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    38 results match your criteria Brain Cell Biology [Journal]

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    Differences in c-jun and nNOS expression levels in motoneurons following different kinds of axonal injury in adult rats.
    Brain Cell Biol 2008 Dec 24;36(5-6):213-27. Epub 2009 Feb 24.
    Department of Anatomy, Zhong Shan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080, PR China.
    In the peripheral nervous system (PNS), root avulsion causes motoneuron degeneration, but the majority of motoneurons can survive axotomy. In order to study the mechanism of motoneuron degeneration, we compared the expression patterns of c-jun and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), the well-known molecular players in PNS regeneration and degeneration, among adult rats having undergone axotomy (Ax), avulsion (Av), or pre-axotomy plus secondary avulsion (Ax + Av) of the brachial plexus. Our results showed that the highest and longest-lasting c-jun activation occurred in Ax, which was much stronger than those in Av and Ax + Av. Read More

    Imaging activity of neuronal populations with new long-wavelength voltage-sensitive dyes.
    Brain Cell Biol 2008 Dec 14;36(5-6):157-72. Epub 2009 Feb 14.
    Laboratory of Synaptic Circuitry, Program in Neuroscience and Behavioral Disorders, Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School, 2 Jalan Bukit Merah, Singapore 169547, Singapore.
    We have assessed the utility of five new long-wavelength fluorescent voltage-sensitive dyes (VSD) for imaging the activity of populations of neurons in mouse brain slices. Although all the five were capable of detecting activity resulting from activation of the Schaffer collateral-CA1 pyramidal cell synapse, they differed significantly in their properties, most notably in the signal-to-noise ratio of the changes in dye fluorescence associated with neuronal activity. Two of these dyes, Di-2-ANBDQPQ and Di-1-APEFEQPQ, should prove particularly useful for imaging activity in brain tissue and for combining VSD imaging with the control of neuronal activity via light-activated proteins such as channelrhodopsin-2 and halorhodopsin. Read More

    Direct interaction of SNARE complex binding protein synaphin/complexin with calcium sensor synaptotagmin 1.
    Brain Cell Biol 2008 Dec 9;36(5-6):173-89. Epub 2009 Jan 9.
    Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences at Kagawa, Tokushima Bunri University, Kagawa 769-2193, Japan.
    Although the binding of synaphin (also called complexin) to the soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) complex is critical for synaptic vesicle exocytosis, the exact role of synaphin remains unclear. Here, we show that synaphin directly binds to synaptotagmin 1, a major Ca(2+) sensor for fast neurotransmitter release, in a 1:1 stoichiometry. Mapping of the synaphin site involved in synaptotagmin 1 binding revealed that the C-terminal region is essential for the interaction between these two proteins. Read More

    O-GlcNAc modification of radial glial vimentin filaments in the developing chick brain.
    Brain Cell Biol 2008 Dec 9;36(5-6):191-202. Epub 2009 Jan 9.
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Delaware, Wolf Hall, Newark, DE 19716, USA.
    We examined the post-translational modification of intracellular proteins by beta-O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) with regard to neurofilament phosphorylation in the developing chick optic tectum. A regulated developmental pattern of O-GlcNAcylation was discovered in the developing brain. Most notably, discernible staining occurs along radial glial filaments but not along neuronal filaments in vivo. Read More

    Increased expression of beta-catenin in brain microvessels of a segmentally trisomic (Ts65Dn) mouse model of Down syndrome.
    Brain Cell Biol 2008 Dec 9;36(5-6):203-11. Epub 2009 Jan 9.
    New York State Office of Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities, Institute for Basic Research in Developmental Disabilities, Staten Island, NY 10314, USA.
    We examined the distribution of beta-catenin and endogenous blood serum albumin at the ultrastructural level in blood microvessels (capillaries) from brains of control and trisomic Ts65Dn mice. Morphological examination revealed an increased immunolabeling for beta-catenin in endothelial substructures of the capillary network, such as intercellular junctions, cytoplasm, and nuclei. These immunosignals were significantly increased in all endothelial substructures from trisomic mice. Read More

    Reporting neural activity with genetically encoded calcium indicators.
    Brain Cell Biol 2008 Aug 22;36(1-4):69-86. Epub 2008 Oct 22.
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Janelia Farm Research Campus, 19700 Helix Dr, Ashburn, VA 20147, USA.
    Genetically encoded calcium indicators (GECIs), based on recombinant fluorescent proteins, have been engineered to observe calcium transients in living cells and organisms. Through observation of calcium, these indicators also report neural activity. We review progress in GECI construction and application, particularly toward in vivo monitoring of sparse action potentials (APs). Read More

    A heterogeneous "resting" pool of synaptic vesicles that is dynamically interchanged across boutons in mammalian CNS synapses.
    Brain Cell Biol 2008 Aug 22;36(1-4):87-100. Epub 2008 Oct 22.
    Department of Biochemistry, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, 1300 York Ave, New York, NY 10021, USA.
    Using pHluorin-tagged synaptic vesicle proteins we have examined the partitioning of these probes into recycling and nonrecycling pools at hippocampal nerve terminals in cell culture. Our studies show that for three of the major synaptic vesicle components, vGlut-1, VAMP-2, and Synaptotagmin I, approximately 50-60% of the tagged protein appears in a recycling pool that responds readily to sustained action potential stimulation by mobilizing and fusing with the plasma membrane, while the remainder is targeted to a nonrecycling, acidic compartment. The fraction of recycling and nonrecycling (or resting) pools varied significantly across boutons within an individual axon, from 100% resting (silent) to 100% recycling. Read More

    Development of microscopic systems for high-speed dual-excitation ratiometric Ca2+ imaging.
    Brain Cell Biol 2008 Aug 22;36(1-4):43-52. Epub 2008 Oct 22.
    Laboratory for Cell Function and Dynamics, Advanced Technology Development Group, Brain Science Institute, RIKEN (The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research), 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako-city, Saitama, 351-0198, Japan.
    For quantitative measurements of Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]), ratiometric dyes are preferable, because the use of such dyes allows for correction of uneven loading or partitioning of dye within the cell as well as variations in cell thickness. Although dual-excitation ratiometric dyes for measuring [Ca(2+)], such as Fura-2, Fura-Red, and ratiometric-pericam, are widely used for a variety of applications, it has been difficult to use them for monitoring very fast Ca(2+) dynamics or Ca(2+) changes in highly motile cells. To overcome this problem, we have developed three new dual-excitation ratiometry systems. Read More

    Real-time monitoring of cyclic nucleotide signaling in neurons using genetically encoded FRET probes.
    Brain Cell Biol 2008 Aug 22;36(1-4):3-17. Epub 2008 Oct 22.
    CNRS UMR 7102 Neurobiologie des Processus Adaptatifs, Paris, 9 Quai St Bernard, 75005, Paris, France,
    Signaling cascades involving cyclic nucleotides play key roles in signal transduction in virtually all cell types. Elucidation of the spatiotemporal regulation of cyclic nucleotide signaling requires methods for tracking the dynamics of cyclic nucleotides and the activities of their regulators and effectors in the native biological context. Here we review a series of genetically encoded FRET-based probes for real-time monitoring of cyclic nucleotide signaling with a particular focus on their implementation in neurons. Read More

    Improved expression of halorhodopsin for light-induced silencing of neuronal activity.
    Brain Cell Biol 2008 Aug 17;36(1-4):141-54. Epub 2008 Oct 17.
    Department of Neurobiology, Duke University Medical Center, Box 3209, Research Drive, Durham, NC 27710, USA.
    The ability to control and manipulate neuronal activity within an intact mammalian brain is of key importance for mapping functional connectivity and for dissecting the neural circuitry underlying behaviors. We have previously generated transgenic mice that express channelrhodopsin-2 for light-induced activation of neurons and mapping of neural circuits. Here we describe transgenic mice that express halorhodopsin (NpHR), a light-driven chloride pump that can be used to silence neuronal activity via light. Read More

    Imaging synaptic inhibition throughout the brain via genetically targeted Clomeleon.
    Brain Cell Biol 2008 Aug 11;36(1-4):101-18. Epub 2008 Oct 11.
    Department of Neurobiology, Duke University Medical Center, 3209, Durham, NC 27710, USA.
    Here we survey a molecular genetic approach for imaging synaptic inhibition. This approach is based on measuring intracellular chloride concentration ([Cl(-)](i)) with the fluorescent chloride indicator protein, Clomeleon. We first describe several different ways to express Clomeleon in selected populations of neurons in the mouse brain. Read More

    Genetically encoded fluorescent sensors of membrane potential.
    Brain Cell Biol 2008 Aug 5;36(1-4):53-67. Epub 2008 Aug 5.
    Department of Cellular and Molecular Physiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA.
    Imaging activity of neurons in intact brain tissue was conceived several decades ago and, after many years of development, voltage-sensitive dyes now offer the highest spatial and temporal resolution for imaging neuronal functions in the living brain. Further progress in this field is expected from the emergent development of genetically encoded fluorescent sensors of membrane potential. These fluorescent protein (FP) voltage sensors overcome the drawbacks of organic voltage sensitive dyes such as non-specificity of cell staining and the low accessibility of the dye to some cell types. Read More

    eNpHR: a Natronomonas halorhodopsin enhanced for optogenetic applications.
    Brain Cell Biol 2008 Aug 2;36(1-4):129-39. Epub 2008 Aug 2.
    Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University, W083 Clark Center, 318 Campus Drive West, Stanford, CA, USA.
    Temporally precise inhibition of distinct cell types in the intact nervous system has been enabled by the microbial halorhodopsin NpHR, a fast light-activated electrogenic Cl(-) pump. While neurons can be optically hyperpolarized and inhibited from firing action potentials at moderate NpHR expression levels, we have encountered challenges with pushing expression to extremely high levels, including apparent intracellular accumulations. We therefore sought to molecularly engineer NpHR to achieve strong expression without these cellular side effects. Read More

    Optimizing the spatial resolution of Channelrhodopsin-2 activation.
    Brain Cell Biol 2008 Aug 25;36(1-4):119-27. Epub 2008 Jul 25.
    Friedrich Miescher Institute, Maulbeerstrasse 66, WRO-1066.4.04, 4058, Basel, Switzerland.
    Over the past few years, the light-gated cation channel Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) has seen a remarkable diversity of applications in neuroscience. However, commonly used wide-field illumination provides poor spatial selectivity for cell stimulation. We explored the potential of focal laser illumination to map photocurrents of individual neurons in sparsely transfected hippocampal slice cultures. Read More

    FRET imaging and in silico simulation: analysis of the signaling network of nerve growth factor-induced neuritogenesis.
    Brain Cell Biol 2008 Aug 25;36(1-4):19-30. Epub 2008 Jul 25.
    Laboratory of Bioimaging and Cell Signaling, Graduate School of Biostudies, Kyoto University, Yoshida Konoe-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, 606-8501, Japan.
    Genetically encoded probes based on Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) enable us to decipher spatiotemporal information encoded in complex tissues such as the brain. Firstly, this review focuses on FRET probes wherein both the donor and acceptor are fluorescence proteins and are incorporated into a single molecule, i.e. Read More

    Highly sensitive and quantitative FRET-FLIM imaging in single dendritic spines using improved non-radiative YFP.
    Brain Cell Biol 2008 Aug 30;36(1-4):31-42. Epub 2008 May 30.
    Department of Neurobiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA.
    Two-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (TPFLIM) enables the quantitative measurements of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) in small subcellular compartments in light scattering tissue. We evaluated and optimized the FRET pair of mEGFP (monomeric EGFP with the A206K mutation) and REACh (non-radiative YFP variants) for TPFLIM. We characterized several mutants of REACh in terms of their "darkness," and their ability to act as a FRET acceptor for mEGFP in HeLa cells and hippocampal neurons. Read More

    Imaging synaptic inhibition in transgenic mice expressing the chloride indicator, Clomeleon.
    Brain Cell Biol 2006 Dec 5;35(4-6):207-28. Epub 2008 Apr 5.
    Department of Neurobiology, Duke Univ. Medical Center, Box 3209, Durham, NC 27710, USA.
    We describe here a molecular genetic approach for imaging synaptic inhibition. The thy-1 promoter was used to express high levels of Clomeleon, a ratiometric fluorescent indicator for chloride ions, in discrete populations of neurons in the brains of transgenic mice. Clomeleon was functional after chronic expression and provided non-invasive readouts of intracellular chloride concentration ([Cl(-)](i)) in brain slices, allowing us to quantify age-dependent declines in resting [Cl(-)](i) during neuronal development. Read More

    Distribution of the scaffolding proteins PSD-95, PSD-93, and SAP97 in isolated PSDs.
    Brain Cell Biol 2006 Dec 5;35(4-6):239-50. Epub 2008 Apr 5.
    Laboratory of Neurobiology, National Institutes of Health, NINDS, Building 49, Room 3A60, 49 Convent Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.
    We compared the distribution of three scaffolding proteins, all belonging to a family of membrane-associated guanylate kinases, thought to have key roles in the organization of the postsynaptic density (PSD). Isolated PSDs readily adhered to treated glass coverslips where they were labeled with immunogold and rotary shadowed for analysis by EM. The distribution of proteins within individual PSDs were measured by counting and mapping individual immunogold particles. Read More

    Differential activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and a related complex in neuronal nuclei.
    Brain Cell Biol 2006 Dec 5;35(4-6):267-81. Epub 2008 Apr 5.
    National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, MD F2-04, PO Box 12233, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA.
    The extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERKs 1/2) are known to participate in regulating transcription in response to moderate depolarization, such as synaptic stimulation, but how the same active enzyme can differentially regulate distinct transcriptional programs induced with abnormal depolarization (high potassium) is unknown. We hypothesized that ERK1 or 2 accomplishes this differential nuclear response through close association with other proteins in stable complexes. In support of this hypothesis, we have found that immunoreactivity for an apparent high molecular weight complex containing phospho-ERK1 increased in response to synaptic stimulation, but decreased in response to high potassium; p-ERK immunoreactivity at 44/42 kDa increased in both cases. Read More

    GABAC receptor subunit mRNA expression in the rat superior colliculus is regulated by calcium channels, neurotrophins, and GABAC receptor activity.
    Brain Cell Biol 2006 Dec 5;35(4-6):251-66. Epub 2008 Apr 5.
    AG Entwicklungsneurobiologie, Fakultät für Biologie, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Bochum, Germany.
    The distribution of mRNA for the rho2 subunit of the GABA(C) receptor is much broader in organotypic SC cultures than in vivo, suggesting that GABA(C) receptor expression is regulated by environmental factors. Electrophysiological recordings indicate that neurons in SC cultures have functional GABA(C) receptors, although these receptors exhibited smaller conductance than in vivo, probably due to increased rho2 subunit expression. Adding cortical input, treatment with various neuromodulators, and blocking neuronal activity with TTX failed to affect the expression of rho2 subunits. Read More

    A practical device for pinpoint delivery of molecules into multiple neurons in culture.
    Brain Cell Biol 2006 Dec 5;35(4-6):229-37. Epub 2008 Apr 5.
    Laboratory for Cell Function Dynamics, Advanced Technology Development Group, Brain Science Institute, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako-city, Saitama, 351-0198, Japan.
    We have developed a device for pinpoint delivery of chemicals, proteins, and nucleic acids into cultured cells. The principle underlying the technique is the flow of molecules from the culture medium into cells through a rupture in the plasma membrane made by a needle puncture. DNA transfection is achieved by stabbing the needle tip into the nucleus. Read More

    Cross talk between vestibular neurons and Schwann cells mediates BDNF release and neuronal regeneration.
    Brain Cell Biol 2006 Jun 4;35(2-3):187-201. Epub 2007 Oct 4.
    Department of Medical Pharmacology, CNR Institute of Neuroscience, University of Milano, Via Vanvitelli 32, 20129, Milano, Italy.
    It is now well-established that an active cross-talk occurs between neurons and glial cells, in the adult as well as in the developing and regenerating nervous systems. These functional interactions not only actively modulate synaptic transmission, but also support neuronal growth and differentiation. We have investigated the possible existence of a reciprocal interaction between inner ear vestibular neurons and Schwann cells maintained in primary cultures. Read More

    Beta-amyloid enhances intracellular calcium rises mediated by repeated activation of intracellular calcium stores and nicotinic receptors in acutely dissociated rat basal forebrain neurons.
    Brain Cell Biol 2006 Jun 4;35(2-3):173-86. Epub 2007 Oct 4.
    Department of Medicine, Division of Neurology, University of Alberta, 530 Heritage Medical Research Centre, Edmonton, AB, Canada T6G 2S2.
    Beta-amyloid, a 39-43 amino acid peptide, may exert its biological effects via neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Using the ratiometric dye, fura-2, we examined the effect of soluble beta-amyloid(1-42) on the concentration of intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)](i)) in acutely dissociated rat basal forebrain neurons. Focal applications of nicotine (0. Read More

    CD44 adhesion molecule and neuro-glial proteoglycan NG2 as invasive markers of glioma.
    Brain Cell Biol 2006 Jun 4;35(2-3):159-72. Epub 2007 Oct 4.
    Department of Pathology & Cell Biology, University of South Florida, College of Medicine, Tampa, FL, USA.
    Glioma invasion into the CNS involves the interaction of tumor cells with the host's cells and extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules. In this study, the expression of ECM-associated and cell-associated proteins such as the transmembrane CD44 adhesion molecule and neuro-glial proteoglycan 2 (NG2), a member of the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan family, were evaluated during glioma progression, in vitro and in vivo, using a model of a highly invasive and aggressive intracerebral mouse G-26 glioma. We found a marked increase in CD44 and NG2 expression in brain tissue containing glioma. Read More

    Synaptic destabilization by neuronal Nogo-A.
    Brain Cell Biol 2006 Jun 4;35(2-3):137-56. Epub 2007 Oct 4.
    Brain Research Institute, University of Zurich and Department of Biology, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH), Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, Zurich, CH-8057, Switzerland.
    Formation and maintenance of a neuronal network is based on a balance between plasticity and stability of synaptic connections. Several molecules have been found to regulate the maintenance of excitatory synapses but nothing is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in synaptic stabilization versus disassembly at inhibitory synapses. Here, we demonstrate that Nogo-A, which is well known to be present in myelin and inhibit growth in the adult CNS, is present in inhibitory presynaptic terminals in cerebellar Purkinje cells at the time of Purkinje cell-Deep Cerebellar Nuclei (DCN) inhibitory synapse formation and is then downregulated during synapse maturation. Read More

    Synapsin II negatively regulates catecholamine release.
    Brain Cell Biol 2006 Jun 4;35(2-3):125-36. Epub 2007 Oct 4.
    Department of Chemistry, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA.
    We have assessed the role of synapsins in catecholamine release by comparing the properties of exocytosis in adrenal chromaffin cells from wild-type and synapsin triple knock-out (TKO) mice. Brief depolarizations led to a greater amount of catecholamine release in chromaffin cells from TKO mice in comparison to chromaffin cells from wild-type mice. This increase in catecholamine release was due to an increased number of exocytotic events, while the properties of individual quanta of released catecholamine were unchanged. Read More

    Changes in the distribution of calcium calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II at the presynaptic bouton after depolarization.
    Brain Cell Biol 2006 Jun 20;35(2-3):117-24. Epub 2007 Sep 20.
    EM Facility, NINDS, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.
    Phosphorylation of synapsin I by CaMKII has been reported to mobilize synaptic vesicles from the reserve pool. In the present study, the distributions of alpha-CaMKII and of synapsin I were compared in synaptic boutons of unstimulated and stimulated hippocampal neurons in culture by immunogold electron microscopy. CaMKII and synapsin I are located in separate domains in presynaptic terminals of unstimulated neurons. Read More

    Vesicle pools and synapsins: new insights into old enigmas.
    Brain Cell Biol 2006 Jun 4;35(2-3):107-15. Epub 2007 Oct 4.
    Institute of Parasitology and Biomedicine López-Neyra, CSIC (Spanish National Research Council), 18100, Granada, Spain.
    Synapsins are a multigene family of neuron-specific phosphoproteins and comprise the most abundant synaptic vesicle proteins. They have been proposed to tether synaptic vesicles to each other to maintain a reserve pool in the vicinity of the active zone. Such a role is supported by the observation that disruption of synapsin function leads to a depletion of the reserve pool of vesicles and an increase in synaptic depression. Read More

    Requirement of TrkB for synapse elimination in developing cerebellar Purkinje cells.
    Brain Cell Biol 2006 Feb 1;35(1):87-101. Epub 2007 Mar 1.
    Institut für Neurowissenschaften, Technische Universität München, Biedersteiner Strasse 29, 80802, München, Germany.
    The receptor tyrosine kinase TrkB and its ligands, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-4/5 (NT-4/5), are critically important for growth, survival and activity-dependent synaptic strengthening in the central nervous system. These TrkB-mediated actions occur in a highly cell-type specific manner. Here we report that cerebellar Purkinje cells, which are richly endowed with TrkB receptors, develop a normal morphology in trkB-deficient mice. Read More

    Calcium-dependent trapping of mitochondria near plasma membrane in stimulated astrocytes.
    Brain Cell Biol 2006 Feb 10;35(1):75-86. Epub 2007 Mar 10.
    Neuroscience Center, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 56, (Viikinkaari 4), FIN-00014, Helsinki, Finland.
    Growing evidence suggests that astrocytes are the active partners of neurons in many brain functions. Astrocytic mitochondria are highly motile organelles which regulate the temporal and spatial patterns of Ca( 2+ ) dynamics, in addition to being a major source of ATP and reactive oxygen species. Previous studies have shown that mitochondria translocate to endoplasmic reticulum during Ca( 2+ ) release from internal stores, but whether a similar spatial interaction between mitochondria and plasma membrane occurs is not known. Read More

    Calcium-induced exocytosis from actomyosin-driven, motile varicosities formed by dynamic clusters of organelles.
    Brain Cell Biol 2006 Feb 10;35(1):57-73. Epub 2007 Mar 10.
    Department of Neurobiology, Institute of Life Sciences, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, 91904, Israel.
    Varicosities are ubiquitous neuronal structures that appear as local swellings along neurites of invertebrate and vertebrate neurons. Surprisingly little is known about their cell biology. We use here cultured Aplysia neurons and demonstrate that varicosities are motile compartments that contain large clusters of organelles. Read More

    A microtubule-based, dynein-dependent force induces local cell protrusions: Implications for neurite initiation.
    Brain Cell Biol 2006 Feb 13;35(1):39-56. Epub 2007 Mar 13.
    Department of Cell Biology and Institute for Childhood and Neglected Diseases, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Rd., La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.
    A key event in neurite initiation is the accumulation of microtubule bundles at the neuron periphery. We hypothesized that such bundled microtubules may generate a force at the plasma membrane that facilitates neurite initiation. To test this idea we observed the behavior of microtubule bundles that were induced by the microtubule-associated protein MAP2c. Read More

    Cell type-specific dendritic polarity in the absence of spatially organized external cues.
    Brain Cell Biol 2006 Feb 27;35(1):29-38. Epub 2007 Feb 27.
    Department of Neurobiology, Durham, NC, 27710, USA.
    Pyramidal neurons of the hippocampus and cortex have polarized dendritic arbors, but little is known about the cellular mechanisms distinguishing apical and basal dendrites. We used morphometric analysis and time lapse imaging of cultured hippocampal neurons to show that glutamatergic neurons develop progressive dendritic asymmetry in the absence of polarized extrinsic cues. Thus, pyramidal neurons have a cellular program for polarized dendrite growth independent of tissue microenvironment. Read More

    Electrical coupling between pyramidal cells in adult cortical regions.
    Brain Cell Biol 2006 Feb 27;35(1):13-27. Epub 2007 Feb 27.
    Department of Pharmacology, The School of Pharmacy, London University, 29-39 Brunswick Square, London, WC1N 1AX, UK.
    Recently, intense interest has focussed on electrical coupling between interneurones in cortical regions and their contributions towards oscillatory network activity. Despite mounting circumstantial evidence that pyramidal cells are also coupled, the paucity of direct evidence has made this controversial. Dual intracellular recordings from pairs of cortical and hippocampal pyramids demonstrated strong, but sparse coupling. Read More

    Pyramid power: principal cells of the hippocampus unite!
    Brain Cell Biol 2006 Feb 10;35(1):5-11. Epub 2007 Mar 10.
    Department of Neuroscience, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Ave., Bronx, NY 10461, USA.
    Electrical transmission in the mammalian brain is now well established. A new study by Thomson and colleagues elegantly demonstrates coupling between CA1 hippocampal pyramidal cells, which is far more common than previously supposed. Although the history of coupling is extensive, doubt, predjudice, and technical issues long kept it from wide acceptance. Read More

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