1,837,545 results match your criteria Brain Herniation Imaging


Altered sleep architecture, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, and neural oscillation in a mouse model of human chromosome 16p11.2 microdeletion.

Sleep 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA.

Sleep abnormalities are common among children with neurodevelopmental disorders. The human chr16p11.2 microdeletion is associated with a range of neurological and neurobehavioral abnormalities. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Obese Patients Benefit, but do not Fare as Well as Nonobese Patients, Following Lumbar Spondylolisthesis Surgery: An Analysis of the Quality Outcomes Database.

Neurosurgery 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, California.

Background: Given recent differing findings following 2 randomized clinical trials on degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis (DLS) surgery, there is a need to better define how subsets of patients fare following surgery.

Objective: To investigate the impact of obesity on patient-reported outcomes (PROs) following DLS surgery.

Methods: A total of 12 high-enrolling sites were queried, and we found 797 patients undergoing surgery for grade 1 DLS. Read More

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December 2018

Effect of Sleep Quality on aMCI Vulnerable Brain Regions in Cognitively Normal Elderly Individuals.

Sleep 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences.

Study Objectives: This study aims to evaluate the extent to which sleep quality impacts amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI)-related brain regions in a cognitively normal cohort of individuals.

Methods: Seventy four participants were rigorously evaluated using a battery of cognitive tests and a detailed clinical assessment to verify normal cognitive status. We then screened for sleep quality using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and depressive symptoms using the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). Read More

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December 2018

Roles of Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex and Anterior Cingulate in Subjective Valuation of Prospective Effort.

Cereb Cortex 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, 773 North Broadway, Baltimore, MD, USA.

The perceived effort level of an action shapes everyday decisions. Despite the importance of these perceptions for decision-making, the behavioral and neural representations of the subjective cost of effort are not well understood. While a number of studies have implicated anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in decisions about effort/reward trade-offs, none have experimentally isolated effort valuation from reward and choice difficulty, a function that is commonly ascribed to this region. Read More

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December 2018

The Cerebral Cortex is Bisectionally Segregated into Two Fundamentally Different Functional Units of Gyri and Sulci.

Cereb Cortex 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Cortical Architecture Imaging and Discovery Lab, Department of Computer Science and Bioimaging Research Center, The University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA.

The human cerebral cortex is highly folded into diverse gyri and sulci. Accumulating evidences suggest that gyri and sulci exhibit anatomical, morphological, and connectional differences. Inspired by these evidences, we performed a series of experiments to explore the frequency-specific differences between gyral and sulcal neural activities from resting-state and task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. Read More

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December 2018

A coordinate-based meta-analysis comparing brain activation between ADHD and total sleep deprivation.

Sleep 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, USA.

Study Objectives: Sleep disruption is common in attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder (ADHD). Likewise, deficits in attention are a hallmark of sleep deprivation in healthy individuals. Whether ADHD and sleep deprivation modulate common, or disparate, neural systems is unknown. Read More

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December 2018

Severe vitamin D deficiency is a risk factor for renal hyperfiltration.

Am J Clin Nutr 2018 Dec;108(6):1342-1351

Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, Institute of Kidney Disease Research.

Background: Vitamin D deficiency is associated with renal progression in chronic kidney disease. Moreover, improvement of clinical outcomes after vitamin D supplementation has been reported in the diabetic and chronic kidney disease population.

Objective: We investigated the association between renal hyperfiltration (RHF) and vitamin D status in a relatively healthy population. Read More

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December 2018

Lateral hypothalamic Mc3R-expressing neurons modulate locomotor activity, energy expenditure and adiposity in male mice.

Endocrinology 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Dept. of Pediatrics, Division of Endocrinology, Michigan Medicine, Ann Arbor, MI.

The central melanocortin (Mc) system plays a crucial role in the control of energy balance. While the decreased energy expenditure and increased adiposity of Mc-3 receptor (Mc3R)-null mice suggest the importance of Mc3R-regulated neurons in energy homeostasis, the roles for specific subsets of Mc3R neurons in energy balance have yet to be determined. Because the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) contributes to the control of energy expenditure and feeding, we generated Mc3rcre mice to determine the roles of LHA Mc3R (Mc3RLHA) neurons in energy homeostasis. Read More

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December 2018
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A robust pipeline with high replication rate for detection of somatic variants in the adaptive immune system as a source of common genetic variation in autoimmune disease.

Hum Mol Genet 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

KU Leuven - Department of Neurosciences, Laboratory for Neuroimmunology, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium.

The role of somatic variants in diseases beyond cancer is increasingly being recognized, with potential roles in autoinflammatory and autoimmune diseases. However, as mutation rates and allele fractions are lower, studies in these diseases are substantially less tolerant of false positives and bio-informatics algorithms require high replication rates. We developed a pipeline combining two variant callers, MuTect2 and VarScan2, with technical filtering and prioritization. Read More

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December 2018

The Na+/H+ Exchanger Nhe1 Modulates Network Excitability via GABA Release.

Cereb Cortex 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Institute of Human Genetics, Jena University Hospital, Jena, Germany.

Brain functions are extremely sensitive to pH changes because of the pH-dependence of proteins involved in neuronal excitability and synaptic transmission. Here, we show that the Na+/H+ exchanger Nhe1, which uses the Na+ gradient to extrude H+, is expressed at both inhibitory and excitatory presynapses. We disrupted Nhe1 specifically in mice either in Emx1-positive glutamatergic neurons or in parvalbumin-positive cells, mainly GABAergic interneurons. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Loss of Transfected Human Brain Micro-Vascular Endothelial Cell Integrity during Herpes Simplex Virus Infection.

Intervirology 2018 Dec 12:1-11. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, MAHSA University, Saujana Putra Campus, Jenjarum,

Objective: Herpes simplex virus infection through the neuronal route is the most well-studied mode of viral encephalitis that can persists in a human host for a lifetime. However, the involvement of other possible infection mechanisms by the virus remains underexplored. Therefore, this study aims to determine the temporal effects and mechanisms by which the virus breaches the human brain micro-vascular endothelial cells of the blood-brain barrier. Read More

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December 2018

Gastric Focal Neutrophil Infiltration and Wide Duodenal Gastric Foveolar Metaplasia Are Histologic Discriminative Markers for Crohn's Disease and Behçet's Disease.

Digestion 2018 Dec 12:1-10. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Gastroenterology and Hematology, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, Hirosaki, Aomori, Japan.

Background/aims: Behçet's disease (BD) with intestinal lesions and Crohn's disease (CD) share clinical features. However, no report has compared the 2 diseases with regard to lesions of the upper gastrointestinal tract (UGT). We aimed to evaluate endoscopic and histologic findings of UGT in CD and BD. Read More

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December 2018

A recursive ensemble organ segmentation (REOS) framework: application in brain radiotherapy.

Phys Med Biol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Centre, Dallas, TX 75235, Dallas, Texas, 75205, UNITED STATES.

The aim of this work is to develop a novel recursive ensemble OARs segmentation (REOS) framework for accurate organs-at-risk (OARs) automatic segmentation. The REOS recursively segment individual OARs by ensembling images features extracted from an organ localization module and a contour detection module. Both modules are based on a 3D U-Net architecture. Read More

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December 2018
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Axon-Seq Decodes the Motor Axon Transcriptome and Its Modulation in Response to ALS.

Stem Cell Reports 2018 Dec;11(6):1565-1578

Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm 171 77, Sweden. Electronic address:

Spinal motor axons traverse large distances to innervate target muscles, thus requiring local control of cellular events for proper functioning. To interrogate axon-specific processes we developed Axon-seq, a refined method incorporating microfluidics, RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), and bioinformatic quality control. We show that the axonal transcriptome is distinct from that of somas and contains fewer genes. Read More

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December 2018

Ten-Eleven Translocation Proteins Modulate the Response to Environmental Stress in Mice.

Cell Rep 2018 Dec;25(11):3194-3203.e4

Department of Human Genetics, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA. Electronic address:

5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) is enriched in brain and has been recognized as an important DNA modification. However, the roles of 5hmC and its writers, ten-eleven translocation (Tet) proteins, in stress-induced response have yet to be elucidated. Here, we show that chronic restraint stress (CRS) induced depression-like behavior in mice and resulted in a 5hmC reduction in prefrontal cortex (PFC). Read More

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December 2018

Importin α5 Regulates Anxiety through MeCP2 and Sphingosine Kinase 1.

Cell Rep 2018 Dec;25(11):3169-3179.e7

Department of Biomolecular Sciences, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel. Electronic address:

Importins mediate transport from synapse to soma and from cytoplasm to nucleus, suggesting that perturbation of importin-dependent pathways should have significant neuronal consequences. A behavioral screen on five importin α knockout lines revealed that reduced expression of importin α5 (KPNA1) in hippocampal neurons specifically decreases anxiety in mice. Re-expression of importin α5 in ventral hippocampus of knockout animals increased anxiety behaviors to wild-type levels. Read More

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December 2018

V2-Directed Vaccine-like Antibodies from HIV-1 Infection Identify an Additional K169-Binding Light Chain Motif with Broad ADCC Activity.

Cell Rep 2018 Dec;25(11):3123-3135.e6

National Institute for Communicable Diseases of the National Health Laboratory Service, Johannesburg 2131, South Africa; Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg 2000, South Africa; Centre for the AIDS Programme of Research in South Africa (CAPRISA), University of KwaZulu Natal, Durban 4041, South Africa. Electronic address:

Antibodies that bind residue K169 in the V2 region of the HIV-1 envelope correlated with reduced risk of infection in the RV144 vaccine trial but were restricted to two ED-motif-encoding light chain genes. Here, we identify an HIV-infected donor with high-titer V2 peptide-binding antibodies and isolate two antibody lineages (CAP228-16H/19F and CAP228-3D) that mediate potent antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). Both lineages use the IGHV5-51 heavy chain germline gene, similar to the RV144 antibody CH58, but one lineage (CAP228-16H/19F) uses a light chain without the ED motif. Read More

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December 2018

Sh3rf2 Haploinsufficiency Leads to Unilateral Neuronal Development Deficits and Autistic-Like Behaviors in Mice.

Cell Rep 2018 Dec;25(11):2963-2971.e6

State Key Laboratory of Molecular Developmental Biology, CAS Center for Excellence in Brain Science and Intelligence Technology, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China; Parkinson's Disease Center, Beijing Institute for Brain Disorders, Beijing 100101, China. Electronic address:

Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) include a variety of developmental brain disorders with clinical findings implicating the dysfunction of the left hemisphere. Here, we generate mice lacking one copy of Sh3rf2, which was detected in ASD patients, to determine whether Sh3rf2 is involved in brain development and whether mutation of SH3RF2 is causative for ASD and the mechanisms linking it to ASD traits. We find that mice with Sh3rf2 haploinsufficiency display significant deficits in social interaction and communication, as well as stereotyped or repetitive behaviors and hyperactivity and seizures. Read More

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December 2018

Orphan Receptor GPR88 as an Emerging Neurotherapeutic Target.

ACS Chem Neurosci 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

While G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are recognized as pivotal drug targets involved in multiple physiological and pathological processes, the majority of GPCRs including orphan GPCRs (oGPCRs) are unexploited. GPR88, a brain-specific oGPCR with particularly robust expression in the striatum, regulates diverse brain and behavioral functions including cognition, mood, movement control and reward-based learning, and is thus emerging as a novel drug target for CNS disorders including schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease, anxiety and addiction. Nevertheless, no effective GPR88 synthetic ligands have yet entered into clinical trials and GPR88 endogenous ligands remain unknown. Read More

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December 2018

Assessing the potential of sputtered gold nanolayers in mass spectrometry imaging for metabolomics applications.

PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0208908. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Electronic Engineering, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona, Spain.

Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is a molecular imaging technique that maps the distribution of molecules in biological tissues with high spatial resolution. The most widely used MSI modality is matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI), mainly due to the large variety of analyte classes amenable for MALDI analysis. However, the organic matrices used in classical MALDI may impact the quality of the molecular images due to limited lateral resolution and strong background noise in the low mass range, hindering its use in metabolomics. Read More

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December 2018

Eye blinks are perceived as communicative signals in human face-to-face interaction.

PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0208030. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Language and Cognition Department, Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

In face-to-face communication, recurring intervals of mutual gaze allow listeners to provide speakers with visual feedback (e.g. nodding). Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Increased Alzheimer's risk during the menopause transition: A 3-year longitudinal brain imaging study.

PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0207885. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Departments of Pharmacology and Neurology, College of Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, United States of America.

Two thirds of all persons with late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) are women. Identification of sex-based molecular mechanisms underpinning the female-based prevalence of AD would advance development of therapeutic targets during the prodromal AD phase when prevention or delay in progression is most likely to be effective. This 3-year brain imaging study examines the impact of the menopausal transition on Alzheimer's disease (AD) biomarker changes [brain β-amyloid load via 11C-PiB PET, and neurodegeneration via 18F-FDG PET and structural MRI] and cognitive performance in midlife. Read More

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December 2018

Correction: Brain-Computer Interface-Based Communication in the Completely Locked-In State.

PLoS Biol 2018 Dec 12;16(12):e3000089. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio. Read More

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December 2018

Characterization of Brain Signatures to Add Precision to Self-Management Health Information Interventions.

Nurs Res 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Edward J. and Louise Mellen Professor of Nursing, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH Marvin E. and Ruth Durr Denekas Professor of Nursing, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH Associate Professor, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH PhD Student, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH Professor, Kent State University, Kent, OH Assistant Professor, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH Assistant Professor, Chief Diversity Officer, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH Associate Professor, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH Associate Professor, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH.

Background: Although many of the proposed mediating processes of self-management interventions are operationally defined as cognitive processes (e.g., acquiring and using information, self-efficacy, motivation, decision-making), little is known about their underlying brain mechanisms. Read More

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December 2018

Comparison of Candesartan and Angiotensin-(1-7) Combination and Mito Tempo Treatment for Normalizing Blood Pressure and Sympathovagal Balance in (Mren2)27 Rats.

J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Hypertension & Vascular Research, Cardiovascular Sciences Center, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston-Salem, NC 27157.

Hypertensive transgenic (mRen2)27 rats exhibit impaired baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) for control of heart rate (HR). Intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusion of Ang-(1-7) improves indices of vagal BRS independent of lowering mean arterial pressure (MAP), while AT1 receptor blockade normalizes MAP and indices of sympathetic tone without correcting the vagal BRS. Scavenging cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) with tempol in brain fails to correct either hypertension or sympathovagal balance in these animals, despite reports that mitochondrial ROS contributes to Ang II-infusion hypertension. Read More

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December 2018

Machine learning-based prediction of clinical pain using multimodal neuroimaging and autonomic metrics.

Pain 2018 Oct 17. Epub 2018 Oct 17.

Department of Radiology, Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA, United States.

Although self-report pain ratings are the gold standard in clinical pain assessment, they are inherently subjective in nature and significantly influenced by multidimensional contextual variables. Although objective biomarkers for pain could substantially aid pain diagnosis and development of novel therapies, reliable markers for clinical pain have been elusive. In this study, individualized physical maneuvers were used to exacerbate clinical pain in patients with chronic low back pain (N = 53), thereby experimentally producing lower and higher pain states. Read More

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October 2018
1 Read

Brain Death in Patients With "Isolated" Brainstem Lesions: A Case Against Controversy.

J Neurosurg Anesthesiol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Neurology Mayo Clinic, Division of Critical Care Neurology, Rochester, MN.

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December 2018

Sevoflurane impairs learning and memory of the developing brain through post-transcriptional inhibition of CCNA2 via microRNA-19-3p.

Aging (Albany NY) 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Anesthesiology, Qianfoshan Hospital of Shandong Province, Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan 250014, China.

The molecular mechanisms underlying sevoflurane (SEVO)-induced impairment of learning and memory remain unclear. Specifically, a role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the control of the neuron proliferation in the developing brain exposed to SEVO has not been reported previously. Here, we studied the effects of SEVO exposure on the neural cell proliferation, and on the learning and memory of neonatal rats. Read More

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December 2018

Molecular Prevalence and Genetic Characterization of Toxoplasma gondii in Wild Birds in Hunan Province, China.

Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

1 Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Protein Engineering in Animal Vaccines, College of Veterinary Medicine, Hunan Agricultural University , Changsha, People's Republic of China .

Toxoplasma gondii is a ubiquitous apicomplexan parasite of warm-blooded animals and humans. However, limited information is available about T. gondii infection in wild birds. Read More

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December 2018

Physiotherapy practice patterns in gait rehabilitation for adults with acquired brain injury.

Brain Inj 2018 Dec 12:1-16. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

a Department of Physical Therapy , University of Toronto , Toronto , Canada.

Objective: Gait dysfunction is common following acquired brain injury (ABI). Clinical practice guidelines can improve patient outcomes; however, information regarding ABI-specific management of gait dysfunction is limited. This study aimed to describe practice patterns of Canadian physiotherapists regarding gait rehabilitation in adults post-ABI. Read More

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December 2018

Effects of Mirror-Box Therapy on Modulation of Sensorimotor EEG Oscillatory Rhythms: A Single-Case Longitudinal Study.

J Neurophysiol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

3Pacific Development and Technology, LLC.

We provide direct electrophysiological evidence that Mirror Therapy (MT) can change brain activity and aid in recovery of motor function after stroke. In this longitudinal single-case study, the subject was a 58-year-old man with right-hand hemiplegia due to ischemic stroke. Over a nine-month period we treated him with MT twice a week and measured electroencephalograms (EEG) before, during, and after each therapy session. Read More

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December 2018

Effort matching between arms depends on relative limb geometry and personal control.

J Neurophysiol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Clinical Neurosciences, Hotchkiss Brain Institute, University of Calgary, Canada.

Proprioception encompasses our sense of position and movement of our limbs, as well as the effort with which we engage in voluntary actions. Historically, sense of effort has been linked to centrally generated signals that elicit voluntary movements. We were interested in determining the effect of differences in limb geometry and personal control on sense of effort. Read More

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December 2018

Phase shifts in high beta and low gamma band local field potentials predict the focus of visual spatial attention.

J Neurophysiol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Neuroscience, University of Rochester School of Medicine, United States.

The local field potential (LFP) contains rich information about activity in local neuronal populations. However, it has been challenging to establish direct links between LFP modulations and task-relevant behavior or cognitive processes, such as attention. We sought to determine whether LFP amplitude or phase modulations were predictive of the allocation of visual spatial attention. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Amelioration of amyloid β-FcγRIIb neurotoxicity and tau pathologies by targeting LYN.

FASEB J 2018 Dec 12:fj201800926R. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

School of Biological Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea; and.

SRC-family kinases (SFKs) have been implicated in Alzheimer's disease (AD), but their mode of action was scarcely understood. Here, we show that LYN plays an essential role in amyloid β (Aβ)-triggered neurotoxicity and tau hyperphosphorylation by phosphorylating Fcγ receptor IIb2 (FcγRIIb2). We found that enzyme activity of LYN was increased in the brain of AD patients and was promoted in neuronal cells exposed to Aβ 1-42 (Aβ). Read More

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December 2018

Poly(ADP-ribose) engages the TDP-43 nuclear-localization sequence to regulate granulo-filamentous aggregation.

Biochemistry 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

TAR DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) forms granulo-filamentous aggregates in affected brain regions of >95% of patients with ALS and ~50% of patients with frontotemporal degeneration (FTD). Furthermore, in disease, TDP-43 becomes N-terminally truncated resulting in protein deposits that are mainly composed of the C-terminal prion-like domain (PrLD). The PrLD is inherently aggregation-prone and is hypothesized to drive protein aggregation of TDP-43 in disease. Read More

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December 2018

Real-time Mobile Monitoring of the Dynamic Associations Among Motor Activity, Energy, Mood, and Sleep in Adults With Bipolar Disorder.

JAMA Psychiatry 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Biostatistics, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland.

Importance: Biologic systems involved in the regulation of motor activity are intricately linked with other homeostatic systems such as sleep, feeding behavior, energy, and mood. Mobile monitoring technology (eg, actigraphy and ecological momentary assessment devices) allows the assessment of these multiple systems in real time. However, most clinical studies of mental disorders that use mobile devices have not focused on the dynamic associations between these systems. Read More

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December 2018

Serial position effects differ between Alzheimer's and vascular features in mild cognitive impairment.

Aging (Albany NY) 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Neurology, National Neuroscience Institute, Singapore 308433, Singapore.

Individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) exhibit varying serial position effect (SPE) performances. The relationship between SPE performance in word list recall and clinical, genetic, and neuroimaging features of MCI requires elucidation. 119 MCI and 68 cognitively normal (CN) participants underwent cognitive assessment, apolipoprotein E (ApoE) genotyping, and volumetric MRI brain scans processed via voxel-based morphometry. Read More

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December 2018

Reactive oxygen species regulate activity-dependent neuronal plasticity in .

Elife 2018 Dec 12;7. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been extensively studied as damaging agents associated with ageing and neurodegenerative conditions. Their role in the nervous system under non-pathological conditions has remained poorly understood. Working with the larval locomotor network, we show that in neurons ROS act as obligate signals required for neuronal activity-dependent structural plasticity, of both pre- and postsynaptic terminals. Read More

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December 2018

Activin A in Mammalian Physiology.

Physiol Rev 2019 Jan;99(1):739-780

Department of Morphology, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais , Belo Horizonte , Brazil ; Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, Università Politecnica delle Marche , Ancona , Italy ; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais , Belo Horizonte , Brazil ; Department of Molecular and Developmental Medicine, Obstetrics and Gynecological Clinic, University of Siena , Siena , Italy ; and Department of Biomedical, Experimental and Clinical Sciences, Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Florence, Careggi University Hospital , Florence , Italy.

Activins are dimeric glycoproteins belonging to the transforming growth factor beta superfamily and resulting from the assembly of two beta subunits, which may also be combined with alpha subunits to form inhibins. Activins were discovered in 1986 following the isolation of inhibins from porcine follicular fluid, and were characterized as ovarian hormones that stimulate follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) release by the pituitary gland. In particular, activin A was shown to be the isoform of greater physiological importance in humans. Read More

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January 2019

Changes in cerebral oxygenation and cerebral blood flow during hemodialysis - A simultaneous near-infrared spectroscopy and positron emission tomography study.

J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2018 Dec 12:271678X18818652. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

1 Nephrology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is used to monitor cerebral tissue oxygenation (rSO) depending on cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume and blood oxygen content. We explored whether NIRS might be a more easy applicable proxy to [O]HO positron emission tomography (PET) for detecting CBF changes during hemodialysis. Furthermore, we compared potential determinants of rSO and CBF. Read More

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December 2018

Brain tissue iron quantification by MRI in intracerebral hemorrhage: Current translational evidence and pitfalls.

J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2018 Dec 12:271678X18818911. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

2 Department of Neurosurgery, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a common subtype of hemorrhagic stroke with devastating consequences with no specific treatment. There is, however, substantial evidence for iron-mediated neurotoxicity in animal ICH models. Non-invasive quantification of the peri-hematomal tissue iron based on MRI has shown some promise in animal models and is being validated for clinical translation. Read More

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December 2018

Higher physiological vulnerability to hypoxic exposure with advancing age in the human brain.

J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2018 Dec 12:271678X18818291. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

1 Functional Imaging Unit, Department of Clinical Physiology, Nuclear Medicine and PET, Copenhagen University Hospital Rigshospitalet, Glostrup, Denmark.

The aging brain is associated with atrophy along with functional and metabolic changes. In this study, we examined age-related changes in resting brain functions and the vulnerability of brain physiology to hypoxic exposure in humans in vivo. Brain functions were examined in 81 healthy humans (aged 18-62 years) by acquisitions of gray and white matter volumes, cerebral blood flow, cerebral oxygen consumption, and concentrations of lactate, N-acetylaspartate, and glutamate+glutamine using magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy. Read More

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December 2018

Neurobehavioural mechanisms of threat generalization moderate the link between childhood maltreatment and psychopathology in emerging adulthood

J Psychiatry Neurosci 2018 12 12;44(1):1-10. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

From the Department of Psychiatry and Psychology, School of Mental Health and Neuroscience, EURON, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands (Lange, Goossens, Bakker, Michielse, Leibold, Marcelis, van Os, van Amelsvoort, Schruers); Department of Neuroscience, Center for Contextual Psychiatry, Center for Clinical Psychiatry, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium (van Winkel); Department of Psychology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA (Lissek); Institute for Mental Health Care Eindhoven (GGzE), Eindhoven, The Netherlands (Marcelis); Department of Psychiatry, Interdisciplinary Center Psychopathology and Emotion Regulation, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, The Netherlands (Wichers); Department of Psychosis Studies, Institute of Psychiatry, King’s College London, King’s Health Partners, London, UK (van Os); Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands (van Os); Faculty of Psychology, Center for Experimental and Learning Psychology, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium Schruers).

Background: Childhood maltreatment is a transdiagnostic risk factor for later psychopathology and has been associated with altered brain circuitry involved in the processing of threat and safety. Examining threat generalization mechanisms in young adults with childhood maltreatment and psychiatric symptoms may elucidate a pathway linking early-life adversities to the presence of subclinical psychopathology.

Methods: We recruited youth aged 16–25 years with subclinical psychiatric symptomatology and healthy controls. Read More

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December 2018

Inhibitory effect of reduced graphene oxide-silver nanocomposite on progression of artificial enamel caries.

J Appl Oral Sci 2018 Dec 10;27:e20180042. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Sun Yat-sen University, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Hospital of Stomatology, Guanghua School of Stomatology, Guangzhou, China.

Objectives: The use of antimicrobial agents is an efficient method to prevent dental caries. Also, nanometric antibacterial agents with wide antibacterial spectrum and strong antibacterial effects can be applied for prevention of dental caries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory effect of reduced graphene oxide-silver nanoparticles (rGO/Ag) composite on the progression of artificial enamel caries in a Streptococcus mutans biofilm model. Read More

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December 2018
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From anatomy to function: the role of the somatosensory cortex in emotional regulation.

Braz J Psychiatr 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Mood Disorders Program, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural Neurosciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada.

 : Since the pioneering work of Penfield and his colleagues in the 1930s, the somatosensory cortex, which is located on the postcentral gyrus, has been known for its central role in processing sensory information from various parts of the body. More recently, a converging body of literature has shown that the somatosensory cortex also plays an important role in each stage of emotional processing, including identification of emotional significance in a stimulus, generation of emotional states, and regulation of emotion. Importantly, studies conducted in individuals suffering from mental disorders associated with abnormal emotional regulation, such as major depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety and panic disorders, specific phobia, obesity, and obsessive-compulsive disorder, have found structural and functional changes in the somatosensory cortex. Read More

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December 2018

No evidence of attentional bias toward angry faces in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

Braz J Psychiatr 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Departamento e Instituto de Psiquiatria, Hospital das Clínicas, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo (USP), São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Objective: Although attentional bias (AB) toward angry faces is well established in patients with anxiety disorders, it is still poorly studied in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). We investigated whether OCD patients present AB toward angry faces, whether AB is related to symptom severity and whether AB scores are associated with specific OCD symptom dimensions.

Method: Forty-eight OCD patients were assessed in clinical evaluations, intelligence testing and a dot-probe AB paradigm that used neutral and angry faces as stimuli. Read More

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December 2018

Smaller left anterior cingulate cortex in non-bipolar relatives of patients with bipolar disorder.

Braz J Psychiatr 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

UT Center of Excellence on Mood Disorders, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX, USA.

Objective: Bipolar disorder (BD) is highly heritable. The present study aimed at identifying brain morphometric features that could represent markers of BD vulnerability in non-bipolar relatives of bipolar patients.

Methods: In the present study, structural magnetic resonance imaging brain scans were acquired from a total of 93 subjects, including 31 patients with BD, 31 non-bipolar relatives of BD patients, and 31 healthy controls. Read More

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December 2018

Topography of 11C-Pittsburgh compound B uptake in Alzheimer's disease: a voxel-based investigation of cortical and white matter regions.

Braz J Psychiatr 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Núcleo de Apoio à Pesquisa em Neurociência Aplicada (NAPNA), USP, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Objective: To compare results of positron emission tomography (PET) with carbon-11-labeled Pittsburgh compound B (11C-PIB) obtained with cerebellar or global brain uptake for voxel intensity normalization, describe the cortical sites with highest tracer uptake in subjects with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD), and explore possible group differences in 11C-PIB binding to white matter.

Methods: 11C-PIB PET scans were acquired from subjects with AD (n=17) and healthy elderly controls (n=19). Voxel-based analysis was performed with statistical parametric mapping (SPM). Read More

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December 2018
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