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    1221 results match your criteria Brachytherapy [Journal]

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    Image-guided adaptive brachytherapy in primary vaginal cancers: A monocentric experience.
    Brachytherapy 2018 Feb 6. Epub 2018 Feb 6.
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Gustave Roussy, University Paris Saclay, Villejuif, France; Molecular Radiotherapy-UMR 1030, Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France.
    Purpose: Primary vaginal cancer is a rare disease for which treatment has been modeled based on cervical cancer. We report our experience in the use of image-guided adaptive brachytherapy (IGABT) in this indication.

    Methods And Materials: Patients treated for vaginal cancer with a combination of external beam radiation therapy and IGABT were identified through electronic search. Read More

    Single-institutional outcomes of adjuvant brachytherapy for Stage I endometrial cancer-Are outcomes consistent with randomized studies?
    Brachytherapy 2018 Feb 6. Epub 2018 Feb 6.
    Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Hillman Cancer Center, Pittsburgh, PA. Electronic address:
    Purpose: Vaginal brachytherapy (VBT) alone has been shown to be a viable adjuvant treatment strategy for most patients with Stage I endometrioid endometrial cancer. We sought to examine our institutional data following practice pattern changes resulting from the publications of GOG-99 and PORTEC-2.

    Methods And Materials: We retrospectively analyzed women who underwent adjuvant VBT after surgical staging for Stage 1 endometrioid endometrial cancer at our institution from 2007 to 2014. Read More

    Improving dose delivery by adding interstitial catheters to fixed geometry applicators in high-dose-rate brachytherapy for cervical cancer.
    Brachytherapy 2018 Feb 6. Epub 2018 Feb 6.
    St Luke's Cancer Centre, Royal Surrey County Hospital, Guildford, England; Department of Oncology, University of Surrey, Guildford, England.
    Purpose: Image-guided brachytherapy (IGBT) is an essential component of the treatment of locally advanced cervical cancer. Interstitial (IS) catheters are being increasingly used for bulkier tumors. We have retrospectively assessed the dosimetric impact of IS catheters. Read More

    Technique adaptation, strategic replanning, and team learning during implementation of MR-guided brachytherapy for cervical cancer.
    Brachytherapy 2018 Jan - Feb;17(1):86-93
    Radiation Medicine Program, University Health Network and Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Canada; Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada. Electronic address:
    Purpose: MR-guided brachytherapy (MRgBT) with interstitial needles is associated with improved outcomes in cervical cancer patients. However, there are implementation barriers, including magnetic resonance (MR) access, practitioner familiarity/comfort, and efficiency. This study explores a graded MRgBT implementation strategy that included the adaptive use of needles, strategic use of MR imaging/planning, and team learning. Read More

    Comparison of chronological changes in urinary function in patients who underwent low-dose-rate brachytherapy for prostate cancer-A randomized controlled trial of alpha-1 adrenoceptor antagonist alone versus combination with cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor.
    Brachytherapy 2018 Feb 2. Epub 2018 Feb 2.
    Department of Urology, Nara Medical University, Kashihara, Nara, Japan.
    Purpose: To evaluate the add-on efficacy of a cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitor on the chronological changes in urinary function in patients who underwent low-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy.

    Methods And Materials: A total of 310 patients with prostate cancer who underwent low-dose-rate-brachytherapy were enrolled. Patients were randomized and allocated to the monotherapy group (tamsulosin alone: 0. Read More

    A Phase II trial of 8 weeks of degarelix for prostate volume reduction: Efficacy and hormonal recovery.
    Brachytherapy 2018 Feb 2. Epub 2018 Feb 2.
    British Columbia Cancer Agency, Center for the Southern Interior, Kelowna, British Columbia, Canada.
    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of 8 weeks of degarelix for prostate downsizing before interstitial brachytherapy. We also report associated toxicity and the time course of endocrine recovery over the following 12 months.

    Methods And Materials: Fifty patients were accrued to an open-label Phase II clinical trial (www. Read More

    Custom mold applicator high-dose-rate brachytherapy for nonmelanoma skin cancer-An analysis of 273 lesions.
    Brachytherapy 2018 Feb 1. Epub 2018 Feb 1.
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Baylor Scott & White Health, Temple, TX; Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Arizona College of Medicine Phoenix, Tucson, AZ.
    Purpose: Nonmelanoma skin cancer is the most commonly diagnosed malignancy in the United States. A modern version of surface brachytherapy, "topographic applicator brachytherapy" (TAB), can be used to treat early-stage nonmelanoma skin cancer (ES-NMSC). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the acute toxicity, chronic toxicity, and recurrence rates of patients with ES-NMSC treated with TAB. Read More

    Demonstration of simulated annealing optimization for permanent breast seed implant treatment planning.
    Brachytherapy 2018 Jan 30. Epub 2018 Jan 30.
    Department of Medical Physics, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, AB, Canada; Department of Physics & Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada; Department of Oncology, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada; Okolo Health Inc., Calgary, AB, Canada.
    Purpose: Permanent breast seed implant (PBSI) is a developing brachytherapy technique for the treatment of early-stage breast cancer. In current practice, PBSI uses manual planning strategies to generate clinical treatment plans. In this work, a simulated annealing-based algorithm is developed to demonstrate the first application of inverse optimization for PBSI. Read More

    Assessment of a source position checking tool for the quality assurance of transfer tubes used in HDRIr brachytherapy treatments.
    Brachytherapy 2018 Jan 15. Epub 2018 Jan 15.
    The Medical Physics Department, The James Cook University Hospital, Middlesbrough, UK; The Department of Medical Physics and Clinical Engineering, Royal Berkshire NHS Foundation Trust, Reading, UK. Electronic address:
    Purpose: The determination of source positions before treatment is an essential part of the quality assurance (QA) associated with high dose rate brachytherapy treatments. The purpose of this study was to design and commission a tool to allow the quantification of source positions across multiple transfer tube types.

    Methods And Materials: A bespoke flexi-adapter jig, three transfer tube adapters, and a film piercing pointer were designed and built for source position QA across three transfer tube types-the standard, 6 French, and gynae transfer tubes. Read More

    Validation of MRI to TRUS registration for high-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy.
    Brachytherapy 2018 Jan 10. Epub 2018 Jan 10.
    Département de radio-oncologie, CHUM, Montréal, Québec, Canada; CRCHUM, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Québec, Canada; TECHNA Institute, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:
    Purpose: The objective of this study was to develop and validate an open-source module for MRI to transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) registration to support tumor-targeted prostate brachytherapy.

    Methods And Materials: In this study, 15 patients with prostate cancer lesions visible on multiparametric MRI were selected for the validation. T2-weighted images with 1-mm isotropic voxel size and diffusion weighted images were acquired on a 1. Read More

    A Medicare cost analysis of MRI- versus CT-based high-dose-rate brachytherapy of the cervix: Can MRI-based planning be less costly?
    Brachytherapy 2018 Jan 10. Epub 2018 Jan 10.
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Stritch School of Medicine, Loyola University Chicago, Chicago, IL. Electronic address:
    Purpose: While some institutions deliver multiple fractions per implant for MRI-based planning, it is common for only one fraction to be delivered per implant with CT-based cervical brachytherapy. The purpose of this study was to compare physician costs, hospital costs, and overall costs for cervical cancer patients treated with either CT-based or MRI-based high-dose-rate (HDR) cervical brachytherapy to determine if MRI-based brachytherapy as described can be financially feasible.

    Methods And Materials: We identified 40 consecutive patients treated with curative intent cervical brachytherapy. Read More

    Deformable image registration-based contour propagation yields clinically acceptable plans for MRI-based cervical cancer brachytherapy planning.
    Brachytherapy 2018 Jan 10. Epub 2018 Jan 10.
    Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.
    Purpose: To study the dosimetric impact of deformable image registration-based contour propagation on MRI-based cervical cancer brachytherapy planning.

    Methods And Materials: High-risk clinical target volume (HRCTV) and organ-at-risk (OAR) contours were delineated on MR images of 10 patients who underwent ring and tandem brachytherapy. A second set of contours were propagated using a commercially available deformable registration algorithm. Read More

    A comparison of early prostate-specific antigen decline between prostate brachytherapy and different fractionation of external beam radiation-Impact on biochemical failure.
    Brachytherapy 2018 Jan 3. Epub 2018 Jan 3.
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal, Hôpital Notre-Dame, Montréal, Canada; CRCHUM-Centre de Recherche du Centre Hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal, Montreal, Canada.
    Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare early prostate-specific antigen (PSA) decline patterns and PSA nadirs between low-dose-rate seed prostate brachytherapy (LDR-PB) and different fractionations of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and their predictive importance for biochemical failure (bF).

    Methods And Materials: Patients with D'Amico low- or intermediate-risk prostate cancer who underwent a single-modality treatment without androgen deprivation were included in this study. Three different treatment groups were compared: (1) normofractionation EBRT up to 70. Read More

    Efficacy and the toxicity of the interstitial high-dose-rate brachytherapy in the management of recurrent keloids: 5-year outcomes.
    Brachytherapy 2018 Jan 2. Epub 2018 Jan 2.
    Department of Reconstructive Surgery, University Clinic Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel, Kiel, Germany.
    Purpose: Recurring keloids are a clinical challenge. Interdisciplinary treatments are required in most cases. Owing to the wide variety of concepts, the optimal treatment regime remains unclear. Read More

    Image-guided interstitial high-dose-rate brachytherapy for locally recurrent uterine cervical cancer: A single-institution study.
    Brachytherapy 2017 Dec 21. Epub 2017 Dec 21.
    Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital, Chuo-ku, Tokyo, Japan.
    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of image-guided high-dose-rate (HDR) interstitial brachytherapy (ISBT) for reirradiation of locally recurrent uterine cervical cancer.

    Methods And Materials: Between 2008 and 2015, patients receiving reirradiation using HDR-ISBT for local gross recurrence of uterine cervical cancer after definitive or postoperative radiotherapy were analyzed retrospectively. The prescription doses per fraction ranged 2. Read More

    Ruthenium brachytherapy for uveal melanomas: Factors affecting the development of radiation complications.
    Brachytherapy 2017 Dec 21. Epub 2017 Dec 21.
    Ocular Oncology Unit, Department of Ophthalmology, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario "A. Gemelli", Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome, Italy.
    Purpose: To investigate how treatment complications are related to dosimetric parameters after ruthenium-106 brachytherapy for uveal melanoma, in a large, clinically homogeneous population.

    Methods And Materials: A retrospective review was performed to evaluate patients affected by small and medium size uveal melanoma, treated with ruthenium-106 brachytherapy from December 2006 to December 2014. We excluded tumors with posterior margin within 1 mm from the edge of the optic disc and foveola. Read More

    Efficacy and safety of iodine-125 radioactive seeds brachytherapy for advanced non-small cell lung cancer-A meta-analysis.
    Brachytherapy 2017 Dec 20. Epub 2017 Dec 20.
    Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, China. Electronic address:
    Purpose: This meta-analysis was conducted to investigate the efficacy and safety ofI brachytherapy for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

    Methods And Materials: Trials comparingI brachytherapy with chemotherapy in NSCLC were identified. Meta-analysis was performed to obtain pooled risk ratios for an overall response rate (ORR), disease control rate (DCR) and complications, and pooled hazard ratio for overall survival (OS). Read More

    Cost-effectiveness of adjuvant intravaginal brachytherapy in high-intermediate risk endometrial carcinoma.
    Brachytherapy 2017 Dec 20. Epub 2017 Dec 20.
    Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Vermont Medical Center, Burlington, VT. Electronic address:
    Purpose: We assessed the cost-effectiveness of adjuvant intravaginal brachytherapy (IVBT) vs. observation after total hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (TH/BSO) for high-intermediate risk (HIR) endometrial carcinoma.

    Methods And Materials: A Markov model was used to assess the cost-effectiveness of IVBT by comparing average cumulative costs, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) between patients allocated to (1) 'observation' or (2) 'IVBT' after TH/BSO. Read More

    Patient-reported health-related quality of life for men treated with low-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy as monotherapy with 125-iodine, 103-palladium, or 131-cesium: Results of a prospective phase II study.
    Brachytherapy 2017 Dec 18. Epub 2017 Dec 18.
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Division of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX. Electronic address:
    Purpose: To compare quality of life (QoL) after brachytherapy with one of the three approved radioactive isotopes.

    Methods And Materials: Patients with mostly favorable intermediate-risk prostate cancer were treated on this prospective phase II trial with brachytherapy as monotherapy, without hormonal therapy. QoL was recorded at baseline and each follow-up by using the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite instrument. Read More

    Accelerated partial breast irradiation for suitable elderly women using a single fraction of multicatheter interstitial high-dose-rate brachytherapy: Early results of the Single-Fraction Elderly Breast Irradiation (SiFEBI) Phase I/II trial.
    Brachytherapy 2017 Dec 15. Epub 2017 Dec 15.
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Antoine Lacassagne Cancer Center, University of Cote d'Azur, Nice, France.
    Purpose/objective: To evaluate feasibility and early clinical outcomes of a single fraction of multi-catheter interstitial high-dose rate brachytherapy for accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) in the elderly.

    Material/methods: From November 2012 to September 2014, 26 patients (≥70) with early breast cancer were enrolled in a prospective phase II trial (NCT01727011). After lumpectomy, intra-operative catheter implant was performed for post-operative APBI (single fraction 16 Gy). Read More

    Placement of an absorbable rectal hydrogel spacer in patients undergoing low-dose-rate brachytherapy with palladium-103.
    Brachytherapy 2017 Dec 11. Epub 2017 Dec 11.
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY. Electronic address:
    Purpose: Rates of rectal toxicity after low-dose-rate (LDR) brachytherapy for prostate cancer are dependent on rectal dose, which is associated with rectal distance from prostate and implanted seeds. Placement of a hydrogel spacer between the prostate and rectum has proven to reduce the volume of the rectum exposed to higher radiation dose levels in the setting of external beam radiotherapy. We present our findings with placing a rectal hydrogel spacer in patients following LDR brachytherapy, and we further assess the impact of this placement on dosimetry and acute rectal toxicity. Read More

    Characterizing the impact of adaptive planning on image-guided perineal interstitial brachytherapy for gynecologic malignancies.
    Brachytherapy 2017 Dec 11. Epub 2017 Dec 11.
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:
    Purpose: To determine the dosimetric impact of organ and implant motion/deformation in the context of adaptive planning in image-guided gynecologic brachytherapy using a 3-fraction transperineal approach.

    Methods And Materials: Twenty-six patients were analyzed. Each patient was treated with three fractions given over a 24-h period using a single insertion. Read More

    Development and characterization of an anthropomorphic breast phantom for permanent breast seed implant brachytherapy credentialing.
    Brachytherapy 2017 Dec 11. Epub 2017 Dec 11.
    Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada; Department of Medical Physics, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, Alberta, Canada; Department of Oncology, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
    Purpose: To develop an anthropomorphic breast phantom for use in credentialing of permanent breast seed implant brachytherapy.

    Methods And Materials: A representative external contour and target volume was used as the basis of mold manufacturing for anthropomorphic breast phantom development. Both target and normal tissue were composed of gel-like materials that provide suitable computed tomography and ultrasound contrast for brachytherapy delivery. Read More

    Experimental assessment of the Advanced Collapsed-cone Engine for scalp brachytherapy treatments.
    Brachytherapy 2017 Nov 24. Epub 2017 Nov 24.
    Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada; Department of Medical Physics, Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.
    Purpose: To experimentally assess the performance of the Advanced Collapsed-cone Engine (ACE) forIr high-dose-rate brachytherapy treatment planning of nonmelanoma skin cancers of the scalp.

    Methods And Materials: A layered slab phantom was designed to model the head (skin, skull, and brain) and surface treatment mold using tissue equivalent materials. Six variations of the phantom were created by varying skin thickness, skull thickness, and size of air gap between the mold and skin. Read More

    Dosimetric impact of inter-observer catheter reconstruction variability in ultrasound-based high-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy.
    Brachytherapy 2017 Nov 24. Epub 2017 Nov 24.
    Department of Medical Physics, Sunnybrook Odette Cancer Center, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada. Electronic address:
    Purpose: To investigate the dosimetric impact of interobserver catheter reconstruction variability in transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy.

    Methods And Materials: Twenty consecutive patients with intermediate- or high-risk prostate cancer were treated with a single, 15-Gy HDR brachytherapy boost as part of this study. The treated plan was used as the study reference plan (P). Read More

    Dosimetric effects of saline- versus water-filled balloon applicators for IORT using the model S700 electronic brachytherapy source.
    Brachytherapy 2017 Dec 8. Epub 2017 Dec 8.
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL.
    Purpose: The Xoft Axxent Electronic Brachytherapy System (Xoft, Inc., San Jose, CA) is a viable option for intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) treatment of early-stage breast cancer. The low-energy (50-kVp) X-ray source simplifies shielding and increases relative biological effectiveness but increases dose distribution sensitivity to medium composition. Read More

    Limitations in learning: How treatment verifications fail and what to do about it?
    Brachytherapy 2018 Jan - Feb;17(1):7-15. Epub 2017 Dec 6.
    Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI; The Center for the Assessment of Radiological Sciences, Madison, WI.
    Purpose: The purposes of this study were: to provide dialog on why classic incident learning systems have been insufficient for patient safety improvements, discuss failures in treatment verification, and to provide context to the reasons and lessons that can be learned from these failures.

    Methods And Materials: Historically, incident learning in brachytherapy is performed via database mining which might include reading of event reports and incidents followed by incorporating verification procedures to prevent similar incidents. A description of both classic event reporting databases and current incident learning and reporting systems is given. Read More

    Treatment planning considerations for permanent breast seed implant.
    Brachytherapy 2017 Dec 6. Epub 2017 Dec 6.
    Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada; Department of Medical Physics, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, Alberta, Canada; Department of Oncology, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
    Purpose: To determine an optimal planning strategy for permanent breast seed implant that minimizes dose heterogeneity without degrading coverage and conformity.

    Methods And Materials: A simple model was developed to investigate planning strategies incorporating a range ofPd seed activities, needle and seed spacings, and implants in which seed positions are either restricted to or permitted outside of spherical planning target volumes (PTVs). To address more realistic target geometries, model parameters were used to retrospectively replan a 10-patient cohort in MIM Symphony. Read More

    Improved rectal dosimetry with the use of SpaceOAR during high-dose-rate brachytherapy.
    Brachytherapy 2017 Dec 1. Epub 2017 Dec 1.
    Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA. Electronic address:
    Purpose: Hydrogel spacers have been suggested to limit rectal radiation dose with improvements in clinical outcomes in patients undergoing external beam radiation treatment for prostate cancer. No studies to date have assessed the utility and dosimetric effect of SpaceOAR (Augmenix, Inc, Waltham, MA), the only Food and Drug Administration-approved hydrogel rectal spacer, for high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy.

    Methods: Eighteen consecutive patients scheduled for HDR brachytherapy in the treatment of prostate cancer underwent transperineal ultrasound-guided placement of 10 cc of SpaceOAR hydrogel following catheter implantation. Read More

    Radiation therapy improves disease-specific survival in women with Stage II endometrioid endometrial cancer-Brachytherapy may be sufficient.
    Brachytherapy 2017 Nov 30. Epub 2017 Nov 30.
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford, CA. Electronic address:
    Purpose: To evaluate disease-specific survival (DSS) outcomes in Stage II endometrioid endometrial cancer (EC) patients based on pathology and treatment information including adjuvant radiotherapy and lymph node assessment.

    Methods And Materials: Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database, 2877 patients with Stage II EC diagnosed between 2004 and 2012 treated with radiation were identified. DSS was determined for different modalities of radiation. Read More

    Initial clinical assessment of "center-specific" automated treatment plans for low-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy.
    Brachytherapy 2017 Dec 1. Epub 2017 Dec 1.
    Department of Oncology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada, T6G 1Z2. Electronic address:
    Purpose: To report results of an initial pilot study assessing iodine-125 prostate implant treatment plans created automatically by a new seed-placement method.

    Methods And Materials: A novel mixed-integer linear programming method incorporating spatial constraints on seed locations in addition to standard dose-volume constraints was used to place seeds. The approach, described in detail elsewhere, was used to create treatment plans fully automatically on a retrospective basis for 20 patients having a wide range of prostate sizes and shapes. Read More

    Plesiobrachytherapy for chest wall recurrences of breast cancer after mastectomy and radiotherapy for breast cancer.
    Brachytherapy 2017 Nov 23. Epub 2017 Nov 23.
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Hôpital Saint-Louis, Paris, France.
    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the results of high-dose-rate plesiobrachytherapy for local relapse after mastectomy and radiotherapy in terms of both local control and survival.

    Methods: We reviewed retrospectively 43 patients who experienced a chest wall relapse of breast cancer after local excision (22 patients) or not (21 patients). Patients were treated with an individually designed mold with four to six fractions of 3-6 Gy high-dose-rate brachytherapy, two fractions per week. Read More

    Reductions in prostatic doses are associated with less acute morbidity in patients undergoing Pd-103 brachytherapy: Substantiation of the rationale for focal therapy.
    Brachytherapy 2017 Nov 23. Epub 2017 Nov 23.
    Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD. Electronic address:
    Purpose: Interest in prostate dose reduction or focal treatment exists due to expected reductions in treatment morbidity. Prior analyses have not generally corroborated relationships between prostate or urethral dose and urinary toxicity after brachytherapy, but such analyses have been performed on cohorts all receiving the same prescribed dose. We analyzed patients treated to differing prescription doses to assess acute urinary morbidity with dose reduction. Read More

    Quantitative CT assessment of a novel direction-modulated brachytherapy tandem applicator.
    Brachytherapy 2017 Nov 23. Epub 2017 Nov 23.
    Department of Medical Physics, Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, ON, Canada; Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada; Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA.
    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to quantitatively assess the CT metal-induced artifacts from a novel direction-modulated brachytherapy (DMBT) tandem applicator prototype, recently designed for cervical cancer treatments.

    Methods And Materials: A water-based pelvic phantom was constructed for CT scanning. The DMBT applicator was imaged using our institutional protocol, one with higher kVp and mAs settings, and repetition of these protocols using 3-mm slices. Read More

    The impact of adjuvant vaginal brachytherapy in women with Stage II uterine endometrioid carcinoma: Results of a National Cancer Database analysis.
    Brachytherapy 2017 Nov 23. Epub 2017 Nov 23.
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI. Electronic address:
    Purpose: To report survival outcomes in women with Stage II uterine endometrioid carcinoma who received adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) without chemotherapy using the National Cancer Database.

    Methods And Materials: The National Cancer Database was queried for women with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics Stage II uterine endometrioid carcinoma who underwent hysterectomy followed by adjuvant RT without chemotherapy. The χtests were performed to compare differences in outcome by type of adjuvant RT (external beam radiation therapy [EBRT] alone, vaginal brachytherapy [VBT] alone, or combination of EBRT and VBT). Read More

    Dose warping uncertainties for the accumulated rectal wall dose in cervical cancer brachytherapy.
    Brachytherapy 2017 Nov 22. Epub 2017 Nov 22.
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center/University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, AZ The Netherlands.
    Purpose: Structure-based deformable image registration (DIR) can be used to calculate accumulated dose volume histogram parameters for cervical cancer brachytherapy (BT). The purpose of this study is to investigate dose warping uncertainties for the accumulated dose to the 2 cmreceiving the highest dose [Formula: see text] in the rectal wall, using a physically realistic model (PRM) describing rectal wall deformation.

    Methods And Materials: For 10 patients, treated with MRI-guided pulsed dose rate BT (two times 24 × 0. Read More

    Reduction of MRI signal distortion from titanium intracavitary brachytherapy applicator by optimizing pulse sequence parameters.
    Brachytherapy 2017 Nov 22. Epub 2017 Nov 22.
    Department of Radiology, Stritch School of Medicine, Loyola University Chicago, Maywood, IL. Electronic address:
    Purpose: To demonstrate that optimized pulse sequence parameters for a T2-weighted (T2w) fast spin echo acquisition reduced artifacts from a titanium brachytherapy applicator compared to conventional sequence parameters.

    Methods And Materials: Following Institutional Review Board approval and informed consent, seven patients were successfully imaged with both standard sagittal T2w fast spin echo parameters (voxel size of 0.98 × 0. Read More

    Comparison of prostate distortion by inflatable and rigid endorectal MRI coils in permanent prostate brachytherapy imaging.
    Brachytherapy 2017 Nov 20. Epub 2017 Nov 20.
    Division of Radiation Oncology, Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX. Electronic address:
    Purpose: To study the deformation of the prostate by a rigid reusable endorectal coil and a balloon-type endorectal coil (BTC) during MRI of the prostate in brachytherapy imaging.

    Methods And Materials: The prostate gland was contoured on 157 MRI scans from 52 prostate cancer patients undergoing brachytherapy. The curvature of the posterior prostate surface deformation was computed as a measure of prostate distortion and compared between scans with a BTC, rigid endorectal coil (REC), or no endorectal coil. Read More

    Focal boost to residual gross tumor volume in brachytherapy for cervical cancer-A feasibility study.
    Brachytherapy 2018 Jan - Feb;17(1):181-186. Epub 2017 Nov 15.
    Cancer Centre, Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood, Middlesex, UK. Electronic address:
    Purpose: Image-guided plan optimization with MRI and CT for interstitial and intracavitary brachytherapy is an established technique in treating cervical cancer. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of boosting the dose to the residual gross tumor volume (GTV-T) to 140% of the high-risk clinical target volume (HR-CTV) prescription.

    Methods And Materials: Brachytherapy plans from 50 consecutive patients were analyzed in this study. Read More

    Assessment of the implant geometry in fractionated interstitial HDR breast brachytherapy using an electromagnetic tracking system.
    Brachytherapy 2018 Jan - Feb;17(1):94-102. Epub 2017 Nov 13.
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Universitätsklinikum Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany. Electronic address:
    Purpose: During the partial-breast treatment course by interstitial brachytherapy, electromagnetic tracking (EMT) was applied to measure the implant geometry. Implant-geometry variation, choice of reference data, and three registration methods were assessed.

    Methods And Materials: The implant geometry was measured in 28 patients after catheter implantation (EMT), during CT imaging (EMT), and in each of up to n = 9 treatment fractions (EMT). Read More

    Outcomes by molecular subtype after accelerated partial breast irradiation using single-entry catheters.
    Brachytherapy 2017 Nov 13. Epub 2017 Nov 13.
    Comprehensive Breast Center of Arizona, Phoenix, AZ.
    Purpose: Tumor biology is being recognized as an important indicator of prognosis and risk of locoregional recurrence. Here, we determine actuarial recurrence rates by approximated molecular subtype for women treated with single-entry catheter accelerated partial breast irradiation (sAPBI).

    Methods And Materials: One thousand four hundred eighty-six women with invasive cancer having known ER, PR, and Her2 status and at least 1-year of followup were treated using MammoSite, Contura, or SAVI sAPBI from 2002 to 2014 at our institution. Read More

    Pattern of relapse and dose received by the recurrent intraprostatic nodule in low- to intermediate-risk prostate cancer treated with single fraction 19 Gy high dose-rate brachytherapy.
    Brachytherapy 2017 Nov 11. Epub 2017 Nov 11.
    Sunnybrook Odette Cancer Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:
    Purpose: The purposes of this study were to investigate the pattern of relapse in patients with low- or intermediate-risk prostate cancer treated with 19-Gy high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT) and to calculate the dose received by the area of recurrence.

    Methods And Materials: Patients included in this analysis were treated under a Phase II randomized trial that evaluated the role of 19-Gy HDR-BT monotherapy in low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancers. Multiparametric prostate MRI and prostate biopsy were performed in patients with suspicious local recurrence. Read More

    Clinical outcomes using image-guided interstitial brachytherapy for definitive cervical cancer patients with high-risk clinical target volumes greater than 30 cc.
    Brachytherapy 2017 Nov 8. Epub 2017 Nov 8.
    Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Los Angeles, CA.
    Purpose: Given the limited data using an interstitial approach with 3D-based planning for definitive cervical cancer utilizing the GEC-ESTRO defined high-risk clinical target volume (HR-CTV), we reviewed our institutional experience of cervical cancer patients with HR-CTVs ≥ 30 cc to determine whether our clinical and toxicity outcomes are acceptable.

    Methods: A retrospective review of 37 cervical cancer patients with high-risk clinical target volumes (HR-CTVs) ≥30 cc treated with interstitial image-guided brachytherapy (IS IGBT) was performed. All patients received external beam radiotherapy to a median dose of 45 Gy, followed by IS IGBT delivered in a single implant to a median dose of 6 Gy × 5 fractions. Read More

    Interobserver variability in rectum contouring in high-dose-rate brachytherapy for prostate cancer: A multi-institutional prospective analysis.
    Brachytherapy 2018 Jan - Feb;17(1):208-213. Epub 2017 Nov 4.
    Department of Radiation Oncology, La Fe Polytechnic and University Hospital, Valencia, Spain; Medical Physics Research Group La Fe-UVEG, IRIMED, Valencia, Spain.
    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the interobserver variability (IOV) of rectum contouring, and its dosimetric consequences, for high-dose-rate brachytherapy in patients with prostate cancer across multiple institutions.

    Methods And Materials: Five radiation oncologists contoured rectums in 10 patients on transperineal ultrasound image sets after establishing a delineation consensus. The D, D, and Drectum volume parameters were determined. Read More

    Experience of using MOSFET detectors for dose verification measurements in an end-to-endIr brachytherapy quality assurance system.
    Brachytherapy 2018 Jan - Feb;17(1):227-233. Epub 2017 Oct 27.
    Department of Medical Radiation Physics and Nuclear Medicine, Section for Radiotherapy Physics and Engineering, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Medical and Health Sciences and Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization, Radiation Physics, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Purpose: Establishment of an end-to-end system for the brachytherapy (BT) dosimetric chain could be valuable in clinical quality assurance. Here, the development of such a system using MOSFET (metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor) detectors and experience gained during 2 years of use are reported with focus on the performance of the MOSFET detectors.

    Methods And Materials: A bolus phantom was constructed with two implants, mimicking prostate and head & neck treatments, using steel needles and plastic catheters to guide theIr source and house the MOSFET detectors. Read More

    Physics aspects of the Papillon technique-Five decades later.
    Brachytherapy 2018 Jan - Feb;17(1):234-243
    Radiation Oncology Department, Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; Medical Physics Unit, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; Segal Cancer Centre, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, Montréal, Québec, Canada. Electronic address:
    Purpose: The Papillon technique using 50-kVp soft X-rays to treat rectal adenocarcinomas was developed and clinically implemented in the 1960s. We describe differences between accurate dosimetry and clinical implementation of this technique that is extending from its very inception to date.

    Methods And Materials: A renaissance of the Papillon technique occurred with two recently introduced 50-kVp systems: Papillon+ by Ariane and a custom-made rectal applicator (consisting of a surface applicator inserted into a proctoscope) by iCAD's Xoft Axxent Electronic Brachytherapy (eBT) System (iCad, Inc. Read More

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