9,574 results match your criteria Brain Imaging in Astrocytoma

Ellipsoid calculations versus manual tumor delineations for glioblastoma tumor volume evaluation.

Sci Rep 2022 Jun 22;12(1):10502. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

Department of Radiotherapy, ICANS, Institut Cancérologie Strasbourg Europe, 17 Rue Albert Calmette, 67200, Strasbourg Cedex, France.

In glioblastoma, the response to treatment assessment is essentially based on the 2D tumor size evolution but remains disputable. Volumetric approaches were evaluated for a more accurate estimation of tumor size. This study included 57 patients and compared two volume measurement methods to determine the size of different glioblastoma regions of interest: the contrast-enhancing area, the necrotic area, the gross target volume and the volume of the edema area. Read More

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Recent development of contrast agents for magnetic resonance and multimodal imaging of glioblastoma.

J Nanobiotechnology 2022 Jun 16;20(1):284. Epub 2022 Jun 16.

School of Science and Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Flexible Printed Electronics Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Shenzhen, 518055, China.

Glioblastoma (GBM) as the most common primary malignant brain tumor exhibits a high incidence and degree of malignancy as well as poor prognosis. Due to the existence of formidable blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the aggressive growth and infiltrating nature of GBM, timely diagnosis and treatment of GBM is still very challenging. Among different imaging modalities, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with merits including high soft tissue resolution, non-invasiveness and non-limited penetration depth has become the preferred tool for GBM diagnosis. Read More

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Progression Patterns in Non-Contrast-Enhancing Gliomas Support Brain Tumor Responsiveness to Surgical Lesions.

Pathol Oncol Res 2022 30;28:1610268. Epub 2022 May 30.

Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospital Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim, Germany.

The overall benefit of surgical treatments for patients with glioma is undisputed. We have shown preclinically that brain tumor cells form a network that is capable of detecting damage to the tumor, and repair itself. The aim of this study was to determine whether a similar mechanism might contribute to local recurrence in the clinical setting. Read More

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Spatially resolved multi-omics deciphers bidirectional tumor-host interdependence in glioblastoma.

Cancer Cell 2022 Jun;40(6):639-655.e13

Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany; Department of Medicine II: Gastroenterology, Hepatology, Endocrinology, and Infectious Disease, Medical Center - University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.

Glioblastomas are malignant tumors of the central nervous system hallmarked by subclonal diversity and dynamic adaptation amid developmental hierarchies. The source of dynamic reorganization within the spatial context of these tumors remains elusive. Here, we characterized glioblastomas by spatially resolved transcriptomics, metabolomics, and proteomics. Read More

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MRI-based whole-tumor radiomics to classify the types of pediatric posterior fossa brain tumor.

Neurochirurgie 2022 Jun 3. Epub 2022 Jun 3.

Institute of Cancer & Genomic Science, University of Birmingham, B152TT, Birmingham, United Kingdom.

Background: Differential diagnosis between medulloblastoma (MB), ependymoma (EP) and astrocytoma (PA) is important due to differing medical treatment strategies and predicted survival. The aim of this study was to investigate non-invasive MRI-based radiomic analysis of whole tumors to classify the histologic tumor types of pediatric posterior fossa brain tumor and improve the accuracy of discrimination, using a random forest classifier.

Methods: MRI images of 99 patients, with 59 MBs, 13 EPs and 27 PAs histologically confirmed by surgery and pathology before treatment, were included in this retrospective study. Read More

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DNA-methylome-assisted classification of patients with poor prognostic subventricular zone associated IDH-wildtype glioblastoma.

Acta Neuropathol 2022 Jul 4;144(1):129-142. Epub 2022 Jun 4.

German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Core Center Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.

Glioblastoma (GBM) derived from the "stem cell" rich subventricular zone (SVZ) may constitute a therapy-refractory subgroup of tumors associated with poor prognosis. Risk stratification for these cases is necessary but is curtailed by error prone imaging-based evaluation. Therefore, we aimed to establish a robust DNA methylome-based classification of SVZ GBM and subsequently decipher underlying molecular characteristics. Read More

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Application of blood brain barrier models in pre-clinical assessment of glioblastoma-targeting CAR-T based immunotherapies.

Fluids Barriers CNS 2022 Jun 1;19(1):38. Epub 2022 Jun 1.

Human Health Therapeutics Research Centre, National Research Council of Canada, Building M-54, Montreal Road, ON, K1A 0R6, Ottawa, Canada.

Human blood brain barrier (BBB) models derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have become an important tool for the discovery and preclinical evaluation of central nervous system (CNS) targeting cell and gene-based therapies. Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cell therapy is a revolutionary form of gene-modified cell-based immunotherapy with potential for targeting solid tumors, such as glioblastomas. Crossing the BBB is an important step in the systemic application of CAR-T therapy for the treatment of glioblastomas and other CNS malignancies. Read More

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Discrimination between glioblastoma and solitary brain metastasis: a quantitative analysis based on FLAIR signal intensity.

Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2022 May;26(10):3577-3584

Department of Radiology, Hanoi Medical University, Hanoi, Vietnam.

Objective: This study determined the diagnostic performance of fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) signal intensity (SI) in discriminating between glioblastoma (GBM) and solitary brain metastasis (SBM).

Patients And Methods: We recruited 40 patients with a histologically confirmed diagnosis of GBM or SBM who underwent conventional 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging before surgery or biopsy between August 2020 and January 2022. Three regions of interest were placed to assess FLAIR SI: the enhancing region (eFLAIR), the peritumoral region (pFLAIR), and the contralateral normal white matter (nFLAIR). Read More

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Grading of IDH-mutant astrocytoma using diffusion, susceptibility and perfusion-weighted imaging.

BMC Med Imaging 2022 May 29;22(1):105. Epub 2022 May 29.

Department of Radiology, First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, 20 Cha-Zhong Road, Fuzhou, 350005, Fujian, People's Republic of China.

Background: The accurate grading of IDH-mutant astrocytoma is essential to make therapeutic strategies and assess the prognosis of patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate the usefulness of DWI, SWI and DSC-PWI in grading IDH-mutant astrocytoma.

Methods: One hundred and seven patients with IDH-mutant astrocytoma who underwent DWI, SWI and DSC-PWI were retrospectively reviewed. Read More

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Application of 7T MRS to High-Grade Gliomas.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2022 May 26. Epub 2022 May 26.

From the Department of Neurosurgery (L.M., C.G.H.), Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Mount Sinai Health System, New York, New York.

MRS, including single-voxel spectroscopy and MR spectroscopic imaging, captures metabolites in high-grade gliomas. Emerging evidence indicates that 7T MRS may be more sensitive to aberrant metabolic activity than lower-field strength MRS. However, the literature on the use of 7T MRS to visualize high-grade gliomas has not been summarized. Read More

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Novel therapeutics and drug-delivery approaches in the modulation of glioblastoma stem cell resistance.

Ther Deliv 2022 04 26;13(4):249-273. Epub 2022 May 26.

Department of Radiology & Imaging Sciences, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA.

Glioblastoma (GBM) is a deadly malignancy with a poor prognosis. An important factor contributing to GBM recurrence is high resistance of GBM cancer stem cells (GSCs). While temozolomide (TMZ), has been shown to consistently extend survival, GSCs grow resistant to TMZ through upregulation of DNA damage repair mechanisms and avoidance of apoptosis. Read More

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Analysis of the Prognosis of High-Grade gliomas in the View of New Immunohistochemistry Markers and 2016 WHO Classification.

Turk Neurosurg 2022 ;32(3):500-507

Istanbul University, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery, Istanbul, Turkey.

Aim: To evaluate isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutation status and Ki67 percentages of tumors that were treated in our institution to determine whether these markers affected the initial diagnosis and survival rates.

Material And Methods: High-grade glioma patients, who were operated in our department between 2013 and 2018, were enrolled in the study and retrospectively reviewed. New immunohistochemistry staining studies were conducted and survival analyses were performed. Read More

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Multifocal Desmoplastic Infantile Ganglioglioma/Astrocytoma (DIA/DIG): An Institutional Series Report and a Clinical Summary of This Rare Tumor.

Front Oncol 2021 9;11:608129. Epub 2022 May 9.

School of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, China.

Aim: Multifocal desmoplastic infantile ganglioglioma/astrocytoma (DIA/DIG) has rarely been reported. Here, two cases have been presented, reviewing the literature and proposed treatment algorithms for this rare tumor.

Patients And Methods: We report two patients diagnosed with multifocal DIA/DIGs in West China Hospital. Read More

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Combining radiomics and deep convolutional neural network features from preoperative MRI for predicting clinically relevant genetic biomarkers in glioblastoma.

Neurooncol Adv 2022 Jan-Dec;4(1):vdac060. Epub 2022 Apr 22.

Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA.

Background: Glioblastoma is the most common primary brain malignancy, yet treatment options are limited, and prognosis remains guarded. Individualized tumor genetic assessment has become important for accurate prognosis and for guiding emerging targeted therapies. However, challenges remain for widespread tumor genetic testing due to costs and the need for tissue sampling. Read More

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Clinical measures, radiomics, and genomics offer synergistic value in AI-based prediction of overall survival in patients with glioblastoma.

Sci Rep 2022 May 24;12(1):8784. Epub 2022 May 24.

Center for Biomedical Image Computing and Analytics (CBICA), University of Pennsylvania, 3700 Hamilton Walk, 7th floor, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA.

Multi-omic data, i.e., clinical measures, radiomic, and genetic data, capture multi-faceted tumor characteristics, contributing to a comprehensive patient risk assessment. Read More

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Tracking glioblastoma progression after initial resection with minimal reaction-diffusion models.

Math Biosci Eng 2022 Mar;19(6):5446-5481

School of Mathematical & Statistical Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85281, USA.

We describe a preliminary effort to model the growth and progression of glioblastoma multiforme, an aggressive form of primary brain cancer, in patients undergoing treatment for recurrence of tumor following initial surgery and chemoradiation. Two reaction-diffusion models are used: the Fisher-Kolmogorov equation and a 2-population model, developed by the authors, that divides the tumor into actively proliferating and quiescent (or necrotic) cells. The models are simulated on 3-dimensional brain geometries derived from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans provided by the Barrow Neurological Institute. Read More

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Target receptor identification and subsequent treatment of resected brain tumors with encapsulated and engineered allogeneic stem cells.

Nat Commun 2022 May 19;13(1):2810. Epub 2022 May 19.

Department of Medicinal Chemistry, College of Pharmacy University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, 84112, USA.

Cellular therapies offer a promising therapeutic strategy for the highly malignant brain tumor, glioblastoma (GBM). However, their clinical translation is limited by the lack of effective target identification and stringent testing in pre-clinical models that replicate standard treatment in GBM patients. In this study, we show the detection of cell surface death receptor (DR) target on CD146-enriched circulating tumor cells (CTC) captured from the blood of mice bearing GBM and patients diagnosed with GBM. Read More

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Optic Neuropathy Revealing Severe Superficial Siderosis in the Setting of Long-standing Low-grade Intracranial Neoplasm.

Neuroophthalmology 2022 2;46(3):171-177. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Ophthalmology Department, Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc, Brussels, Belgium.

Two cases of optic neuropathy due to superficial siderosis (SS) are reported in two patients, aged 29 and 38 years, operated for intracranial neoplasms, the first one with a desmoplasic infantile ganglioglioma excised in 1991, and the other one with a pilocytic astrocytoma, operated on in 1997, 1998 and 2016. Both patients presented with progressive loss of visual acuity, as a result of bilateral optic nerve atrophy, as well as unsteadiness, ataxic gait and hearing loss. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain and spine, including gradient echo (GRE) T2-weighted acquisitions, revealed thin optic nerves and strong hypointensity with susceptibility artefacts corresponding to haemosiderin deposits within the meningeal layers of the spine, the infra- and supratentorial spaces of the brain and the peri-optic sheaths in both patients. Read More

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Towards real-time intraoperative tissue interrogation for REIMS-guided glioma surgery.

J Mass Spectrom Adv Clin Lab 2022 Apr 29;24:80-89. Epub 2022 Apr 29.

Maastricht MultiModal Molecular Imaging (M4I) Institute, Division of Imaging Mass Spectrometry, Maastricht University, 6229 ER Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Introduction: The main goal of brain tumour surgery is to maximize tumour resection while avoiding neurological deficits. Accurate characterization of tissue and delineation of resection margins are, therefore, essential to achieve optimal surgical results.

Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to develop and validate a mass spectrometry- based technique for the molecular characterization of high- and low-grade glioma tissue during surgery. Read More

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Impact of childhood cerebellar tumor surgery on cognition revealed by precuneus hyperconnectivity.

Neurooncol Adv 2022 Jan-Dec;4(1):vdac050. Epub 2022 Apr 13.

Department of Neurosurgery, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Background: Childhood cerebellar pilocytic astrocytomas harbor excellent overall survival rates after surgical resection, but the patients may exhibit specific cognitive and behavioral problems. Functional MRI has catalyzed insights into brain functional systems and has already been linked with the neuropsychological performance. We aimed to exploit the question of whether resting-state functional MRI can be used as a biomarker for the cognitive outcome assessment of these patients. Read More

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A Gambogic Acid-Loaded Delivery System Mediated by Ultrasound-Targeted Microbubble Destruction: A Promising Therapy Method for Malignant Cerebral Glioma.

Int J Nanomedicine 2022 3;17:2001-2017. Epub 2022 May 3.

Henan Key Laboratory of Medical Tissue Regeneration, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Xinxiang Medical University, Xinxiang, Henan, 453003, People's Republic of China.

Background: The blood-brain barrier (BBB) inhibits the delivery of macromolecular chemotherapeutic drugs to brain tumors, leading to low utilization rates and toxic side effects to surrounding tissues and organs. Ultrasonic targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD) technology can open the BBB, leading to a new type of drug delivery system with particular utility in glioma.

Purpose: We have developed a new type of drug-loaded microbubble complex based on poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) that targets gambogic acid (GA) to the area of brain tumors through UTMD. Read More

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Diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas in adults: A retrospective study.

Neurol India 2022 Mar-Apr;70(2):584-590

Department of Neuropathology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bangalore, Karnataka, India.

Background: Brainstem gliomas (BSG) constitutes very small proportion in adults brain tumors with pons as most common location. There is significant paucity in literature for adult diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPG).

Objective: In this study, we attempt to review the outcomes of DIPG in single institute. Read More

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Carboxymethylcellulose biofunctionalized ternary quantum dots for subcellular-targeted brain cancer nanotheranostics.

Int J Biol Macromol 2022 Jun 2;210:530-544. Epub 2022 May 2.

Center of Nanoscience, Nanotechnology, and Innovation-CeNano(2)I, Federal University of Minas Gerais/UFMG, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. Electronic address:

Among the most lethal forms of cancer, malignant brain tumors persist as one of the greatest challenges faced by oncologists, where nanotechnology-driven theranostics can play a critical role in developing novel polymer-based supramolecular nanoarchitectures with multifunctional and multi-modal characteristics to fight cancer. However, it is virtually a consensus that, besides the complexity of active delivering anticancer drugs by the nanocarriers to the tumor site, the current evaluation methods primarily relying on in vitro assays and in vivo animal models have been accounted for the low translational effectiveness to clinical applications. In this view, the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay has been increasingly recognized as one of the best preclinical models to study the effects of anticancer drugs on the tumor microenvironment (TME). Read More

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Assessment of therapeutic outcome and role of reirradiation in patients with radiation-induced glioma.

Radiat Oncol 2022 May 3;17(1):85. Epub 2022 May 3.

Department of Neurosurgery and Neuro-Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital, 5-1-1, Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo, 104-0045, Japan.

Background: We sought to clarify the optimal follow-up, therapeutic strategy, especially the role of reirradiation, and the diagnostic impact of isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) 1 and 2 mutation status in patients with radiation-induced glioma (RIG).

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of 11 patients with high-grade glioma who satisfied Cahan's criteria for RIG in our database during 2001-2021. IDH 1/2 mutations were analyzed by Sanger sequencing and/or pyrosequencing. Read More

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Simulating the behaviour of glioblastoma multiforme based on patient MRI during treatments.

J Math Biol 2022 04 28;84(6):44. Epub 2022 Apr 28.

Ecole Centrale de Nantes, UMR 6629 CNRS, Laboratoire de Mathématiques Jean Leray, 44321, Nantes, France.

Glioblastoma multiforme is a brain cancer that still shows poor prognosis for patients despite the active research for new treatments. In this work, the goal is to model and simulate the evolution of tumour associated angiogenesis and the therapeutic response to glioblastoma multiforme. Multiple phenomena are modelled in order to fit different biological pathways, such as the cellular cycle, apoptosis, hypoxia or angiogenesis. Read More

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Numerical analysis of the optical fluence rate at the scalp for noninvasive brain tumor detection.

J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis 2022 Apr;39(4):587-593

The present study provides a noninvasive, safe approach for brain tumor detection by numerically analyzing the optical fluence rate at the scalp. The proposed numerical investigation demonstrates the application of different laser wavelengths for identifying different types and volumes of brain tumors (glioma "grade II astrocytoma" and meningioma). The proposed method analyzes the spatial fluence rate distribution over the surface of the head after probing it with different infrared laser wavelengths (1000 and 1100 nm) to distinguish between normal and brain tumors. Read More

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Anaplastic Pleomorphic Xanthoastrocytoma: A Rare Variant of Astrocytoma.

Cureus 2022 Mar 11;14(3):e23060. Epub 2022 Mar 11.

Department of Pathology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Health Campus, Kubang Kerian, MYS.

Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) is a rare glioma that affects 1% of astrocytic tumors. It most commonly affects children and teenagers. PXA cases with an anaplastic histopathological subtype have been reported in recent years. Read More

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Superficial siderosis in long-standing pilocytic astrocytoma.

Neurol Sci 2022 Jul 23;43(7):4559-4561. Epub 2022 Apr 23.

Neuroradiology Unit, Department of Technology and Diagnosis, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Neurologico Carlo Besta, Via Celoria, 11, Milan, Italy.

Background: Pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) rarely spreads along neuraxis, and association with superficial siderosis (SS) and chronic signs of intracranial hypertension is exceptional.

Case Report: A 48-year-old woman presented with slow onset hearing loss in the past year. Clinical examination revealed dysarthria, positive Romberg test, and severe optic neuropathy. Read More

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MR Imaging of Pediatric Brain Tumors.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2022 Apr 12;12(4). Epub 2022 Apr 12.

Department of Medical Imaging, Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60611, USA.

Primary brain tumors are the most common solid neoplasms in children and a leading cause of mortality in this population. MRI plays a central role in the diagnosis, characterization, treatment planning, and disease surveillance of intracranial tumors. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of imaging methodology, including conventional and advanced MRI techniques, and illustrate the MRI appearances of common pediatric brain tumors. Read More

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DTI Abnormalities Related to Glioblastoma: A Prospective Comparative Study with Metastasis and Healthy Subjects.

Curr Oncol 2022 04 16;29(4):2823-2834. Epub 2022 Apr 16.

Service de Neurochirurgie, Institut Pascal, Université Clermont Auvergne, Clermont Auvergne INP, CHU Clermont-Ferrand, CNRS, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand, France.

(1) Background: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) shows complex mechanisms of spreading of the tumor cells, up to remote areas, and little is still known of these mechanisms, thus we focused on MRI abnormalities observable in the tumor and the brain adjacent to the lesion, up to the contralateral hemisphere, with a special interest on tensor diffusion imaging informing on white matter architecture; (2) Material and Methods: volumes, macroscopic volume (MV), brain-adjacent-tumor (BAT) volume and abnormal color-coded DTI volume (aCCV), and region-of-interest samples (probe volumes, ipsi, and contra lateral to the lesion), with their MRI characteristics, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), fractional anisotropy (FA) values, and number of fibers (DTI fiber tracking) were analyzed in patients suffering GBM ( = 15) and metastasis ( = 9), and healthy subjects ( = 15), using ad hoc statistical methods (type I error = 5%) (3) Results: GBM volumes were larger than metastasis volumes, aCCV being larger in GBM and BAT ADC was higher in metastasis, ADC decreased centripetally in metastasis, FA increased centripetally either in GBM or metastasis, MV and BAT FA values were higher in GBM, ipsi FA values of GBM ROIs were higher than those of metastasis, and the GBM ipsi number of fibers was higher than the GBM contra number of fibers; (4) Conclusions: The MV, BAT and especially the aCCV, as well as their related water diffusion characteristics, could be useful biomarkers in oncology and functional oncology. Read More

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