2,155 results match your criteria Brachial Plexus MRI


Diagnostic contribution of contrast-enhanced 3D MR imaging of peripheral nerve pathology.

Skeletal Radiol 2021 May 30. Epub 2021 May 30.

Department of Radiology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, 420 E Superior St, Chicago, IL, 60611, USA.

Objective: To assess the diagnostic contribution of contrast-enhanced 3D STIR (ce3D-SS) high-resolution magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of peripheral nerve pathology relative to conventional 2D sequences.

Materials And Methods: In this IRB-approved retrospective study, two radiologists reviewed 60 MR neurography studies with nerve pathology findings. The diagnostic contribution of ce3D-SS imaging was scored on a 4-point Likert scale (1 = no additional information, 2 = supports interpretation, 3 = moderate additional information, and 4 = diagnosis not possible without ce3D-SS). Read More

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Value of shoulder US compared to MRI in infants with obstetric brachial plexus paralysis.

Diagn Interv Radiol 2021 May;27(3):450-457

Department of Radiology, Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey.

Purpose: Children with brachial plexus birth injury (BPBI) may eventually develop glenohumeral instability due to development of unbalanced muscular strength. Our major goal in this study is to compare the accuracy of physical examination and ultrasonography (US) in determination of glenohumeral instability in infants with BPBI compared with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a gold standard, and to investigate the role and value of US as a screening modality for assessing glenohumeral instability.

Methods: Forty-two consecutive patients (mean age, 2. Read More

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Usefulness of Simultaneous Magnetic Resonance Neurography and Apparent T2 Mapping for the Diagnosis of Cervical Radiculopathy.

Asian Spine J 2021 May 20. Epub 2021 May 20.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan.

Study Design: Retrospective observational study.

Purpose: We investigated the correlation between T2 relaxation times and clinical symptoms in patients with cervical radiculopathy caused by cervical disk herniation.

Overview Of Literature: There are currently no imaging modalities that can assess the affected cervical nerve roots quantitatively. Read More

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Ferumoxytol-enhanced vascular suppression in magnetic resonance neurography.

Skeletal Radiol 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Radiology and Imaging, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY, USA.

Objective: To evaluate ferumoxytol-enhanced vascular suppression for visualizing branch nerves of the brachial plexus in magnetic resonance (MR) neurography.

Materials And Methods: Signal simulations were performed to determine ferumoxytol's effect on nerve-, fat-, and blood-to-muscle contrast and to optimize pulse sequence parameters. Prospective, in vivo assessment included 10 subjects with chronic anemia who underwent a total of 19 (9 bilateral) pre- and post-infusion brachial plexus exams using three-dimensional (3D), T-weighted short-tau inversion recovery (T-STIR) sequences at 3. Read More

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Primary elbow osteoarthritis presenting as ulnar nerve palsy with claw hand.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 May 6;14(5). Epub 2021 May 6.

Plastic Surgery, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.

A 59-year-old woman was referred with weakness, paraesthesia, numbness and clawing of the little and ring fingers for the last 2 years. MRI of the cervical spine was normal and nerve conduction velocity revealed abnormality of the ulnar nerve. Ultrasound and MRI showed medial osteophytes and effusion of the elbow joint with stretched and thinned ulnar nerve in the cubital tunnel. Read More

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Traumatic Posterior Shoulder Dislocation during Judo in a Child and Literature Review.

J Orthop Case Rep 2020 May-Jun;10(3):43-46

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Necker-Enfants Malades University Hospital, 149 Rue de Sèvres, 75015 Paris, France.

Introduction: Traumatic posterior dislocation of the shoulder is exceedingly rare in pediatric patients. Main causes are obstetrical brachial plexus injury; congenital abnormalities of the glenohumeral joint; and voluntary dislocation, which are often multidirectional. Treatment is not consusual and depends on early diagnosis. Read More

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Schwannoma of the brachial plexus with cystic degeneration: A case report schwannoma of the brachial plexus.

Clin Case Rep 2021 Apr 12;9(4):1980-1985. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Department of ENT and Maxillofacial Surgery "Heratsi" No. 1 University Hospital YSMU Yerevan Armenia.

Schwannoma of the brachial plexus can be present as a painless swelling without an upper limb functional or sensitivity deficiency. Thorough examinations, including MRI, are necessary to identify the nerves of origin and prevent potential harm. Read More

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Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging of the brachial plexus shows specific changes in nerve architecture in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, multifocal motor neuropathy and motor neuron disease.

Eur J Neurol 2021 May 1. Epub 2021 May 1.

Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Background: The immunological pathophysiologies of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) and multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN) differ considerably, but neither has been elucidated completely. Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques such as diffusion tensor imaging, T2 mapping, and fat fraction analysis may indicate in vivo pathophysiological changes in nerve architecture. Our study aimed to systematically study nerve architecture of the brachial plexus in patients with CIDP, MMN, motor neuron disease (MND) and healthy controls using these quantitative MRI techniques. Read More

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Surgical Treatment of Iatrogenic Nerve Injury Following Arthroscopic Capsulolabral Repair.

J Hand Surg Am 2021 Apr 23. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Hand and Upper Extremity, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY.

Purpose: Case reports of nerve injuries following arthroscopic capsulolabral repair emphasize the proximity of major nerves to the glenoid. This study describes preoperative localization using nerve-sensitive magnetic resonance imaging in a small cohort of patients with iatrogenic nerve injuries following arthroscopic capsulolabral repair and the outcomes of nerve repair in these patients.

Methods: Cases of iatrogenic nerve injury following arthroscopic capsulolabral repair referred to 2 surgeons from January 2017 to December 2019 were identified. Read More

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Case Report: Neurogenic Thoracic Outlet Syndrome Without Electrophysiologic Abnormality.

Front Neurol 2021 9;12:644893. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.

Neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome (N-TOS) is a chronic compressive brachial plexopathy that involves the C8, T1 roots, and/or lower trunk. Medial antebrachial cutaneous (MABC) nerve conduction study (NCS) abnormality is reportedly one of the most sensitive findings among the features of N-TOS. The aim of the present study was to report clinical features, imaging findings, treatment, and prognoses of two N-TOS patients with no abnormalities in electrophysiological studies. Read More

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Arm Numbness at 45 Degrees Abduction: A Case Report of Thoracic Outlet Syndrome After Brachial Neuritis.

J Rehabil Med Clin Commun 2020 15;3:1000034. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Division of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada.

Objective: To describe a case of nerve kinking correlating with surgical findings in neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome in a patient with history of brachial neuritis. Thoracic outlet syndrome and brachial neuritis are briefly reviewed.

Case Report: A 32-year-old woman with a history of bilateral brachial neuritis presented with paraesthesias in her hand when abducting her shoulder to 45° or higher. Read More

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Proximal Median Neuropathy Following Anterior Shoulder Dislocation: The Use of Magnetic Resonance Neurography.

Neurohospitalist 2021 Jan 6;11(1):75-79. Epub 2020 Aug 6.

Neurology Department, Concord Hospital, Concord, New South Wales, Australia.

Proximal median nerve injury is an uncommon consequence of anterior shoulder dislocation, especially occurring in isolation of other upper limb peripheral nerve injury. We report the case of an 82-year-old woman with a median nerve injury as detected by clinical and neurophysiological examination following a fall and anterior shoulder dislocation. Magnetic resonance neurography confirmed the diagnosis, but also detected asymptomatic brachial plexus and ulnar nerve involvement. Read More

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January 2021

Lipomas as an Extremely Rare Cause for Brachial Plexus Compression: A Case Series and Systematic Review.

J Brachial Plex Peripher Nerve Inj 2021 Jan 13;16(1):e10-e16. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospital Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany.

 Brachial plexus lipomas are extremely rare benign tumors that may cause slow progression of neurological deficits leading to thoracic outlet syndrome. Up to now, surgery remains challenging. The aim of this study is to present our surgical treatment regime and long-term neurological outcome in three cases of giant brachial plexus lipomas and to show results of systematic review. Read More

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January 2021

Bilateral Nerve Involvement in Lipomatosis of Nerve.

J Surg Orthop Adv 2021 ;30(1):44-49

Department of Neurologic Surgery, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah.

Lipomatosis of nerve (LN) is an intriguing pathological entity defined by the abundance of fibro-adipose tissue within the epineurium, a pathognomonic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and frequently associated nerve-territory overgrowth. A recent systematic review showed that the majority of cases are unilateral and predominately involve the median nerve. We reviewed bilateral cases of LN to further understand this pathology. Read More

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Predicting Healthy C5 Spinal Nerve Stumps Eligible for Grafting with MRI, Tinel Test, and Rhomboid Electromyography: A Retrospective Study of 295 Consecutive Brachial Plexus Surgeries.

Radiology 2021 Apr 13:202817. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

From the Department of Medical Imaging and Intervention (Y.J.Y., Y.M.W.) and Center for Big Data Analytics and Statistics (J.L.H.), Linkou Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan, ROC; and Department of Medical Imaging and Intervention, Taipei Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (K.M.Y., I.H.S., C.M.C., J.H.T.).

Background MRI, Tinel test, and rhomboid electromyography (EMG) can be used to predict whether C5 spinal nerve stumps are healthy and eligible for grafting in acute adult brachial plexus injuries, but their comparative diagnostic efficacies have not been evaluated. Purpose To compare diagnostic performances of MRI, Tinel test, and rhomboid EMG in predicting healthy C5 spinal nerve stumps that are eligible for grafting. Materials and Methods This retrospective study included consecutive adult patients with acute brachial plexus injury who underwent microreconstructions between January 2008 and December 2018. Read More

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Neuralgic amyotrophy: an underrecognized entity.

J Int Med Res 2021 Apr;49(4):3000605211006542

Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, College of Medicine, Yeungnam University, Daegu, Republic of Korea.

Neuralgic amyotrophy (NA) is markedly underdiagnosed in clinical practice, and its actual incidence rate is about 1 per 1000 per year. In the current article, we provide an overview of essential information about NA, including the etiology, clinical manifestations, diagnostic investigations, differential diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. The causes of NA are multifactorial and include immunological, mechanical, or genetic factors. Read More

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Local Anesthetic-Induced Central Nervous System Toxicity during Interscalene Brachial Plexus Block: A Case Series Study of Three Patients.

J Clin Med 2021 Mar 2;10(5). Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Department of Neurology, University Hospital Frankfurt, Goethe University, 60528 Frankfurt, Germany.

Local anesthetics are commonly administered by nuchal infiltration to provide a temporary interscalene brachial plexus block (ISB) in a surgical setting. Although less commonly reported, local anesthetics can induce central nervous system toxicity. In this case study, we present three patients with acute central nervous system toxicity induced by local anesthetics applied during ISB with emphasis on neurological symptoms, key neuroradiological findings and functional outcome. Read More

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Brachial plexopathy as a complication of COVID-19.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 Mar 25;14(3). Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Neurology, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York City, New York, USA.

COVID-19 affects a wide spectrum of organ systems. We report a 52-year-old man with hypertension and newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus who presented with hypoxic respiratory failure due to COVID-19 and developed severe brachial plexopathy. He was not treated with prone positioning respiratory therapy. Read More

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Musculoskeletal ultrasound diagnosis of quadrilateral space syndrome: A case report.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Mar;100(10):e24976

Department of Ultrasound, Baoji High-tech Hospital, Baoji, Shaanxi, China.

Introduction: Quadrilateral space syndrome (QSS) is a peripheral nerve entrapment disease, which can be misdiagnosed in clinic. In the past, QSS was mainly diagnosed by clinical symptoms combined with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), electromyography (EMG), and arterial angiography. There are few reports on the diagnosis of QSS by musculoskeletal ultrasound (MSKUS) combined with clinical symptoms. Read More

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Contralateral Lower Neck Sparing Radiotherapy in Stage N1 Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: Long-Term Survival Outcomes and Late Toxicities.

Front Oncol 2021 25;11:628919. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, China.

Purpose: To explore the feasibility of contralateral lower neck sparing radiotherapy for patients with stage N1 nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) by analyzing long-term survival outcomes and late toxicities.

Methods: Data of patients with stage N1 NPC who were treated with contralateral lower neck sparing radiotherapy between January 2013 and December 2015 were analyzed. These patients were all staged by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and all received irradiation to the upper neck (levels II, III, and Va) bilaterally along with ipsilateral levels IV and Vb, without irradiation of the contralateral lower neck. Read More

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February 2021

MRI evaluation of nerve root avulsion in neonatal brachial plexus palsy: understanding the presence of isolated dorsal/ventral rootlet disruption.

J Neurosurg Pediatr 2021 Mar 12:1-5. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Departments of1Neurosurgery and.

Objective: The evaluation, treatment, and prognosis of neonatal brachial plexus palsy (NBPP) continues to have many areas of debate, including the use of ancillary testing. Given the continued improvement in imaging, it is important to revisit its utility. Nerve root avulsions have historically been identified by the presence of pseudomeningoceles or visible ruptures. Read More

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The effects of three different contrast agents (Gd-BOPTA, Gd-DTPA, and Gd-DOTA) on brachial plexus magnetic resonance imaging.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Feb;9(4):344

Medical School of Chinese People's Liberation Army, Beijing, China.

Background: MRI is very important for guiding the diagnosis and treatment of brachial plexus diseases. The most used type of MRI brachial plexus imaging is the 3D Short Term Inversion Recovery (STIR) sequence with contrast agent. This study aimed to investigate the effect of three contrast agents; gadobenate dimeglumine (Gd-BOPTA), gadopentetate dimeglumine (Gd-DTPA), and Gadoteric Acid Meglumine (Gd-DOTA) on brachial plexus magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Read More

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February 2021

Primary Spinal Epidural Extraosseous Ewing's Sarcoma with Brachial Plexus Infiltration.

Asian J Neurosurg 2020 Oct-Dec;15(4):1068-1071. Epub 2020 Oct 19.

Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India.

The Ewing's sarcoma family of tumors are aggressive malignant small round blue cell tumors of undifferentiated mesenchymal origin. Skeletal Ewing's sarcoma is a common entity that classically involves the diaphysis of the long bones, pelvis, ribs, and sacrum. Extraosseous Ewing's sarcoma (EES) is rare, most commonly presenting as a paravertebral mass lesion. Read More

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October 2020

Posterior interosseous nerve syndrome caused by a ganglion cyst and its surgical release with intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring: A case report.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Feb;100(8):e24702

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Daegu Catholic University Hospital, Daegu, Republic of Korea.

Rationale: Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM) has been utilized not only for the rapid detection of neural insults during surgeries, but also to verify the neurophysiological integrity of nerve lesions in the surgical field.

Patient Concerns: A 32-year-old woman presented with a wrist and finger drop that had lasted about 3 months.

Diagnoses: The result of the initial electrodiagnostic test was consistent with posterior interosseous nerve (PIN) syndrome. Read More

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February 2021

Focal chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy: Onset, course, and distinct features.

J Peripher Nerv Syst 2021 Mar 4. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Département de neurophysiologie clinique, Hôpital de la Pitié-Salpêtrière, APHP Paris VI Université, Paris, France.

Focal chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) is defined as involving the brachial or lumbosacral plexus, or one or more peripheral nerves in one upper or one lower limb (monomelic distribution). However, other auto-immune neuropathies such as Lewis-Sumner syndrome (LSS) and multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN) can also have a focal onset. From a retrospective cohort of 30 focal CIDP patients with a monomelic onset dating back at least 2 years, we distinguished patients with plexus involvement (focal demyelinating plexus neuropathy [F-PN], n = 18) from those with sensory or sensorimotor (F-SMN, n = 7), or purely motor (F-MN, n = 5) impairment located in one or several peripheral nerves. Read More

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Peripheral Nerve Entrapment and Injury in the Upper Extremity.

Am Fam Physician 2021 03;103(5):275-285

Eglin Family Medicine Residency Program, Eglin Air Force Base, FL, USA.

Peripheral nerves in the upper extremities are at risk of injury and entrapment because of their superficial nature and length. Injury can result from trauma, anatomic abnormalities, systemic disease, and entrapment. The extent of the injury can range from mild neurapraxia, in which the nerve experiences mild ischemia caused by compression, to severe neurotmesis, in which the nerve has full-thickness damage and full recovery may not occur. Read More

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Detect it so you can treat it: A case series and proposed checklist to detect neurotoxicity in checkpoint therapy.

eNeurologicalSci 2021 Mar 1;22:100324. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Department of Neurology, Essen University Hospital, Hufelandstrasse 55, 45147 Essen, Germany.

Background: Checkpoint inhibitors show impressive and durable responses in various cancer types and provide new avenues for cancer immunotherapy. However, these drugs have a variety of adverse events. Common autoimmune-related adverse effects include fatigue, hepatitis, skin rash, endocrine deficiencies, and colitis. Read More

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[Lesions of the anterior interosseous nerve: differentiating between compression neuropathy and neuritis].

Handchir Mikrochir Plast Chir 2021 Feb 15;53(1):31-39. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Klinikum Sankt Georg gGmbH Klinik für Plastische und Handchirurgie mit Schwerbrandverletztenzentrum.

Background: In cases of anterior interosseous nerve (AIN) syndrome, it is often difficult to differentiate between compression neuropathy and neuritis.

Material And Methods: This review analyses the clinical aspects of the neuritic AIN syndrome and the different diagnostic tools for securing the diagnosis and differentiating the condition from compression neuropathy. Based on these data, the current therapeutic options are proposed. Read More

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February 2021

T2 mapping of the median nerve in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome and healthy volunteers.

Muscle Nerve 2021 05 23;63(5):774-777. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Fujita Health University, Toyoake, Japan.

Introduction: We investigated the changes in MRI T2 mapping values in subjects with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) compared to healthy controls.

Methods: We enrolled 71 patients with CTS and 26 healthy controls. Median nerve T2 values were measured at the distal carpal tunnel, hamate bone, proximal carpal tunnel, and forearm levels. Read More

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Diagnostic Accuracy of the Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Adult Post-Ganglionic Brachial Plexus Traumatic Injuries: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Brain Sci 2021 Jan 30;11(2). Epub 2021 Jan 30.

Department of Diagnosis and Treatment Services, Radiodiagnostics, "Maggiore della carità" Hospital, University of Piemonte Orientale (UPO), Via Solaroli 17, 28100 Novara, Italy.

Background: Traumatic brachial plexus injuries are rare but serious consequences of major traumas. Pre-ganglionic lesions are considered irreparable, while post-ganglionic injuries can be potentially treated if an early diagnosis is available. Pre-surgical diagnosis is important to distinguish low-grade from high-grade lesions and to identify their location. Read More

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January 2021