6,838 results match your criteria Brain Death in Children


Comparison of equiosmolar dose of hyperosmolar agents in reducing intracranial pressure-a randomized control study in pediatric traumatic brain injury.

Childs Nerv Syst 2019 Mar 16. Epub 2019 Mar 16.

Department of Neurosurgery, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bangalore, 560029, India.

Introduction: There are no comparative studies available for hyperosmolar therapy in children. The present study is a prospective open label randomized control trial to compare the effect of equiosmolar doses of mannitol and hypertonic saline in reducing intracranial pressure in children who sustained severe traumatic brain injury.

Methods: This is a prospective open-label randomized controlled trial. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00381-019-04121-3DOI Listing

Current and Emerging Treatment Strategies for Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinoses.

CNS Drugs 2019 Mar 15. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Department of Pediatrics, Section Biochemistry, University Medical Center Eppendorf, Martinistr. 52, 20246, Hamburg, Germany.

The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses comprise a group of neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disorders caused by mutations in at least 13 different genes and primarily affect the brain and the retina of children or young adults. The disorders are characterized by progressive neurological deterioration with dementia, epilepsy, loss of vision, motor disturbances, and early death. While various therapeutic strategies are currently being explored as treatment options for these fatal disorders, there is presently only one clinically approved drug that has been shown to effectively attenuate the progression of a specific form of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis, CLN2 disease (cerliponase alfa, a lysosomal enzyme infused into the brain ventricles of patients with CLN2 disease). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40263-019-00620-8DOI Listing

Plasma osteopontin may predict neuroinflammation and the severity of pediatric traumatic brain injury.

J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2019 Mar 13:271678X19836412. Epub 2019 Mar 13.

1 Department of Pediatrics and Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death in children and adolescents in developed countries, but there are no blood-based biomarkers to support the diagnosis or prognosis of pediatric TBI to-date. Here we report that the plasma levels of osteopontin (OPN), a phosphoprotein chiefly secreted by macrophages and/or activated microglia, may contribute to this goal. In animal models of TBI, while OPN, fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) were all readily induced by controlled cortical impact in the brains of one-month-old mice, only OPN and GFAP ascended in the blood in correlation with high neurological severity scores (NSS). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0271678X19836412DOI Listing

Clinical presentation and early predictors for poor outcomes in pediatric myocarditis: A retrospective study.

World J Clin Cases 2019 Mar;7(5):548-561

Department of Pediatric Nephrology, Puerta del Mar University Hospital, Cadiz 11009, Spain.

Background: Myocarditis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in children, leading to long-term sequelae including chronic congestive heart failure, dilated cardiomyopathy, heart transplantation, and death. The initial diagnosis of myocarditis is usually based on clinical presentation, but this widely ranges from the severe sudden onset of a cardiogenic shock to asymptomatic patients. Early recognition is essential in order to monitor and start supportive treatment prior to the development of severe adverse events. Read More

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https://www.wjgnet.com/2307-8960/full/v7/i5/548.htm
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12998/wjcc.v7.i5.548DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6406197PMC
March 2019
1 Read

Maternal Smoking Before and During Pregnancy and the Risk of Sudden Unexpected Infant Death.

Pediatrics 2019 Mar 11. Epub 2019 Mar 11.

Department of Paediatrics: Child and Youth Health, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.

: media-1vid110.1542/5995526891001PEDS-VA_2018-3325 OBJECTIVES: Maternal smoking during pregnancy is an established risk factor for sudden unexpected infant death (SUID). Here, we aim to investigate the effects of maternal prepregnancy smoking, reduction during pregnancy, and smoking during pregnancy on SUID rates. Read More

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http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/lookup/doi/10.1542/ped
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2018-3325DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Altered Regulation of Striatal Neuronal -Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Trafficking by Palmitoylation in Huntington Disease Mouse Model.

Front Synaptic Neurosci 2019 21;11. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Department of Psychiatry, Brain Research Centre and Djavad Mowafaghian Centre for Brain Health, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) play a critical role in synaptic signaling, and alterations in the synaptic/extrasynaptic NMDAR balance affect neuronal survival. Studies have shown enhanced extrasynaptic GluN2B-type NMDAR (2B-NMDAR) activity in striatal neurons in the YAC128 mouse model of Huntington disease (HD), resulting in increased cell death pathway activation contributing to striatal vulnerability to degeneration. However, the mechanism(s) of altered GluN2B trafficking remains unclear. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnsyn.2019.00003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6393405PMC
February 2019

Pediatric Donor Management Goals in Use by US Organ Procurement Organizations.

Prog Transplant 2019 Mar 7:1526924819835835. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

2 Department of Internal Medicine, Center for Outcomes Research, Saint Louis University, St Louis, MO, USA.

Introduction:: A recent study of pediatric organ donation after the neurologic determination of death (DNDD) demonstrated an association between the use of donor management goals (DMGs) by organ procurement organizations (OPOs) and organ yield.

Objective:: To describe the pediatric DMGs used by OPOs and any association between specific DMGs and organ yield.

Design:: Query of US OPOs who utilized DMGs in the care of pediatric DNDD organ donors from 2010 to 2013. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1526924819835835DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Long-term Risk of Neuropsychiatric Disease After Exposure to Infection In Utero.

JAMA Psychiatry 2019 Mar 6. Epub 2019 Mar 6.

Centre for Perinatal Medicine & Health, Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Importance: The developmental origins of mental illness are incompletely understood. Although the development of autism and schizophrenia are linked to infections during fetal life, it is unknown whether more common psychiatric conditions such as depression might begin in utero.

Objective: To estimate the risk of psychopathologic conditions imparted from fetal exposure to any maternal infection while hospitalized during pregnancy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2019.0029DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

The Potential Role of Ferroptosis in Neonatal Brain Injury.

Front Neurosci 2019 14;13:115. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Henan Key Laboratory of Child Brain Injury, Third Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China.

Ferroptosis is an iron-dependent form of cell death that is characterized by early lipid peroxidation and different from other forms of regulated cell death in terms of its genetic components, specific morphological features, and biochemical mechanisms. Different initiation pathways of ferroptosis have been reported, including inhibition of system X, inactivation of glutathione-dependent peroxidase 4, and reduced glutathione levels, all of which ultimately promote the production of reactive oxygen species, particularly through enhanced lipid peroxidation. Although ferroptosis was first described in cancer cells, emerging evidence now links mechanisms of ferroptosis to many different diseases, including cerebral ischemia and brain hemorrhage. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2019.00115DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6382670PMC
February 2019
1 Read

Film interface for drug testing for delivery to cells in culture and in the brain.

Acta Biomater 2019 Mar 2. Epub 2019 Mar 2.

Harvard Medical School, Acute Brain Injury Research Laboratory, Massachusetts General Hospital for Children, Charlestown, MA 02129, United States. Electronic address:

Brain access remains a major challenge in drug testing. The nearly 'impermeable' blood-brain-barrier (BBB) prevents most drugs from gaining access to brain cells via systematic intravenous (IV) injection. In this study, silk fibroin films were used as drug carrier as well as cell culture substrate to simulate the in vivo interface between drug reservoir and brain cells for testing drug delivery in the brain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actbio.2019.02.052DOI Listing

When a child dies of heatstroke after a parent or caretaker unknowingly leaves the child in a car: How does it happen and is it a crime?

Authors:
David M Diamond

Med Sci Law 2019 Mar 5:25802419831529. Epub 2019 Mar 5.

Departments of Psychology, Molecular Pharmacology and Physiology, University of South Florida, USA.

It is commonly reported that in the course of a drive, a parent or caretaker loses awareness of the presence of a child in the back seat of the car. Upon arriving at the destination, the driver exits the car and unknowingly leaves the child in the car. This incomprehensible lapse of memory exposes forgotten children to hazards, including death from heatstroke. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0025802419831529DOI Listing

Traumatic brain injury in young children with isolated scalp haematoma.

Arch Dis Child 2019 Mar 4. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

Departmentof Paediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Objective: Despite high-quality paediatric head trauma clinical prediction rules, the management of otherwise asymptomatic young children with scalp haematomas (SH) can be difficult. We determined the risk of intracranial injury when SH is the only predictor variable using definitions from the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN) and Children's Head Injury Algorithm for the Prediction of Important Clinical Events (CHALICE) head trauma rules.

Design: Planned secondary analysis of a multicentre prospective observational study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/archdischild-2018-316066DOI Listing

Attitude towards deceased donation in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

Nephrology (Carlton) 2019 Mar 3. Epub 2019 Mar 3.

Children's Hospital 2, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

Objectives: Describe the current state of deceased kidney donation in Southern Vietnam and to explore the knowledge, attitude and behaviour towards kidney donation after death. Factors associated with the decision to donate among selective populations in HoChi Minh city were explored.

Methodology: Self-administered questionnaire of 30 questions to people over 18 years in 3 different communities n=1068. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nep.13581DOI Listing

Modeling of inflicted head injury by shaking trauma in children: what can we learn? : Part I: A systematic review of animal models.

Forensic Sci Med Pathol 2019 Mar 4. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

Division of Digital and Biometric Traces, Netherlands Forensic Institute, Laan van Ypenburg 6, 2497 GB, The Hague, The Netherlands.

Inflicted blunt force trauma and/or repetitive acceleration-deceleration trauma in infants can cause brain injury. Yet, the exact pathophysiologic mechanism with its associated thresholds remains unclear. In this systematic review an overview of animal models for shaking trauma and their findings on tissue damage will be provided. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12024-019-0082-3DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Targeted next generation sequencing reveals genetic defects underlying inherited retinal disease in Iranian families.

Mol Vis 2019 8;25:106-117. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

Department of Ophthalmology, Isfahan Eye Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Purpose: Inherited retinal diseases (IRDs) are clinically and genetically heterogeneous showing progressive retinal cell death which results in vision loss. IRDs include a wide spectrum of disorders, such as retinitis pigmentosa (RP), Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA), cone-rod dystrophy (CRD), and Stargardt disease (STGD1).

Methods: In this study, we performed targeted next-generation sequencing based on molecular inversion probes (MIPs) that allowed the sequence analysis of 108 IRD-associated genes in 50 Iranian IRD probands. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6377375PMC
February 2019
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The effect of pre-hospital intubation on prognosis in infants, children and adolescents with severe traumatic brain injury: A protocol of systematic review and meta-analysis.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2019 Feb;98(8):e14690

Department of Neurology, The First Hospital of Lanzhou, Lanzhou, China.

Introduction: Traumatic brain injury is one of the leading causes of death and sources of heavy societal burden. Hypoxemia and hypercapnia are the 2 common complications of brain injury. Intubation seems to be an effective intervention for preventing the 2 complications in pre-hospital setting. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000014690DOI Listing
February 2019

[Modes of dying of children in Intensive Care Units in Spain: MOMUCIP study].

An Pediatr (Barc) 2019 Feb 22. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Sección de Pediatría Crítica, Cuidados Intermedios y Paliativos Pediátricos, Hospital Clínico Universitario de Santiago de Compostela, A Coruña, España.

Objective: To describe the different types of child deaths in Paediatric Intensive Care Units (PICU) in Spain, and to analyse the characteristics of those dying from a limitation of therapeutic efforts (LET).

Method: A multicentre retrospective study by conducted by reviewing the hospital discharge reports corresponding to deceased patients in 8 Spanish PICUs between 2011 and 2017.

Results: A total of 337 deaths were recorded, of which 151 (50'7%) occurred after a decision of LET, while 114 (33'8%) were due to an indicated, but failed, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and 52 (15. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anpedi.2019.01.016DOI Listing
February 2019

Drowning in the desert: family denial of brain death.

Sudan J Paediatr 2018 ;18(2):48-52

Al-Faisal University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Drowning continues to be a cause of childhood mortality that is associated with significant psychological distress to the affected families. The unexpected death due to such preventable injury causes excessive grieving responses in these situations. In the present report, we describe a case of a 3-year-old child who was a victim of drowning in a recreational pool, whose family went through severe denial phase following the establishment of brain death. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.24911/SJP.106-1537437446DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6378574PMC
January 2018
2 Reads

Leptomeningeal dissemination: a sinister pattern of medulloblastoma growth.

J Neurosurg Pediatr 2019 Feb 15:1-9. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

3Cancer Research Program, Research Institute of the McGill University Health Center and Department of Surgery, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Leptomeningeal dissemination (LMD) is the defining pattern of metastasis for medulloblastoma. Although LMD is responsible for virtually 100% of medulloblastoma deaths, it remains the least well-understood part of medulloblastoma pathogenesis. The fact that medulloblastomas rarely metastasize outside the CNS but rather spread almost exclusively to the spinal and intracranial leptomeninges has fostered the long-held belief that medulloblastoma cells spread directly through the CSF, not the bloodstream. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2018.11.PEDS18506DOI Listing
February 2019
3 Reads

Targeting cholesterol metabolism in glioblastoma: a new therapeutic approach in cancer therapy.

J Investig Med 2019 Feb 14. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Department of Human Anatomy and Cell Sciences, Max Rady College of Medicine, Rady Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive malignant brain tumor known with a poor survival rate despite current advances in the field of cancer. Additional research into the pathophysiology of GBM is urgently needed given the devastating nature of this disease. Recent studies have revealed the unique cellular physiology of GBM cells as compared with healthy astrocytes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jim-2018-000962DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads
1.503 Impact Factor

Defining massive transfusion in civilian pediatric trauma.

J Pediatr Surg 2019 Jan 31. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Department of Pediatric Surgery, Texas Children's Hospital and Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX. Electronic address:

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify an optimal definition of massive transfusion (MT) in civilian pediatric trauma.

Methods: Severely injured children (age ≤18 years, injury severity score ≥25) in the Trauma Quality Improvement Program research datasets 2014-2015 that received blood products were identified. Children with traumatic brain injury and non-survivable injuries were excluded. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2019.01.029DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Experimental pediatric stroke shows age-specific recovery of cognition and role of hippocampal Nogo-A receptor signaling.

J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2019 Feb 14:271678X19828581. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

1 Department of Anesthesiology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO, USA.

Ischemic stroke is a leading cause of death worldwide and clinical data suggest that children may recover from stroke better than adults; however, supporting experimental data are lacking. We used our novel mouse model of experimental juvenile ischemic stroke (MCAO) to characterize age-specific cognitive dysfunction following ischemia. Juvenile and adult mice subjected to 45-min MCAO, and extracellular field recordings of CA1 neurons were performed to assess hippocampal synaptic plasticity changes after MCAO, and contextual fear conditioning was performed to evaluate memory and biochemistry used to analyze Nogo-A expression. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0271678X19828581DOI Listing
February 2019

Nucleic acid therapeutics in Huntington's disease.

Recent Pat Biotechnol 2019 Feb 8. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

Department of Biotechnology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER), Sector 67, S.A.S. Nagar, Punjab 160062. India.

Background: Protein misfolding is a critical factor in the progression of a large number of neurodegenerative diseases. The incorrectly folded protein is prone to aggregation, leading in aberrant interaction with other cellular proteins, elevated oxidative stress, impaired cellular machinery, finally resulting in cell death. Due to its monogenic origin, Huntington's disease (HD) is a poster child of protein misfolding neurodegenerative disorders. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1872208313666190208163714DOI Listing
February 2019
14 Reads

Glutamate Receptor-Mediated Neurotoxicity in a Model of Ethanol Dependence and Withdrawal in Rat Organotypic Hippocampal Slice Cultures.

Front Neurosci 2018 24;12:1053. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

Section of Clinical Pharmacology and Oncology, Department of Health Sciences, University of Florence, Florence, Italy.

Long-term alcohol use can lead to alterations in brain structure and functions and, in some cases, to neurodegeneration. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain ethanol (EtOH)-related brain injury. One of the most relevant mechanisms of alcohol-induced neurodegeneration involves glutamatergic transmission, but their exact role is not yet fully understood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2018.01053DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6353783PMC
January 2019
1 Read

Modulating native GABA receptors in medulloblastoma with positive allosteric benzodiazepine-derivatives induces cell death.

J Neurooncol 2019 Feb 6. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Department of Neurology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Purpose: Pediatric brain cancer medulloblastoma (MB) standard-of-care results in numerous comorbidities. MB is comprised of distinct molecular subgroups. Group 3 molecular subgroup patients have the highest relapse rates and after standard-of-care have a 20% survival. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11060-019-03115-0DOI Listing
February 2019
4 Reads

The role of microRNAs in newborn brain development and hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy.

Neuropharmacology 2019 May 1;149:55-65. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

Center of Neuroscience, Surgery and Trauma, Blizard Institute, Barts and London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, UK. Electronic address:

Neonates can develop hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) due to lack of blood supply or oxygen, resulting in a major cause of death and disability among term newborns. However, current definitive treatment of therapeutic hypothermia, will only benefit one out of nine babies. Furthermore, the mechanisms of HIE and therapeutic hypothermia are not fully understood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropharm.2018.11.041DOI Listing
May 2019
1 Read

Biallelic KARS pathogenic variants cause an early-onset progressive leukodystrophy.

Brain 2019 Mar;142(3):560-573

Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, USA.

The leukodystrophies cause severe neurodevelopmental defects from birth and follow an incurable and progressive course that often leads to premature death. It has recently been reported that abnormalities in aminoacyl t-RNA synthetase (ARS) genes are linked to various unique leukodystrophies and leukoencephalopathies. Aminoacyl t-RNA synthetase proteins are fundamentally known as the first enzymes of translation, catalysing the conjugation of amino acids to cognate tRNAs for protein synthesis. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/brain/advance-article/doi/10.1093/b
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/awz001DOI Listing
March 2019
4 Reads

Takotsubo cardiomyopathy secondary to non-accidental trauma presenting as an "unwitnessed" arrest.

Cardiol Young 2019 Feb 4:1-3. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Riley Hospital for Children,Pediatric Cardiology,Indianapolis,IN,USA.

Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is characterised by akinesis and ballooning of the left ventricular apex during contraction of the otherwise normal base of the heart. We describe the case of a 7-month-old previously healthy female who presented with an unwitnessed cardiac arrest. Workup raised suspicion for non-accidental trauma. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1047951118002366DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Evidence that inflammation promotes estradiol synthesis in human cerebellum during early childhood.

Transl Psychiatry 2019 Jan 31;9(1):58. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Department of Pharmacology and Program in Neuroscience, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, 21201, USA.

Discovering and characterizing critical and sensitive periods in brain development is essential for unraveling the myriad variables that impact disease risk. In previous work, we identified a critical period in cerebellar development in the rat that depends upon an intrinsic gene expression program and links increased prostaglandin production to local estradiol synthesis by stimulating Cyp19a, the estradiol synthetic enzyme, aromatase. This intrinsic critical period is sensitive to disruption by either inflammation or administration of cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors, ultimately impacting Purkinje cell dendritic growth. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41398-018-0363-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6355799PMC
January 2019

Use of Venous Pco in Determination of Death by Neurological Criteria in Children.

Pediatr Neurol 2018 Dec 19. Epub 2018 Dec 19.

Pediatric Neurology, Miller Children's & Women's Hospital of Long Beach, Long Beach, California.

Background: Compare the increase in partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Pco) from venous blood samples with that of arterial blood samples during apnea challenge test in determination of death by neurological criteria.

Methods: Prospective nonrandomized cohort study in tertiary care pediatric intensive care unit. Patients older than 37 week's gestation admitted to PICU with irreversible brain injury at the time when attending physician will perform apnea challenge test as part of brain death examination from October 2015 till September 2017. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2018.12.001DOI Listing
December 2018

Outcomes Following Proton Therapy for Pediatric Low-Grade Glioma.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2019 Jan 23. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Jacksonville, Florida.

Purpose: Dosimetric studies show that proton therapy can reduce the low/intermediate radiation dose to uninvolved tissue in children with low-grade glioma (LGG). For this reason, LGG is the fourth most common pediatric tumor treated with proton therapy, yet clinical outcome data on efficacy and toxicity are limited.

Methods And Materials: We reviewed the medical records of 174 children (≤21 years old) with nonmetastatic LGG enrolled on a prospective protocol and treated with proton therapy between 2007 and 2017. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2019.01.078DOI Listing
January 2019
17 Reads

Acute Neurologic Injury in Children Admitted to the Cardiac Intensive Care Unit.

Ann Thorac Surg 2019 Jan 22. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

Department of Critical Care Medicine, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, US; Department of Cardiology, Hospital Sant Joan de Déu, Barcelona University, Spain. Electronic address:

Background: Children with both acquired and congenital heart disease have low mortality but increased risk of neurologic morbidity which is multi-factorial. We hypothesize that acute neurologic injuries contributes to mortality in such children and are an important cause of death.

Methods: Retrospective review of all admissions to the pediatric cardiac intensive care unit from January 2011 through January 2015. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.athoracsur.2018.12.027DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

The Prognostic Value of Rotterdam Computed Tomography Score in Predicting Early Outcomes Among Children with Traumatic Brain Injury.

World Neurosurg 2019 Jan 21. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran; Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran; Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran; Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran; Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran; Trauma Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran.

Background: Prediction of traumatic brain injury (TBI) among children is of great importance for accurate clinical decision making.

Objectives: This study aimed to determine the prognostic value of the Rotterdam scoring system in predicting early outcome among children with TBI.

Methods: This study was conducted in 2017 on 506 children with brain injury in Kashan, Iran. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S18788750193010
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2018.12.221DOI Listing
January 2019
10 Reads

PLPHP deficiency: clinical, genetic, biochemical, and mechanistic insights.

Brain 2019 Mar;142(3):542-559

British Columbia Children's Hospital Research Institute, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

Biallelic pathogenic variants in PLPBP (formerly called PROSC) have recently been shown to cause a novel form of vitamin B6-dependent epilepsy, the pathophysiological basis of which is poorly understood. When left untreated, the disease can progress to status epilepticus and death in infancy. Here we present 12 previously undescribed patients and six novel pathogenic variants in PLPBP. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/brain/advance-article/doi/10.1093/b
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/awy346DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6391652PMC
March 2019
34 Reads

Prediction of discharge destination after traumatic brain injury in children using the head abbreviated injury scale.

Brain Inj 2019 Jan 19:1-6. Epub 2019 Jan 19.

a Department of Neurosurgery , University of Minnesota , Minneapolis , Minnesota , USA.

Introduction: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major public health problem, particularly in children. Prognostication of injury severity at the time of presentation is difficult. The Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) is a commonly used anatomical-based coding system created to classify and describe injury severity after initial presentation, once test results are able to better define the anatomical characteristics of the injury. Read More

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https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/02699052.2019.1
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02699052.2019.1566966DOI Listing
January 2019
4 Reads

Acquired Brain Injury in the Context of Family Violence: A Systematic Scoping Review of Incidence, Prevalence, and Contributing Factors.

Trauma Violence Abuse 2019 Jan 16:1524838018821951. Epub 2019 Jan 16.

1 Health Services Research Unit, Division of Health Services, Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Brain injury is often a precursor to, or result of, family violence. Yet there is little research identifying the connection of these two phenomena. The health cost (personal or societal) of brain injury within the family violence context is difficult to ascertain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1524838018821951DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Association of Intraventricular Hemorrhage and Death With Tocolytic Exposure in Preterm Infants.

JAMA Netw Open 2018 Sep 7;1(5):e182355. Epub 2018 Sep 7.

Department of Neonatal Pediatrics and Intensive Care, Neuropediatrics and Rehabilitation Center, Reference Centre for Learning Disabilities of the Child, Rehabilitation Centre, Rouen University Hospital-Charles Nicolle Hospital, Rouen, France.

Importance: No trials to date have demonstrated the benefits of tocolysis on death and/or neonatal morbidity in preterm infants; tocolytics may affect the fetal blood-brain barrier.

Objectives: To assess the risks associated with tocolysis in women delivering prematurely as measured by death and/or intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) in preterm infants and to compare the association of calcium channel blockers (CCBs) nifedipine and nicardipine hydrochloride vs atosiban used for tocolysis with death and/or IVH.

Design, Settings, And Participants: The French 2011 EPIPAGE-2 (Enquête Épidémiologique sur les Petits Âges Gestationnels) cohort was limited to mothers admitted for preterm labor without fever, who delivered from 24 to 31 weeks of gestation from April 1 through December 31, 2011. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2018.2355DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6324618PMC
September 2018
1 Read

Potential biomarkers to detect traumatic brain injury by the profiling of salivary extracellular vesicles.

J Cell Physiol 2019 Jan 15. Epub 2019 Jan 15.

Department of Medicine Division of Hematology/Oncology, Rhode Island Hospital, Providence, Rhode Island.

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a common cause of death and acquired disability in adults and children. Identifying biomarkers for mild TBI (mTBI) that can predict functional impairments on neuropsychiatric and neurocognitive testing after head trauma is yet to be firmly established. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are known to traffic from the brain to the oral cavity and can be detected in saliva. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/jcp.28139
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcp.28139DOI Listing
January 2019
21 Reads

When Is Death in a Child's Best Interest?: Examining Decisions Following Severe Brain Injury.

JAMA Pediatr 2019 Jan 14. Epub 2019 Jan 14.

St Michael's Hospital, Neurosurgery, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamapediatrics.2018.4592DOI Listing
January 2019

Fetal phenotype of Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome caused by CREBBP mutations.

Clin Genet 2019 Mar 11;95(3):420-426. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

CHU Bordeaux, Service de Génétique Médicale, Bordeaux, France.

Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RSTS; OMIM 180849) is an autosomal dominant developmental disorder characterized by facial dysmorphism, broad thumbs and halluces associated with intellectual disability. RSTS is caused by alterations in CREBBP (about 60%) and EP300 genes (8%). RSTS is often diagnosed at birth or during early childhood but generally not suspected during antenatal period. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/cge.13493
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cge.13493DOI Listing
March 2019
11 Reads

CX3CR1-CCR2-dependent monocyte-microglial signaling modulates neurovascular leakage and acute injury in a mouse model of childhood stroke.

J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2019 Jan 10:271678X18817663. Epub 2019 Jan 10.

1 Department of Neurology, University California San Francisco, CA, USA.

Stroke is among the top 10 causes of death in children. The developmental stage of the brain is central to stroke pathophysiology. The incidence of childhood arterial ischemic stroke (CAIS) is lower than of perinatal arterial ischemic stroke but the rate of recurrence is strikingly high. Read More

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http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0271678X18817663
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0271678X18817663DOI Listing
January 2019
7 Reads

Effects of Valproate Monotherapy on the Oxidant-Antioxidant Status in Mexican Epileptic Children: A Longitudinal Study.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2018 4;2018:7954371. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

National Institute of Pediatrics, Laboratory of Neurosciences, 04530, Mexico.

Epilepsy is a neurological disorder that can produce brain injury and neuronal death. Several factors such as oxidative stress have been implicated in epileptogenesis. Valproic acid (VPA) is a widely used drug for the treatment of epilepsy, but the mechanisms underlying these benefits are complex and still not fully understood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/7954371DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6304806PMC
December 2018
1 Read

Early Heart Rate Variability and Electroencephalographic Abnormalities in Acutely Brain-Injured Children Who Progress to Brain Death.

Pediatr Crit Care Med 2019 Jan;20(1):38-46

Center for Policy and Research in Emergency Medicine, Department of Emergency Medicine, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR.

Objectives: Heart rate variability is controlled by the autonomic nervous system. After brain death, this autonomic control stops, and heart rate variability is significantly decreased. However, it is unknown if early changes in heart rate variability are predictive of progression to brain death. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PCC.0000000000001759DOI Listing
January 2019
8 Reads

Synergistic activity of BET inhibitor MK-8628 and PLK inhibitor Volasertib in preclinical models of medulloblastoma.

Cancer Lett 2019 Mar 4;445:24-33. Epub 2019 Jan 4.

Department of Pediatric Oncology/Hematology, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Germany; German Consortium for Translational Cancer Research (DKTK), Berlin, Germany; Berlin Institute of Health (BIH), Berlin, Germany. Electronic address:

Medulloblastoma is the most prevalent central nervous system tumor in children. Targeted treatment approaches for patients with high-risk medulloblastoma are needed as current treatment regimens are not curative in many cases and cause significant therapy-related morbidity. Medulloblastoma harboring MYC amplification have the most aggressive clinical course and worst outcome. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.canlet.2018.12.012DOI Listing
March 2019
4 Reads

Epilepsy in Children: From Diagnosis to Treatment with Focus on Emergency.

J Clin Med 2019 Jan 2;8(1). Epub 2019 Jan 2.

Department of Anesthesiology, AOU Policlinico-Vittorio Emanuele, University of Catania Via S. Sofia, 78, 95123 Catania, Italy.

Seizures are defined as a transient occurrence of signs and symptoms due to the abnormal, excessive, or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain characterized by abrupt and involuntary skeletal muscle activity. An early diagnosis, treatment, and specific medical support must be performed to prevent Status Epilepticus (SE). Seizure onset, especially in the child population, is related to specific risk factors like positive family history, fever, infections, neurological comorbidity, premature birth, mother's alcohol abuse, and smoking in pregnancy. Read More

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http://www.mdpi.com/2077-0383/8/1/39
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm8010039DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6352402PMC
January 2019
11 Reads

Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Gliomas Exhibit Cell Biological and Molecular Signatures of Fetal Hindbrain-Derived Neural Progenitor Cells.

Neurosci Bull 2019 Jan 3. Epub 2019 Jan 3.

Department of Neurosurgery, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 100070, China.

Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is the main cause of brain tumor-related death among children. Until now, there is still a lack of effective therapy with prolonged overall survival for this disease. A typical strategy for preclinical cancer research is to find out the molecular differences between tumor tissue and para-tumor normal tissue, in order to identify potential therapeutic targets. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12264-018-00329-6DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads