1,977,078 results match your criteria Brain & development[Journal]


Inflammatory pathway analytes predicting rapid cognitive decline in MCI stage of Alzheimer's disease.

Ann Clin Transl Neurol 2020 Jul 7. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Lou Ruvo Center for Brain Health, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio, 44195.

Objective: To determine the inflammatory analytes that predict clinical progression and evaluate their performance against biomarkers of neurodegeneration.

Methods: A longitudinal study of MCI-AD patients in a Discovery cohort over 15 months, with replication in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) MCI cohort over 36 months. Fifty-three inflammatory analytes were measured in the CSF and plasma with a RBM multiplex analyte platform. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/acn3.51109DOI Listing

International Consensus Statement for the Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Adolescents with Concurrent Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Substance Use Disorder.

Eur Addict Res 2020 Jul 7:1-10. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Parnassia Addiction Research Centre (PARC), Parnassia Psychiatric Institute, The Hague, The Netherlands.

Background: Childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a risk factor for substance misuse and substance use disorder (SUD) in adolescence and (early) adulthood. ADHD and SUD also frequently co-occur in treatment-seeking adolescents, which complicates diagnosis and treatment and is associated with poor treatment outcomes. Research on the effect of treatment of childhood ADHD on the prevention of adolescent SUD is inconclusive, and studies on the diagnosis and treatment of adolescents with ADHD and SUD are scarce. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000508385DOI Listing

Relationship Between Perceptions of Treatment Goals and Psychological Distress in Patients With Advanced Cancer.

J Natl Compr Canc Netw 2020 Jul;18(7):849-855

1Division of Hematology and Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center.

Background: Studies have shown gaps in prognostic understanding among patients with cancer. However, few studies have explored patients' perceptions of their treatment goals versus how they perceive their oncologist's goals, and the association of these views with their psychological distress.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 559 patients with incurable lung, gastrointestinal, breast, and brain cancers. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.6004/jnccn.2019.7525DOI Listing

The OXTR polymorphisms are not associated with attachment dimensions: A three-approach study.

Psychoneuroendocrinology 2020 Jun 21;120:104780. Epub 2020 Jun 21.

College of Life Science, Northwest University, Xi'an, 710069, China.

Inspired by the roles of oxytocin in social behaviors, scientists have devoted considerable efforts to examine the association between the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) and human attachment, a personality of seek and receiving comfort from intimate figures. However, there are still a lot of controversies on the association. To clarify the relationship, this research integrated three studies: (1) A cross-sectional study indicated that the OXTR polymorphisms (i. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2020.104780DOI Listing

Selective and distributed attention in human and pigeon category learning.

Cognition 2020 Jul 4;204:104350. Epub 2020 Jul 4.

The University of Iowa, United States of America.

Attention to relevant stimulus features in a categorization task helps to optimize performance. However, the relationship between attention and categorization is not fully understood. For example, even when human adults and young children exhibit comparable categorization behavior, adults tend to attend selectively during learning, whereas young children tend to attend diffusely (Deng & Sloutsky, 2016). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2020.104350DOI Listing

Cortical and subcortical volume differences between Benign Epilepsy with Centrotemporal Spikes and Childhood Absence Epilepsy.

Epilepsy Res 2020 Jun 23;166:106407. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Division of Neurology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, 3333 Burnet Ave. Cincinnati, OH, 45229, USA; Pediatric Neuroimaging Research Consortium, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, 3333 Burnet Ave. Cincinnati, OH, 45229, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: Benign Childhood Epilepsy with Centrotemporal Spikes (BECTS) and Childhood Absence Epilepsy (CAE) are the most common childhood epilepsy syndromes and they share a similar age-dependence. However, the two syndromes clearly differ in seizures and EEG patterns. The aim of this study is to investigate whether children of the same age with BECTS, CAE and typically-developing children have significant differences in grey matter volume that may underlie the different profiles of these syndromes. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2020.106407DOI Listing

Renal injury and hepatic effects from the methylimidazolium ionic liquid M8OI in mouse.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2020 Jul 4;202:110902. Epub 2020 Jul 4.

Health Protection Research Unit, Wolfson Building, Newcastle University, Newcastle Upon Tyne, NE2 4AA, United Kingdom; Institute Translational and Clinical Research, Level 4 Leech, Newcastle University, Newcastle Upon Tyne, NE2 4HH, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

The ionic liquid 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium (M8OI) has been found in the environment and identified as a hazard for triggering the liver disease primary biliary cholangitis (PBC). Given limited toxicity data for M8OI and other structurally-related ionic liquids, target organs for M8OI toxicity were examined. Adult male C57Bl6 mice were acutely exposed to 0-10 mg/kg body weight M8OI via 2 intraperitoneal injections (time zero and 18 h) and effects examined at 24 h. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2020.110902DOI Listing

Protective role of microRNA-27a upregulation and HSP90 silencing against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats by activating PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway.

Int Immunopharmacol 2020 Jul 4;86:106635. Epub 2020 Jul 4.

Department of Pediatrics, Qilu Hospital, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan 250012, Shandong, China. Electronic address:

Objective: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been reported in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury, yet the function of miR-27a in it has seldom been mentioned. This study aims to assess the mechanisms of miR-27a in rats with cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury.

Methods: The cerebral ischemia-reperfusion models of rat pups were established by bilateral carotid artery occlusion. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2020.106635DOI Listing

Clinical phenotypes, genotypes and treatment in Chinese dystonia patients with KMT2B variants.

Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2020 Jun 9;77:76-82. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Department of Neurology, Beijing Children's Hospital, Capital Medical University, National Center for Children's Health, 100045, China. Electronic address:

Background: KMT2B-related dystonia is a recently discovered hereditary dystonia that mostly occurs in childhood. This dystonia usually progresses to generalized dystonia with cervical, cranial, pharynx and larynx involvement. Our study summarizes genotype-phenotype features and deep brain stimulation (DBS) efficacy observed with KMT2B-related dystonia patients in China. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.parkreldis.2020.06.002DOI Listing

Gelfoam migration: a potential cause of recurrent hydrocephalus.

World Neurosurg 2020 Jul 4. Epub 2020 Jul 4.

Pediatric Neurosurgery, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS, Rome, Italy; Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome, Italy. Electronic address:

Background: Gelfoam is a simple and effective hemostatic agent, which is utilized to seal brain corticotomies or skull burr holes too. Thanks also to its cheap costs, it is one of the most widely used tool in the neurosurgical daily practice. However, the migration of Gelfoam fragments can account for the occlusion of endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) or shunt, leading to hydrocephalus recurrence. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2020.06.214DOI Listing

Trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) in patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer and brain metastases: exploratory final analysis of cohort 1 from KAMILLA, a single-arm phase IIIb clinical trial.

Ann Oncol 2020 Jul 4. Epub 2020 Jul 4.

Department of Medical Oncology, Guy's Hospital and Sarah Cannon Research Institute, London, UK.

Background: Patients with brain metastases (BM) from human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer represent a difficult-to-treat population. Trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) has shown potential activity in this subset of patients in small clinical series.

Patients And Methods: KAMILLA is an ongoing, phase IIIb study of T-DM1 in patients with HER2-positive locally advanced/metastatic breast cancer (MBC) with prior HER2-targeted therapy and chemotherapy. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.annonc.2020.06.020DOI Listing

A phase II, multicenter, two cohort study of 160 mg osimertinib in EGFR T790M-positive non-small cell lung cancer patients with brain metastases or leptomeningeal disease who progressed on prior EGFR TKI therapy.

Ann Oncol 2020 Jul 4. Epub 2020 Jul 4.

Division of Hematology-Oncology, Department of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea. Electronic address:

Background: Up to 40% of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and EGFR mutations treated with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) present with disease progression in the central nerve system (CNS), either as brain metastases (BM) or leptomeningeal metastases (LM). Osimertinib (80mg), a third generation, irreversible, oral EGFR TKI, has shown efficacy in active CNS metastases. However, efficacy of 160mg osimertinib in BM or LM is unclear. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.annonc.2020.06.017DOI Listing

Neural Closed loop deep brain stimulation for freezing of Gait.

Brain Stimul 2020 Jul 4. Epub 2020 Jul 4.

Department of Neurology and Neurological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA. Electronic address:

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brs.2020.06.018DOI Listing

A brief demonstration of frontostriatal connectivity in OCD patients with intracranial electrodes.

Neuroimage 2020 Jul 4:117138. Epub 2020 Jul 4.

University of Cologne, Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Cologne, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Hospital Cologne , Cologne, Germany; Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy, and Psychosomatics, Johanniter Hospital Oberhausen, Oberhausen, Germany.

Closed-loop neuromodulation is presumed to be the logical evolution for improving the effectiveness of deep brain stimulation (DBS) treatment protocols [1]. Identifying symptom-relevant biomarkers that provide meaningful feedback to stimulator devices is an important initial step in this direction. This report demonstrates a technique for assaying neural circuitry hypothesized to contribute to OCD and DBS treatment outcomes. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2020.117138DOI Listing

Personalized connectome fingerprints: their importance in cognition from childhood to adult years.

Neuroimage 2020 Jul 4:117122. Epub 2020 Jul 4.

Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Neurology, USA.

Structural neural network architecture patterns in the human brain could be related to individual differences in phenotype, behavior, genetic determinants, and clinical outcomes from neuropsychiatric disorders. Recent studies have indicated that a personalized neural (brain) fingerprint can be identified from structural brain connectomes. However, the accuracy, reproducibility and translational potential of personalized fingerprints in terms of cognition is not yet fully determined. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2020.117122DOI Listing

Quantification of brain oxygen extraction and metabolism with [O]-gas PET: A technical review in the era of PET/MRI.

Neuroimage 2020 Jul 4:117136. Epub 2020 Jul 4.

Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford CA, USA.

Oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) and the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO) are key cerebral physiological parameters to identify at-risk cerebrovascular patients and understand brain health and function. PET imaging with [O]-oxygen tracers, either through continuous or bolus inhalation, provides non-invasive assessment of OEF and CMRO. Numerous tracer delivery, PET acquisition, and kinetic modeling approaches have been adopted to map brain oxygenation. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2020.117136DOI Listing

Neuroimaging and electrophysiology meet invasive neurostimulation for causal interrogations and modulations of brain states.

Neuroimage 2020 Jul 4:117144. Epub 2020 Jul 4.

Movement Disorders and Neurostimulation, Biomedical Statistics and Multimodal Signal Processing Unit, Department of Neurology, Focus Program Translational Neuroscience (FTN), Rhine Main Neuroscience Network (rmn2), University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Germany. Electronic address:

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has developed over the last twenty years into a highly effective evidenced-based treatment option for neuropsychiatric disorders. Moreover, it has become a fascinating tool to provide illustrative insights into the functioning of brain networks. New anatomical and pathophysiological models of DBS action have accelerated our understanding of neurological and psychiatric disorders and brain functioning. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2020.117144DOI Listing

Progesterone shapes medial temporal lobe volume across the human menstrual cycle.

Neuroimage 2020 Jul 4:117125. Epub 2020 Jul 4.

Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, University of California, Santa Barbara; Neuroscience Research Institute, University of California, Santa Barbara. Electronic address:

The rhythmic production of sex steroid hormones is a central feature of the mammalian endocrine system. In rodents and nonhuman primates, sex hormones are powerful regulators of hippocampal subfield morphology. However, it remains unknown whether intrinsic fluctuations in sex hormones alter hippocampal morphology in the human brain. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2020.117125DOI Listing

Polysialylated - neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM) promotes recovery of vision after the critical period.

Mol Cell Neurosci 2020 Jul 4:103527. Epub 2020 Jul 4.

Departments of Surgery (Neurosurgery), Medical Neuroscience, and Ophthalmology & Visual Sciences, Dalhousie University, Life Science Research Institute, 1348 Summer Street, Halifax B3H 4R2, NS, Canada. Electronic address:

Vision loss has long since been considered irreversible after a critical period; however, there is potential to restore limited vision, even in adulthood. This phenomenon is particularly pronounced following complete loss of vision in the dominant eye. Adult neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) knockout mice have an age-related impairment of visual acuity. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mcn.2020.103527DOI Listing

Propensity-matched comparison for carotid artery stenting in primary stenosis versus post-CEA restenosis.

Ann Vasc Surg 2020 Jul 4. Epub 2020 Jul 4.

Vascular Surgery, Vita-Salute University School of Medicine, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy.

Objectives: Carotid artery stenting (CAS) has been proposed as the treatment of choice in case of post-carotid endarterectomy (CEA) restenosis. The aim of the study is to analyze periprocedural results of CAS for the treatment of post-CEA restenosis (RES) compared with those of CAS performed for primary carotid stenosis (PRS).

Methods: Data from consecutive patients submitted to CAS at our Institution from 2008 to 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.avsg.2020.06.063DOI Listing

Longitudinal Analysis of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms as Independent Predictors of Neurocognitive Function in Primary Brain Tumor Patients.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2020 Jul 4. Epub 2020 Jul 4.

Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA. Electronic address:

Background: Primary brain tumor patients are vulnerable to depression and anxiety symptoms, which may affect their neurocognitive functioning. We performed a prospective longitudinal analysis to examine the association between depression and anxiety symptoms and domain-specific neurocognitive functioning in primary brain tumor patients receiving radiation therapy [RT].

Methods: On a prospective trial, 54 primary brain tumor patients receiving RT underwent comprehensive neurocognitive evaluation at baseline (pre-RT), and 3, 6, and 12 months post-RT. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2020.07.002DOI Listing

Long-term exposure to ephedrine leads to neurotoxicity and neurobehavioral disorders accompanied by up-regulation of CRF in prefrontal cortex and hippocampus in rhesus macaques.

Behav Brain Res 2020 Jul 4:112796. Epub 2020 Jul 4.

Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Shantou University Medical College, No. 57 Changping Road, Shantou, 515041, Guangdong, China; Shantou University Medical College, No. 22 Xinling Road, Shantou, 515041, Guangdong, China; Guangdong Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Imaging, No. 57 Changping Road, Shantou, 515041, Guangdong, China. Electronic address:

Drug addiction continues to threaten the health and welfare of people worldwide, and ephedrine abuse is a serious drug problem in many areas of the world. Ephedrine toxicity is thought to induce behavioral effects primarily through actions on the central nervous system. The corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) system plays an important role in regulating behavioral effects induced by addictive drugs, but whether CRF is related to ephedrine toxicity remains unclear. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2020.112796DOI Listing

Novel therapeutic targets in mood disorders: Pentoxifylline (PTX) as a candidate treatment.

Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2020 Jul 4:110032. Epub 2020 Jul 4.

Mood Disorders Psychopharmacology Unit, University Health Network, Toronto, ON, Canada; Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada. Electronic address:

Numerous pharmacological treatments for mood disorders are currently available; however, rates of treatment resistance, relapse and recurrence remain high. Therefore, novel treatments acting outside of the conventionally targeted monoamine system are urgently needed to improve patient outcomes. Emerging and converging evidence suggests that immune dysfunction, oxidative stress, impaired cerebral blood flow (CBF) and decreased neurotrophic factors all contribute to mood disorder pathophysiology and are therefore treatment targets of interest. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pnpbp.2020.110032DOI Listing

Lactate promotes reactive astrogliosis and confers axon guidance potential to astrocytes under oxygen-glucose deprivation.

Neuroscience 2020 Jul 4. Epub 2020 Jul 4.

The Key Laboratory of Pathobiology, Ministry of Education, College of Basic Medical Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin 130021, PR China. Electronic address:

During cerebral ischemia, brain lactate concentration increases, and astrogliosis is triggered. Herein, we investigated lactate's role in astrogliosis and explored the functions of lactate-activated astrocytes in vitro. In rat models of cerebral ischemia, we observed increased glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression, reflecting astrogliosis, and increased lactate levels in the ischemic brain region. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2020.06.041DOI Listing

Alcohol and IL-6 Alter Expression of Synaptic Proteins in Cerebellum of Transgenic Mice with Increased Astrocyte Expression of IL-6.

Neuroscience 2020 Jul 4. Epub 2020 Jul 4.

Animal Models Core Facility The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037 USA.

Recent studies indicate that neuroimmune factors, including the cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6), play a role in the CNS actions of alcohol. The cerebellum is a sensitive target of alcohol, but few studies have examined a potential role for neuroimmune factors in the actions of alcohol on this brain region. A number of studies have shown that synaptic transmission, and in particular inhibitory synaptic transmission, is an important cerebellar target of alcohol. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2020.06.043DOI Listing

Neurocan contributes to perineuronal net development.

Neuroscience 2020 Jul 4. Epub 2020 Jul 4.

Paul Flechsig Institute of Brain Research, Medical Faculty, University of Leipzig, Liebigstraße 19, 04103 Leipzig, Germany. Electronic address:

Perineuronal nets (PNs) are matrix molecule assemblies surrounding neuronal somata, dendrites and axon initial segments in a lattice-like appearance. PN molecules are involved in many structural and physiological processes during development and in adulthood, suggesting a crucial role in normal brain function. Neurocan, as one of the main PN proteoglycans, is suggested to control important developmental processes of neuronal tissue. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2020.06.040DOI Listing

Virtual mind-body treatment for adolescents with neurofibromatosis: Study protocol for a single-blind randomized controlled trial.

Contemp Clin Trials 2020 Jul 4:106078. Epub 2020 Jul 4.

Integrated Brain Health Clinical and Research Program, Psychiatry Department, Massachusetts General Hospital, One Bowdoin, Square, 1st floor Boston, 02114 Boston, MA, United States of America; Harvard Medical School, One Bowdoin Square, 1st floor Boston, 02114 Boston, MA, United States of America. Electronic address:

Background: Neurofibromatoses (NF) are a group of genetically distinct disorders of the nervous system unified by the predisposition to nerve sheath tumors. Although adolescents with NF types 1 and 2 (NF1 and NF2) report poor quality of life and high psychosocial burden, there are no evidence-based interventions to address these needs. This paper presents the study design and protocol for the first randomized controlled trial (RCT) of a mind-body intervention for adolescents with NF, Resilient Youth with NF (RY-NF), versus an educational control group, Health Education for NF (HE-NF), both delivered in groups via secure live video. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cct.2020.106078DOI Listing

In vivo gene delivery mediated by non-viral vectors for cancer therapy.

J Control Release 2020 Jul 4. Epub 2020 Jul 4.

Sabanci University Nanotechnology Research and Application Center (SUNUM), Tuzla, Istanbul 34956, Turkey; Center of Excellence for Functional Surfaces and Interfaces (EFSUN), Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Sabanci University, Tuzla, Istanbul 34956, Turkey. Electronic address:

Gene therapy by expression constructs or down-regulation of certain genes has shown great potential for the treatment of various diseases. The wide clinical application of nucleic acid materials dependents on the development of biocompatible gene carriers. There are enormous various compounds widely investigated to be used as non-viral gene carriers including lipids, polymers, carbon materials, and inorganic structures. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jconrel.2020.06.038DOI Listing

Amylin brain circuitry.

Peptides 2020 Jul 4:170366. Epub 2020 Jul 4.

Institute of Veterinary Physiology, University of Zurich, CH-8057, Zurich, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Amylin is a peptide hormone that is mainly known to be produced by pancreatic β-cells in response to a meal but amylin is also produced by brain cells in discrete brain areas albeit in a lesser amount. Amylin receptor (AMY) is composed of the calcitonin core-receptor (CTR) and one of the 3 receptor activity modifying protein (RAMP), thus forming AMY1-3; RAMP enhances amylin binding properties to the CTR. However, amylin receptor agonist such as salmon calcitonin is able to bind CTR alone. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.peptides.2020.170366DOI Listing

Incidence, risk factors, and effects on outcome of ventilator-associated pneumonia in patients with traumatic brain injury. Analysis of a large, multicenter, prospective, observational longitudinal study.

Chest 2020 Jul 4. Epub 2020 Jul 4.

School of Medicine and Surgery, University of Milan-Bicocca, Milan, Italy. Electronic address:

Background: No large prospective data are available on ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI).

Research Question: To evaluate the incidence, timing and risk factors of VAP after TBI and its effect on patients' outcome.

Study Design: and Methods: Analysis of the CENTER-TBI dataset, a large, multicenter, prospective, observational study including TBI patients admitted to European intensive care units (ICU), mechanically ventilated for ≥48 hours, and with an ICU length of stay (LOS) ≥72 hours. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chest.2020.06.064DOI Listing

Silymarin sex-dependently improves cognitive functions and alters TNF-α, BDNF, and glutamate in the hippocampus of mice with mild traumatic brain injury.

Life Sci 2020 Jul 4:118049. Epub 2020 Jul 4.

Salari Institute of Cognitive and Behavioral Disorders, Alborz, Iran. Electronic address:

Aims: Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is an important risk factor for cognitive impairment. Despite intense efforts to develop efficient treatments, the current therapies are not often effective and far from satisfactory. Silymarin has been suggested as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of traumatic brain injury. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2020.118049DOI Listing

Neuroprotective role of glutathione peroxidase 4 in experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage models.

Life Sci 2020 Jul 4:118050. Epub 2020 Jul 4.

Department of Neurosurgery, Jinling Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, China. Electronic address:

Background And Purpose: Early brain injury is an essential pathological process after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), with many cell death modalities. Ferroptosis is a newly discovered regulated cell death caused by the iron-dependent accumulation of lipid peroxidation, which can be prevented by glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4). Our study aimed to investigate the role of GPX4 in neuronal cell death after experimental SAH. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2020.118050DOI Listing

Evolution: Brainier Birds.

Curr Biol 2020 Jul;30(13):R778-R780

Bell Museum of Natural History and Department of Fisheries, Wildlife, Conservation Biology, University of Minnesota, Twin Cities, 35A Skok Hall, 2003 Upper Buford Circle, Saint Paul, MN 55108, USA. Electronic address:

A groundbreaking study of brain evolution across birds and dinosaurs reveals potential drivers of increased brain size including biogeography and ecology. The most dramatic change occurred in the Neoaves after the Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction rather than earlier in bird evolution. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2020.05.025DOI Listing

Neural Tube Defects and Associated Anomalies Before and After Folic Acid Fortification.

J Pediatr 2020 Jul 4. Epub 2020 Jul 4.

Greenwood Genetic Center, Greenwood, South Carolina, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: To examine the prevalence and types of neural tube defects and the types of anomalies co-occurring with neural tube defects in six years before fortification of cereal grain flour with folic acid (1992-1998) and 20 years after fortification (1999-2018) in South Carolina, a state with a historically high prevalence of these birth defects.

Study Design: The prevalence of neural tube defects was determined by active and passive surveillance methods in South Carolina since 1992. The types of neural tube defects and co-occurring malformations were determined by prenatal ultrasound and post-delivery examination. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2020.07.002DOI Listing

Single-Cell Transcriptomic Analyses of the Developing Meninges Reveal Meningeal Fibroblast Diversity and Function.

Dev Cell 2020 Jul;54(1):43-59.e4

Department of Pediatrics Section of Developmental Biology, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045, USA; Cell Biology, Stem Cells and Development Graduate Program, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045, USA. Electronic address:

The meninges are a multilayered structure composed of fibroblasts, blood and lymphatic vessels, and immune cells. Meningeal fibroblasts secrete a variety of factors that control CNS development, yet strikingly little is known about their heterogeneity or development. Using single-cell sequencing, we report distinct transcriptional signatures for fibroblasts in the embryonic dura, arachnoid, and pia. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.devcel.2020.06.009DOI Listing

Gut instincts: vitamin D/vitamin D receptor and microbiome in neurodevelopment disorders.

Open Biol 2020 Jul 8;10(7):200063. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago 60612, IL, USA.

The gut microbiome regulates a relationship with the brain known as the gut-microbiota-brain (GMB) axis. This interaction is influenced by immune cells, microbial metabolites and neurotransmitters. Recent findings show gut dysbiosis is prevalent in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) as well as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsob.200063DOI Listing

Component processes in free-viewing visual search: Insights from fixation-aligned pupillary response averaging.

J Vis 2020 Jul;20(7)

,.

Pupil size changes during a visual search may reflect cognitive processes, such as effort and memory accumulation, but methodological confounds and the general lack of literature in this area leave the reliability of findings open to question. We used a novel synthesis of experimental methods and averaging techniques to explore how cognitive processing unfolds during free-viewing visual search for multiple targets. Twenty-seven participants completed 152 searches across two separate 1-hour sessions. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/jov.20.7.5DOI Listing

The Psychopathology and Neuroanatomical Markers of Depression in Early Psychosis.

Schizophr Bull 2020 Jul 7. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Ludwig Maximilian University, Munich, Germany.

Depression frequently occurs in first-episode psychosis (FEP) and predicts longer-term negative outcomes. It is possible that this depression is seen primarily in a distinct subgroup, which if identified could allow targeted treatments. We hypothesize that patients with recent-onset psychosis (ROP) and comorbid depression would be identifiable by symptoms and neuroanatomical features similar to those seen in recent-onset depression (ROD). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/schbul/sbaa094DOI Listing

The extravasation of contrast as a predictor of cerebral hemorrhagic contusion expansion, poor neurological outcome and mortality after traumatic brain injury: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

PLoS One 2020 7;15(7):e0235561. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Department of Neuroradiology, Hospital Universitário Cassiano Antônio de Moraes da Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo - HUCAM/UFES/EBSERH, Vitória, State of Espírito Santo, Brazil.

Background: The active extravasation of contrast on CT angiography (CTA) in primary intracerebral hemorrhages (ICH) is recognized as a predictive factor for ICH expansion, unfavorable outcomes and mortality. However, few studies have been conducted on the setting of traumatic brain injury (TBI).

Purpose: To perform a literature systematic review and meta-analysis of the association of contrast extravasation on cerebral hemorrhagic contusion expansion, neurological outcomes and mortality. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0235561PLOS

Molecular analyses of glioblastoma stem-like cells and glioblastoma tissue.

PLoS One 2020 7;15(7):e0234986. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Translational Centre for Regenerative Medicine (TRM) and Saxonian Incubator for Clinical Translation (SIKT), University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany.

Glioblastoma is a common, malignant brain tumor whose disease incidence increases with age. Glioblastoma stem-like cells (GSCs) are thought to contribute to cancer therapy resistance and to be responsible for tumor initiation, maintenance, and recurrence. This study utilizes both SNP array and gene expression profiling to better understand GSCs and their relation to malignant disease. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0234986PLOS

Dysfunction of parvalbumin neurons in the cerebellar nuclei produces an action tremor.

J Clin Invest 2020 Jul 7. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, Stanford University, Stanford, United States of America.

Essential tremor is a common brain disorder affecting millions of people, yet the neuronal mechanisms underlying this prevalent disease remain elusive. Here, we show that conditional deletion of synaptotagmin-2, the fastest Ca2+-sensor for synaptic neurotransmitter release, from parvalbumin neurons in mice causes an action tremor syndrome resembling the core symptom of essential tremor patients. Combining brain region-specific and cell type-specific genetic manipulation methods, we found that deletion of synaptotagmin-2 from excitatory parvalbumin-positive neurons in cerebellar nuclei was sufficient to generate an action tremor. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI135802DOI Listing

Asynchronous Prediction of Human Gait Intention in a Pseudo Online Paradigm Using Wavelet Transform.

IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng 2020 Jul;28(7):1623-1635

Prediction of human voluntary gait intention is a very significant task to ensure direct cortical control of real-life assistive technologies for locomotion rehabilitation. Neurophysiological studies provide that human voluntary gait intention is represented by slow DC potentials and power shifts in specific frequency ranges of brain wave, which can be detected 1.5- 2 seconds before the actual onset. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TNSRE.2020.2998778DOI Listing

Observing Actions Through Immersive Virtual Reality Enhances Motor Imagery Training.

IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng 2020 Jul;28(7):1614-1622

Visual information plays an essential role in enhancing neural activity during mental practices. Previous research has shown that using different visual scenarios during mental practices that involve imagining the movement of a specific body part may result in differences in performance. Many of these scenarios utilize the concept of embodiment, or one's observation of another entity to be a part of oneself, to improve practice quality of the imagined body movement. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TNSRE.2020.2998123DOI Listing

Evaluating Auditory Neural Activities and Information Transfer Using Phase and Spike Train Correlation Algorithms.

IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng 2020 Jul;28(7):1548-1555

The coherence of neural activities among different areas in the brain has received great attention because it is valuable in understanding the functional mechanism of brain structures. While many methodologies, such as time-frequency and entropy analysis, have been applied to evaluate relations between neural signals, these techniques haven't been effective in assessing neural communication in order to reach conclusions. Considering various measurements, the results analyzed by the above-mentioned algorithms may be influenced by the types of neural signals and their amplitudes, which affect their reliability and consistency. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TNSRE.2020.2998980DOI Listing

Brain Networks of Maintenance, Inhibition and Disinhibition During Working Memory.

IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng 2020 Jul;28(7):1518-1527

Working memory (WM) - one of the brain ability that maintains information - can evaluate the function of brain. Activities related to memory sustention, inhibition and disinhibition have gathered significant attention for the basic neurocognitive architecture. Although researchers have proposed some brain models that attempt to explain the entire procedure of WM, little evidence can proof and describe it, and more particularly, regions and structures of maintenance, inhibition and disinhibition require more investigation. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TNSRE.2020.2997827DOI Listing

Genetic diversity of Ehrlichia ruminantium field strains from selected farms in South Africa.

Onderstepoort J Vet Res 2020 Jun 25;87(1):e1-e12. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Vaccine Development and Diagnostics, Onderstepoort Veterinary Research, Pretoria.

Heartwater is a tick-borne disease caused by the intracellular rickettsial parasite Ehrlichia ruminantium and transmitted by Amblyomma hebraeum ticks. Heartwater is problematic in endemic areas because it causes high mortality in ruminants and leads to economic losses that threaten productivity and food security. This may indicate that there is augmented genetic diversity in the field, which may result in isolates that are more virulent than the Ball3 and Welgevonden isolates. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/ojvr.v87i1.1741DOI Listing

Time course of pupillary response to threat words before and after attention bias modification for transdiagnostic anxiety disorders: A randomized controlled trial.

Brain Behav 2020 Jul 7:e01664. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

Introduction: Altered attention to threatening stimuli at initial and sustained stages of processing may be dissociable dimensions that influence the development and maintenance of transdiagnostic symptoms of anxiety, such as vigilance, and possibly require distinct intervention. Attention bias modification (ABM) interventions were created to implicitly train attention away from threatening stimuli and have shown efficacy in treating anxiety. ABM alters neurocognitive functioning during initial stages of threat processing, but less is known regarding effects of ABM on neural indices of threat processing at sustained (i. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/brb3.1664DOI Listing

Corticomotor reorganization during short-term visuomotor training in the lower back: A randomized controlled study.

Brain Behav 2020 Jul 7:e01702. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Introduction: Accumulating evidence suggests that motor skill training is associated with structural and functional reorganization of the primary motor cortex. However, previous studies have focussed primarily upon the upper limb, and it is unclear whether comparable reorganization occurs following training of other regions, such as the lower back. Although this holds important implications for rehabilitation, no studies have examined corticomotor adaptations following short-term motor training in the lower back. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/brb3.1702DOI Listing

A Gain-of-Function Mutation in KCNMA1 Causes Dystonia Spells Controlled With Stimulant Therapy.

Mov Disord 2020 Jul 7. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Department of Pediatrics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, USA.

Background: The mutations of KCNMA1 BK-type K channel have been identified in patients with various movement disorders. The underlying pathophysiology and corresponding therapeutics are lacking.

Objectives: To report our clinical and biophysical characterizations of a novel de novo KCNMA1 variant, as well as an effective therapy for the patient's dystonia-atonia spells. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mds.28138DOI Listing
  • Page 1 of 39542