1,868,187 results match your criteria Brain & development[Journal]


Frequent nonrandom shifts in the temporal sequence of developmental landmark events during teleost evolutionary diversification.

Evol Dev 2019 Apr 18:e12288. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Department of Genetics, SOKENDAI (The Graduate University for Advanced Studies), Mishima, Shizuoka, Japan.

Morphological transformations can be generated by evolutionary changes in the sequence of developmental events. In this study, we examined the evolutionary dynamics of the developmental sequence on a macroevolutionary scale in teleosts. Using the information from previous reports describing the development of 31 species, we extracted the developmental sequences of 19 landmark events involving the formation of phylogenetically conserved body parts; we then inferred ancestral developmental sequences by two different parsimony-based methods-event-pairing and continuous analysis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ede.12288DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

[Pupil disorders].

Klin Monbl Augenheilkd 2019 Apr 18. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

The evaluation of pupillary function is a keystone in the neuro-ophthalmic assessment of patients. The diagnosis of an afferent or efferent pupillary disorder is crucial in the acquisition of a broad range of diseases of the brain or the peripheral nervous system. This "update" of pupillary disorders covers a major part of clinical conditions eye doctors have to expect in their daily practice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-0885-2467DOI Listing

The Degree of Multidimensional Severity of Alcohol Use Disorder among Treatment-Seeking Patients: Is There an Additive Effect of Parental Alcohol Use Disorder?

Eur Addict Res 2019 Apr 18:1-7. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Unit for Clinical Alcohol Research, Unit for Psychiatric Research, Department of Clinical Research, University of Southern, Odense, Denmark.

Background: The additive effect of parental alcohol use disorders (AUD) is conventionally defined as an increasing risk of the offspring developing AUD relative to family history negative, < family history positive with 1 parent (FHP1), < FHP2. The few studies on the additive effect of parental AUD have focused on the risk of development of offspring AUD and not on the degree of multidimensional AUD addiction severity.

Aims: The aims of the present study were to examine the frequency of treatment-seeking outpatients exposed to FHP1 and FHP2 and whether addiction severity was impacted by the additive effect of parental AUD among AUD female and male offspring. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000499935DOI Listing
April 2019
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Behavioral and Biochemical Features of the Course and Surgical Treatment of Experimental Obstructive Hydrocephalus in Young Rats.

Dev Neurosci 2019 Apr 18:1-10. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Division of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Ribeirão Preto Medical School, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil.

Introduction: Hydrocephalus is a multifactorial disease, affecting the dynamics of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and leading to severe neurological impairment in children; in spite of the recent advances in hydrocephalus research, it has many physiopathological aspects that still remain poorly understood, especially after treatment.

Objectives: To analyze the clinical, radiological, histopathological, and biochemical aspects of kaolin-induced hydrocephalus in an experimental model, both in the acute phase and after shunt treatment, by means of behavioral tests, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, histopathological studies, and level of inflammatory interleukins in the CSF.

Methods: Seven-day-old Wistar rats were used and subdivided into three subgroups: treated hydrocephalic (n = 24), untreated hydrocephalic (n = 17), and controls (n = 5). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000497433DOI Listing

Functional Connectivity and Metabolic Alterations in Medial Prefrontal Cortex in a Rat Model of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder: A Resting-State Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and in vivo Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Study.

Dev Neurosci 2019 Apr 18:1-12. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA,

Prenatal ethanol exposure alters brain structure, functional connectivity, and behavior in humans and rats. Behavioral changes include deficits in executive function, which requires cooperative activity between the frontal cortices and other brain regions. In this study, we analyzed the functional connectivity and neurochemical levels of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) in ethanol-exposed (Eth) and control (Ctr) rats. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000499183DOI Listing

Influence of Gamma-Hydroxybutyric Acid-Use and Gamma-Hydroxybutyric Acid-Induced Coma on Affect and the Affective Network.

Eur Addict Res 2019 Apr 18:1-9. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Department of Psychiatry, Amsterdam Neuroscience, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is a drug of abuse associated with increased emergency room attendances, due to GHB-induced comas. Withdrawal from GHB often increases social anxiety and is linked to alterations in emotion processing. However, little is known about the effects of GHB-use and GHB-induced comas on affect regulation in humans. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000497381DOI Listing

Machine learning and big data in psychiatry: toward clinical applications.

Curr Opin Neurobiol 2019 Apr 15;55:152-159. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Max Planck UCL Centre for Computational Psychiatry and Ageing Research, University College London, London, England, United Kingdom; Division of Psychiatry, University College London, London, England, United Kingdom; Camden and Islington NHS Foundation Trust, London, England, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Psychiatry is a medical field concerned with the treatment of mental illness. Psychiatric disorders broadly relate to higher functions of the brain, and as such are richly intertwined with social, cultural, and experiential factors. This makes them exquisitely complex phenomena that depend on and interact with a large number of variables. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S09594388183008
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conb.2019.02.006DOI Listing
April 2019
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Meningioma and psychiatric symptoms: An individual patient data analysis.

Asian J Psychiatr 2019 Mar 28;42:94-103. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Department of Psychiatry, Dr Ram Manohar Lohia Hospital PGIMER, New Delhi, India.

Meningioma is a slow-growing benign tumor arising from meninges and is usually asymptomatic. Though neuropsychiatric symptoms are common in patients with brain tumors, they often can be the only manifestation in cases of meningioma. Meningiomas might present with mood symptoms, psychosis, memory disturbances, personality changes, anxiety, or anorexia nervosa. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S18762018183113
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajp.2019.03.029DOI Listing
March 2019
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Unverricht-Lundborg disease: Clinical course and seizure management based on the experience of polish centers.

Authors:
Anetta Lasek-Bal

Seizure 2019 Apr 10;69:87-91. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Department of Neurology, School of Health Sciences, Medical University of Silesia in Katowice, 40-635, Katowice, Poland. Electronic address:

The purpose of this paper was to present our experience following the longterm treatment of 11 patients with Unverricht-Lundborg disease (ULD) confirmed by molecular testing.

Methods: We analyzed the clinical course, cognitive state, neuroimaging and neurophysiology results.

Results: The data were collected from 9 unrelated families (F/M: 4/7) aged 25-49. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.seizure.2019.04.008DOI Listing

Neural correlates of cognitive dysfunction in fibromyalgia patients: Reduced brain electrical activity during the execution of a cognitive control task.

Neuroimage Clin 2019 Apr 8;23:101817. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Departamento de Psicoloxía Clínica e Psicobioloxía, Facultade de Psicoloxía, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, Spain.

Objectives: Fibromyalgia (FM) is a generalized chronic pain syndrome of unknown aetiology. Although FM patients frequently complain of cognitive dysfunction, this is one of the least studied symptoms. Research on brain activity associated with the perceived cognitive impairment is particularly scarce. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nicl.2019.101817DOI Listing

Principles of progenitor temporal patterning in the developing invertebrate and vertebrate nervous system.

Curr Opin Neurobiol 2019 Apr 15;56:185-193. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Basic Neurosciences, University of Geneva, Switzerland; Department of Neurology, Geneva University Hospital, Geneva, Switzerland. Electronic address:

During the development of the central nervous system, progenitors successively generate distinct types of neurons which assemble into the circuits that underlie our ability to interact with the environment. Spatial and temporal patterning mechanisms are partially evolutionarily conserved processes that allow generation of neuronal diversity from a limited set of progenitors. Here, we review examples of temporal patterning in neuronal progenitors in the Drosophila ventral nerve cord and in the mammalian cerebral cortex. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conb.2019.03.004DOI Listing

Ghrelin signalling within the rat nucleus accumbens and skilled reach foraging.

Psychoneuroendocrinology 2019 Apr 8;106:183-194. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden. Electronic address:

Motivation alters behaviour in a complex manner and nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell has been implied as a key structure regulating such behaviour. Recent studies show that acute ghrelin signalling enhances motivation when assessed in a simple motor task. The aim of the present study was to define the role of ghrelin signalling on motivation in a more complex motor behaviour. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S03064530193012
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2019.04.008DOI Listing
April 2019
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Steady-state visual evoked potentials reveal enhanced neural responses to illusory surfaces during a concurrent visual attention task.

Cortex 2019 Mar 26;117:217-227. Epub 2019 Mar 26.

The University of Queensland, Queensland Brain Institute, St Lucia, QLD, Australia; The University of Queensland, School of Psychology, St Lucia, QLD, Australia; Canadian Institute for Advanced Research (CIFAR), Toronto, Canada.

Under natural viewing conditions, visual stimuli are often obscured by occluding surfaces. To aid object recognition, the visual system actively reconstructs the missing information, as exemplified in the classic Kanizsa illusion, a phenomenon termed "modal completion". Single-cell recordings in monkeys have shown that neurons in early visual cortex respond to illusory contours, but it has proven difficult to measure the neural correlates of modal completion in humans. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2019.03.014DOI Listing

Molecular characterization of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) from sterlet Acipenser ruthenus and its responses to Aeromonas hydrophila challenge and hypoxia stress.

Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

National Freshwater Fisheries Engineering Technology Research Center, Ministry of Science and Technology of China, Beijing Key Laboratory of Fishery Biotechnology (No.BZ0301), Beijing Fisheries Research Institute, Beijing 100068, China. Electronic address:

A novel gene encoding the mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase from sterlet Acipenser ruthenus (Ar-MnSOD) was cloned. The full-length cDNA of MnSOD was of 1040 bp with a 672 bp open reading frame encoding 224 amino acids and the deduced amino acid sequence was located in mitochondria. Sequence comparison analysis showed that Ar-MnSOD was highly similar to MnSODs of invertebrates and vertebrates, especially those of freshwater Cyprinidae fishes and mammals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpa.2019.04.010DOI Listing

Identification of major depressive disorder and prediction of treatment response using functional connectivity between the prefrontal cortices and subgenual anterior cingulate: A real-world study.

J Affect Disord 2019 Apr 8;252:365-372. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Medical School of Nanjing University, 22 Hankou Road, Nanjing 210093, China; Department of Psychiatry, the Affiliated Brain Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029, China. Electronic address:

Background: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with a heavy disease burden due to the difficulty in diagnosing the disorder and the uncertainty of treatment outcomes. Previous studies have demonstrated the value of functional connectivity (FC) between the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) in the identification of MDD and the prediction of antidepressant efficacy. In the present study, we aimed to investigate whether FC is helpful in discriminating patients from healthy controls and in predicting treatment outcome. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2019.04.046DOI Listing

Patterns of on-task thought in older age are associated with changes in functional connectivity between temporal and prefrontal regions.

Brain Cogn 2019 Apr 15;132:118-128. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Psychology Department, University of York, York, UK.

Humans spend a large proportion of their time engaged in thoughts unrelated to the task being performed, a tendency that declines with age. However, a clear neuro-cognitive account of what underlies this decrease is lacking. This study addresses the possibility that age-related changes in off-task thinking are correlated with changes in the intrinsic organisation of the brain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bandc.2019.04.002DOI Listing

Mechanisms underlying a critical period of respiratory development in the rat.

Respir Physiol Neurobiol 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, 2425 Ridgecrest Drive, SE, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87108, USA.

Twenty-five years ago, Filiano and Kinney (1994) proposed that a critical period of postnatal development constitutes one of the three risk factors for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). The underlying mechanism was poorly understood. In the last 17 years, much has been uncovered on this period in the rat. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.resp.2019.04.006DOI Listing

Functional Connectivity Pattern in the Core Face Network Reflects Different Mechanisms of Holistic Face Processing Measured by the Whole-Part Effect and Composite-Face Effect.

Neuroscience 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Applied Experimental Psychology, Faculty of Psychology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China.

Holistic face processing is a critical component of face recognition. There are two classical measures of holistic face processing: the whole-part effect (WPE) and composite-face effect (CFE). However, the two effects have demonstrated inconsistent pattern of results in behavioral literature. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S03064522193025
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2019.04.017DOI Listing
April 2019
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Late-Life Environmental Enrichment Preserves Short-Term Memory and May Attenuate Microglia in Male APP/PS1 Mice.

Neuroscience 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Wicking Dementia Research and Education Centre, Faculty of Health, University of Tasmania, Tasmania, 7000, Australia.

Environmental enrichment (EE) has been consistently reported to enhance cognitive function in mouse models of neuropathology. Microglia, implicated in Alzheimer's disease pathology, may mediate this effect. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of EE on cognitive function and microglia in mouse models of ageing and amyloidosis. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S03064522193025
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2019.04.015DOI Listing
April 2019
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Intravenous Infusion of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Improves Impaired Cognitive Function in a Cerebral Small Vessel Disease Model.

Neuroscience 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Neural Regenerative Medicine, Research Institute for Frontier Medicine, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, Sapporo, 060-8556, Japan; Department of Neurology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, 06510, USA; Center for Neuroscience and Regeneration Research, VA Connecticut Healthcare System, West Haven, CT, 06516, USA.

Cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) is not only a cause of vascular dementia (VD) but also a contributing factor to Alzheimer's disease (AD). The essential pathological feature of CSVD is the disruption of blood-brain barrier (BBB). Dysfunction of BBB due to degeneration of both endothelial cells and pericytes in capillaries leads to neuronal damage and progressive brain atrophy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2019.04.018DOI Listing

Pathophysiological Role of TRPM2 in Age-Related Cognitive Impairment in Mice.

Neuroscience 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Molecular Pharmacology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, 46-29 Yoshida-Shimoadachi-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan.

Aging causes various functional changes, including cognitive impairment and inflammatory responses in the brain. Transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2), a Ca-permeable channel expressed abundantly in immune cells, exacerbates inflammatory responses. Previously, we reported that TRPM2 on resident microglia plays a critical role in exacerbating inflammation, white matter injury, and cognitive impairment during chronic cerebral hypoperfusion; however, the physiological or pathophysiological role of TRPM2 during age-associated inflammatory responses remains unclear. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2019.04.012DOI Listing

Retinal oximetry: Metabolic imaging for diseases of the retina and brain.

Prog Retin Eye Res 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland.

Retinal oximetry imaging of retinal blood vessels measures oxygen saturation of hemoglobin. The imaging technology is non-invasive and reproducible with remarkably low variability on test-retest studies and in healthy cohorts. Pathophysiological principles and novel biomarkers in several retinal diseases have been discovered, as well as possible applications for systemic and brain disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.preteyeres.2019.04.001DOI Listing

The effect of blueberry interventions on cognitive performance and mood: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

Brain Behav Immun 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

IMPACT Strategic Research Centre, School of Medicine, Barwon Health, Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria, 3216, Australia. Electronic address:

Blueberries are rich in polyphenols that may be beneficial to cognitive performance and mood. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate randomized controlled trials investigating the effects of blueberries and blueberry products on measures of cognition and mood. In total, eleven articles (that included 12 studies) were identified using freeze-dried blueberries (n=9 studies), whole blueberries (n=2) and blueberry concentrate (n=1). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2019.04.001DOI Listing

Sex-Specific Neurogenic Deficits and Neurocognitive Disorders in Middle-Aged HIV-1 Tg26 Transgenic Mice.

Brain Behav Immun 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Center for Metabolic Disease Research, Temple University Lewis Katz School of Medicine, 3500 N Broad Street, Philadelphia, PA 19140, United States; Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Temple University Lewis Katz School of Medicine, 3500 N Broad Street, Philadelphia, PA 19140, United States. Electronic address:

Varying degrees of cognitive deficits affect over half of all HIV-1 infected patients. Because of antiretroviral treatment (ART) regimens, the HIV-1 patient population is increasing in age. Very few epidemiological studies have focused on sex-specific differences in HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S08891591183060
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2019.04.029DOI Listing
April 2019
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Early life adversity exposure and circulating markers of inflammation in children and adolescents: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Brain Behav Immun 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Cousins Center for Psychoneuroimmunology, Semel Institute for Neuroscience & Human Behavior, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095, United states; Department of Psychology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095, United states.

This study provides a comprehensive review of the published research on the association between early life adversity and markers of inflammation in children and adolescents. We conducted a systematic review of the published literature on the association between early life adversity and markers of inflammation in pediatric populations. To date, 27 studies have been published in this area representing a wide range of global populations and diverse methods of which nearly half were prospective, longitudinal studies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2019.04.028DOI Listing

Age, but not severity of injury, mediates decline in executive function: Validation of the rodent touchscreen paradigm for preclinical models of traumatic brain injury.

Behav Brain Res 2019 Apr 15:111912. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Cognition, Ageing and Neurodegenerative Disease Lab, Adelaide Medical School, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005 Australia. Electronic address:

Increasingly, it is being recognised that traumatic brain injury (TBI) is not just an acute event but instead results in ongoing neuronal injury that may lead to chronic impairments in multiple cognitive domains. Of these, deficits in executive function are one of the more common changes reported following TBI, and are a major predictor of well-being, social function and quality of life in individuals with a history of TBI. In order to fully understand the relationship between TBI and executive dysfunction, including brain mechanisms that may account for this, experimental models are clearly needed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2019.111912DOI Listing

Anhedonia following mild traumatic brain injury in rats: A behavioral economic analysis of positive and negative reinforcement.

Behav Brain Res 2019 Apr 15:111913. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

NeuroBehavioral Research Lab, Department of Veteran Affairs Medical Center, New Jersey Health Care System, East Orange, New Jersey, USA; Department of Pharmacology, Physiology and Neurosciences, New Jersey Medical School - Rutgers Biomedical and Health Sciences, Newark, New Jersey, USA; Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, New Jersey Medical School-Rutgers Biomedical and Health Sciences, Newark, New Jersey, USA. Electronic address:

Psychiatric disorders affect nearly 50% of individuals who have experienced a traumatic brain injury (TBI). Anhedonia is a major symptom of numerous psychiatric disorders and is a diagnostic criterion for depression. It has recently been appreciated that reinforcement may be separated into consummatory (hedonic), motivational and decisional components, all of which may be affected differently in disease. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S01664328193034
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2019.111913DOI Listing
April 2019
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Physical activity sustains memory retrieval in dopamine-depleted mice previously treated with L-Dopa.

Behav Brain Res 2019 Apr 15:111915. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Neurology, Charité-Universitätsmedizin, Charitéplatz 1, 10117, Berlin, Germany. Electronic address:

The neurodegenerative disorder Parkinson's disease affects motor abilities as well as cognition. The gold standard therapy is L-Dopa, which mainly restores motor skills. Therefore, we require additional interventions to sustain cognitive functions in Parkinson's disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2019.111915DOI Listing

Prediction and perception: insights for (and from) tinnitus.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

School of Behavioral and Brain Sciences, The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX 75080, USA; Global Brain Health Institute, Institute of Neuroscience, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.

More than 150 years have passed since Helmholtz first described perception as a process of unconscious inference about the causes of sensations. His ideas have since inspired a wealth of literature investigating the mechanisms underlying these inferences. In recent years, much of this work has converged on the notion that the brain is a hierarchical generative model of its environment that predicts sensations and updates itself based on prediction errors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2019.04.008DOI Listing

Epigenetic regulation of immediate-early gene Nr4a2/Nurr1 in the medial habenula during reinstatement of cocaine-associated behavior.

Neuropharmacology 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, School of Biological Sciences University of California, Irvine, USA; UC Irvine Center for Addiction Neuroscience, School of Biological Sciences, University of California, Irvine, USA; Center for the Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, School of Biological Sciences, University of California, Irvine, USA. Electronic address:

Propensity to relapse following long-periods of abstinence is a key feature of substance use disorder. Drugs of abuse, such as cocaine, cause long-term changes in the neural circuitry regulating reward, motivation, and memory processes through dysregulation of various molecular mechanisms, including epigenetic regulation of activity-dependent gene expression. Underlying drug-induced changes to neural circuit function are the molecular mechanisms regulating activity-dependent gene expression. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropharm.2019.04.016DOI Listing

A Deformation-based Approach for Characterizing Brain Asymmetries at Different Spatial Scales of Resolution.

J Neurosci Methods 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, S.C., 29412, United States.

Background: . Structural cerebral asymmetries are hypothesized to provide an architectural foundation for functional asymmetries and behavioral lateralities. Studies of structural asymmetries typically focus on gray matter measures that are influenced by gross deformation fields used for normalization, and thus characterize a combination of different morphologic influences on structural asymmetries. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jneumeth.2019.04.007DOI Listing

Prioritized Brain Selenium Retention and Selenoprotein Expression: Nutritional Insights into Parkinson's Disease.

Mech Ageing Dev 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Geriatrics and Neurology, the Second Affiliated Hospital and Yuying Children's Hospital, China; Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, China. Electronic address:

Selenium (Se), an essential trace mineral, confers its physiological functions mainly through selenoproteins, most of which are oxidoreductases. Results from animal, epidemiological, and human genetic studies link Parkinson's disease to Se and certain selenoproteins. Parkinson's disease is characterized by multiple motor and non-motor symptoms that are difficult to diagnose at early stages of the pathogenesis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mad.2019.04.004DOI Listing

Untangling Narcolepsy and Diabetes: Pathomechanisms with Eyes on Therapeutic Options.

Brain Res 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Student's Scientific Research Center (SSRC), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; NeuroImaging Network (NIN), Universal Scientific Education and Research Network (USERN), Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Narcolepsy (NA) is a primary sleep disorder characterized by loss of hypocretinergic/orexinergic neurons. NA is associated with an increased risk for metabolic disorders such as diabetes mellitus (DM). Proposed mechanisms for this association are alterations in food intake, disruption of energy balance, glucose tolerance, and insulin sensitivity, as well as inflammation and genetic factors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2019.04.013DOI Listing

Cell based therapy reduces secondary damage and increases extent of microglial activation following cortical injury.

Brain Res 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Anatomy & Neurobiology, 72 E. Concord Street, L-1004, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02118 USA; Department of Neurology, 72 E. Concord Street, C3, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02118 USA.

Cortical injury elicits long-term cytotoxic and cytoprotective mechanisms within the brain and the balance of these pathways can determine the functional outcome for the individual. Cytotoxicity is exacerbated by production of reactive oxygen species, accumulation of iron, and peroxidation of cell membranes and myelin. There are currently no neurorestorative treatments to aid in balancing the cytotoxic and cytoprotective mechanisms following cortical injury. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2019.04.015DOI Listing

Impaired dynamic cerebral autoregulation in patients with cerebral amyloid angiopathy.

Brain Res 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Neuroradiology, University Medical Center Freiburg, Germany.

Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) might disturb the sensitive mechanism of cerebral pressure autoregulation. This study examines whether dynamic cerebral autoregulation (CA) is impaired in the posterior or anterior circulation of CAA patients. Fifteen patients with known CAA on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and 14 age-matched controls were examined with transcranial Doppler. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00068993193020
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2019.04.014DOI Listing
April 2019
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Filters: When, Why, and How (Not) to Use Them.

Neuron 2019 Apr;102(2):280-293

Edmond and Lily Safra Center for Brain Sciences and the Silberman Institute of Life Sciences, Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel. Electronic address:

Filters are commonly used to reduce noise and improve data quality. Filter theory is part of a scientist's training, yet the impact of filters on interpreting data is not always fully appreciated. This paper reviews the issue and explains what a filter is, what problems are to be expected when using them, how to choose the right filter, and how to avoid filtering by using alternative tools. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S08966273193017
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2019.02.039DOI Listing
April 2019
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Sister, Sister: Ependymal Cells and Adult Neural Stem Cells Are Separated at Birth by Geminin Family Members.

Neuron 2019 Apr;102(2):278-279

Department of Pathology, Boston Children's Hospital, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Electronic address:

The adult subventricular zone (SVZ) stem cell niche is comprised of multi-ciliated ependymal cells that line the brain ventricular system and adult stem cells. Papers in Neuron (Ortiz-Álvarez et al., 2019) and Cell Reports (Redmond et al. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2019.02.040DOI Listing

Does an assessment aid improve Glasgow Coma Scale scoring by helicopter rescuers in Hong Kong: A randomised controlled trial.

Australas Emerg Care 2018 Aug 25;21(3):105-110. Epub 2018 Jun 25.

Accident and Emergency Medicine Academic Unit, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region.

Background: Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) is one of the most commonly used patient assessment tools. This study aimed to determine whether an assessment aid can improve the GCS scoring accuracy by helicopter rescuers in Hong Kong.

Methods: In this randomised controlled trial, Air Crewman Officers (ACMOs) of Government Flying Service in Hong Kong were randomised into two groups, with and without assessment aid. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.auec.2018.06.001DOI Listing

The impact of unintentional alcohol-related falls on emergency departments.

Australas Emerg Care 2019 Mar 24;22(1):22-27. Epub 2018 Nov 24.

School of Health, University of New England, Armidale, NSW 2351, Australia.

Background: Alcohol is the cause of many injury presentations to the emergency department. There has been little research on alcohol-related falls in the broader adult population, which represent a substantial proportion of the total alcohol-related injury presentations to emergency departments.

Methods: A population-based retrospective analysis of public hospital emergency department presentations for Victoria for 2003-2015 was undertaken. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.auec.2018.11.001DOI Listing

Visual orientation uncertainty in the rod-and-frame illusion.

J Vis 2019 Apr;19(4):19

Radboud University, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.

Estimation of the orientation of the head relative to the earth's vertical is thought to rely on the integration of vestibular and visual cues. The role of visual cues can be tested using a rod-and-frame task in which a global visual scene, typically a square frame, is displayed at different orientations together with a rod whose perceived direction is a proxy for the head-in-space estimate. While it is known that the frame biases this percept, and hence the subjective visual vertical, the possible role of the rod itself in this processing has not been examined. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/19.4.19DOI Listing

Wanting without enjoying: The social value of sharing experiences.

PLoS One 2019 18;14(4):e0215318. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Harvard University, Department of Psychology, Cambridge, MA, United States of America.

Social connection can be a rich source of happiness. Humans routinely go out of their way to seek out social connection and avoid social isolation. What are the proximal forces that motivate people to share experiences with others? Here we used a novel experience-sharing and decision-making paradigm to understand the value of shared experiences. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0215318PLOS

How is your mind-set? Proof of concept for the measurement of the level of emotional development.

PLoS One 2019 18;14(4):e0215474. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Freie Universität Berlin, Fakultät für Erziehungswissenschaft und Psychologie, AB Klinisch-Psychologische Intervention, Berlin, Germany.

Background: In persons with intellectual and developmental disabilities, not only cognitive brain functions, but also socio-emotional processing networks may be impaired. This study aims to validate the Scale of Emotional Development-Short (SED-S) to provide an instrument for the assessment of socio-emotional brain functions.

Method: The SED-S was applied in 160 children aged 0-12 years. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0215474PLOS

In silico analysis of the V66M variant of human BDNF in psychiatric disorders: An approach to precision medicine.

PLoS One 2019 18;14(4):e0215508. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Department of Genetics and Molecular Biology, Bioinformatics and Computational Biology Laboratory, Federal University of the State of Rio de Janeiro (UNIRIO), Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an important role in neurogenesis and synapse formation. The V66M is the most prevalent BDNF mutation in humans and impairs the function and distribution of BDNF. This mutation is related to several psychiatric disorders. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0215508PLOS

SPINDLE: End-to-end learning from EEG/EMG to extrapolate animal sleep scoring across experimental settings, labs and species.

PLoS Comput Biol 2019 Apr 18;15(4):e1006968. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Department of Computer Science, ETH Zurich, Zürich, Switzerland.

Understanding sleep and its perturbation by environment, mutation, or medication remains a central problem in biomedical research. Its examination in animal models rests on brain state analysis via classification of electroencephalographic (EEG) signatures. Traditionally, these states are classified by trained human experts by visual inspection of raw EEG recordings, which is a laborious task prone to inter-individual variability. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1006968DOI Listing

Harmonization of resting-state functional MRI data across multiple imaging sites via the separation of site differences into sampling bias and measurement bias.

PLoS Biol 2019 Apr 18;17(4):e3000042. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Brain Information Communication Research Laboratory Group, Advanced Telecommunications Research Institutes International, Kyoto, Japan.

When collecting large amounts of neuroimaging data associated with psychiatric disorders, images must be acquired from multiple sites because of the limited capacity of a single site. However, site differences represent a barrier when acquiring multisite neuroimaging data. We utilized a traveling-subject dataset in conjunction with a multisite, multidisorder dataset to demonstrate that site differences are composed of biological sampling bias and engineering measurement bias. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000042DOI Listing

Using Pupillary Pain Index to Assess Nociception in Sedated Critically Ill Patients.

Anesth Analg 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

From the Pôle Anesthésie Réanimation, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Grenoble Alpes, F-38000, Grenoble, France.

Background: Pupillary reflex dilation is a reliable indicator of response to noxious stimulation. In a proof of concept study, we investigated the performance of pupillary pain index, a new score derived from pupillary reflex dilation measurements, to predict nociceptive response to endotracheal suctioning in sedated critically ill patients.

Methods: Twenty brain-injured and 20 non-brain-injured patients were studied within 48 hours of admission (T1) in the intensive care unit and at 48-72 hours later (T2). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1213/ANE.0000000000004173DOI Listing
April 2019
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The Fear of Tinnitus Questionnaire: Toward a Reliable and Valid Means of Assessing Fear in Adults with Tinnitus.

Ear Hear 2019 Apr 10. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Department of Clinical Psychological Science, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the Fear of Tinnitus Questionnaire (FTQ); a brief self-report measure of people's fears about potential cognitive, emotional, behavioral, and social consequences of living with tinnitus.

Design: Five hundred eighty-eight Dutch-speaking adults with tinnitus completed an online battery of questionnaires measuring tinnitus-related distress, fear, catastrophizing, and quality of life. The sample was randomly split into two to perform exploratory and Bayesian confirmatory factor analyses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/AUD.0000000000000728DOI Listing

Bifidobacterium longum 1714™ Strain Modulates Brain Activity of Healthy Volunteers During Social Stress.

Am J Gastroenterol 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.

Objectives: Accumulating evidence indicates that the gut microbiota communicates with the central nervous system, possibly through neural, endocrine, and immune pathways, and influences brain function. B. longum 1714™ has previously been shown to attenuate cortisol output and stress responses in healthy subjects exposed to an acute stressor. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14309/ajg.0000000000000203DOI Listing

A Single-Channel EEG-Based Approach to Detect Mild Cognitive Impairment via Speech-Evoked Brain Responses.

IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng 2019 Apr 18. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) is the preliminary stage of dementia, which may lead to Alzheimer's disease (AD) in the elderly people. Therefore, early detection of MCI has the potential to minimize the risk of AD by ensuring the proper mental health care before it is too late. In this study, we demonstrate a single-channel EEG based MCI detection method, which is cost-effective and portable, and thus suitable for regular home-based patient monitoring. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TNSRE.2019.2911970DOI Listing
April 2019
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