2,270 results match your criteria Brachial Plexus MRI


Value of High-Resolution MRI in the Diagnosis of Brachial Plexus Injury in Infants and Young Children.

Int J Gen Med 2022 18;15:5673-5680. Epub 2022 Jun 18.

Department of Radiology, Zhuji Affiliated Hospital of Shaoxing University, Shaoxing, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: To investigate the value of high-resolution MRI based on 3D-short inversion time inversion recovery sampling perfection with application-optimized contrasts (3D-STIR SPACE) sequence for the diagnosis of brachial plexus injury in infants and young children.

Methods: Physical examination, electromyography (EMG) and MRI data of 26 children with brachial plexus injury were retrospectively analyzed. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were calculated for the three tests. Read More

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Does the Suprascapular Nerve Move within the Suprascapular Notch? Biomechanical Perspective Using the Finite Element Method.

Yonsei Med J 2022 Jul;63(7):657-664

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Hallym University Dongtan Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Hwaseong, Korea.

Purpose: We aimed to analyze changes in suprascapular nerve (SSN) position within the suprascapular notch during in vivo shoulder abduction.

Materials And Methods: Three-dimensional models of the shoulder complex were constructed based on magnetic resonance imaging of the brachial plexus (BP-MR) in a patient diagnosed with SSN dysfunction but normal scapular movement. Using BP-MR in neutral position and computed tomography data on shoulder abduction, shoulder abduction was simulated as the transition between two positions of the shoulder complex with overlapping of a neutral and abducted scapula. Read More

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Application of magnetic resonance neurography in neonatal brachial plexus injury: A case report and literature review.

Radiol Case Rep 2022 Aug 11;17(8):2859-2862. Epub 2022 Jun 11.

Department of Radiology, Baoding Children's Hospital, Baoding 071051, China.

Neonatal obstetric brachial plexus palsy is common in newborns with fetal macrosomia, especially those who are delivered vaginally with shoulder dystocia or breech delivery. The anatomical structure of brachial plexus in newborns is thin, and it is neither collinear nor coplanar in space; The location, the type and degree of neonatal brachial plexus injury need to be comprehensively judged by clinical history, neurological and imaging examination. Conventional MR imaging is not sufficient to diagnose brachial plexus injury. Read More

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Nerves of the Thorax: Anatomy, Clinical Signs, and Imaging Findings of Pathological Conditions.

Curr Med Imaging 2022 Jun 10. Epub 2022 Jun 10.

Department of Radiology, Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey.

Background: Radiological diagnosis of thoracic nerve diseases is difficult because they are rare and nerves cannot be seen directly on radiological images. The major nerves of the thorax can be listed as the phrenic, vagus, recurrent laryngeal, long thoracic nerve pairs, sympathetic chains, costal nerves, and brachial plexus. Diseases of thoracic nerves have various causes including traumatic injury, neuromuscular diseases, infection, compression, radiation, drugs, and tumors. Read More

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Nerve Imaging in the Wrist.

Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2022 Apr 24;26(2):140-152. Epub 2022 May 24.

Department of Radiology, New York University Grossman School of Medicine, New York University, New York, New York.

Neuropathic symptoms involving the wrist are a common clinical presentation that can be due to a variety of causes. Imaging plays a key role in differentiating distal nerve lesions in the wrist from more proximal nerve abnormalities such as a cervical radiculopathy or brachial plexopathy. Imaging complements electrodiagnostic testing by helping define the specific lesion site and by providing anatomical information to guide surgical planning. Read More

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Entrapment Neuropathies of the Shoulder.

Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2022 Apr 24;26(2):114-122. Epub 2022 May 24.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, NYU Langone Orthopedic Hospital/NYU Langone Health, New York, New York.

Entrapment neuropathies of the shoulder most commonly involve the suprascapular or axillary nerves, and they primarily affect the younger, athletic patient population. The extremes of shoulder mobility required for competitive overhead athletes, particularly in the position of abduction and external rotation, place this cohort at particular risk. Anatomically, the suprascapular nerve is most prone to entrapment at the level of the suprascapular or spinoglenoid notch; the axillary nerve is most prone to entrapment as it traverses the confines of the quadrilateral space. Read More

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Neurolymphomatosis in follicular lymphoma: an autopsy case report.

Neuropathology 2022 May 23. Epub 2022 May 23.

Department of Neuropathology, Institute for Medical Science of Aging, Aichi Medical University, Nagakute, Japan.

Neurolymphomatosis is a neurological manifestation of lymphoma that involves the cranial or spinal peripheral nerves, nerve roots, and plexus with direct invasion of neoplastic cells. Neurolymphomatosis is rare among patients with low-grade lymphoma. We report an autopsied case of neurolymphomatosis that arose from follicular lymphoma. Read More

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Radiographic imaging modalities for perinatal brachial plexus palsy: a systematic review.

Childs Nerv Syst 2022 May 10. Epub 2022 May 10.

Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Purpose: Perinatal brachial plexus palsy (PBPP) has a wide spectrum of clinical symptoms that can range from incomplete paresis of the affected extremity to flaccid arm paralysis. Although there is a high rate of spontaneous recovery within the first two years of life, it remains challenging to determine which patients will benefit most from surgical intervention. The diagnostic and predictive use of various imaging modalities has been described in the literature, but there is little consensus on approach or algorithm. Read More

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Extrarenal malignant rhabdoid tumor infiltrating the brachial plexus and spinal canal.

Neuroradiol J 2022 May 9:19714009221098368. Epub 2022 May 9.

Departments of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, 14434University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA.

Extrarenal malignant rhabdoid tumors are rare, aggressive lesions that primarily affect infants and children with characteristic SMARCB1/INI1 mutations. While rhabdoid tumors are most commonly found in the kidneys and central nervous system, they have been reported in virtually every soft tissue in the body. A 20-year-old previously healthy male presented with a 4-month history of left upper extremity weakness and pain and a 1-week history of lower extremity weakness. Read More

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Clinical, electrophysiological, and imaging findings in childhood brachial plexus injury.

Dev Med Child Neurol 2022 May 7. Epub 2022 May 7.

Division of Pediatric Neurology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, Florida, USA.

Aim: To assess the prognostic capabilities of various diagnostic modalities for childhood brachial plexus injuries (BPIs) and brachial plexus birth injury (BPBI) and postneonatal BPI.

Method: In this single-center retrospective cross-sectional study, we examined children with BPIs diagnosed or confirmed by electrodiagnostic studies between 2013 and 2020, and compared the prognostic value of various components of the electrophysiologic findings, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data, and the Active Movement Scale (AMS). We developed scoring systems for electrodiagnostic studies and MRI findings, including various components of nerve conduction studies and electromyography (EMG) for electrodiagnostic studies. Read More

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Rare malignant melanotic nerve sheath tumors of the upper limb nerves: utility of high-frequency ultrasonography in preoperative imaging.

Skeletal Radiol 2022 Apr 28. Epub 2022 Apr 28.

Department of Ultrasound, Xijing Hospital, the Fourth Military Medical University, No. 127 Changle West Road, Xi'an, 710032, China.

Melanotic nerve sheath tumor (MNST) is a rare variant of schwannoma. Here, we report an unusual case of multiple MNST lesions located in the upper limb nerves. The patient presented with a mass on the left wrist in 2016 and another mass on the left thumb in 2017. Read More

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Clinical results after surgical resection of benign solitary schwannomas: A review of 150 cases.

Orthop Traumatol Surg Res 2022 Jun 25;108(4):103281. Epub 2022 Apr 25.

Genetics and Development of Brain Tumors - CRICM Inserm U1127 CNRS UMR 7225- Brain Institute - Hôpital Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris, France.

Introduction: Peripheral nerve schwannomas are the most common nerve tumors. While they are efficiently treated with surgery, the risk of neurological complications, especially sensory deficits, remains debated.

Hypothesis: We postulate that rates of post-operative sensory deficits in peripheral schwannoma surgery are low and are not increased in schwannomas of the hand, in which preservation of discriminative tact is of prime functional importance. Read More

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Application of frozen Thiel-embalmed specimens for radiotherapy delineation guideline development: a method to create accurate MRI-enhanced CT datasets.

Strahlenther Onkol 2022 Jun 11;198(6):582-592. Epub 2022 Apr 11.

Department of Human Structure and Repair, Ghent University, C. Heymanslaan 10, radiotherapy park, entrance 98, 9000, Ghent, Belgium.

Purpose: Thiel embalming followed by freezing in the desired position and acquiring CT + MRI scans is expected to be the ideal approach to obtain accurate, enhanced CT data for delineation guideline development. The effect of Thiel embalming and freezing on MRI image quality is not known. This study evaluates the above-described process to obtain enhanced CT datasets, focusing on the integration of MRI data obtained from frozen, Thiel-embalmed specimens. Read More

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Editorial For "Quantitative MRI Predicts Electromyography Severity Grades of Denervated Muscle in Neuropathy of the Brachial Plexus".

J Magn Reson Imaging 2022 Mar 28. Epub 2022 Mar 28.

Newcastle University, Translational & Clinical Research Institute, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU, UK.

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CLINICAL AND NEUROPHYSIOLOGICAL PARALLELS OF THE BRACHIAL PLEXOPATHY IN THE STRUCTURE OF NEUROGENIC THORACIC OUTLET SYNDROME.

Wiad Lek 2022 ;75(2):469-472

IVANO-FRANKIVSK NATIONAL MEDICAL UNIVERSITY, IVANO-FRANKIVSK, UKRAINE.

Objective: The aim: Was assessment of the neurophysiological data and features of clinical picture in patients with neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS).

Patients And Methods: Materials and methods: 103 patients with upper extremity pain and/or paresthesia or hypotrophy, or a combination of these symptoms were examined. The examination algorithm included: cervical spine radiography, cervical spine and brachial plexuses magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), upper extremity soft tissues and vessels ultrasonic examination, stimulation electroneuromiography with F-waves registration. Read More

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Case Report: Plasticity in Central Sensory Finger Representation and Touch Perception After Microsurgical Reconstruction of Infraclavicular Brachial Plexus Injury.

Front Neurosci 2022 25;16:793036. Epub 2022 Feb 25.

Department of Trauma Surgery, Orthopaedics, and Plastic Surgery, Universitätsmedizin Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany.

After brachial plexus injury (BPI), early microsurgery aims at facilitating reconnection of the severed peripheral nerves with their orphan muscles and sensory receptors and thereby reestablishing communication with the brain. In order to investigate this sensory recovery, here we combined functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and tactile psychophysics in a patient who suffered a sharp, incomplete amputation of the dominant hand at the axilla level. To determine somatosensory detection and discomfort thresholds as well as sensory accuracy for fingers of both the intact and affected hand, we used electrotactile stimulation in the framework of a mislocalization test. Read More

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February 2022

An Uncommon, Extensive Involvement of Hydatid Cyst-Cervical Spine to Brachial Plexus.

Neurol India 2022 Jan-Feb;70(1):348-351

Consultant, Radiodiagnosis Department, Maharaja Agrasen Medical College, Agroha, Haryana, India.

Introduction: Hydatid cyst usually involves liver and lung. But it has been reported in uncommon locations like the spine and brain. There are few reports of cervical spine to brachial plexus. Read More

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Visuomotor processing is altered after peripheral nerve damage in neuralgic amyotrophy.

Brain Commun 2022 16;4(1):fcac034. Epub 2022 Feb 16.

Donders Centre for Cognitive Neuroimaging, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Neuralgic amyotrophy is a common peripheral nerve disorder caused by autoimmune inflammation of the brachial plexus, clinically characterized by acute pain and weakness of the shoulder muscles, followed by motor impairment. Despite recovery of the peripheral nerves, patients often have residual motor dysfunction of the upper extremity, leading to persistent pain related to altered biomechanics of the shoulder region. Building on clinical signs that suggest a role for cerebral mechanisms in these residual complaints, here we show and characterize cerebral alterations following neuralgic amyotrophy. Read More

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February 2022

Challenges in diagnosing a peripheral nerve sheath tumor of the ulnar nerve in a dog - a case report.

Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd 2022 Mar;164(3):265-271

Vetimage Diagnostik GmbH, Oberentfelden, Switzerland.

Introduction: In this case report we present the rare case of a distally located peripheral nerve sheath tumor (PNST) of the left ulnar nerve in a two-year-old female Rottweiler dog. We discuss the clinical and diagnostic findings and the challenges of the diagnosis. The dog was successfully treated with a limb sparing partial neurectomy. Read More

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Median and ulnar nerve fascicle imaging using MR microscopy and high-resolution ultrasound.

J Neuroimaging 2022 05 28;32(3):420-429. Epub 2022 Feb 28.

Institute of Clinical Neurophysiology, Division of Neurology, University Medical Center Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.

Background And Purpose: Understanding nerve microanatomy is important as different neuropathies and some nerve neoplasms present with fascicle enlargement. The aim of our study was to gain clinically oriented knowledge on nerve fascicular anatomy using imaging modalities.

Methods: On a cadaveric upper extremity, high-resolution ultrasound (HRUS) scan with 22 MHz probe was performed. Read More

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Respiratory failure due to diaphragm paralysis after brachial plexus injury diagnosed by point-of-care ultrasound.

BMJ Case Rep 2022 Feb 28;15(2). Epub 2022 Feb 28.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Jikei University School of Medicine, Minato-ku, Japan.

A man in his fifties was injured in a traffic accident and diagnosed with traumatic subarachnoid haemorrhage, liver injury, and fractures of the rib, right clavicle, right scapula and right femur. He also presented with motor and sensory disturbances of the right upper extremity and was suspected of having a brachial plexus injury. After undergoing mechanical ventilation due to multiple traumas, he was extubated. Read More

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February 2022

The spectrum of brachial plexopathy from perineural spread of breast cancer.

J Neurosurg 2022 Feb 25:1-10. Epub 2022 Feb 25.

1Department of Neurological Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.

Objective: Perineural spread of breast cancer to the brachial plexus can lead to pain, sensory alterations, and upper-extremity weakness. Although rare, perineural spread is an often-misdiagnosed long-term complication following breast cancer diagnosis. The objective of this study was to critically review the clinical, radiological, and pathological findings of biopsy-proven perineural spread of breast cancer to the brachial plexus. Read More

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February 2022

Axial T2-DRIVE MRI myelography is highly accurate in diagnosing preganglionic traumatic brachial plexus injuries: why pseudomeningoceles should not be used as a primary diagnostic sign.

Clin Radiol 2022 05 22;77(5):377-383. Epub 2022 Feb 22.

Department of Radiodiagnosis and Intervention, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt.

Aim: To evaluate the accuracy of brachial plexus magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) utilising the three-dimensional (3D)-T2-turbo spin echo (TSE) with 90° flip-back pulse ("DRIVE") myelography in detecting nerve root avulsions in patients with traumatic brachial plexus injuries.

Materials And Methods: A prospective study of 24 patients planned for brachial plexus reconstructive surgery following trauma from April 2019 to October 2021. Preoperative 1. Read More

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Transfer of a C7 Fascicle for the Pectoralis Major to the Suprascapular Nerve: A 3-Year Follow-Up Patient Series.

Plast Reconstr Surg 2022 Mar;149(3):672-675

From the Sorbonne University, Department of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Saint-Antoine Hospital; and Clinique du Mont Louis.

Background: In patients with C5-C6 brachial plexus injury, spinal accessory nerve transfer to the suprascapular nerve is usually performed for the restoration of shoulder abduction. In order to minimize donor deficits, we transferred one fascicle of the ipsilateral C7 root, dedicated to the pectoralis major muscle, to the suprascapular nerve.

Methods: Ten patients with a mean age of 33 years (range, 19 to 51 years) were operated on at a mean delay of 4 months after their trauma (range, 2 to 7 months). Read More

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Quantitative MRI Differentiates Electromyography Severity Grades of Denervated Muscle in Neuropathy of the Brachial Plexus.

J Magn Reson Imaging 2022 Feb 23. Epub 2022 Feb 23.

Department of Radiology and Imaging, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, 10021, New York, USA.

Background: Quantitative MRI (qMRI) metrics reflect microstructural skeletal muscle changes secondary to denervation and may correspond to conventional electromyography (EMG) assessments of motor unit recruitment (MUR) and denervation.

Hypothesis: Differences in quantitative T , diffusion-based apparent fiber diameter (AFD), and fat fraction (FF) exist between EMG grades, in patients with clinically suspected neuropathy of the brachial plexus.

Study Type: Prospective. Read More

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February 2022

High-Resolution Ultrasound and Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Abnormal Ligaments in Thoracic Outlet Syndrome in a Series of 16 Cases.

Front Neurosci 2021 2;15:817337. Epub 2022 Feb 2.

Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Introduction: Neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome (NTOS) is a complex entity that comprises various clinical presentations, which are all believed to result from mechanical stress to the brachial plexus. Causes for the stress can include fibrous bands, spanning from the transverse processes, stump, or cervical ribs to the pleural cupula. The aim of this case series is to document how the combined potential of high-resolution neurography, including high-resolution ultrasound (HRUS), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be used to identify, anatomical compression sites, such as stump ribs and their NTOS associated ligamentous bands. Read More

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February 2022

Evaluation and Management of the Contact Athlete's Shoulder.

J Am Acad Orthop Surg 2022 Mar;30(6):e584-e594

From the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA (Arner and Bradley), and The Steadman Clinic and Steadman Philippon Research Institute, Vail, CO (Provencher and Millett).

Shoulder injuries are common in contact athletes and vary in severity because of the required complex interplay of shoulder stability and range of motion for proper function. Pathology varies based on sport but most commonly includes shoulder instability, acromioclavicular injuries, traumatic rotator cuff tears, and brachial plexus injuries. Acute management ranges from reduction of shoulder dislocations to physical examination to determine the severity of injury. Read More

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Magnetic resonance imaging of the brachial plexus. Part 2: Traumatic injuries.

Eur J Radiol Open 2022 22;9:100397. Epub 2022 Jan 22.

Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.

The most common indications for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brachial plexus (BP) are traumatic injuries. The role of MRI of the BP has increased because of recent trends favoring earlier surgery. Determining preganglionic vs. Read More

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January 2022

Development of magnetic resonance imaging of brachial plexus neuralgia.

Neurol Sci 2022 Mar 29;43(3):1685-1693. Epub 2022 Jan 29.

Affiliated Hospital of North Sichuan Medical College, Nanchong, 637000, Sichuan Province, China.

As the incidence of peripheral neurological diseases increases, the precise display of nerves becomes important in imaging examinations. Among them, the pain caused by brachial plexus neuropathy is very prominent, and the magnetic resonance imaging of nerve is quite complex and messy. This paper will systematically elaborate from the aspects of brachial plexus neuropathy, morphological and functional imaging, and post-processing. Read More

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