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    1149 results match your criteria Brachytherapy [Journal]

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    Needle migration and dosimetric impact in high-dose-rate brachytherapy for prostate cancer evaluated by repeated MRI.
    Brachytherapy 2017 Sep 18. Epub 2017 Sep 18.
    Department of Oncology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Purpose: To quantify needle migration and dosimetric impact in high-dose-rate brachytherapy for prostate cancer and propose a threshold for needle migration.

    Methods And Materials: Twenty-four high-risk prostate cancer patients treated with an HDR boost of 2 × 8.5 Gy were included. Read More

    Radioactive seed migration following parotid gland interstitial brachytherapy.
    Brachytherapy 2017 Sep 15. Epub 2017 Sep 15.
    Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, Beijing, P.R. China. Electronic address:
    Purpose: To evaluate the incidence and associated factors of pulmonary seed migration after parotid brachytherapy using a novel migrated seed detection technique.

    Methods And Materials: Patients diagnosed with parotid cancer who underwent permanent parotid brachytherapy from January 2006 to December 2011 were reviewed retrospectively. Head and neck CT scans and chest X-rays were evaluated during routine follow-up. Read More

    American Brachytherapy Society recurrent carcinoma of the endometrium task force patterns of care and review of the literature.
    Brachytherapy 2017 Sep 6. Epub 2017 Sep 6.
    Department of Radiation Oncology, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX.
    Purpose: The purpose of this American Brachytherapy Society task force is to present a literature review and patterns of care by a panel of experts for the management of vaginal recurrence of endometrial cancer.

    Methods And Materials: In 2016, the American Brachytherapy Society Board selected a panel of experts in gynecologic brachytherapy to update our current state of knowledge for managing vaginal recurrence of endometrial cancer. Practice patterns were evaluated via an online survey and clinical updates occurred through a combination of literature review and clinical experience and/or expertise. Read More

    Efficiency of using the day-of-implant CT for planning of SAVI APBI.
    Brachytherapy 2017 Aug 28. Epub 2017 Aug 28.
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO.
    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to develop an optimized, efficient workflow for using the day-of-implant (DOI) CT for treatment planning of accelerated partial breast irradiation brachytherapy using the strut-adjusted volume implant (SAVI) device.

    Methods And Materials: For 62 consecutive SAVI patients, a DOI CT was acquired and used for treatment planning. A "verification" CT was acquired 24-72 h after implant and immediately before the first fraction, then registered to the DOI CT. Read More

    A novel urethral sparing technique for high-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy after transurethral resection of the prostate.
    Brachytherapy 2017 Aug 28. Epub 2017 Aug 28.
    Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA. Electronic address:
    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess retrospectively the variability of the urethral dose optimized using a Foley catheter versus urethral contrast injected using a new modified triple-lumen catheter, in CT-based high-dose-rate (HDR) prostate brachytherapy of posttransurethral resection of prostate (TURP) patients.

    Methods And Materials: At our institution, there were six post-TURP patients with prostate carcinoma between July 2014 and April 2016 who underwent transperineal interstitial HDR brachytherapy (16 needles). A custom modified triple-lumen catheter was placed to inject contrast into the TURP defect. Read More

    Total reference air kerma can accurately predict isodose surface volumes in cervix cancer brachytherapy. A multicenter study.
    Brachytherapy 2017 Aug 31. Epub 2017 Aug 31.
    Department of Oncology, Aarhus University Hospital Aarhus, Denmark.
    Purpose: To demonstrate that V60 Gy, V75 Gy, and V85 Gy isodose surface volumes can be accurately estimated from total reference air kerma (TRAK) in cervix cancer MRI-guided brachytherapy (BT).

    Methods And Materials: 60 Gy, 75 Gy, and 85 Gy isodose surface volumes levels were obtained from treatment planning systems (VTPS) for 239 EMBRACE study patients from five institutions treated with various dose rates, fractionation schedules and applicators. An equation for estimating VTPS from TRAK was derived. Read More

    Low-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy: 4-8 week postimplant prostate-specific antigen a novel predictor of biochemical failure-free survival.
    Brachytherapy 2017 Aug 24. Epub 2017 Aug 24.
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Pennington Cancer Center, Baton Rouge, LA.
    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between patient, disease, and treatment variables and biochemical failure-free survival (bFFS) following low-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy (LDR-BT).

    Methods And Materials: Data from 624 consecutive patients who received LDR-BT for localized prostate cancer between 2002 and 2012 at a single institution were collected for various patient, disease, and treatment characteristics including a 4-8 week postimplant PSA (4-8wkPSA). Subgroup analysis was stratified by risk category and treatment regimen. Read More

    Clinical implementation of a novel Double-Balloon single-entry breast brachytherapy applicator.
    Brachytherapy 2017 Aug 24. Epub 2017 Aug 24.
    Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI.
    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to describe the clinical utilization of a novel Double-Balloon applicator for accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI).

    Methods And Materials: The Double-Balloon single-entry breast applicator contains a single central treatment catheter, as well as four peripheral catheters that can be differentially loaded to customize radiation dose coverage. An inner balloon is filled with up to 7-30 cm(3) of saline to increase separation between the peripheral catheters, and an outer balloon is filled with up to 37-115 cm(3) of saline to displace breast tissue from the peripheral catheters. Read More

    Brachytherapy attains abscopal effects when combined with immunostimulatory monoclonal antibodies.
    Brachytherapy 2017 Aug 21. Epub 2017 Aug 21.
    Division of Immunology and Immunotherapy, Center for Applied Medical Research (CIMA), University of Navarra and Instituto de Investigacion Sanitaria de Navarra (IdISNA), Pamplona, Spain; Department of Oncology, University Clinic of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain; University Clinic, University of Navarra and Instituto de Investigacion Sanitaria de Navarra (IdISNA), Pamplona, Spain; Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Cáncer (CIBERONC), Spain. Electronic address:
    Purpose/objectives: Preclinical and clinical evidence indicate that the proimmune effects of radiotherapy can be synergistically augmented with immunostimulatory monoclonal antibodies (mAb) to act both on irradiated tumor lesions and on tumors at distant, nonirradiated sites. We have recently reported that external beam radiotherapy achieves abscopal effects when combined with antagonist anti-PD1 mAbs and agonist anti-CD137 (4-1BB) mAbs. The goal of this work is to study the abscopal effects of radiotherapy instigated by brachytherapy techniques. Read More

    Salvage brachytherapy for recurrent prostate cancer after definitive radiation therapy: A comparison of low-dose-rate and high-dose-rate brachytherapy and the importance of prostate-specific antigen doubling time.
    Brachytherapy 2017 Aug 21. Epub 2017 Aug 21.
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY.
    Background: Salvage brachytherapy is a treatment option for patients with locally recurrent prostate cancer after primary radiation therapy. We reviewed our experience using low-dose-rate (LDR) or high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy to compare the outcome and toxicity profiles of each approach in the salvage brachytherapy setting.

    Methods And Materials: Ninety-eight patients with biopsy-proven locally recurrent prostate cancer who underwent salvage brachytherapy (LDR = 37; HDR = 61) following an initial course of definitive radiotherapy between 4/2003 and 4/2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Read More

    Failure modes and effects analysis for ocular brachytherapy.
    Brachytherapy 2017 Aug 18. Epub 2017 Aug 18.
    Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.
    Purpose: The aim of the study was to identify potential failure modes (FMs) having a high risk and to improve our current quality management (QM) program in Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study (COMS) ocular brachytherapy by undertaking a failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) and a fault tree analysis (FTA).

    Methods And Materials: Process mapping and FMEA were performed for COMS ocular brachytherapy. For all FMs identified in FMEA, risk priority numbers (RPNs) were determined by assigning and multiplying occurrence, severity, and lack of detectability values, each ranging from 1 to 10. Read More

    Intraoperative implantation of a mesh of directional palladium sources (CivaSheet): Dosimetry verification, clinical commissioning, dose specification, and preliminary experience.
    Brachytherapy 2017 Aug 18. Epub 2017 Aug 18.
    Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY. Electronic address:
    Purpose: To present the clinical commissioning of a novel (103)Pd directional brachytherapy device (CivaSheet) for intraoperative radiation therapy.

    Methods And Materials: Clinical commissioning for the CivaSheet consisted of establishing: (1) source strength calibration capabilities, (2) experimental verification of TG-43 dosimetry parameters, (3) treatment planning system validation, and (4) departmental practice for dose specification and source ordering. Experimental verification was performed in water with radiochromic film calibrated with a 37 kVp X-ray beam. Read More

    MR- versus CT-based high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy for vaginal recurrence of endometrial cancer.
    Brachytherapy 2017 Aug 16. Epub 2017 Aug 16.
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women's Hospital/Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA; Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins Medicine, Baltimore, MD. Electronic address:
    Purpose: To compare clinical outcomes of MR-based versus CT-based high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy (ISBT) for vaginal recurrence of endometrioid endometrial cancer (EC).

    Methods And Materials: We reviewed 66 patients with vaginal recurrent EC; 18 had MR-based ISBT on a prospective clinical trial and 48 had CT-based treatment. Kaplan-Meier survival modeling was used to generate estimates for local control (LC), disease-free interval (DFI), and overall survival (OS), and multivariate Cox modeling was used to assess prognostic factors. Read More

    Association of bladder dose with late urinary side effects in cervical cancer high-dose-rate brachytherapy.
    Brachytherapy 2017 Aug 16. Epub 2017 Aug 16.
    British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to study the association between specific urinary sequelae and locally accumulated dose to the bladder wall and bladder neck in the treatment of cervical cancer with multifraction high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy.

    Methods And Materials: A cohort of 60 cervical cancer patients, treated with both external beam and five HDR brachytherapy insertions between 2008 and 2014 at the BC Cancer Agency, was identified. The accumulated dose received over five brachytherapy sessions was evaluated for the bladder wall and bladder neck of each patient using dosimetric parameters calculated from deformably registered image data sets. Read More

    MRI-based treatment planning and dose delivery verification for intraocular melanoma brachytherapy.
    Brachytherapy 2017 Aug 14. Epub 2017 Aug 14.
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO.
    Purpose: Episcleral plaque brachytherapy (EPB) planning is conventionally based on approximations of the implant geometry with no volumetric imaging following plaque implantation. We have developed an MRI-based technique for EPB treatment planning and dose delivery verification based on the actual patient-specific geometry.

    Methods And Materials: MR images of 6 patients, prescribed 85 Gy over 96 hours from Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study-based EPB, were acquired before and after implantation. Read More

    High-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy boost in inoperable locally advanced tongue carcinoma.
    Brachytherapy 2017 Aug 11. Epub 2017 Aug 11.
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Fundación Instituto Valenciano de Oncología (IVO), Valencia, Spain.
    Purpose: Locally advanced tongue carcinomas (LATCs) in inoperable lesions are managed with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) and chemotherapy. In our institution, the boost to the gross tumor volume is delivered with high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT) after EBRT. We review the outcome of these patients when HDR-BT is added as a boost. Read More

    Dosimetric analysis and preliminary clinical result of image-guided brachytherapy with or without hybrid technique for cervical cancer using VariSource titanium ring applicator with "Siriraj Ring Cap".
    Brachytherapy 2017 Aug 11. Epub 2017 Aug 11.
    Division of Radiation Oncology, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.
    Purpose: Titanium ring cap applicator (VariSource) was applied in treating cervical cancer patients by using image-guided brachytherapy (IGBT). However, its sizes appeared to be relatively large for most of our patients. Thus, we have developed a specific applicator "Siriraj Ring Cap," which is slightly smaller and more suitable for our patients. Read More

    Pretreatment 3T multiparametric MRI staging predicts for biochemical failure in high-risk prostate cancer treated with combination high-dose-rate brachytherapy and external beam radiotherapy.
    Brachytherapy 2017 Aug 11. Epub 2017 Aug 11.
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Samuel Oschin Cancer Center, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA.
    Purpose: To determine whether pretreatment 3T multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) staging impacts biochemical recurrence-free survival (BRFS) or distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) for men with high-risk prostate cancer treated with combination high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy and external beam radiation therapy (EBRT).

    Materials And Methods: This institutional review board-approved retrospective study included a cohort of 37 men with high-risk prostate cancer treated with HDR brachytherapy and EBRT after 3T mpMRI. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to evaluate whether mpMRI evidence of extracapsular extension or seminal vesicle invasion (SVI) resulted in differences in BRFS or DMFS. Read More


    Salvage high-dose-rate brachytherapy and external beam radiotherapy for isolated vaginal recurrences of endometrial cancer with no prior adjuvant therapy.
    Brachytherapy 2017 Aug 9. Epub 2017 Aug 9.
    Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA.
    Purpose: To evaluate clinical outcomes for isolated vaginal recurrence of endometrial cancer without adjuvant therapy treated with salvage external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) and high-dose-rate CT-based inverse-planned brachytherapy.

    Methods And Materials: Thirty women were included in this retrospective study. Median time to first recurrence was 16. Read More

    Comparative results of three short brachytherapy schedules as exclusive treatment in postoperative endometrial carcinoma.
    Brachytherapy 2017 Aug 8. Epub 2017 Aug 8.
    Radiation Oncology Department, Hospital Sant Joan de Reus, Reus, Spain.
    Purpose: To compare vaginal control and treatment toxicity of three different high-dose-rate brachytherapy schedules as exclusive treatment in postoperative endometrial carcinoma.

    Methods And Materials: From 2003 to 2015, three different schedules were used as postoperative treatment for 146 patients (p) with intermediate-risk endometrial carcinoma. Group 1 (41 p): six fractions of 4-6 Gy, 3-4 fractions per week; Group 2 (59 p): four fractions of 5-6 Gy administered daily; Group 3 (46 p): 6 Gy × 3 fractions in three consecutive days. Read More

    Incidence and prediction of seed migration to the chest after iodine-125 brachytherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma.
    Brachytherapy 2017 Aug 8. Epub 2017 Aug 8.
    Department of Nuclear Medicine, Fujian Medical University Union Hospital, Fuzhou, China. Electronic address:
    Purpose: The aims were to determine the incidence of seed migration to the chest and to analyze the predictive factors after iodine-125 brachytherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Methods And Materials: Three hundred ninety-nine patients with hepatocellular carcinoma underwent iodine-125 seed brachytherapy. After seed implantation, chest X-ray radiograph or computerized tomography were undertaken to assess the occurrence and location of seed migration at 3 months after brachytherapy. Read More

    Incorporating patient-specific CT-based ophthalmic anatomy in modeling iodine-125 eye plaque brachytherapy dose distributions.
    Brachytherapy 2017 Sep - Oct;16(5):1057-1064. Epub 2017 Aug 1.
    Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT. Electronic address:
    Purpose: To quantify the dosimetric impact of incorporating patient-specific CT-based models rather than the conventional stylized-standard model for eye plaque brachytherapy planning.

    Methods And Materials: Plaque Simulator was used to plan 16 patients using both CT-based patient-specific eye model and stylized-standard (SS) eye models. Plaque position was initially based on the SS model and compared against their patient-specific model without changing the plaque loading pattern and seed strength. Read More

    Accuracy and variability of high-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy needle tip localization using live two-dimensional and sagittally reconstructed three-dimensional ultrasound.
    Brachytherapy 2017 Sep - Oct;16(5):1035-1043. Epub 2017 Jul 29.
    Department of Medical Biophysics, Western University, London, ON, Canada; Department of Oncology, Western University, London, ON, Canada; Department of Physics and Astronomy, Western University, London, ON, Canada; London Regional Cancer Program, London, ON, Canada.
    Purpose: To measure the accuracy and variability of manual high-dose-rate (HDR) prostate brachytherapy (BT) needle tip localization using sagittally reconstructed three-dimensional (3D) transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) augmented with live two-dimensional (2D) sagittal TRUS.

    Methods And Materials: Ten prostate cancer patients underwent HDR-BT during which the sagittally assisted sagittally reconstructed (SASR) segmentation technique was completed in parallel with commercially available sagittally assisted axially reconstructed (SAAR) TRUS for comparison. The SASR technique makes use of live 2D ultrasound intraoperatively and allows needle tip updates using the final 3D image in the absence of image artifacts. Read More

    Dosimetric impact of intrafraction changes in MR-guided high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy for prostate cancer.
    Brachytherapy 2017 Jul 29. Epub 2017 Jul 29.
    Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, Canada; Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada. Electronic address:
    Purpose: To assess changes in implant and treatment volumes through the course of a prostate high-dose-rate brachytherapy procedure and their impact on plan quality metrics.

    Methods And Materials: Sixteen MRI-guided high-dose-rate procedures included a post-treatment MR (ptMR) immediately after treatment delivery (135 min between MR scans). Target and organs at risk (OARs) were contoured, and catheters were reconstructed. Read More

    Intermediate dose-volume parameters and the development of late rectal toxicity after MRI-guided brachytherapy for locally advanced cervix cancer.
    Brachytherapy 2017 Sep - Oct;16(5):968-975.e2. Epub 2017 Jul 27.
    Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:
    Purpose: The dose delivered to the most exposed 2 cm(3) [Formula: see text] of the rectum and bladder is predictive of late rectal and bladder toxicity in cervix cancer patients. We investigated the predictive value of intermediate doses to the rectum and bladder for late rectal/bladder toxicity after MRI-guided brachytherapy for patients with locally advanced cervix cancer.

    Methods And Materials: Toxicity was prospectively graded using Common Toxicity Criteria for Adverse Events v4. Read More

    Performance of a palladium-103 line source for prostate brachytherapy implants: A Phase I trial.
    Brachytherapy 2017 Sep - Oct;16(5):1007-1012. Epub 2017 Jul 27.
    Ascenture MPTR, PLLC, New York City, NY.
    Purpose: To evaluate the use of a polymer-encapsulated palladium-103 ((103) Pd) source with a unique linear radioactive distribution in prostate brachytherapy. This feasibility study assessed dosimetry, ease and efficiency of use, and side effects. The number of needles required for adequate coverage was the primary end point. Read More

    Brachytherapy patient safety events in an academic radiation medicine program.
    Brachytherapy 2017 Jul 27. Epub 2017 Jul 27.
    Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:
    Purpose: To describe the incidence and type of brachytherapy patient safety events over 10 years in an academic brachytherapy program.

    Methods And Materials: Brachytherapy patient safety events reported between January 2007 and August 2016 were retrieved from the incident reporting system and reclassified using the recently developed National System for Incident Reporting in Radiation Treatment taxonomy. A multi-incident analysis was conducted to identify common themes and key learning points. Read More

    Impact of adjuvant systemic chemotherapy on wound healing and cosmetic outcome in 224 women treated with accelerated partial breast irradiation using interstitial brachytherapy.
    Brachytherapy 2017 Sep - Oct;16(5):935-942. Epub 2017 Jul 27.
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai, India.
    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of timing of adjuvant chemotherapy on wound healing and cosmetic outcome in women treated with accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI).

    Methods And Materials: Between August 2000 to December 2011, 224 women were treated with APBI using multicatheter interstitial high-dose-rate brachytherapy. Patients were treated to a dose of 34 Gy/10#/5-7 days with bid regimen. Read More

    High-dose-rate brachytherapy boost for prostate cancer: Comparison of three different fractionation schemes.
    Brachytherapy 2017 Sep - Oct;16(5):993-999. Epub 2017 Jul 25.
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Antoine Lacassagne Center, Nice, France; University of Nice Sophia-Antipolis, Nice, France. Electronic address:
    Purpose: Dose escalation for prostate cancer can be achieved with a combination of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and brachytherapy (BT) boost to increase local control. For high-dose-rate (HDR)-BT, optimal fractionation remains under debate. The objective was to assess the clinical outcome of three schemes of HDR-BT boost. Read More

    Clinical outcomes after interstitial brachytherapy for early-stage nasal squamous cell carcinoma.
    Brachytherapy 2017 Sep - Oct;16(5):1021-1027. Epub 2017 Jul 23.
    Brachytherapy Unit, Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France; Department of Radiotherapy, Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France; Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des Armées, Bretigny-sur-Orge, France; French Military Health Academy, Ecole du Val-de-Grâce, Paris, France. Electronic address:
    Purpose: Radiotherapy of nasal carcinomas results in cure rates comparable to surgery, with anatomic preservation and good cosmesis. Brachytherapy (BT) overcomes difficulties with dosimetric coverage and affords a localized and highly conformal irradiation. We report our experience of BT for early-stage nasal squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). Read More

    Dose comparison between TG-43-based calculations and radiochromic film measurements of the Freiburg flap applicator used for high-dose-rate brachytherapy treatments of skin lesions.
    Brachytherapy 2017 Sep - Oct;16(5):1065-1072. Epub 2017 Jul 20.
    Medical Physics Unit, McGill University, Montréal, Québec, Canada; Department of Radiation Oncology, SMBD Jewish General Hospital, Montréal, Québec, Canada.
    Purpose: Current high-dose-rate brachytherapy skin treatments with the Freiburg flap (FF) applicator are planned with treatment planning systems based on the American Association of Physicists in Medicine TG-43 data sets, which assume full backscatter conditions in dose calculations. The aim of this work is to describe an experimental method based on radiochromic film dosimetry to evaluate dose calculation accuracy during surface treatments with the FF applicator at different depths and bolus thicknesses.

    Methods And Materials: Absolute doses were measured using a reference EBT3 radiochromic film dosimetry system within a Solid Water phantom at different depths (0, 0. Read More

    Accelerated partial breast irradiation for elderly women with early breast cancer: A compromise between whole breast irradiation and omission of radiotherapy.
    Brachytherapy 2017 Sep - Oct;16(5):929-934. Epub 2017 Jul 8.
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Antoine Lacassagne Cancer Center, University of Cote d'Azur, Nice, France. Electronic address:
    Purpose: Regarding adjuvant radiation therapy making decision for elderly women, Albert (2013) published a nomogram predicting the mastectomy-free survival (MFS) rate with or without adjuvant irradiation. Based on this approach, we proposed to investigate the use of accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) vs. whole breast irradiation (WBI) or endocrine therapy alone in elderly low-risk breast cancer patients. Read More

    Effect of bladder distension on doses to organs at risk in Pulsed-Dose-Rate 3D image-guided adaptive brachytherapy for locally advanced cervical cancer.
    Brachytherapy 2017 Sep - Oct;16(5):976-980. Epub 2017 Jul 8.
    Department of Radiotherapy and Brachytherapy, Institut de Cancérologie de Lorraine, Vandoeuvre-Lès-Nancy, France.
    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of bladder distension on doses to organs at risk in patients treated with 3D image-guided adaptive pulsed-dose-rate (PDR) brachytherapy (BT) for locally advanced cervical cancer.

    Methods And Materials: Twenty-two patients who had previously been treated by external beam radiation therapy (EBRT), underwent BT treatment planning to a pelvic MRI (or a CT scan in case of contraindication) after their bladder was filled with 100 cc of physiological saline (full bladder). This was immediately followed by a CT scan after emptying of the bladder. Read More

    Differences in urethral dosimetry between CT and MR imaging in multichannel vaginal cylinder brachytherapy.
    Brachytherapy 2017 Sep - Oct;16(5):964-967. Epub 2017 Jul 8.
    Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA. Electronic address:
    Purpose: In image-based brachytherapy (IBBT), the dosimetry of small structures may be particularly sensitive to changes in contouring between imaging modalities. We therefore sought to characterize differences in urethral dosimetry in vaginal brachytherapy based on contouring on MRI vs. CT. Read More

    American Brachytherapy Society consensus report for accelerated partial breast irradiation using interstitial multicatheter brachytherapy.
    Brachytherapy 2017 Sep - Oct;16(5):919-928. Epub 2017 Jul 1.
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Rhode Island Hospital, Brown University, Providence, RI; Department of Radiation Oncology, Tufts Medical Center, Tufts University, Boston, MA.
    Purpose: To develop a consensus report for the quality practice of accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) using interstitial multicatheter brachytherapy (IMB).

    Methods And Materials: The American Brachytherapy Society Board appointed an expert panel with clinical and research experience with breast brachytherapy to provide guidance for the current practice of IMB. This report is based on a comprehensive literature review with emphasis on randomized data and expertise of the panel. Read More

    Diffusion-weighted MRI in image-guided adaptive brachytherapy: Tumor delineation feasibility study and comparison with GEC-ESTRO guidelines.
    Brachytherapy 2017 Sep - Oct;16(5):956-963. Epub 2017 Jun 30.
    Radiation Oncology Department, Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus, Villejuif, France; INSERM U1030, Villejuif, France; Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des Armées, Brétigny sur Orge, France; French Military Health Academy, Ecole du Val-de-Grâce, Paris, France. Electronic address:
    Purpose: To examine the feasibility of using diffusion-weighted images (DWIs) coregistered with T2-weighted (T2w) sequence in treatment planning system to improve target delineation for image-guided adaptive brachytherapy (IGABT) in locally advanced cervical cancer patients.

    Methods And Materials: We retrospectively examined the records of consecutive patients who were referred to our institution for pulse-dose-rate IGABT between May and December 2015 after concurrent chemoradiation. An MRI with T2w and DWI sequences with a maximum diffusion factor of 1000 s/mm(2) on a 1. Read More

    Monte Carlo dosimetric characterization of the Flexisource Co-60 high-dose-rate brachytherapy source using PENELOPE.
    Brachytherapy 2017 Sep - Oct;16(5):1073-1080. Epub 2017 Jun 29.
    Departamento de Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Granada, Granada, Spain. Electronic address:
    Purpose: (60)Co sources have been commercialized as an alternative to (192)Ir sources for high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy. One of them is the Flexisource Co-60 HDR source manufactured by Elekta. The only available dosimetric characterization of this source is that of Vijande et al. Read More

    Focal brachytherapy for localized prostate cancer: Urinary toxicity depends on tumor location.
    Brachytherapy 2017 Sep - Oct;16(5):988-992. Epub 2017 Jun 23.
    Department of Urology, Institut Montsouris, Université Paris-Descartes, Paris, France; Département d'oncologie-radiothérapie, Institut Curie, Paris, France; Centre de radiothérapie Charlebourg-La Défense, groupe Amethyst, La Garenne-Colombes, France. Electronic address:
    Purpose: To evaluate whether patients with prostate cancer have worse functional urinary recovery with focal brachytherapy (FBT) at the base versus the apex of the prostate.

    Methods And Materials: The functional outcomes of patients treated with FBT at the base of the prostate were compared with those of patients treated with FBT at the apex. Urinary symptoms, continence, and erectile dysfunction were measured using the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), International Continence Score (ICS), and International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) questionnaires, respectively, at baseline and at 6, 12, and 24 months after treatment. Read More

    Prostate-specific antigen percentage: An early predictive tool after iodine-125 interstitial brachytherapy for prostate cancer.
    Brachytherapy 2017 Sep - Oct;16(5):1000-1006. Epub 2017 Jun 19.
    Operative Unit of Medical Physics, Department of Oncology, San Luca Hospital, Lucca, Italy.
    Background: After interstitial prostate iodine-125 brachytherapy (BT), prostate-specific antigen (PSA) evolution in time could predict overall biochemical relapse, but, considering the single patient, it is influenced by the presentation PSA amount and by the prostatic volume. It is also challenging to differentiate a PSA bounce from a biochemical relapse.

    Purpose: To determine the usefulness of PSA percentage (PP) defined as the rate between PSA presented by a patient at time "t" and the PSA that the same patient had presented at the time of diagnosis (t0) assumed as 100% in predicting biochemical relapse and in differentiating them from PSA Bounces. Read More

    The Bebig Valencia-type skin applicators: Dosimetric study and implementation of a dosimetric hybrid technique.
    Brachytherapy 2017 Sep - Oct;16(5):1044-1056. Epub 2017 Jun 16.
    Division of Medical Physics, Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical Center-University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany; German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Partner Site Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.
    Purpose: To determine the relative dose rate distribution in water for the Bebig 20 mm and 30 mm skin applicators and report results in a form suitable for potential clinical use. Results for both skin applicators are also provided in the form of a hybrid Task Group 43 (TG-43) dosimetry technique. Furthermore, the radiation leakage around both skin applicators from the radiation protection point of view and the impact of the geometrical source position uncertainties are studied and reported. Read More

    Variability of treatment planning of seed implantation: A Japanese multicenter simulation study.
    Brachytherapy 2017 Sep - Oct;16(5):1013-1020. Epub 2017 Jun 13.
    Department of Urology, National Hospital Organization Tokyo Medical Center, Meguro-ku, Tokyo, Japan.
    Purpose: This multicenter study was conducted to evaluate the current variability of treatment planning of seed implantation in Japanese centers and the feasibility of two virtual trials.

    Methods And Materials: Two types of contour data were sent to 12 radiation oncologists with a request letter that asked them to make treatment plans on the data in the same manner as in their own practice. Five of the 12 radiation oncologists were asked to participate in the two virtual trials in which the D90 (dose to the hottest 90% of prostate volume) was 1) required to be set at just 180 Gy and 2) increased as much as possible without violating other limitations. Read More

    Rectum and bladder spacing in cervical cancer brachytherapy using a novel injectable hydrogel compound.
    Brachytherapy 2017 Sep - Oct;16(5):949-955. Epub 2017 Jun 12.
    Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Science, Johns Hopkins Medicine, Baltimore, MD. Electronic address:
    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate injection of a novel hydrogel (TraceIT; Augmenix, Waltham, MA) between the cervix, rectum, and bladder in female cadavers compared with, and in addition to, the current standard of gauze packing, for organ-at-risk sparing in cervical cancer brachytherapy planning.

    Methods And Materials: This brachytherapy cadaver study used T2-weighted MRI and CT imaging to compare three scenarios: (1) gauze packing alone, (2) hydrogel injection placed in the cervical fornices and rectovaginal septum, and (3) gauze packing in conjunction with hydrogel injection. Hydrogel distribution was evaluated. Read More

    Reduced toxicity with equivalent outcomes using three-dimensional volumetric (3DV) image-based versus nonvolumetric point-based (NV) brachytherapy in a cervical cancer population.
    Brachytherapy 2017 Sep - Oct;16(5):943-948. Epub 2017 Jun 8.
    Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX. Electronic address:
    Purpose: Brachytherapy (BT) techniques have historically used a two-dimensional nonvolumetric (NV) system involving dose prescribed to a point fixed in space. We compared dosimetric, toxicity, and oncologic outcomes for volumetric planning (3DV) versus CT point-based planning.

    Methods And Materials: Patients treated with external beam radiation therapy and high dose rate (HDR) intracavitary BT were included (n = 71). Read More

    Income generated by women treated with magnetic resonance imaging-based brachytherapy: A simulation study evaluating the macroeconomic benefits of implementing a high-end technology in a public sector healthcare setting.
    Brachytherapy 2017 Sep - Oct;16(5):981-987. Epub 2017 Jun 7.
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Tata Memorial Hospital, Parel, Mumbai, India.
    Purpose: To estimate the difference in income generated if all women presenting in our institute over a 5-year period were treated with MRI-based image-guided brachytherapy (MR-IGBT) instead of conventional radiograph-based brachytherapy (CR-BT).

    Methods And Materials: Outcome data from 463 patients (94 treated with MR-IGBT) treated in our institute was used to simulate cumulative women-days of work and cumulative income over 5 years for 5526 patients expected to be treated in this period. The average daily income for a woman was derived from the National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO) survey data. Read More

    Change of target volume and its dosimetric impact during the course of accelerated partial breast irradiation using intraoperative multicatheter interstitial brachytherapy after open cavity surgery.
    Brachytherapy 2017 Sep - Oct;16(5):1028-1034. Epub 2017 Jun 7.
    Department of Medical Physics, Tata Memorial Hospital, TMC, Parel, Mumbai, India.
    Purpose: To investigate the change of clinical target volume (CTV) and its dosimetric impact during the course of accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) using intraoperative multicatheter interstitial brachytherapy after open cavity surgery.

    Methods And Materials: Twenty-two patients of APBI with intraoperative placement of catheters underwent computed tomography scans for the treatment planning before the first (CT1) and the last (CT2) treatment fraction. Delineation of lumpectomy cavity and CTV was done consistently on both CT data sets by one of the coauthors. Read More

    The effect of catheter displacement and anatomical variations on the dose distribution in MRI-guided focal HDR brachytherapy for prostate cancer.
    Brachytherapy 2017 Jun 1. Epub 2017 Jun 1.
    Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands. Electronic address:
    Purpose: The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of catheter displacement and anatomical variations of prostate and organs at risk on dose distribution in MRI-guided 19 Gy single fraction focal high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT) of the prostate.

    Methods And Materials: Seventeen patients with localized prostate cancer were enrolled in a prospective trial investigating focal HDR-BT in a 1.5 T MRI-HDR-BT facility. Read More

    Clinical factors and dosimetry associated with the development of prostate brachytherapy-related urethral strictures: A matched case-control study.
    Brachytherapy 2017 Jul - Aug;16(4):797-805. Epub 2017 May 31.
    Department of Oncology, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada; Division of Radiation Oncology, Department of Oncology, Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Electronic address:
    Purpose: Urethral strictures are a rare complication of prostate brachytherapy (BXT), with prior studies showing radiation dose to the bulbomembranous urethra as being associated with stricture formation. This retrospective case-control study explored clinical and dosimetric parameters associated with the development of BXT-related urethral strictures.

    Methods And Materials: A cohort of 34 patients developed urethral strictures after BXT at our institution for the period of 2008-2014. Read More

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