7,916 results match your criteria Brain Imaging in Arteriovenous Malformation

Investigating the role of imprinted genes in pediatric sporadic brain arteriovenous malformations.

Neural Regen Res 2022 Jan;17(1):101-102

Department of Biomedical, Dental, Morphological and Functional Imaging Sciences, University of Messina, Messina, Italy.

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2022

Brain arteriovenous malformations and dural arteriovenous fistulas with extensive venous congestive encephalopathy.

Acta Neurol Belg 2021 Jun 6. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Department of Neurosurgery, The First Hospital of Jilin University, 1 Xinmin Avenue, Changchun, 130021, China.

In brain arteriovenous malformations (BAVMs) and dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs), when too much blood is drained into the venous system, extensive venous congestive encephalopathy (EVCE) can appear. EVCE in BAVMs and DAVFs can be divided into acute and chronic stages. BAVMs and DAVFs have their own classification systems, but EVCE is not considered in these classification systems and needs to be emphasized. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Symptomatic Unruptured Arteriovenous Malformations: Focal Oedema, Thrombosis and Vessel Wall Enhancement. A Retrospective Cohort Study.

World Neurosurg 2021 Jun 2. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Division of Neuroradiology, JDMI, University Health Network, Department of Medical Imaging, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, CANADA; Division of Neurosurgery, University Health Network, Ontario, CANADA.

Background: Focal brain edema in unruptured brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) is rare and associated with venous outflow abnormalities and aneurysm growth. These patients have an increased rate of progressive neurological symptoms, as well as a potentially increased risk of haemorrhage. In this study, we aim to assess in further detail the relationship between perifocal edema and enhancement of the vessel wall in symptomatic patients with an unruptured brain AVM. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

[Surgery for Right Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformation with Recurrent Brain Abscess:Report of a Case].

Kyobu Geka 2021 Jun;74(6):477-480

Department of Thoracic Surgery, Japanese Red Cross Osaka Hospital, Osaka, Japan.

A 68-year-old man was referred to our hospital for further examination for chest abnormal shadow in the right lung field. He had a past history of subarachnoid hemorrhage. He was diagnosed with pulmonary arteriovenous malformation (PAVM) and recommended early treatment, but he didnot accept immediate surgical treatment. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

High-flow vascular malformations of the brain in pediatrics: Experience in a tertiary care children's hospital.

Arch Argent Pediatr 2021 06;119(3):152-161

Coordinación de Diagnóstico por Imágenes. Hospital de Pediatría "Prof. Dr. Juan P. Garrahan, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires.

Introduction: High-flow vascular malformations of the brain are uncommon in pediatrics.

Objective: The objective of this study is to establish the differences among these pathologies and group them by age at onset, clinical manifestations, and angioarchitecture.

Population And Method: This was a retrospective and observational study. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Traumatic dissecting pathology of posterior cerebral artery: a report of two cases-aneurysm and pial arteriovenous fistula.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 May 20;14(5). Epub 2021 May 20.

Radiology, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.

We present two cases of 17-year-old man and 10-year-old boy presenting with subarachnoid haemorrhage and a history of road traffic accident. One patient had dissecting aneurysm of the posterior cerebral artery (PCA), and the other patient had partially thrombosed aneurysm on CT angiography. On digital subtraction angiography of the second patient, there was formation of PCA pontomesencephalic vein pial arteriovenous fistula (PAVF). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The etiologies of isolated fourth cranial nerve palsy: a 10-year review of 158 cases.

Int Ophthalmol 2021 May 20. Epub 2021 May 20.

Department of Ophthalmology, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, 10400, Thailand.

Purpose: To identify the etiologies of isolated fourth cranial nerve palsy in Ramathibodi hospital, Thailand.

Methods: Patients diagnosed with isolated fourth nerve palsy from January 1, 2009, through July 31, 2020 in Ramathibodi Hospital, were included in this retrospective, observational case series. The demographic data of patients, age at presentation, the etiologies of isolated fourth nerve palsy and neuroimaging results (if indicated) were recorded. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Neurovascular disorders in children: an updated practical guide.

Transl Pediatr 2021 Apr;10(4):1100-1116

Department of Neuroradiology, Charing Cross Hospital, London, UK.

Neurovascular disorders are an important cause of brain injury in the paediatric population, leading to substantial mortality and morbidity. These include ischaemic, haemorrhagic strokes, and cerebral venous sinus thromboses. Despite remarkable improvements in our understanding and management of strokes in general, and in the quality of immediate care and rehabilitation, the outcomes in childhood strokes lag far behind adult strokes. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

High Output Cardiovascular Physiology and Outcomes in Fetal Diagnosis of Vein of Galen Malformation.

Pediatr Cardiol 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Pediatric Heart Center, Icahn School of Medicine At Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA.

Vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation (VGAM) is a rare anomaly associated with poor outcomes from high output cardiac failure and neurologic complications. Studies addressing fetal cardiovascular status and outcomes in this population are limited. A single-center retrospective review was conducted on patients with a prenatal diagnosis of VGAM who underwent a fetal echocardiogram between January 2015 and July 2019. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The safety profile and angioarchitectural changes after acute targeted embolization of ruptured arteriovenous malformations.

J Neurosurg 2021 May 7:1-10. Epub 2021 May 7.

2Division of Neuroradiology, Department of Medical Imaging, and.

Objective: The aim of this study was to 1) compare the safety and efficacy of acute targeted embolization of angiographic weak points in ruptured brain arteriovenous malformations (bAVMs) versus delayed treatment, and 2) explore the angioarchitectural changes that follow this intervention.

Methods: The authors conducted a retrospective analysis of a prospectively acquired database of ruptured bAVMs. Three hundred sixteen patients with ruptured bAVMs who presented to the hospital within 48 hours of ictus were included in the analysis. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer to treat an intracranial arteriovenous malformation in a dog.

J Vet Intern Med 2021 May 6;35(3):1558-1565. Epub 2021 May 6.

Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, University of California-Davis, School of Veterinary Medicine, Davis, California, USA.

A 6-year-old neutered male German shepherd dog was evaluated for obtundation, blindness, and bilateral exophthalmos. A magnetic resonance imaging scan of the brain was performed and identified an arteriovenous malformation (AVM) with several feeding arterial branches, and venous drainage through the cavernous sinus. Venous vessels rostral to the AVM were severely distended and extended into the retrobulbar spaces. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Factors affecting the performance of brain arteriovenous malformation rupture prediction models.

BMC Med Inform Decis Mak 2021 05 3;21(1):142. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Neurosurgery, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Background: In many cases, both the rupture rate of cerebral arteriovenous malformation (bAVM) in patients and the risk of endovascular or surgical treatment (when radiosurgery is not appropriate) are not low, it is important to assess the risk of rupture more cautiously before treatment. Based on the current high-risk predictors and clinical data, different sample sizes, sampling times and algorithms were used to build prediction models for the risk of hemorrhage in bAVM, and the accuracy and stability of the models were investigated. Our purpose was to remind researchers that there may be some pitfalls in developing similar prediction models. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Single-hole, ruptured parenchymal arteriovenous fistula of the mesencephalon: not known vascular malformation of the brain or a posthemorrhagic entity?

Ideggyogy Sz 2021 Mar;74(3-4):126-128

Neuroradiology Division, Department of Radiology and Medical Informatics, Geneva University Hospitals, Geneva, Switzerland.

The subtypes of brain arteriovenous malformations, with direct, single-hole fistulas without co-existing nidus are not described as existing entities inside the brain parenchyma but on the pial surface. True parenchymal arteriovenous malformations present with nidal structure, even if they are small, whereas surface lesions may present a direct fistulous configuration. In this case of midbrain haemorrhage a direct arteriovenous fistula was detected at the level of the red nucleus between a paramedian midbrain perforator artery and a paramedian parenchymal vein, with pseudo-aneurysm formation at the fistulous connection, without signs of adjacent nidus structure. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Cerebellar developmental venous anomaly with associated cavernoma causing a hemorrhage - a rare occurrence.

Radiol Case Rep 2021 Jun 13;16(6):1463-1468. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Radiology, Southend University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Southend-on-Sea, UK.

Developmental venous anomalies (DVAs) are variations in the transmedullary veins required for drainage of the brain. Normally, when occurring in isolation, DVAs are not clinically significant and are therefore usually a benign diagnosis. Thus, they are most often an incidental finding unless associated with an adjacent pathology. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Brain Arteriovenous Malformations: The Role of Imaging in Treatment Planning and Monitoring Response.

Neuroimaging Clin N Am 2021 May 24;31(2):205-222. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Neuroradiology, University of Toronto, Toronto Western Hospital, 399 Bathurst Street, Toronto, Ontario M5T 2S8, Canada. Electronic address:

Brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are characterized by shunting between pial arteries and cortical or deep veins, with the presence of an intervening nidus of tortuous blood vessels. These lesions present a therapeutic challenge, because their natural history entails a risk of intracranial hemorrhage, but treatment may cause significant morbidity. In this article, imaging features of AVMs on MR imaging and catheter angiography are reviewed to stratify the risk of hemorrhage and guide appropriate management. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Comparison of cerebral AVMs in patients undergoing surgical resection with and without prior endovascular embolization.

Int J Neurosci 2021 May 10:1-9. Epub 2021 May 10.

Medical Faculty, Department of Neurosurgery, Katip Çelebi University, Izmir, Turkey.

Aim: Brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are congenital anomalies that present as intracranial hemorrhage or epilepsy. AVMs often remain clinically silent for extended periods. Although AVM treatment methods are controversial, three treatment strategies are usually combined or applied alone: surgical removal, embolization and stereotactic radiosurgery. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Conventional and advanced MRI evaluation of brain vascular malformations.

J Neuroimaging 2021 05 15;31(3):428-445. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

MRI Unit, Radiology Department, HT Medica, Jaén, Spain.

Vascular malformations (VMs) of the central nervous system (CNS) include a wide range of pathological conditions related to intra and extracranial vessel abnormalities. Although some VMs show typical neuroimaging features, other VMs share and overlap pathological and neuroimaging features that hinder an accurate differentiation between them. Hence, it is not uncommon to misclassify different types of VMs under the general heading of arteriovenous malformations. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Characteristics of pial brain arteriovenous malformations with transdural arterial supply.

Eur J Radiol 2021 Jun 8;139:109670. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Division of Neuroradiology, Joint Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto Western Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Purpose: Transdural blood supply (TDBS) to pial brain arteriovenous malformations (BAVM) is uncommon and believed to be related to vascular endothelial growth factor - induced angiogenesis. The aim of this study was to define the BAVM characteristics in relation to presence and volume of TDBS.

Methods: BAVMs managed at our institution between January 2006 and December 2016 who subsequently underwent complete digital subtraction angiography (DSA) were included. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Perioperative Dynamics of Intracranial B-waves of Blood Flow Velocity in the Basal Cerebral Arteries in Patients with Brain Arteriovenous Malformation.

Acta Neurochir Suppl 2021 ;131:63-68

Johannes-Mueller Institute of Vegetative Physiology University Hospital Charité, Humboldt University of Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

Intracranial B-waves (8-30 mHz) of blood flow velocity (BFV) in the cerebral arteries are observed in various pathologies of the brain. Changes in B-waves of BFV in pathological arteriovenous shunting and "steal" syndrome remain poorly understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dynamics of the B-wave amplitude of BFV (BWA) in patients with an arteriovenous malformation (AVM) in the brain. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Recent progress understanding pathophysiology and genesis of brain AVM-a narrative review.

Neurosurg Rev 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospital, Düsseldorf, Germany.

Considerable progress has been made over the past years to better understand the genetic nature and pathophysiology of brain AVM. For the actual review, a PubMed search was carried out regarding the embryology, inflammation, advanced imaging, and fluid dynamical modeling of brain AVM. Whole-genome sequencing clarified the genetic origin of sporadic and familial AVM to a large degree, although some open questions remain. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Rotational Angiography-Based Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for Brain Arteriovenous Malformations: Preliminary Therapeutic Outcomes of the Novel Method.

Neurosurgery 2021 Mar 26. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Neurosurgery, The University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: High-definition vascular imaging is desirable for treatment planning in Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS; Elekta AB) for brain arteriovenous malformations (BAVMs). Currently, rotational angiography (RA) provides the clearest 3-dimensional visualization of niduses with high spatial resolution; however, its efficacy for GKRS has not been clarified. At our institution, RA has been integrated into GKRS (RA-GKRS) for better treatment planning and outcomes since 2015. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

[Dural Arteriovenous Fistula].

No Shinkei Geka 2021 Mar;49(2):362-367

Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Oita University.

Dural arteriovenous fistulas(dAVFs), which are arteriovenous shunts between the dural/epidural artery and dural vein and/or dural venous sinus, can cause various symptoms, and the risk of aggressive symptoms such as cerebral hemorrhage and venous infarction mainly depends on venous drainage patterns in patients. Patients with dAVFs with cortical venous reflux have a high risk of aggressive symptoms due to cerebral venous congestion or varix rupture, and they often develop brain edema and/or hemorrhage. In some cases, patients with dAVFs may have CT and MRI findings similar to those of patients with brain tumors. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

[Brain Calcification].

No Shinkei Geka 2021 Mar;49(2):271-277

Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Shinrakuen Hospital.

Brain calcification can be either physiological or pathological. Pathological calcification occurs due to a wide spectrum of causes, including congenital disorders, infections, endocrine/metabolic diseases, cerebrovascular diseases, and neoplasms. The patient's age, localization of the calcification, and association with other imaging findings are useful for the correct diagnosis. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Treatment of a rare and complex carotid-cavernous fistula.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 Mar 22;14(3). Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Neurological Surgery, University Hospitals, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.

Carotid-cavernous fistulas (CCFs) are abnormal connections between arteries and the cavernous sinuses. Traditionally, the Barrow Classification system has been used to characterise these fistulas based on their arterial supply from the internal carotid artery (ICA), external carotid artery (ECA) or both. We present a unique case of a patient with a complex CCF with arterial feeders from dural branches of the ECA, ICA and vertebral artery (VA), which, to our knowledge, has not been reported in the literature. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Thalamic abscess in a patient with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia successfully treated with an empiric antibiotic regime: case report and review of the literature.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Mar 19;21(1):277. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department of Infectious Diseases, University Hospital Puerta de Hierro Majadahonda, Madrid, Spain.

Background: Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is a rare autosomal dominant disease associated with neurological complications, including cerebral abscesses (CA). They tend to be unique, supratentorial and lobar. While the surgical intervention is a rule of thumb when treating and diagnosing the etiology of these lesions, this is not always possible due to dangerous or inaccessible locations. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Selective Endothelial Hyperactivation of Oncogenic KRAS Induces Brain Arteriovenous Malformations in Mice.

Ann Neurol 2021 05 22;89(5):926-941. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Vivian L. Smith Department of Neurosurgery, McGovern Medical School, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX.

Objective: Brain arteriovenous malformations (bAVMs) are a leading cause of hemorrhagic stroke and neurological deficits in children and young adults, however, no pharmacological intervention is available to treat these patients. Although more than 95% of bAVMs are sporadic without family history, the pathogenesis of sporadic bAVMs is largely unknown, which may account for the lack of therapeutic options. KRAS mutations are frequently observed in cancer, and a recent unprecedented finding of these mutations in human sporadic bAVMs offers a new direction in the bAVM research. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Planning of gamma knife radiosurgery (GKR) for brain arteriovenous malformations using triple magnetic resonance angiography (triple-MRA).

Br J Neurosurg 2021 Feb 28:1-11. Epub 2021 Feb 28.

The Lysholm Department of Neuroradiology, National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, London, UK.

Purpose: Intra-arterial Digital Subtraction Angiography (DSA) is the gold standard technique for radiosurgery target delineation in brain Arterio-Venous Malformations (AVMs). This study aims to evaluate whether a combination of three Magnetic Resonance Angiography sequences (triple-MRA) could be used for delineation of brain AVMs for Gamma Knife Radiosurgery (GKR).

Methods: Fifteen patients undergoing DSA for GKR targeting of brain AVMs also underwent triple-MRA: 4D Arterial Spin Labelling based angiography (ASL-MRA), Contrast-Enhanced Time-Resolved MRA (CE-MRA) and High Definition post-contrast Time-Of-Flight angiography (HD-TOF). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Changes in Angioarchitecture After Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Dural Arteriovenous Fistula.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2021 May 25;30(5):105676. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Department of Neurosurgery, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA; Department of Neurology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA; Department of Radiology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA; Department of Neuroscience, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA. Electronic address:

Introduction: Dural arteriovenous fistulae (DAVF) are intracranial vascular abnormalities encountered in neurosurgery practice. Treatment options are microsurgical disconnection, endovascular embolization and/or radiosurgery. Past studies have reported the efficacy, safety, and predictors of success of radiosurgery. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Transverse sinus dural arteriovenous fistula: a reversible cause of severe pulmonary hypertension in an extremely premature infant.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 Feb 22;14(2). Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota Medical Center, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA.

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Editorial on "Quantification of Hemodynamics of Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformations After Stereotactic Radiosurgery Using 4D Flow MRI".

Niels Bergsland

J Magn Reson Imaging 2021 06 16;53(6):1851-1852. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Buffalo Neuroimaging Analysis Center, Department of Neurology, Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, New York, USA.

View Article and Full-Text PDF