8,196 results match your criteria Brain Imaging in Arteriovenous Malformation


Rendú Osler Weber Syndrome; case report.

Radiol Case Rep 2022 Sep 19;17(9):3025-3030. Epub 2022 Jun 19.

Diagnostic and Therapeutic Imaging Resident, Hospital Regional 1° de Octubre del ISSSTE, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, CP 07300, C.D. Mx.

Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT), or Rendu-Osler-Weber disease, is a dominant autosomal disease characterized by the presence of multiple telangiectasia in skin and mucus, associated with arteriovenous malformations (AVM) of various organs, including the lungs, gastrointestinal system and brain. HHT is presented most frequently as recurrent, spontaneous epistaxis. Patients may also present digestive, pulmonary and intracranial hemorrhage, as well as secondary anemia. Read More

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September 2022

Augmented reality-assisted microsurgical resection of brain arteriovenous malformations: illustrative case.

J Neurosurg Case Lessons 2022 Jun 20;3(25):CASE21135. Epub 2022 Jun 20.

Department of Neurosurgery, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York; and.

Background: Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) of the brain are vessel conglomerates of feeding arteries and draining veins that carry a risk of spontaneous and intraoperative rupture. Augmented reality (AR)-assisted neuronavigation permits continuous, real-time, updated visualization of navigation information through a heads-up display, thereby potentially improving the safety of surgical resection of AVMs.

Observations: The authors report a case of a 37-year-old female presenting with a 2-year history of recurrent falls due to intermittent right-sided weakness and increasing clumsiness in the right upper extremity. Read More

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A Systematic Review Comparing Digital Subtraction Angiogram With Magnetic Resonance Angiogram Studies in Demonstrating the Angioarchitecture of Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformations.

Cureus 2022 Jun 9;14(6):e25803. Epub 2022 Jun 9.

Internal Medicine, California Institute of Behavioral Neurosciences & Psychology, Fairfield, USA.

In brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), there is mismatched communication between arteries and veins, causing a nidal bed between them. This systematic review explores whether a magnetic resonance angiogram (MRA) can be used as a diagnostic imaging tool instead of a digital subtraction angiogram (DSA). Utilizing PubMed, Cochrane, and Google Scholar, as well as the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines for article selection, a literature search was conducted over the past five years. Read More

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Acquired Chiari malformation Type I and holocord syringomyelia associated with a high-flow supratentorial fistulous arteriovenous malformations: A case report and literature review.

Surg Neurol Int 2022 20;13:217. Epub 2022 May 20.

Department of Radiology, Bumrungrad International Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand.

Background: Chiari malformation Type I (CMI) is generally considered a congenital lesion and typically associated with syringomyelia. Acquired CMI or adult Chiari malformation caused by intracranial mass is extremely rare. Brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are characteristically symptomatic due to seizure, intracranial hemorrhage, or neurological deficit. Read More

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Brain Injury in Fetuses with Vein of Galen Malformation and Nongalenic Arteriovenous Fistulas: Static Snapshot or a Portent of More?

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2022 Jun 2. Epub 2022 Jun 2.

From the Department of Radiology (C.J., F.M.-R., M.A.B., E.Y., D.B.O.), Boston Children's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

Background And Purpose: Brain injury in fetuses with vein of Galen malformations and nongalenic AVFs is a rare complication whose appearance, course, and prognosis are poorly studied. We sought to characterize the MR imaging features and examine associations with postnatal outcome.

Materials And Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of fetal MRIs of subjects with vein of Galen malformation and nongalenic arteriovenous fistulas. Read More

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A Rare Case of Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia: A Case Report.

Cureus 2022 Apr 27;14(4):e24517. Epub 2022 Apr 27.

Internal Medicine, Hayatabad Medical Complex Peshawar, Peshawar, PAK.

Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT), also known as Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome, is a very rare autosomal dominant genetic disorder that leads to abnormal blood vessel formation in the skin, mucus membranes (called telangiectasia), and organs such as the lung, liver, and brain. It occurs due to a mutation in one of the , , and  genes, which code for the formation of blood vessels. The most common symptom is recurring nosebleed (epistaxis; due to rupture of nasal mucosal telangiectasia), which begins in childhood and affects about 90-95% of people with HHT. Read More

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Botulinum toxin injections in jaw-opening dystonia. The lateral pterygoid - maxillary artery problem.

J Clin Neurosci 2022 Jul 26;101:217-220. Epub 2022 May 26.

Ankara University Medical School, Department of Neurology, Turkey; Ankara University Brain Research Center, Turkey. Electronic address:

It has been suggested that the variations in the trajectory of the maxillary artery (MA) near the lateral pterygoid muscle (LPM) play a critical role in Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) injections in patients with jaw-opening/deviation dystonia (JOD). In the case of a lateral course to the LPM, an extraoral injection entails risks of MA injury, pain, and hematoma. Previous reports suggest geographical differences in variations of the MA-LPM relationship. Read More

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Hemorrhage and Recurrence of Obliterated Brain Arteriovenous Malformations Treated With Stereotactic Radiosurgery.

Stroke 2022 May 26:101161STROKEAHA122039213. Epub 2022 May 26.

Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville (J.S.K., K.N.K., N.I., J.P.S.).

Background: Although complete nidal obliteration of brain arteriovenous malformations (AVM) is generally presumed to represent durable cure, postobliteration hemorrhage, and AVM recurrence have become increasingly recognized phenomena. The goal of the study was to define hemorrhage and nidal recurrence risks of obliterated AVMs treated with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS).

Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study from the International Radiosurgery Research Foundation comprising AVM patients treated between 1987 and 2020. Read More

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Blood-brain barrier permeability following conventional photon radiotherapy - A systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical and preclinical studies.

Clin Transl Radiat Oncol 2022 Jul 4;35:44-55. Epub 2022 May 4.

Princess Máxima Center for Pediatric Oncology, Heidelberglaan 25, 3584 CS Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Radiotherapy (RT) is a cornerstone treatment strategy for brain tumours. Besides cytotoxicity, RT can cause disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), resulting in an increased permeability into the surrounding brain parenchyma. Although this effect is generally acknowledged, it remains unclear how and to what extent different radiation schemes affect BBB integrity. Read More

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Intraoperative Monitoring Cerebral Blood Flow During the Treatment of Brain Arteriovenous Malformations in Hybrid Operating Room by Laser Speckle Contrast Imaging.

Front Surg 2022 6;9:855397. Epub 2022 May 6.

Department of Neurosurgery, Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.

Background: Hemodynamic changes caused by hybrid surgery for brain arteriovenous malformations (bAVM) are usually related to long-term lesions from "blood stealing". There are currently no viable low-cost, noninvasive procedures for assessing cerebral perfusion in the operating room. This study aims to investigate the use of intraoperative laser speckle contrast image (LSCI) software in AVM surgery. Read More

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Compactness index: a radiosurgery outcome predictor for patients with unruptured brain arteriovenous malformations.

J Neurosurg 2022 May 20:1-10. Epub 2022 May 20.

3Department of Neurosurgery, Neurological Institute, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei.

Objective: The goal of the study was to define and quantify brain arteriovenous malformation (bAVM) compactness and to assess its effect on outcomes after Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) for unruptured bAVMs.

Methods: Unsupervised machine learning with fuzzy c-means clustering was used to differentiate the tissue constituents of bAVMs on T2-weighted MR images. The percentages of vessel, brain, and CSF were quantified. Read More

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Images of the month 1: Ischaemic stroke due to pulmonary arteriovenous fistula.

Clin Med (Lond) 2022 05;22(3):278-279

The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, Guangdong, China.

A 38-year-old man was admitted to the hospital due to a "suddenly developed right hemiplegia, unconsciousness and gaze to the right". Pulmonary arteriovenous fistulas (PAVFs) are rare but an important cause of stroke in young people, which is easy to be clinically neglected. Therefore, for young patients with pulmonary diseases and cerebral infarction, the possibility of PAVF should be considered. Read More

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Frameless Angiography-Based Gamma Knife Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformations: A Proof-of-Concept Study.

World Neurosurg 2022 May 14. Epub 2022 May 14.

Department of Neurological Surgery, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Traditional Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) of brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) using digital subtraction angiography (DSA) requires head immobilization using a stereotactic frame.

Objective: We describe our protocol of frameless GKRS using DSA while maintaining high spatial resolution for precision.

Methods: This study is a retrospective review of patients with unruptured AVMs who underwent frameless GKRS. Read More

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Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis and dural arteriovenous fistula associated with protein S deficiency: a case series study.

BMC Neurol 2022 May 2;22(1):164. Epub 2022 May 2.

The National Clinical Research Center for Mental Disorders & Beijing Key Laboratory of Mental Disorders, Beijing Anding Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Objective: To describe the characteristics of patients with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) and dural arteriovenous fistula (AVF) associated with protein S (PS) deficiency.

Methods: We conducted a search of medical records in Hainan General Hospital from January 2000 to December 2020 for coexistence of CVST and dural AVF associated with PS deficiency and searched PubMed、Embase and Chinese biomedical databases (CBM) for all literature describing CVST and dural AVF with PS. We analyzed clinical characteristics, location, sequence of CVST and dural AVF, level of PS, therapeutic methods and prognosis. Read More

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A Diagnosis of Choriocarcinoma in a Parturient Presenting With Intracranial Hemorrhage.

J Med Cases 2022 Apr 25;13(4):151-154. Epub 2022 Mar 25.

Anesthesia and Perioperative Medicine, Obstetric Anesthesia, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425, USA.

Choriocarcinoma in a viable pregnancy is uncommon. The diagnosis can easily be missed when there is an explanation for the clinical symptoms that the cancer can mimic. We present the case of a primigravid patient whose choriocarcinoma was initially missed as a result of seemingly obvious explanations for her atypical history and disease manifestation. Read More

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Outcome of Neonates Presenting With Severe Cardiac Failure due to Cerebral Arteriovenous Fistula.

Pediatr Neurol 2022 Jun 14;131:25-29. Epub 2022 Apr 14.

Department of Pediatrics and Benioff Children's Hospital, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California; Department of Neurology and Weill Institute for Neurosciences, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California. Electronic address:

Background: Congenital cerebral arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs), including vein of Galen malformations, presenting in infancy carry variable mortality and morbidity. This study aimed to describe the outcome of neonates with cerebral AVFs who present with refractory cardiac failure.

Methods: Retrospective chart review of neonates with refractory cardiac failure due to cerebral AVFs presenting before 28 days of age in a single-center neuro-intensive care nursery over a 12-year period (2008-2020) was conducted. Read More

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In vivo whole brain microvascular imaging in mice using transcranial 3D Ultrasound Localization Microscopy.

EBioMedicine 2022 May 20;79:103995. Epub 2022 Apr 20.

Physics for Medicine, ESPCI, Inserm, CNRS, Institute of Physics for Medicine Paris, PSL University, ESPCI Paris, 17 rue Moreau, Paris 75012, France. Electronic address:

Background: Non-invasive high-resolution imaging of the cerebral vascular anatomy and function is key for the study of intracranial aneurysms, stenosis, arteriovenous malformations, and stroke, but also neurological pathologies, such as degenerative diseases. Direct visualization of the microvascular networks in the whole brain remains however challenging in vivo.

Methods: In this work, we performed 3D ultrafast ultrasound localization microscopy (ULM) using a 2D ultrasound matrix array and mapped the whole-brain microvasculature and flow at microscopic resolution in C57Bl6 mice in vivo. Read More

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Septic cavernous sinus thrombosis after minor head trauma: A case report.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2022 Mar 11;101(10):e29057. Epub 2022 Mar 11.

Department of Neurology, Chonnam National University Medical School & Hospital, Gwangju, South Korea.

Rationale: Septic cavernous sinus thrombosis (SCST) is a rare but life-threatening condition that commonly arises from infections, including paranasal sinusitis, otitis media, and skin infection. Meanwhile, head trauma as a predisposing factor of SCST has been scarcely reported. We report a case of SCST complicated by meningitis after minor head trauma, even in the absence of identifiable fractures. Read More

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External validation of brain arteriovenous malformation haemorrhage scores, AVICH, ICH and R2eD.

Acta Neurochir (Wien) 2022 06 18;164(6):1685-1692. Epub 2022 Apr 18.

Institute of Systems, Integrative and Molecular Biology (ISMIB), University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK.

Purpose: To externally validate the arteriovenous malformation-related intracerebral haemorrhage (AVICH), intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH), and novel haemorrhage presentation risk score (R2eD) in brain arteriovenous malformations.

Methods: Adult patients diagnosed radiologically with an arteriovenous malformation (AVM) at a tertiary neurosurgical centre between 2007 and 2018 were eligible for inclusion. Both the AVICH and ICH scores were calculated for AVM-related symptomatic haemorrhage (SH) and compared against the modified Rankin scale (mRS) at discharge and last follow-up, with unfavourable outcome defined as mRS > 2. Read More

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"De novo" brain arteriovenous malformation in a child with congenital porto-systemic shunt and multisystemic angiomas.

Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2022 06 31;217:107236. Epub 2022 Mar 31.

Neurosurgery Unit, Department of Neurosciences, Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital, IRCCS, Rome, Italy. Electronic address:

De novo arterio-venous malformations (AVMs) of the brain have been rarely previously reported, especially in the pediatric population. Although AVMs have possible connections with other diseases, the association with congenital portosystemic shunt (CPSS) has never been reported before. A child was followed for CPSS and cutaneous and hepatic angiomas. Read More

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Single low-dose targeted bevacizumab infusion in adult patients with steroid-refractory radiation necrosis of the brain: a phase II open-label prospective clinical trial.

J Neurosurg 2022 Apr 15:1-11. Epub 2022 Apr 15.

4Department of Neurosurgery, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, Kentucky.

Objective: There is an unmet need for safe and rapidly effective therapies for refractory brain radiation necrosis (RN). The aim of this prospective single-arm phase II trial was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a single low-dose targeted bevacizumab infusion after blood-brain barrier disruption (BBBD) in adult patients with steroid-refractory brain RN.

Methods: Ten adults with steroid-refractory, imaging-confirmed brain RN were enrolled between November 2016 and January 2018 and followed for 12 months after treatment. Read More

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Endovascular treatment in the multimodality management of brain arteriovenous malformations: report of the Society of NeuroInterventional Surgery Standards and Guidelines Committee.

J Neurointerv Surg 2022 Apr 12. Epub 2022 Apr 12.

Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA

Background: The purpose of this review is to summarize the data available for the role of angiography and embolization in the comprehensive multidisciplinary management of brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs METHODS: We performed a structured literature review for studies examining the indications, efficacy, and outcomes for patients undergoing endovascular therapy in the context of brain AVM management. We graded the quality of the evidence. Recommendations were arrived at through a consensus conference of the authors, then with additional input from the full Society of NeuroInterventional Surgery (SNIS) Standards and Guidelines Committee and the SNIS Board of Directors. Read More

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[Endovascular treatment of aneurysms associated with cerebral arteriovenous malformations].

Zh Vopr Neirokhir Im N N Burdenko 2022 ;86(2):25-35

Polenov Russian Research Institute of Neurosurgery, St. Petersburg, Russia.

There are proximal, distal and intranidal AVM-associated aneurysms (G. Redekop, 1998).

Objective: To evaluate treatment outcomes in 120 patients with AVM-associated aneurysms. Read More

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Awake Microsurgical Resection for a Precentral Gyrus Arteriovenous Malformation-Three-Dimensional Video and Anatomic Landmarks.

World Neurosurg 2022 Jul 9;163:37. Epub 2022 Apr 9.

Department of Neurosurgery, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; Hospital Beneficência Portuguesa de São Paulo, São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are complex, heterogeneous, and uncommon neurovascular disorders that frequently manifest in young adults. Parenchymal AVMs are thought to be congenital, but this has been recently questioned in the literature. AVMs can change over time and cause focal neurological signs or neurocognitive deficits. Read More

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Dilemmas in managing coexisting arteriovenous and cavernous malformations: Case report.

Brain Circ 2022 Jan-Mar;8(1):45-49. Epub 2022 Mar 21.

Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospital of Larissa, Biopolis 1, Larissa, Greece.

Coexisting arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) and cavernous malformations (CMs) are rare. Here, we present our dilemmas in managing a patient with a cerebral AVM and a pontine CM. A 47-year-old patient suffered from headaches, vomiting, and transient swallowing difficulties. Read More

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An Unusual Case of Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformation in Pregnancy.

J Med Cases 2022 Mar 5;13(3):104-108. Epub 2022 Mar 5.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Singapore General Hospital, Singapore, Singapore.

We present a case of a woman at 31 weeks and 3 days of gestation, who developed a sudden and severe headache and loss of vision in her left eye. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain revealed a subarachnoid bleed secondary to a right parieto-occipital arteriovenous malformation (AVM). She was conservatively managed and subsequently transferred to our institution for multidisciplinary care. Read More

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DELAYED DIAGNOSIS OF AVM PRESENTING WITH STROKE AND SEIZURES IN A YOUNG NIGERIAN: A CASE REPORT.

Ann Ib Postgrad Med 2021 Jun;19(1):87-93

Neurology Unit, Department of Medicine, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria.

Background: Brain arteriovenous malformations (BAVM) are a cause of intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) and seizures especially in young patients. ICH due to BAVMs seem to have relatively better neurologic outcomes compared to other causes of spontaneous ICH as patients often recover fully. In this report we highlight a case of delayed diagnosis of BAVM in a young man who presented with seizures and stroke. Read More

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Significant venous flow alterations following brain arteriovenous malformation Surgery: Assessment by transcranial colour duplex.

J Clin Neurosci 2022 May 21;99:268-274. Epub 2022 Mar 21.

Macquarie Medical School, Faculty of Medicine, Health and Human Sciences, Level 3, 75 Talavera Rd, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109, Australia; The Centre for Complementary Medicine Research, Western Sydney University, 158 Hawkesbury Rd, Westmead, NSW 2145, Australia.

Brain arteriovenous malformation (bAVM) resection imposes several post-operative clinical challenges including intracranial haemorrhage (ICH). Daily non-invasive monitoring of haemodynamic measurements may be useful in predicting post-operative ICH. This prospective study used transcranial colour duplex (TCCD) and central aortic pressure (CAP) measurements to evaluate 15 bAVM patients pre-operatively and daily ≤ 14 days post-operatively. Read More

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Arterial Spin Labeling for Pediatric Central Nervous System Diseases: Techniques and Clinical Applications.

Magn Reson Med Sci 2022 Mar 23. Epub 2022 Mar 23.

Diagnostic Radiology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University.

Dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) and arterial spin labeling (ASL) are techniques used to evaluate brain perfusion using MRI. DSC requires dynamic image acquisition with a rapid administration of gadolinium-based contrast agent. In contrast, ASL obtains brain perfusion information using magnetically labeled blood water as an endogenous tracer. Read More

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Micro-balloon-assisted embolization of anterior cranial fossa dural arteriovenous fistula via a trans-ophthalmic approach - a technical report and case series.

Neuroradiology 2022 Jun 21;64(6):1269-1274. Epub 2022 Mar 21.

Department of Neuroradiology, Leeds Teaching Hospitals, Leeds, UK.

Purpose: Dural arteriovenous fistulas (dAVF) account for approximately 10-15% of all intracranial arteriovenous abnormalities. dAVFs carry a significant risk of mortality, particularly in cases of acute hemorrhage, of up to 10%. A small proportion of these dAVFs are found in the anterior cranial fossa (ACF), of which the rate of hemorrhage can be as high as up to 91%. Read More

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