2,313 results match your criteria Brain Herniation Imaging

Chiropractic Care of a Female Veteran After Cervical Total Disk Replacement: A Case Report.

J Chiropr Med 2022 Mar 9;21(1):60-65. Epub 2022 Jun 9.

Surgery, Midwest Spine & Brain Institute, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Objective: The purpose of this case study is to describe chiropractic care of the cervical spine for a patient who previously underwent cervical total disk replacement (CTDR) of the C5-6 and C6-7 disks.

Clinical Features: A 42-year-old female veteran of the U.S. Read More

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Claudin-5a is essential for the functional formation of both zebrafish blood-brain barrier and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier.

Fluids Barriers CNS 2022 Jun 3;19(1):40. Epub 2022 Jun 3.

Affiliated Hospital of Guangdong Medical University & Key Laboratory of Zebrafish Model for Development and Disease of Guangdong Medical University, Zhanjiang, 524001, China.

Background: Mammalian Claudin-5 is the main endothelial tight junction component maintaining blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, while Claudin-1 and -3 seal the paracellular space of choroid plexus (CP) epithelial cells contributing to the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB). In zebrafish, two paralogs of claudin-5a and -5b are expressed while their roles in the formation of BBB and BCSFB are unclear.

Methods: The expression patterns of Claudin-5a and -5b in zebrafish brains were systematically analyzed by immunofluorescence (IF) assay. Read More

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SPECT Imaging of Acute Disc Herniation by Targeting Integrin α5β1 in Rat Models.

Front Neurol 2022 9;13:782967. Epub 2022 May 9.

Department of Neurosurgery, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Objective: Traditional morphological imaging of intervertebral disc herniation (IVDH) is challenging in early disease diagnosis. Aiming at the early diagnosis of IVD by non-invasive molecular imaging targeting of integrin α5β1, we performed novel imaging in rats with acute IVDH for the first time.

Methods: Animal models were prepared by conducting an established needle puncture procedure through the normal intervertebral disc (IVD). Read More

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Brain Network Changes in Lumbar Disc Herniation Induced Chronic Nerve Roots Compression Syndromes.

Neural Plast 2022 14;2022:7912410. Epub 2022 May 14.

Department of Orthopedics, Renhe Hospital, Baoshan District, Shanghai 200431, China.

Lumbar disc herniation (LDH) induced nerve compression syndromes have been a prevalent problem with complex neural mechanisms. Changes in distributed brain areas are involved in the occurrence and persistence of syndromes. The present study aimed to investigate the changes of brain functional network in LDH patients with chronic sciatica using graph theory analysis. Read More

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An Optimal Animal Model of Ischemic Stroke Established by Digital Subtraction Angiography-Guided Autologous Thrombi in Cynomolgus Monkeys.

Front Neurol 2022 25;13:864954. Epub 2022 Apr 25.

Department of Radiology, Suzhou Kowloon Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Suzhou, China.

Objective: Ischemic stroke seriously threatens human health, characterized by the high rates of incidence, disability, and death. Developing a reliable animal model that mimics most of the features of stroke is critical for pathological studies and clinical research. In this study, we aimed to establish and examine a model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) guided by digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in cynomolgus monkeys. Read More

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In-utero Diagnosis of Double Encephalocele - Imaging Features and Review of Literature.

J Radiol Case Rep 2021 Dec 1;15(12):1-9. Epub 2021 Dec 1.

Department of Radiology, Penn State Health Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA, USA.

Encephalocele is protrusion of brain parenchyma through a defect in the cranium. It is classified into various types based on the defect location: sincipital (fronto-ethmoidal), basal (trans-sphenoidal, spheno-ethmoidal, trans-ethmoidal, and spheno-orbital), occipital and parietal. Double encephaloceles are very rare with only a handful of cases reported in the literature and most of these cases involved either occipital or sub-occipital region. Read More

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December 2021

Lateral Ventricle Solitary Fibrous Tumor: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

Cureus 2022 Mar 12;14(3):e23106. Epub 2022 Mar 12.

Neurosurgery, Baylor Scott & White Health, Temple, USA.

Solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) are rare tumors thought to be of mesenchymal origin. Even though intracranial, especially intraventricular, SFTs are rare, this diagnosis should be considered in the differential for intraventricular lesions. Here, report the case of a female in her 60s who underwent a non-contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging scan of the brain for new-onset memory issues and headache which revealed a well-circumscribed intraventricular lesion in the right lateral ventricle with vasogenic edema, trapping of the temporal horn, and subfalcine herniation. Read More

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Statistical shape models of the posterior cranial fossa and hindbrain volumes may provide a more robust clinical metric for Chiari malformation.

J Biomech 2022 May 12;137:111093. Epub 2022 Apr 12.

Neuroscience Research Australia and Prince of Wales Clinical School, University of New South Wales, Australia. Electronic address:

Chiari malformation is characterised by the herniation of the cerebellar tonsils through the foramen magnum. However, tonsillar herniation and other 2D morphometric measurements of the posterior cranial fossa (PCF) have a weak association with patients' symptoms and clinical outcomes. This study aimed to contrast current 2D metrics with a novel 3D shape analysis of the PCF and the hindbrain, to determine if 3D measurements provides further insight into the pathophysiology of Chiari. Read More

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Case Report: Ventriculoperitoneal Shunting and Radiation Therapy Treatment in a Cat With a Suspected Choroid Plexus Tumor and Hypertensive Hydrocephalus.

Front Vet Sci 2022 23;9:828083. Epub 2022 Mar 23.

Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Southfields Veterinary Specialists, Essex, United Kingdom.

A 14-year-old male neutered domestic short-hair cat was presented for a history of behavioral changes and episodes of urinary retention. Neurological examination was consistent with a multifocal intracranial neuroanatomical localization, with suspected right sided lateralisation and suspected raised intracranial pressure (ICP). Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed an intraventricular multilobulated well-defined T2W-hyperintense and T1W-isointense, markedly contrast enhancing mass lesion within the dorsal aspect of the III ventricle extending into the left lateral ventricle, causing hypertensive obstructive hydrocephalus. Read More

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Concurrent intracranial infarct and intraventricular hemorrhage with spontaneous nontraumatic extradural hemorrhage in follow-up: An enigma of COVID-19-associated intracranial vasculopathy.

Surg Neurol Int 2022 11;13:90. Epub 2022 Mar 11.

Department of Neurosurgery, Fortis Memorial Research Institute, Gurgaon, Haryana, India.

Background: Several neurological manifestations have been described in the literature, in patients affected with COVID-19 infection. Some common forms include ischemic stroke, cardioembolic stroke, intraparenchymal hemorrhage, and multicompartmental hemorrhage. Concurrent brain infarct and intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) have not been described in the literature previously. Read More

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Diagnostic approach, therapeutic strategies, and surgical indications in intradural thoracic disc herniation associated with CSF leak, intracranial hypotension, and CNS superficial siderosis.

Neurol Sci 2022 Jul 8;43(7):4167-4173. Epub 2022 Apr 8.

Department of Neurosurgery, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Neurologico C. Besta, University of Milan, Via Giovanni Celoria 11, 20133, Milan, Italy.

Background And Purpose: Intradural disc herniation (IDH) can manifest with radicular or medullary syndrome. In about 15% of cases, IDH may be responsible, through a dural laceration, for a CSF leak, determining spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) and CNS superficial siderosis (CNSss). This paper attempts to present an overview on IDH as the cause for both CSF leak, and subsequent SIH, and CNSss, and to describe a peculiar clinical and neuroradiological scenario related to this condition. Read More

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Congenital diaphragmatic hernia and early lethality in PIGL-related disorder.

Eur J Med Genet 2022 May 1;65(5):104501. Epub 2022 Apr 1.

Department of Fetal Medicine & Medical Imaging, Corniche Hospital, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates; College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Khalifa University, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.

We report on three male siblings who presented prenatally with a nearly identical combination of congenital anomalies and who died shortly after preterm birth. The first baby was a singleton pregnancy, and the other two babies were dichorionic diamniotic twins. Key features included: left-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernia, inferior vermian dysgenesis/hypoplasia, prenasal edema, cleft palate, micropenis/ambiguous genitalia (in 2 of 3 babies), bilateral renal pelvic dilatation (in twins, first baby showed slightly enlarged kidneys) and polyhydramnios (in 2 of 3). Read More

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A Case of Cerebellar Hippocampal and Basal Nuclei Transient Edema With Restricted Diffusion Syndrome With Poor Clinical Outcome.

Cureus 2022 Mar 2;14(3):e22767. Epub 2022 Mar 2.

Internal Medicine, Rutgers University New Jersey Medical School, Newark, USA.

Cerebellar hippocampal and basal nuclei transient edema with restricted diffusion (CHANTER) syndrome is a specific pattern of restricted diffusion in the hippocampi and cerebellum identified on brain imaging by clinicians in patients who present with altered mental status in the context of substance intoxication. These patients developed obstructive hydrocephalus a couple of days into their hospitalization that required therapy with osmotic agents and/or surgical interventions (i.e. Read More

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Neuroprotection is improved by watertightness of fetal spina bifida repair in fetal lamb.

Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2022 Mar 30. Epub 2022 Mar 30.

My FetUZ Fetal Research Center, Department of Development and Regeneration, Biomedical Sciences, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Objectives: the MOMS randomized trial has demonstrated that prenatal spina bifida aperta (SBA) repair via open approach is safe and effective for both mother and fetus, yet half of the infants have incomplete reversal of hindbrain herniation and no improvement in neuromotor function. One contributing factor may be the incompleteness of the neurosurgical repair causing persistent in utero leakage of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and exposure of the spinal cord to the amniotic fluid until birth. We aim to investigate the neurostructural and neurofunctional efficacy of the watertightness of prenatal SBA repair. Read More

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Brain herniation (encephalocele) into arachnoid granulations: prevalence and association with pulsatile tinnitus and idiopathic intracranial hypertension.

Neuroradiology 2022 Mar 25. Epub 2022 Mar 25.

Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California San Francisco, 505 Parnassus Ave., San Francisco, CA, 94117, USA.

Purpose: Brain herniation into arachnoid granulations (BHAG) of the dural venous sinuses is a recently described finding of uncertain etiology. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of BHAG in a cohort of patients with pulsatile tinnitus (PT) and to clarify the physiologic and clinical implications of these lesions.

Methods: The imaging and charts of consecutive PT patients were retrospectively reviewed. Read More

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Radiologic and clinical outcome of isolated fourth ventricle following post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus in children.

Childs Nerv Syst 2022 05 19;38(5):977-984. Epub 2022 Mar 19.

Edward B. Singleton Department of Radiology, Fannin St, Texas Children's Hospital, Baylor College of Medicine, Suite 470, Houston, TX, USA.

Purpose: Few studies report radiologic and clinical outcome of post-hemorrhagic isolated fourth ventricle (IFV) with focus on surgical versus conservative management in neonates and children. Our aim is to investigate differences in radiological and clinical findings of IFV between patients who had surgical intervention versus patients who were treated conservatively.

Methods: A retrospective analysis of patients diagnosed with IFV was performed. Read More

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Intravenous Alteplase in a Patient With Acute Ischemic Stroke Subsequent to Purulent Meningitis: A Case Report and Literature Review.

Ann Emerg Med 2022 05 9;79(5):485-487. Epub 2022 Mar 9.

Department of Neurology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

This report highlights the outcome of intravenous alteplase in a patient with acute ischemic stroke subsequent to purulent meningitis. This type of meningitis has not been defined in the guideline for early treatment of acute ischemic stroke. A 58-year-old woman with purulent meningitis developed a sudden stroke and was admitted to our emergency department. Read More

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Acute Hemorrhagic Leukoencephalitis - A Rare but Fatal Form of Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis - Complicated by Brain Herniation: A Case Report and Literature Review.

Am J Case Rep 2022 Feb 27;23:e935636. Epub 2022 Feb 27.

Department of Internal Medicine, Al-Quds University Faculty of Medicine, East Jerusalem, Palestinian Territory, Occupied.

BACKGROUND Acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis (AHLE) is a very rare fulminant post-infectious demyelinating disease of the CNS. We report an atypical presentation of AHLE involving unique brain areas 2 weeks following a viral upper-respiratory tract infection (URTI). Early diagnosis and proper management improve the prognosis of this disease, and AHLE can have a very poor prognosis and high mortality rate. Read More

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February 2022

Persisting embryonal infundibular recess (PEIR) and transsphenoidal-transsellar encephaloceles: distinct entities or constituents of one continuum?

Childs Nerv Syst 2022 Jun 22;38(6):1059-1067. Epub 2022 Feb 22.

Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Neurosciences, Reproductive and Odontostomatological Sciences, Università Degli Studi Di Napoli Federico II, Naples, Italy.

Persisting embryonal infundibular recess (PEIR) is a very rare anomaly of the floor of the third ventricle in which the embryonic morphology of the infundibular recess (IR) persists. The exact underlying mechanism of development of PEIR is unknown, and the anomaly has been reported as an isolated finding or in association with other conditions. On the other hand, trans-sphenoidal encephaloceles are the rarest form of basal encephaloceles. Read More

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Dysplastic gangliocytoma of the cerebellum in a cat.

Vet Pathol 2022 05 7;59(3):459-462. Epub 2022 Feb 7.

University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.

A 2.5-year-old cat presented with progressive ataxia and lethargy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed enlargement of the cerebellum and herniation of cerebellar vermis. Read More

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Radiomic Deformation and Textural Heterogeneity (R-DepTH) Descriptor to Characterize Tumor Field Effect: Application to Survival Prediction in Glioblastoma.

IEEE Trans Med Imaging 2022 Jul 30;41(7):1764-1777. Epub 2022 Jun 30.

The concept of tumor field effect implies that cancer is a systemic disease with its impact way beyond the visible tumor confines. For instance, in Glioblastoma (GBM), an aggressive brain tumor, the increase in intracranial pressure due to tumor burden often leads to brain herniation and poor outcomes. Our work is based on the rationale that highly aggressive tumors tend to grow uncontrollably, leading to pronounced biomechanical tissue deformations in the normal parenchyma, which when combined with local morphological differences in the tumor confines on MRI scans, will comprehensively capture tumor field effect. Read More

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Rate of head ultrasound abnormalities at one month in very premature and extremely premature infants with normal initial screening ultrasound.

Pediatr Radiol 2022 05 31;52(6):1150-1157. Epub 2022 Jan 31.

Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California, San Francisco, Benioff Children's Hospital, 1975 Fourth St., San Francisco, CA, 94158, USA.

Background: Premature infants are at risk for multiple types of intracranial injury with potentially significant long-term neurological impact. The number of screening head ultrasounds needed to detect such injuries remains controversial.

Objective: To determine the rate of abnormal findings on routine follow-up head ultrasound (US) performed in infants born at ≤ 32 weeks' gestational age (GA) after initial normal screening US. Read More

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The Course and Interaction of Ventriculomegaly and Cerebellar Tonsillar Herniation in Crouzon Syndrome over Time.

Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open 2022 Jan 24;10(1):e3979. Epub 2022 Jan 24.

Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery and Hand Surgery, Sophia Children's Hospital, Dutch Craniofacial Center, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

Children with Crouzon syndrome have a higher incidence of cerebellar tonsillar herniation (TH) and ventriculomegaly than the general population, or children with other craniosynostosis syndromes.

Objective: This retrospective cohort study aimed to determine how ventriculomegaly and TH develop and progress over time, and determine associations between ventriculomegaly and TH in Crouzon patients, treated according to our center's protocol.

Methods: Fronto-occipital horn ratio (FOHR) and TH were determined over time using brain-imaging. Read More

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January 2022

Postoperative magnetic resonance imaging may predict poor outcome in children with severe traumatic brain injuries who undergo cranial surgery.

J Neurosurg Pediatr 2022 Jan 21:1-5. Epub 2022 Jan 21.

Objective: Multiple studies have evaluated the use of MRI for prognostication in pediatric patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) and have found a correlation between diffuse axonal injury (DAI)-type lesions and outcome. However, there remains a limited understanding about the use of MRI for prognostication after severe TBI in children who have undergone cranial surgery.

Methods: Children with severe TBI who underwent craniectomy or craniotomy at Primary Children's Hospital in Salt Lake City, Utah, between 2010 and 2019 were identified retrospectively. Read More

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January 2022

Recovery of severe dialysis disequilibrium syndrome with uncal herniation following therapy with mannitol, hyperventilation and hypertonic saline.

Clin Kidney J 2022 Jan 7;15(1):165-167. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Department of Internal Medicine, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, Tainan, Taiwan.

Dialysis disequilibrium syndrome (DDS) is a rare complication of dialysis, especially with the general application of preventive strategies. Severe DDS with brain herniation is believed to be fatal. We present a patient presenting with bilateral uncal herniation after receiving two dialysis sessions with low-efficiency settings. Read More

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January 2022

Magnetic resonance imaging findings of intracranial hypotension.

Neurol Sci 2022 May 6;43(5):3343-3351. Epub 2022 Jan 6.

Department of Radiology, Tokat State Hospital, Yeni Mahallesi, Merkez, Tokat, Turkey.

Purpose: This study aims to evaluate the differences in the sizes and configurations of various structures on brain MRIs of patients with intracranial hypotension (ICH) compared to normal individuals.

Methods: The present study consisted of two study groups as 21 patients with intracranial hypotension and 21 healthy individuals. Cranial MRI findings of patients with intracranial hypotension were compared retrospectively with MRI findings of patients without any pathology. Read More

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Rare Case of Brain Herniation Secondary to Tentorial Hypoplasia: Be Careful While Reporting!

Neurol India 2021 Nov-Dec;69(6):1629-1630

Department of Radiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi, India.

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January 2022

Clinical Value of Bilateral Balanced Frontotemporoparietal Decompressive Craniectomy in Severe Diffuse Traumatic Brain Injury.

ShengCheng Wei

J Craniofac Surg 2022 Jan-Feb 01;33(1):279-283

The Department of Neurosurgery, The Second Hospital, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, China.

Objective: To explore the clinical value of bilateral balanced frontotemporoparietal decompressive craniectomy (bbDC) in severe diffuse traumatic brain injury by comparison to the unilateral frontotemporoparietal decompressive craniectomy (uDC).

Materials And Methods: Twenty three patients with severe diffuse traumatic brain injury from April 2015 to December 2019 were selected, including 10 cases underwent bbDC (bilateral group) and 13 cases underwent uDC (unilateral group). Compared with the postsurgical intracranial pressure (ICP), cerebral perfusion pressure, cerebral blood flow volume, postsurgical imaging score, the occurrence of complications as well as the 6 month outcome (Glasgow Outcome Scale, GOS) of two groups. Read More

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January 2022

Primary central nervous system lymphoblastic B cell lymphoma located at cerebellum in a child: A case report and literature review.

Pediatr Investig 2021 Dec 13;5(4):318-322. Epub 2021 Dec 13.

Medical Oncology Department Pediatric Oncology Center Beijing Key Laboratory of Pediatric Hematology Oncology Key Laboratory of Major Diseases in Children Ministry of Education Beijing Children's Hospital Capital Medical University National Center for Children's Health Beijing China.

Introduction: Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is extremely rare in pediatric population. We reported a case of PCNSL in a 3-year-old girl and reviewed the literature in the past three decades.

Case Presentation: A 3-year-old girl presented with gait disturbance. Read More

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December 2021