3,523 results match your criteria Brain : a journal of neurology[Journal]


Can epilepsy be treated by antibiotics?

J Neurol 2018 Jun 21. Epub 2018 Jun 21.

Department of Medical Microbiology, Radboud University Medical Center, PO Box 9101, 6500 HB, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

There is mounting evidence for the role of the gut microbiota and gut-brain interactions in neurological diseases. We present six patients with drug-resistant epilepsy who attained temporary seizure freedom during antibiotic treatment. The effect on seizure frequency waned within 2 weeks after cessation of antibiotic treatment. Read More

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Sarcoidosis of the central nervous system: clinical features, imaging, and CSF results.

Authors:
Desmond P Kidd

J Neurol 2018 Jun 19. Epub 2018 Jun 19.

Centre for Neurosarcoidosis, Neuroimmunology Unit, Institute of Immunity and Transplantation, University College London, London, NW3 2PF, UK.

Objective: Neurological complications of systemic sarcoidosis are uncommon and the natural history and optimal treatments under-researched. With the advent of modern biological therapies, it is important to define the clinical characteristics and immunopathology of the disease.

Methods: Patients referred to and treated within the Centre for Neurosarcoidosis over a 15 year period who had biopsy-proven "highly probable" disease of the central nervous system were studied prospectively. Read More

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June 2018
1 Read

Time window and "tissue window": two approaches to assist decision-making in strokes.

J Neurol 2018 Jun 19. Epub 2018 Jun 19.

Department of Neurology, Union Hospital Affiliated with Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1277 Jiefang Avenue in Hankou, Wuhan, 430022, China.

Intravenous alteplase given in an appropriate time window has been recommended in guidelines and effects are on the decline over time. In general, the clinical decision is primarily based on whether ischemic stroke patients are sent to hospitals within the time window. However, some patients sent to the hospital over time limitations are eligible to receive intervention for recanalization due to good collateral circulation. Read More

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Subthalamic deep brain stimulation and levodopa in Parkinson's disease: a meta-analysis of combined effects.

J Neurol 2018 Jun 16. Epub 2018 Jun 16.

Department of Neurology, Gardner Family Center for Parkinson's Disease and Movement Disorders, University of Cincinnati, 260 Stetson St, Suite 2300, Cincinnati, OH, 45267-0525, USA.

Introduction: While subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) and levodopa improve motor symptoms in Parkinson disease (PD) to a similar magnitude, their combined effect remains unclear. We sought to evaluate whether STN-DBS and levodopa yield differential effects on motor outcomes, dyskinesia, and activities of daily living (ADL) when combined compared to when administered alone.

Methods: We conducted a meta-analysis of all studies reporting motor, dyskinesia, and ADL outcomes after bilateral STN-DBS in PD with presurgical Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS-III) in Medication-OFF and Medication-ON states and postsurgical assessments in four conditions: Stimulation-ON/Medication-ON, Stimulation-ON/Medication-OFF, Stimulation-OFF/Medication-ON, and Stimulation-OFF/Medication-OFF. Read More

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June 2018
2 Reads

Primary lateral sclerosis and the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-frontotemporal dementia spectrum.

J Neurol 2018 Jun 4. Epub 2018 Jun 4.

Brain and Mind Centre, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, 2050, Australia.

Aim: To investigate whether primary lateral sclerosis (PLS) represents part of the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-frontotemporal dementia (ALS-FTD) spectrum of diseases.

Methods: Comprehensive assessment was taken on 21 patients with PLS and results were compared to patients diagnosed with pure motor ALS (n = 27) and ALS-FTD (n = 12). Clinical features, Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE) scores, Motor Neuron Disease Behaviour (Mind-B) scores, motor disability on the ALS functional rating scale (ALSFRS) and survival times were documented. Read More

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June 2018
3 Reads

Fatigue, not self-rated motor symptom severity, affects quality of life in functional motor disorders.

J Neurol 2018 Jun 2. Epub 2018 Jun 2.

Departments of Psychiatry and Internal Medicine, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

While fatigue is found to be an impairing symptom in functional motor disorders (FMD) in clinical practice, scientific evidence is lacking. We investigated fatigue severity and subtypes in FMD compared to organic neurological disease. Furthermore, the role of fatigue within FMD and its impact on quality of life and self-rated health were investigated. Read More

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Characterisation of tissue-type metabolic content in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis: a magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging study.

J Neurol 2018 May 30. Epub 2018 May 30.

Centre for Clinical Brain Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.

Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy yields metabolic information and has proved to be a useful addition to structural imaging in neurological diseases. We applied short-echo time Spectroscopic Imaging in a cohort of 42 patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS). Linear modelling with respect to brain tissue type yielded metabolite levels that were significantly different in white matter lesions compared with normal-appearing white matter, suggestive of higher myelin turnover (higher choline), higher metabolic rate (higher creatine) and increased glial activity (higher myo-inositol) within the lesions. Read More

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The motor and cognitive features of Parkinson's disease in patients with concurrent Gaucher disease over 2 years: a case series.

J Neurol 2018 May 29. Epub 2018 May 29.

John Van Geest Centre for Brain Repair, Cambridge, UK.

We report the cognitive features and progression of Parkinson's disease (PD) in five patients with concurrent Gaucher disease. The patients presented at an earlier age than patients with sporadic PD, as previously noted by others; but in contrast to many previous reports, our patients followed a variable clinical course. While two patients developed early cognitive deficits and dementia, three others remained cognitively intact over the follow-up period. Read More

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May 2018
1 Read

The occurrence of seizures after ischemic stroke does not influence long-term mortality; a 26-year follow-up study.

J Neurol 2018 May 29. Epub 2018 May 29.

Department of Neurology, Maastricht University Medical Center, PO Box 5800, 6202 AZ, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Objective: Epileptic seizures are a common complication after stroke. The relation between occurrence of seizures after stroke and long-term mortality remains elusive. We aimed to assess whether seizures in an early or late phase after ischemic stroke are an independent determinant of long-term mortality. Read More

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Cognitive performance in multiple sclerosis: the contribution of intellectual enrichment and brain MRI measures.

J Neurol 2018 May 26. Epub 2018 May 26.

Department of Medical, Surgical, Neurologic, Metabolic and Aging Sciences, University of Campania Luigi Vanvitelli, Naples, Italy.

Cognitive reserve (CR) is a construct that originates from the observation of poor correspondence between brain damage and clinical symptoms. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between cognitive reserve (CR), brain reserve (BR) and cognitive functions and to evaluate whether CR might attenuate/moderate the negative impact of brain atrophy and lesion load on cognitive functions in multiple sclerosis (MS). To achieve these aims, ninety-eight relapsing-remitting MS patients underwent the brief repeatable battery of neuropsychological tests and Stroop test (ST). Read More

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May 2018
2 Reads

Crossed aphasia following cerebral infarction in a right-handed patient with atypical cerebral language dominance.

J Neurol 2018 May 18. Epub 2018 May 18.

Department of Radiology, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, 39 Hua Xiang Road, Tie Xi District, Shenyang, 110022, Liaoning, People's Republic of China.

Objective: Crossed aphasia (CA), usually referred to as an acquired language disturbance, is caused by a lesion in the cerebral hemisphere ipsilateral to the dominant hand, and the exact mechanism is not clear. The development of handedness is influenced by education and training and the impact of habitualization, while language is more susceptible to the impact of speech habits, and it is not absolutely accurate to judge cerebral language dominance by the degree of hand preference.

Methods: We describe a case of CA after right hemispheric stroke in a right-handed patient with atypical language dominance and attempt to analyze the mechanism of CA based on functional imaging methods, including arterial spin labeling (ASL) and positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (PET-MRI). Read More

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May 2018
1 Read

Influences of temporal lobe epilepsy and temporal lobe resection on olfaction.

J Neurol 2018 May 16. Epub 2018 May 16.

Department of Radiology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Although temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and resection (TLR) impact olfactory eloquent brain structures, their influences on olfaction remain enigmatic. We sought to more definitively assess the influences of TLE and TLR on olfaction using three well-validated olfactory tests and measuring  the tests' associations with the volume of numerous temporal lobe brain structures. The University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test and an odor detection threshold test were administered to 71 TLE patients and 71 age- and sex-matched controls; 69 TLE patients and controls received an odor discrimination/memory test. Read More

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A startling acoustic stimulus facilitates voluntary lower extremity movements and automatic postural responses in people with chronic stroke.

J Neurol 2018 May 14. Epub 2018 May 14.

Department of Rehabilitation, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University Medical Center, PO Box 9101, 6500 HB, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

A startling acoustic stimulus (SAS) involuntary releases prepared movements at accelerated latencies, known as the StartReact effect. Previous work has demonstrated intact StartReact in paretic upper extremity movements in people after stroke, suggesting preserved motor preparation. The question remains whether motor preparation of lower extremity movements is also unaffected after stroke. Read More

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Serum neurofilament light is increased in multiple system atrophy of cerebellar type and in repeat-expansion spinocerebellar ataxias: a pilot study.

J Neurol 2018 May 8. Epub 2018 May 8.

Department of Neurodegenerative Diseases, Hertie Institute for Clinical Brain Research and Center of Neurology, University of Tübingen, Hoppe-Seyler-Str. 3, 72076, Tübingen, Germany.

Blood biomarkers in degenerative ataxias are still largely missing. Here, we aimed to provide piloting proof-of-concept that serum Neurofilament light (NfL) could offer a promising peripheral blood biomarker in degenerative ataxias. Specifically, as a marker of neuronal damage, NfL might (1) help to differentiate multiple system atrophy of cerebellar type (MSA-C) from sporadic adult-onset ataxia (SAOA), and (2) show increases in repeat-expansion spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) which might be amenable to treatment in the future. Read More

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May 2018
2 Reads

Haemorrhagic stroke related to the use of 4-fluoroamphetamine.

J Neurol 2018 May 8. Epub 2018 May 8.

Department of Drug Monitoring and Policy, Netherlands Institute of Mental Health and Addiction (Trimbos Institute), 725, 3500 AS, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Introduction: The use of the new psychoactive substance 4-fluoroamphetamine (4-FA) and the number of 4-FA-related intoxications substantially increased in The Netherlands in recent years. We describe two patients with severe 4-FA-related complications and the characteristics of a large sample of 4-FA-intoxicated patients.

Methods: Information on patients with 4-FA-related intoxications between January 2009 and June 2017 was available from the Monitor Drug-related Incidents. Read More

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May 2018
1 Read

Pallidal deep brain stimulation in juvenile Huntington's disease: local field potential oscillations and clinical data.

J Neurol 2018 May 3. Epub 2018 May 3.

Department of Neurology, Centre for Movement Disorders and Neuromodulation, Medical Faculty, Heinrich-Heine-University Düsseldorf, Moorenstrasse 5, 40225, Düsseldorf, Germany.

Background: Recently, therapeutic attempts to control motor choreatic hyperkinesia of Huntington's disease (HD) by means of pallidal deep brain stimulation (Gp-DBS) were successful. With respect to the clinical effects of Gp-DBS in juvenile hypokinetic-rigid HD (jHD; Westphal variant), only one single-case has been reported up to date. Oscillatory patterns of the Gp in jHD are not known. Read More

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Longitudinal diffusion tensor imaging changes in early Parkinson's disease: ICICLE-PD study.

J Neurol 2018 Apr 25. Epub 2018 Apr 25.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

Objective: To investigate whether white matter microstructural changes can be used as a predictor of worsening of motor features or cognitive decline in patients with Parkinson's disease and verify whether white matter microstructural longitudinal changes differ between patients with Parkinson's disease with normal cognition and those with mild cognitive impairment.

Methods: We enrolled 120 newly diagnosed patients with early stage Parkinson's disease (27 with mild cognitive impairment and 93 with normal cognition) along with 48 controls. Participants were part of the incidence of cognitive impairment in cohorts with longitudinal evaluation in Parkinson's disease study and were assessed at baseline and 18 months later with cognitive, motor tests and diffusion tensor imaging. Read More

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April 2018
2 Reads

Agreement between clinician-rated versus patient-reported outcomes in Huntington disease.

J Neurol 2018 Jun 23;265(6):1443-1453. Epub 2018 Apr 23.

Department of Neurology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA.

Background: Clinician-rated measures of functioning are often used as primary endpoints in clinical trials and other behavioral research in Huntington disease. As study costs for clinician-rated assessments are not always feasible, there is a question of whether patient self-report of commonly used clinician-rated measures may serve as acceptable alternatives in low risk behavioral trials.

Aim: The purpose of this paper was to determine the level of agreement between self-report and clinician-ratings of commonly used functional assessment measures in Huntington disease. Read More

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June 2018
1 Read

Glioma-related seizures in relation to histopathological subtypes: a report from the glioma international case-control study.

J Neurol 2018 Jun 23;265(6):1432-1442. Epub 2018 Apr 23.

Department of Radiation Sciences Oncology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.

Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the distribution of glioma-related seizures and seizure control at the time of tumor diagnosis with respect to tumor histologic subtypes, tumor treatment and patient characteristics, and to compare seizure history preceding tumor diagnosis (or study enrollment) between glioma patients and healthy controls.

Methods: The Glioma International Case Control study (GICC) risk factor questionnaire collected information on demographics, past medical/medication history, and occupational history. Cases from eight centers were also asked detailed questions on seizures in relation to glioma diagnosis; cases (n = 4533) and controls (n = 4171) were also asked about seizures less than 2 years from diagnosis and previous seizure history more than 2 years prior to tumor diagnosis, including childhood seizures. Read More

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June 2018
7 Reads

Unusual white matter involvement in EAST syndrome associated with novel KCNJ10 mutations.

J Neurol 2018 Jun 17;265(6):1419-1425. Epub 2018 Apr 17.

Center of Translational and Experimental Myology, Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Genoa, Italy.

Background: Epilepsy, ataxia, sensorineural deafness, and tubulopathy (EAST syndrome) is a rare channelopathy due to KCNJ10 mutations. So far, only mild cerebellar hypoplasia and/or dentate nuclei abnormalities have been reported as major neuroimaging findings in these patients.

Methods: We analyzed the clinical and brain MRI features of two unrelated patients (aged 27 and 23 years) with EAST syndrome carrying novel homozygous frameshift mutations (p. Read More

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June 2018
2 Reads

Similarities and differences between infantile and early childhood onset vanishing white matter disease.

J Neurol 2018 Jun 16;265(6):1410-1418. Epub 2018 Apr 16.

Department of Pediatrics, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing, 100034, China.

Vanishing white matter disease (VWM) is one of the most prevalent inherited leukoencephalopathies in childhood. Infantile VWM is more severe but less understood than the classic early childhood type. We performed a follow-up study on 14 infantile and 26 childhood patients to delineate the natural history and neuroimaging features of VWM. Read More

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June 2018
4 Reads

Biomarkers for traumatic brain injury.

J Neurol 2018 May;265(5):1241-1243

Department of Neurosurgery, Institute of Psychological Medicine and Clinical Neurosciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, CF14 4XW, UK.

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May 2018
1 Read

Effects of motor rehabilitation on mobility and brain plasticity in multiple sclerosis: a structural and functional MRI study.

J Neurol 2018 Jun 7;265(6):1393-1401. Epub 2018 Apr 7.

Scientific Institute Santa Maria Nascente, Don C. Gnocchi Foundation ONLUS, Via Capecelatro 66, 20148, Milan, Italy.

Background: Rehabilitation seems to promote brain plasticity, but objective measures of efficacy are lacking and there is a limited understanding of the mechanisms underlying functional recovery.

Objective: To study functional and structural brain changes induced by gait rehabilitation.

Methods: We enrolled MS inpatients (EDSS 4. Read More

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June 2018
3 Reads

Resistance to eye opening in patients with disorders of consciousness.

J Neurol 2018 Jun 5;265(6):1376-1380. Epub 2018 Apr 5.

GIGA-Consciousness, Coma Science Group, and Neurology Department, University Hospital of Liege, University of Liege, Avenue de l'Hopital, 1, Liege, Belgium.

Introduction: Resistance to eye opening (REO) is a commonly encountered phenomenon in clinical practice. We aim to investigate whether REO is a sign of consciousness or a reflex in severely brain-injured patients.

Methods: We recorded REO in chronic patients with disorders of consciousness during a multimodal diagnostic assessment. Read More

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June 2018
1 Read

Alterations in white matter network topology contribute to freezing of gait in Parkinson's disease.

J Neurol 2018 Jun 3;265(6):1353-1364. Epub 2018 Apr 3.

Brain and Mind Centre, University of Sydney, 100 Mallett Street, Camperdown, NSW, 2050, Australia.

Freezing of gait (FOG) is a common symptom in advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). Despite current advances, the neural mechanisms underpinning this disturbance remain poorly understood. To this end, we investigated the structural organisation of the white matter connectome in PD freezers and PD non-freezers. Read More

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June 2018
1 Read

Exploring the relationship between motor impairment, vascular burden and cognition in Parkinson's disease.

J Neurol 2018 Jun 23;265(6):1320-1327. Epub 2018 Mar 23.

Neurology Clinic, Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia.

Objective: To determine frequency and type of cognitive disorders in cross-sectional analysis of a Parkinson's disease (PD) cohort, and explore its relations to motor symptoms, modifiable vascular risk factors and white matter lesions (WML) volume.

Methods: In a group of 133 PD patients, mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI) and dementia (PDD) were diagnosed according to Movement Disorders Society Task Force criteria (level 2 for PD-MCI). Detailed motor measurements were applied, including rigidity, axial, bradykinesia, tremor and postural instability gait disorders (PIGD) scores. Read More

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June 2018
7 Reads

Hemi-seesaw nystagmus in a patient with acute infarction in the superior cerebellar artery territory.

J Neurol 2018 May 23;265(5):1219-1221. Epub 2018 Mar 23.

Department of Neurology, Keimyung University School of Medicine, 56 Dalseong-ro, Jung-gu, Daegu, 700-712, Republic of Korea.

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May 2018
1 Read

Within-patient fluctuation of brain volume estimates from short-term repeated MRI measurements using SIENA/FSL.

J Neurol 2018 May 16;265(5):1158-1165. Epub 2018 Mar 16.

Neuroimmunology and Multiple Sclerosis Research, Department of Neurology, University Hospital Zurich and University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Background: Measurements of brain volume loss (BVL) in individual patients are currently discussed controversially. One concern is the impact of short-term biological noise, like hydration status.

Methods: Three publicly available reliability MRI datasets with scan intervals of days to weeks were used. Read More

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May 2018
2 Reads

Monitoring and management of autoimmunity in multiple sclerosis patients treated with alemtuzumab: practical recommendations.

J Neurol 2018 Mar 10. Epub 2018 Mar 10.

Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada.

Alemtuzumab is a humanized anti-CD52 monoclonal antibody approved in more than 65 countries for the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Compared with subcutaneous interferon-beta-1a, alemtuzumab significantly reduced clinical disease activity and the rate of brain volume loss, and improved disability outcomes in patients with active RRMS who were either treatment naive (CARE-MS I study) or who had an inadequate response (≥ 1 relapse after ≥ 6 months of treatment) to prior therapy (CARE-MS II study). Adverse events (AEs) associated with alemtuzumab include infusion-associated reactions, infections, and autoimmunity. Read More

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March 2018
1 Read

Deep brain stimulation in uncommon tremor disorders: indications, targets, and programming.

J Neurol 2018 Mar 6. Epub 2018 Mar 6.

Gardner Family Center for Parkinson's Disease and Movement Disorders, Department of Neurology, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, USA.

Background: In uncommon tremor disorders, clinical efficacy and optimal anatomical targets for deep brain stimulation (DBS) remain inadequately studied and insufficiently quantified.

Methods: We performed a systematic review of PubMed.gov and ClinicalTrials. Read More

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March 2018
1 Read

The MRZ reaction and a quantitative intrathecal IgG synthesis may be helpful to differentiate between primary central nervous system lymphoma and multiple sclerosis.

J Neurol 2018 May 6;265(5):1106-1114. Epub 2018 Mar 6.

Medical Care Unit Konstanz, Luisenstraße 7g, 78464, Constance, Germany.

Some patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) may initially present with similar clinical, magnetic resonance imaging, and routine cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings as those observed in multiple sclerosis (MS). The MRZ reaction (MRZR), composed of the three respective antibody indices (AIs) against measles, rubella, and varicella zoster virus, appears to be the most specific CSF marker for MS. This study aimed to determine whether a positive MRZR and other routine CSF markers help differentiate between MS and PCNSL. Read More

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May 2018
2 Reads

Autoimmune comorbidities in multiple sclerosis: what is the influence on brain volumes? A case-control MRI study.

J Neurol 2018 May 5;265(5):1096-1101. Epub 2018 Mar 5.

Department of Medical Sciences and Public Health, Multiple Sclerosis Center, Binaghi Hospital, ATS Sardegna, University of Cagliari, via Is Guadazzonis 2, 09126, Cagliari, Italy.

Background: Several studies indicated that multiple sclerosis (MS) is frequently associated with other autoimmune diseases. However, it is little known if the coexistence of these conditions may influence the radiologic features of MS, and in particular the brain volumes.

Objectives: To evaluate the effect of autoimmune comorbidities on brain atrophy in a large case-control MS population. Read More

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May 2018
2 Reads

Mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease: the Parkinson's disease cognitive study (PACOS).

J Neurol 2018 May 24;265(5):1050-1058. Epub 2018 Feb 24.

Department G.F. Ingrassia, Section of Neurosciences, University of Catania, Via Santa Sofia 79, 95123, Catania, Italy.

Approximately 30% of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients show impaired cognitive performance, which is suggestive of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), representing a predictor of dementia, especially when present at diagnosis. The objective of the study was to evaluate the frequency and clinical predictors of MCI in a large hospital-based cohort of PD patients. We collected cross-sectional data from the Parkinson's disease cognitive impairment study (PACOS), a multicenter study involving two Movement Disorder centers, which are located in south Italy. Read More

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May 2018
1 Read

In vivo assessment of retinal vessel pathology in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

J Neurol 2018 Apr 20;265(4):949-953. Epub 2018 Feb 20.

Department of Neurology, University of Ulm, Oberer Eselsberg 45, 89081, Ulm, Germany.

Background: Changes in skin and muscle small blood vessels (SBVs) and microvascular structures of the brain have been reported in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). A direct assessment of brain SBVs in vivo is currently not feasible. Retinal vessels are considered a "mirror" of brain SBVs. Read More

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April 2018
1 Read

Association between marriage and outcomes in patients with acute ischemic stroke.

J Neurol 2018 Apr 20;265(4):942-948. Epub 2018 Feb 20.

Department of Neurology, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, No.6 Tiantanxili, Dongcheng District, Beijing, 100050, China.

Backgrounds: The previous studies on the association between marital status and stroke outcomes were rare. Furthermore, the existing studies mostly focused on the protective effect of marriage on survival. We conducted the study to evaluate the association between marital status and adverse stroke outcomes in patients with AIS based on China national stroke registry. Read More

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April 2018
2 Reads

Predicting functional outcomes of posterior circulation acute ischemic stroke in first 36 h of stroke onset.

J Neurol 2018 Apr 17;265(4):926-932. Epub 2018 Feb 17.

School of Public Health, College of Public Health, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan.

Posterior circulation acute ischemic stroke constitutes one-fourth of all ischemic strokes and can be efficiently quantified using the posterior circulation Alberta stroke program early computed tomography score (PC-ASPECTS) through diffusion-weighted imaging. We investigated whether the PC-ASPECTS and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) facilitate functional outcome prediction among Chinese patients with posterior circulation acute ischemic stroke. Participants were selected from our prospective stroke registry from January 1, 2015, to December 31, 2016. Read More

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April 2018
16 Reads

Effectiveness of Rotigotine plus intensive and goal-based rehabilitation versus Rotigotine alone in "de-novo" Parkinsonian subjects: a randomized controlled trial with 18-month follow-up.

J Neurol 2018 Apr 13;265(4):906-916. Epub 2018 Feb 13.

Department of Parkinson's Disease, Movement Disorders and Brain Injury Rehabilitation, "Moriggia-Pelascini" Hospital-Via Pelascini 3, Gravedona ed Uniti (CO), 22015, Como, Italy.

Background: Dopamine Replacement Therapy (DRT) represents the most effective treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD). Nevertheless, several symptoms are unresponsive to treatment and its long-term use leads to serious side effects. To optimize the pharmacological management of PD, dopamine-agonists are often prescribed to "de-novo" patients. Read More

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April 2018
2 Reads

The cortical blood-brain barrier in multiple sclerosis: a gateway to progression?

J Neurol 2018 Apr 13;265(4):966-967. Epub 2018 Feb 13.

Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Level 1 West Wing, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, OX3 9DU, UK.

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April 2018
1 Read

Human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV)-associated encephalopathy: an under-recognised cause of acute encephalitis? Case series and literature review.

J Neurol 2018 Apr 8;265(4):871-879. Epub 2018 Feb 8.

National Centre for Human Retrovirology, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, Praed Street, London, W2 1NY, UK.

Human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV)-1-associated myelopathy (HAM) is well described. Clinical features are predominantly consistent with cord pathology, though imaging and autopsy studies also demonstrate brain inflammation. In general, this is subclinical; however, six cases have previously been reported of encephalopathy in HTLV-1-infected patients, without alternative identified aetiology. Read More

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April 2018
12 Reads

Defining spasticity: a new approach considering current movement disorders terminology and botulinum toxin therapy.

J Neurol 2018 Apr 8;265(4):856-862. Epub 2018 Feb 8.

IAB-Interdisciplinary Working Group for Movement Disorders, Hamburg, Germany.

Spasticity is a symptom occurring in many neurological conditions including stroke, multiple sclerosis, hypoxic brain damage, traumatic brain injury, tumours and heredodegenerative diseases. It affects large numbers of patients and may cause major disability. So far, spasticity has merely been described as part of the upper motor neurone syndrome or defined in a narrowed neurophysiological sense. Read More

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April 2018
8 Reads

MRI of the first event in pediatric acquired demyelinating syndromes with antibodies to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein.

J Neurol 2018 Apr 8;265(4):845-855. Epub 2018 Feb 8.

Department of Pediatric Neurology, Children's Hospital Datteln, Witten/Herdecke University, Datteln, Germany.

Antibodies against the myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG-Ab) can be detected in various pediatric acquired demyelinating syndromes (ADS). Here, we analyze the spectrum of neuroradiologic findings in children with MOG-Ab and a first demyelinating event. The cerebral and spinal MRI of 69 children with different ADS was assessed in regard to the distribution and characteristics of lesions. Read More

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April 2018
8 Reads

Anti-Sez6l2 antibody detected in a patient with immune-mediated cerebellar ataxia inhibits complex formation of GluR1 and Sez6l2.

J Neurol 2018 Apr 8;265(4):962-965. Epub 2018 Feb 8.

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan.

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April 2018
1 Read

Cerebellum and cognition in multiple sclerosis: the fall status matters.

J Neurol 2018 Apr 2;265(4):809-816. Epub 2018 Feb 2.

Multiple Sclerosis Center, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Israel.

Cerebellar volume has been linked with cognitive performances in MS; however, the association in terms of fall status has never been compared. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to compare cognitive performance with cerebellar volume between MS fallers and non-fallers. The cross-sectional study included 140 PwMS (96 women). Read More

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April 2018
1 Read

Insular multiple sclerosis lesions are associated with erectile dysfunction.

J Neurol 2018 Apr 1;265(4):783-792. Epub 2018 Feb 1.

Department of Neurology, University Hospital Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Schwabachanlage 6, 91054, Erlangen, Germany.

Erectile function (EF) is frequently compromised in men with multiple sclerosis (MS). Functional neuroimaging in healthy men identified a network of brain areas, such as the insula, visual and somatosensory association areas, cingulate gyrus, prefrontal cortex, as well as subcortical regions, contributing to EF. This study intended to determine associations between EF deterioration during MS and cerebral MS-associated lesion sites. Read More

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April 2018
2 Reads

Distinct manifestation of cognitive deficits associate with different resting-state network disruptions in non-demented patients with Parkinson's disease.

J Neurol 2018 Mar 1;265(3):688-700. Epub 2018 Feb 1.

Brain and Mind Research Center, Nagoya University, Showa-ku, Nagoya, 466-8550, Japan.

Cognitive deficits in Parkinson's disease (PD) are heterogeneous entities, but a relationship between the heterogeneity of cognitive deficits and resting-state network (RSN) changes remains elusive. In this study, we examined five sub-domain scores according to Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R) for the cognitive evaluation and classification of 72 non-demented patients with PD. Twenty-eight patients were classified as PD with normal cognition (PD-NC). Read More

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March 2018
3 Reads

Glioblastoma as differential diagnosis of autoimmune encephalitis.

J Neurol 2018 Mar 30;265(3):669-677. Epub 2018 Jan 30.

French Reference Center of Paraneoplastic Neurological Syndrome, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Hôpital Neurologique, Lyon, France.

Objective: To identify the clinical and radiological features that should raise suspicion for the autoimmune encephalitis (AE)-like presentation of glioblastoma.

Methods: This is an observational, retrospective case series of patients referred to the French National Reference Center on Paraneoplastic Neurological Diseases for suspected AE (possible, probable or definite, using the 2016 criteria) who later received a final diagnosis of glioblastoma according to 2016 WHO criteria. An extensive literature search was also conducted for similar existing cases. Read More

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March 2018
11 Reads

Diffusion tensor imaging in metachromatic leukodystrophy.

J Neurol 2018 Mar 30;265(3):659-668. Epub 2018 Jan 30.

Amsterdam Neuroscience, VU University Medical Center Amsterdam, Academic Medical Center, VU University Amsterdam and University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Objective: We aimed to gain more insight into the pathomechanisms of metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD), by comparing magnitude and direction of diffusion between patients and controls at diagnosis and during follow-up.

Methods: Four late-infantile, 16 juvenile and 8 adult onset MLD patients [of which 13 considered eligible for hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT)] and 47 controls were examined using diffusion tensor imaging. Fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AD) and radial diffusivity (RD) were quantified and compared between groups using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS). Read More

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March 2018
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Electrophysiological and behavioral effects of frontal transcranial direct current stimulation on cognitive fatigue in multiple sclerosis.

J Neurol 2018 Mar 22;265(3):607-617. Epub 2018 Jan 22.

Department of Neurology, Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg, Leipziger Str. 44, 39120, Magdeburg, Germany.

Fatigue is one of the most common and debilitating symptoms affecting patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Sustained cognitive effort induces cognitive fatigue, operationalized as subjective exhaustion and fatigue-related objective alertness decrements with time-on-task. During prolonged cognitive testing, MS patients show increased simple reaction times (RT) accompanied by lower amplitudes and prolonged latencies of the P300 event-related potential. Read More

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March 2018
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Pathological examination of cerebral amyloid angiopathy in patients who underwent removal of lobar hemorrhages.

J Neurol 2018 Mar 22;265(3):567-577. Epub 2018 Jan 22.

Department of Neurosurgery, University of Fukui, 23-3, Matsuokashimoaizuki, Eiheiji-cho, Yoshida-gun, Fukui, 910-1193, Japan.

Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is a degenerative disorder characterized by amyloid-β (Aβ) deposition in the brain microvessels. CAA is also known to contribute not only to cortical microbleeds but also lobar hemorrhages. This retrospective study examined CAA pathologically in patients who underwent direct surgeries for lobar hemorrhage. Read More

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March 2018
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Low signal intensity in motor cortex on susceptibility-weighted MR imaging is correlated with clinical signs of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a pilot study.

J Neurol 2018 Mar 22;265(3):552-561. Epub 2018 Jan 22.

Division of Neurology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2, Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo, 650-0017, Japan.

There is no reliable objective indicator for upper motor neuron dysfunction in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). To determine the clinical significance and potential utility of magnetic resonance (MR) signals, we investigated the relationship between clinical symptoms and susceptibility changes in the motor cortex measured using susceptibility-weighted MR imaging taken by readily available 3-T MRI in clinical practice. Twenty-four ALS patients and 14 control subjects underwent 3-T MR T1-weighted imaging and susceptibility-weighted MR imaging with the principles of echo-shifting with a train of observations (PRESTO) sequence. Read More

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March 2018
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