent vessels located near cerebral gliomas, with a histological description of their structure, relationships with the tumor, and potential invasion of the walls by tumor cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.17116/neiro20198306121DOI Listing

Rare clinical presentations of pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma with a high proliferative index: Two case reports.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2020 Jan;99(3):e18880

Introduction: Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytomas (PXA) are rare, typically benign, slow-growing tumors that commonly occur in the cerebral hemispheres. We describe two cases of clinically aggressive PXA with uncommon locations; one was in the tectal plate, and the other had simultaneous multicentric lesions.

Patient Concerns: The both cases presented with severe headache with no significant past medical history. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000018880DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7220053PMC
January 2020

[Classification of the types of pediatric posterior fossa brain tumors based on routine MRI using wavelet transformation analysis of whole tumor].

Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 2020 Jan;100(3):178-181

School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering, Southeast University, International laboratory for Children's Medical Imaging Research Nanjing, Nanjing 210096, China.

To evaluate the classification of the types of pediatric posterior fossa brain tumors based on routine MRI (T(1)WI, T(2)WI and ADC) using wavelet transformation analysis of whole tumor. MRI images of medulloblastoma (59), ependymoma (13) and pilocytic astrocytoma (27) confirmed by pathology before treatments in Children's Hospital of Nanjing Medical University from January 2014 to February 2019 were enrolled in this retrospective study as well as the clinical data of age, gender and symptoms. Registration was performed among the three sequences and wavelet features of ROI were acquired. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.issn.0376-2491.2020.03.004DOI Listing
January 2020

H magnetic resonance spectroscopy of H-to-H exchange quantifies the dynamics of cellular metabolism in vivo.

Nat Biomed Eng 2020 03 27;4(3):335-342. Epub 2020 Jan 27.

Center for Magnetic Resonance and Optical Imaging, Department of Radiology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Quantitative mapping of the in vivo dynamics of cellular metabolism via non-invasive imaging contributes to our understanding of the initiation and progression of diseases associated with dysregulated metabolic processes. Current methods for imaging cellular metabolism are limited by low sensitivities, costs or the use of specialized hardware. Here, we introduce a method that captures the turnover of cellular metabolites by quantifying signal reductions in proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) resulting from the replacement of H with H. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41551-019-0499-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7071956PMC

Role of 68Ga-Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen PET/CT in Disease Assessment in Glioblastoma Within 48 Hours of Surgery.

Clin Nucl Med 2020 Mar;45(3):204-205

Radiotherapy, Rajiv Gandhi Cancer Institute and Research Centre, Delhi, India.

Within 48 hours after surgery, disease assessment in glioblastoma is a challenge for both the clinician and the radiologist. Certain technical and logistical issues prevail in this period. Ga-prostate-specific membrane antigen PET/CT is a known molecular imaging marker in prostate cancer. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RLU.0000000000002893DOI Listing

The wavelet power spectrum of perfusion weighted MRI correlates with tumor vascularity in biopsy-proven glioblastoma samples.

PLoS One 2020 23;15(1):e0228030. Epub 2020 Jan 23.

Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Medical Faculty Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim, Germany.

Background: Wavelet transformed reconstructions of dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) MR perfusion (wavelet-MRP) are a new and elegant way of visualizing vascularization. Wavelet-MRP maps yield a clear depiction of hypervascular tumor regions, as recently shown.

Objective: The aim of this study was to elucidate a possible connection of the wavelet-MRP power spectrum in glioblastoma (GBM) with local vascularity and cell proliferation. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0228030PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6977746PMC

Epithelioid glioblastoma presenting as multicentric glioma: A case report and review of the literature.

Surg Neurol Int 2020 17;11. Epub 2020 Jan 17.

Department of Neurosurgery, Ehime University School of Medicine.

Background: Epithelioid glioblastoma is a rare aggressive variant of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), which was formally recognized by the World Health Organization classification of the central nervous system in 2016. Clinically, epithelioid GBMs are characterized by aggressive features, such as metastases and cerebrospinal fluid dissemination, and an extremely poor prognosis. A rare case of epithelioid GBM that was discovered as a multicentric glioma with different histopathology is reported. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.25259/SNI_544_2019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6969379PMC
January 2020

Semi-automated construction of patient individualised clinical target volumes for radiotherapy treatment of glioblastoma utilising diffusion tensor decomposition maps.

Br J Radiol 2020 Apr 22;93(1108):20190441. Epub 2020 Jan 22.

Oncology Centre, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, UK.

Objectives: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highly infiltrative primary brain tumour with an aggressive clinical course. Diffusion tensor imaging (DT-MRI or DTI) is a recently developed technique capable of visualising subclinical tumour spread into adjacent brain tissue. Tensor decomposition through and maps can be used for planning of treatment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1259/bjr.20190441DOI Listing